CBIContent-Based Instruction<br />CBIConnect Build Integrate<br />Elisabeth L. Chan<br />Part II: Practical<br />A TICE Br...
Content-Based Instruction<br />English language instruction through the use of mainstream course content<br />LANGUAGE<br ...
Why balance instruction of content and linguistic skills?<br />Language skills are most effectively developed when taught ...
Coming Up<br />Finding the balance between content and language in the CBI approach<br />Example CBI activities used in di...
Least comfortable with…<br />experienced teaching assistants <br />determining how and what to evaluate, <br />integrating...
Finding Balance<br />Balance the content as a vehicle with the language and skills as focus of the course<br />Be knowledg...
CBI in TICE<br />Self-contained content-based ESL course follows an EAP model and may be designed around any mainstream su...
TICE Academic Goals<br />Target the skills that students actually need to use in an academic setting <br />Language Skills...
TICE Academic Goals<br />Comprehension of academic texts and lecture materials <br />Analyze and critically evaluate infor...
Academically Focused Tasks<br />Authentic task - simulates a real-world language task <br />Interactive task - requires th...
Academically Focused Tasks<br />Provide tasks that require students to integrate information and to form and articulate th...
Three Examples<br />Functional Text Analysis<br />Grammar Focus<br />Short Stories<br />
Focus on language in context<br />“Rather than making the content less difficult, we suggest that a functional text analys...
Functional Text Analysis<br />Field<br />What is the text about?<br />Mode<br />How was the text delivered?<br />Tenor<br ...
Grammar Focus<br />One way to use the content as the starting point for a focus on grammar is to focus on the specific usa...
Short Stories<br />Short stories can increase general, as well as academic reading skills.<br />Using a multimodal and mul...
Brinton, Snow, & Wesche (1989)<br />The very notion of converting to content-based teaching involves re-educating teachers...
Ability to interact with language and information<br />(Re)Defining: Assessment<br />Learning is a process. <br />Learning...
(Re)Defining: Assessment<br />Highly contextualized <br />Acquire skills needed to be successful language learners<br />Ch...
Corrective Feedback<br />Corrective Feedback - Is the information correct and the language accurate?<br />How accurately a...
Frequency of Assessment<br />May-Landy (1998) stresses the importance of extraordinarily frequent assessment<br />Closely ...
Alternative Forms of Assessment<br />Short (1993) examples<br />skill checklists and reading-writing inventories<br />anec...
Most helpful components<br />weekly level meetings with their course supervisor<br />experience with the model<br />the sa...
Conclusion<br />“Effective intensive programs are like tightly knit chains—all course components are interconnected. As a ...
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CBI Part II: Practical

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CBI: Connect Build Integrate. Part II of the 2 part workshop presented to TICE faculty on March 15, 2011. This part continues by connecting the theory to practical use of content-based instruction in our program.

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CBI Part II: Practical

  1. 1. CBIContent-Based Instruction<br />CBIConnect Build Integrate<br />Elisabeth L. Chan<br />Part II: Practical<br />A TICE Brown Bag – March 15, 2011<br />The International Center for English<br />Arkansas State University<br />
  2. 2. Content-Based Instruction<br />English language instruction through the use of mainstream course content<br />LANGUAGE<br />CONTENT<br />SKILLS<br />
  3. 3. Why balance instruction of content and linguistic skills?<br />Language skills are most effectively developed when taught in the context of acquiring information <br />(Blakely, 1997; Brinton, Snow, & Wesche, 1989; Kamhi-Stein, 1997; Larsen-Freeman, 1997; Master, chap. 5, this volume, May-Landy, 1998; Zuengler & Brinton, 1997).<br />
  4. 4. Coming Up<br />Finding the balance between content and language in the CBI approach<br />Example CBI activities used in different levels of TICE<br />Defining and discussing assessment and error correction within a CBI curriculum<br />
  5. 5. Least comfortable with…<br />experienced teaching assistants <br />determining how and what to evaluate, <br />integrating the skills within the content-based framework<br />being knowledgeable in the content area<br />novice teaching assistants<br />balancing the content as a vehicle with the language and skills focus of the course<br />determining how and what to evaluate<br />working without traditional textbooks<br /> Brinton (2000)<br />
  6. 6. Finding Balance<br />Balance the content as a vehicle with the language and skills as focus of the course<br />Be knowledgeable in the content area<br />Extract the language and teaching points from the content<br />Determine how and what to evaluate<br />
  7. 7. CBI in TICE<br />Self-contained content-based ESL course follows an EAP model and may be designed around any mainstream subject area(s), with the course focus being unidisciplinary or multidisciplinary. <br />A unidisciplinary self-contained course presents a variety topics drawn from one focus discipline, such as psychology or biology, and so offers opportunities for sustained content area study.<br />
  8. 8. TICE Academic Goals<br />Target the skills that students actually need to use in an academic setting <br />Language Skills<br />Academic Discourse<br />Focus on Form/Forms<br />Academic Skills<br />Intensive reading<br />Note-taking<br />Test-taking<br />
  9. 9. TICE Academic Goals<br />Comprehension of academic texts and lecture materials <br />Analyze and critically evaluate information<br />Connect new information with what they already know, synthesizing knowledge<br />
  10. 10. Academically Focused Tasks<br />Authentic task - simulates a real-world language task <br />Interactive task - requires the learner to actively apply linguistic, topical, and strategy knowledge<br />Complete discourse level tasks – tasks are in context, rather than discrete, decontextualized tasks<br />Bachman and Palmer (1996)<br />
  11. 11. Academically Focused Tasks<br />Provide tasks that require students to integrate information and to form and articulate their own opinions about the subject matter.<br />
  12. 12. Three Examples<br />Functional Text Analysis<br />Grammar Focus<br />Short Stories<br />
  13. 13. Focus on language in context<br />“Rather than making the content less difficult, we suggest that a functional text analysis can provide tools for helping students work with grade-level textbook material and at the same time develop critical language awareness.”<br />Schleppegrell et. al. (2004)<br />
  14. 14. Functional Text Analysis<br />Field<br />What is the text about?<br />Mode<br />How was the text delivered?<br />Tenor<br />What is the relationship between the author and the reader?<br />Měchura, M.B. (2005)<br />
  15. 15. Grammar Focus<br />One way to use the content as the starting point for a focus on grammar is to focus on the specific usage encountered in a text but then to expandon that area of grammar in a systematic way.<br />
  16. 16. Short Stories<br />Short stories can increase general, as well as academic reading skills.<br />Using a multimodal and multi-skill approach to short stories can accelerate students’ acquisition of academic language.<br />
  17. 17. Brinton, Snow, & Wesche (1989)<br />The very notion of converting to content-based teaching involves re-educating teachers to view their instructional domain and responsibilities quite differently than they might previously have. Unless adequately prepared for their new teaching duties, teachers will invariably have to fight the urge to rely on their traditional teaching techniques as well as on materials and lesson plans developed over the years for a different audience—many of which may be inconsistent with the goals of the content-based program. (pp. 74-75)<br />
  18. 18. Ability to interact with language and information<br />(Re)Defining: Assessment<br />Learning is a process. <br />Learning and assessment are more than just test scores.<br />Assessment is all the different types of feedback that occurs throughout the session.<br />Number of correct answers on <br />a discrete-item test<br />
  19. 19. (Re)Defining: Assessment<br />Highly contextualized <br />Acquire skills needed to be successful language learners<br />Challenge higher order <br />thinking skills<br />Measure progress in terms of cognitive skill development<br />Develop proficiency in language features<br />Measure progress in terms of linguistic accuracy<br />Hancock, C. R. (1994)<br />
  20. 20. Corrective Feedback<br />Corrective Feedback - Is the information correct and the language accurate?<br />How accurately and coherently is the student able to convey and interpret information?<br />
  21. 21. Frequency of Assessment<br />May-Landy (1998) stresses the importance of extraordinarily frequent assessment<br />Closely tied to the curriculum <br />Takes several forms<br />
  22. 22. Alternative Forms of Assessment<br />Short (1993) examples<br />skill checklists and reading-writing inventories<br />anecdotal records and teacher observations<br />portfolios<br />performance-based tasks<br />essay writing<br />oral reports <br />interviews<br />May-landy (1998) examples<br />read an article, summarize, and then report on it to the class<br />critically evaluate and compare the article’s information presented to other material studied<br />
  23. 23. Most helpful components<br />weekly level meetings with their course supervisor<br />experience with the model<br />the sample lesson plans provided<br />the observation/feedback sessions with their supervisor<br />
  24. 24. Conclusion<br />“Effective intensive programs are like tightly knit chains—all course components are interconnected. As a result, there is strong reinforcement of learning as thematic concepts are considered from several different interdisciplinary perspectives.”<br />(Kasper, 2000)<br />
  25. 25. References<br />Anderson, J. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. <br />Anderson, J. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications (2nd ed.). New York: Freeman.<br />Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1996). Language testing in practice: Designing and developing useful language tests. Oxford: Oxford UP<br />Blakely, R. (1997). The English Language Fellows Program: Using peer tutors to integrate language and content. In M.A. Snow & D.M. Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom: Perspectives on integrating language and content (pp. 274-289). New York: Longman.<br />Brinton, D.M. (2000) Out of the mouths of babes: Novice teacher insights into content-based instruction. In L.F. Kasper (Ed.) Content-based college ESL instruction (pp. 48-70). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.<br />
  26. 26. References (cont.)<br />Brinton, D. M., Snow, M. A., & Wesche, M. B. (1989). Content-based second language instruction. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.<br />Hancock, C. R. (1994). Alternative assessment and second language study: What and why? Center for Applied Linguistics Digests. Retrieved from: http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/hancoc01.html<br />Grabe, W. & Stoller, F.L. (1997) Content-based Instruction: Research Foundations. In S.B. Stryker & B.L. Leaver (Eds.), Content-Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education: Models and Methods. Washington, DC: Georgetown University.<br />Kamhi-Stein, L. D. (1997). Enhancing student performance through discipline-based summarization-strategy instruction. In M. A. Snow & D. M. Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom: Perspectives on integrating language and content (pp. 248-262). New York: Longman.<br />
  27. 27. References (cont.)<br />Kasper, L.F. (2000). Content-based college ESL instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.<br />Kasper, L. F. (1996). Writing to read: Enhancing ESL students' reading proficiency through written response to text. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 23(1), 25-33.<br />Larsen-Freeman, D. (1997). Grammar and its teaching: Challenging the myths. Center for Applied Linguistics Digests. Retrieved from: http://www.cal.org/ericcll/digest/Larsen01.htm<br />May-Landy, L. (1998). Linking assessment to the content-based curriculum. Paper presented at the 32nd annual meeting of TESOL. Seattle, WA.<br />Měchura, M.B. (2005). A Practical Guide for Functional Text Analysis. Accessed March 11, 2011. www.cainteoir.com/Etc.aspx? Read= FunctionalTextAnalysis.pdf<br />
  28. 28. References (cont.)<br />Pally, M. (1997). Critical thinking in ESL.: An argument for sustained content. Journal of Second Language Writing, 6(3), 293-311.<br />Schleppegrell , M.J., Achugar, M., & Oteíza, T. (2004). The Grammar of History: Enhancing Content-Based Instruction through a Functional Focus on Language. TESOL Quarterly, 38(1), 67-93.<br />Short, D. J. (1993). Assessing integrated language and content instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 627-656.<br />Snow, M.A. & Genesee, F. (1989) A Conceptual Framework for the Integration of Language and Content in Second/Foreign Language Instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23(2), 201-217.<br />Tsai, Y. & Hui-Fang Shang. (2010). The Impact of Content-Based Language Instruction on EFL Students’ Reading Performance. Asian Social Science, 6(3), 77-85.<br />Zuengler, J., & Brinton, M. (1997). Linguistic form, pragmatic function: Relevant research from content-based instruction. In M. A. Snow & M. Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom: Perspectives on integrating language and content (pp. 263-273). New York: Longman Publishing Group.<br />
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