Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza
Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Linda Coﬀey,Margo Hale,Tom Terrill,Jorge Mosjidis,Jim Miller, andJoan BurkeNCAT/ATTRA andSouthern Consortiumfor Small RuminantParasite Control2007ContentsIntroduction ..................... 1Sericea Lespedeza ......... 3 Goat grazing sericea lespedeza. Photo by Jean-Marie Luginbuhl.Sericea LespedezaResults ................................ 4 Introduction hatching of the eggs and development intoUsing Sericea infective larvae. The larvae need moisture, CLespedeza ......................... 5 ontrol of internal parasites, espe- such as dew or rain, to break open the fecalResources .......................... 6 cially of Haemonchus contortus (bar- pellet and move. They migrate out of theReferences ........................ 6 ber pole worm, stomach worm), is a feces and up blades of grass (usually 1 to primary concern for the majority of sheep 3 inches). When an animal (sheep or goat) and goat producers. These parasites have grazes, they may take in parasite larvae become more difﬁcult to manage because of along with the grass blade. Parasite num- increasing resistance to nearly all available bers increase over time when conditions are dewormers. A severe infection of barber pole favorable (warm, wet). worm causes anemia, bottle jaw, and—if not Parasites are now developing resistance to treated—death of infected sheep and goats. anthelmintics (dewormers). Drug resistance Mature parasites breed inside the host and is the ability of worms in a population to sur- “lay eggs,” which pass through the host vive drug (deworming) treatment of the ani-ATTRA—National SustainableAgriculture Information Ser- and are shed in the feces. After the eggs mal at the prescribed dosage. Over-use ofvice is managed by the National pass out of the host, they hatch into lar- dewormers has led to resistance, and manyCenter for Appropriate Technol-ogy (NCAT) and is funded under vae. Warm, humid conditions encourage available dewormers are now ineffective.a grant from the United StatesDepartment of Agriculture’sRural Business- Cooperative Ideas and research were generated by the Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (www.scsrpc.org)Service. Visit the NCAT Web site and funding support for this work was provided by USDA, CSREES, Integrated Organic Program, and Capacity Building(www.ncat.org/agri. Grants Program (Award No. 2005-38814-16429). Mention of trade names or commercial products in this manuscript ishtml) for more informa-tion on our sustainable solely for the purpose of providing speciﬁc information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by theagriculture projects. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
• Negative effects may include reduced especially <www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/ intake and reduced digestibility, toxicagents/ tannin>. leading to a decline in animal pro- ductivity. Negative effects are seen According to Min et al. (2003), low more often when CT concentration is concentrations of CT (20-45 g CT/kg DM) high (above 55 g CT/kg DM in the are helpful to animals, while high forage CT forage). (Min et al., 2003) concentrations (>55 g CT/kg DM) may have negative effects. Results vary according • Posit ive effect s may i nclude to CT concent rat ion and st ructure an increase in by-pass protein (causing the animal to use protein and the animal that is grazing the forage, more efﬁ ciently), a reduction in however. bloating, increased milk produc- Researchers have shown that big trefoil, tion, and a reduction in internal sulla, sanfoin, and sericea lespedeza parasite numbers, egg output, are useful in controlling internal para- and hatchability. site infection in sheep and goats. Provid-For more information on tannins, see ing condensed-tannin-containing forages Sthe references listed at the end of this is one way to boost the health of sheep ericeapublication and the Resources section, or goats. lespedeza isTable 1. Condensed tannin (CT) content in diﬀerent forage species.* a high-tannin(Adapted from Min and Hart, 2003 and Min et al., 2005). forage that has been scientiﬁcally proven Forage CT, g/kg of DM %DM to reduce parasite Birdsfoot trefoil 48 4.8 loads in sheep Big trefoil 77 7.7 and goats. Sanfoin 29 2.9 Sulla 51–84 5.1–8.4 Lucerne (alfalfa) 0.5 .05 Sericea lespedeza 46-152 4.6–15.2 Perennial ryegrass 1.8 0.18 Chicory 3.1 0.31 Crabgrass/tall fescue 3.2 0.32 mixture* The standard used for analysis will aﬀect the results. For these studies, a Quebracho standard was used.Sericea Lespedeza by improving protein nutrition of the goat and boosting the immune system. In addi-Sericea lespedeza is a high-tannin forage (4– tion, tannins appear to reduce the hatch-15% DM) that has been scientiﬁcally proven ing of fecal eggs and development of lar-to reduce parasite loads in sheep and goats. vae, perhaps by binding to the larvae. (MinThe mechanism of action is not yet known. et al., 2005). The tannins could also bindResearchers believe that the plant tannins with feed nutrients and possibly preventmay affect parasites either directly or indi- bacterial growth in the feces (larva feed onrectly (or both). Tannins may react directly bacteria) and so limit the feed available forwith adult worms by attaching to their larval growth, or in some other way inhibit“skin”, causing them distress, or indirectly larvae growth and movement. Adult wormswww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 3
residing in animals that are grazing sericea lespedeza shed fewer eggs, and the eggs that are produced have reduced hatching ability. However, when animals are moved off seri- cea lespedeza pastures and on to other for- ages, egg counts go back up, indicating that mature worms were inhibited but not killed in the short term. As animals are fed with sericea for longer periods of time, research has shown a reduction in mature worms as well (Min et al., 2005, Shaik et al., 2006, Lange et al., 2006). Reducing pasture con- tamination and animal worm burdens will help sheep and goats to be healthier andGoat grazing sericea lespedeza. Photo by Margo Hale. more productive. Things you should know about sericea lespedeza • Sericea lespedeza is a legume that grows in low fertility • Sheep and goats may need time to adjust to grazing and acid soils and was widely planted to rebuild eroded sericea if they are not familiar with the forage; and depleted soils. It is one of the most commonly used however, they will graze it readily once they go species for planting on surface mine spoils, road banks, through the adjustment period. Cattle will graze and other disturbed or eroding areas. sericea if it is not too mature. • Sericea is listed as a noxious weed in some states • No adjustment period is needed for feeding sericea (Colorado and Kansas, at the time of this writing) and hay, as it is readily consumed by all classes of livestock. may become invasive or weedy in some areas. • Researchers are investigating the performance of • Where sericea is considered a noxious or invasive animals grazing sericea or being fed sericea hay or weed, sheep and goat grazing can help to control supplement. the plant while also helping sheep or goat parasite • Research has shown that sericea is eﬀective against problems. It will not be invasive when grazed and internal parasites when grazed or when fed in dried prevented from producing seed. forms, such as hay or pellets. Sericea Lespedeza Results internal parasites in sheep and goats. The There have been several research trials following table summarizes the results. Ref- studying the effects of sericea lespedeza on erences are included in the last column. Animals Used Treatment Results Notes Spanish wether goats, 15 days grazing sericea or Fecal egg counts (FEC) FEC increased after switch- grazing rye/crabgrass, switch to reduced (2500 vs. 710 eggs ing to rye/crabgrass; tan- other forage 15 days per gram), percentage of nins seemed to have short eggs developing to larvae residual eﬀect (Min et al., reduced (99% vs. 58.2%) 2004) Goats, conﬁned and Ground hay–sericea or ber- Reduced fecal egg counts FEC not signiﬁcantly dif- fed hay mudagrass– 4 week trial, (FEC) for sericea-fed goats ferent once animals were all on bermudagrass hay (signiﬁcant in 3rd and 4th taken oﬀ sericea, but still for 3 weeks following weeks of trial) numerically lower (Shaik et al., 2004Page 4 ATTRA Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza
Animals Used Treatment Results NotesGoats, conﬁned and fed Ground sericea (0, 25, 50, FEC reduced for those Optimum level of SL hayhay (75% of diet) and grain 75%) and/or bermudagrass fed SL at all levels, greater appeared to be 50-75%(25%) (75, 50, 25, 0%) in combi- reduction as % SL increases of total diet (Dykes et al., nations equaling 75% hay; and with time; at 6 weeks, 2006), but 25% was also levels testing dose of SL 75% SL hay, 91.9% reduc- beneﬁcial, reducing num- needed, 6 weeks tion ber of adult barber pole worms in the stomach by 58% (unpublished data)Goats, conﬁned and fed Sericea hay or FEC reduced, number of Egg counts dropped byhay and grain bermudagrass hay, adult worms reduced, about 80% one week after 7 weeks hatchability of eggs into sericea feeding started; L-3 larvae reduced in goats reduction increased to fed sericea hay almost 90% by end of trial. Both abomasal and small intestinal worms reduced and female worms reduced more than male worms. Male and female H. contor- tus were reduced by 61 and 76%, respectively (Shaik et al., 2006)Lambs, fed hay; Sericea hay or bermudag- FEC reduced for those SL fed as hay reducednatural and experimen- rass hay, 7 weeks, bermu- receiving sericea (67-98%); naturally infected wormtal Haemonchus contortus dagrass an additional 2 FEC increased after sericea burdens 67%; reducedinfections weeks feeding stopped. Sericea establishment of incoming also reduced worm larvae 26%. (Lange et al., numbers. 2006)Angora does, grazing Sericea or crabgrass/tall Goats on sericea had Goats grazing sericea fescue grazing, 81 days reduced FEC and fewer reduced both H. contortus adult worms. Inhibited (89%) and Trichostrongylus larval activity. Improved parasites (50%). (Min et al., weight gain and immune 2005) responses. No adverse eﬀect on does and kids (3.6 kg/kid).Kiko-Spanish kids fed Sericea hay in ground and Pelleted sericea reduced Pelleting increased eﬀec-ground hay and pellets; pelleted forms, ground FEC 78%; increased PCV tiveness of sericea haynatural infection bermudagrass hay 32% compared with ber- against parasitic worms; mudagrass reduced adult H. contortus 75% (Terrill et al., 2007)Using Sericea Lespedeza of time, it can reduce the number of adultProducers should not rely on sericea as the worms. Researchers are working to deter-sole method for controlling internal par- mine the most effective and economicalasites. However, sericea can be useful as ways to use sericea lespedeza as a substi-one part of a complete parasite management tute for anthelmintics, or as a “dewormingstrategy. Sericea has been shown to reduce pasture.” More information will be avail-hatchability and fecundity (egg laying abil- able as the research is done. Continue toity) of internal parasites, and in that way it check the Southern Consortium for Smallwill help reduce pasture contamination with Ruminant Parasite Control Web site atlarvae. Also, when used for longer periods www.scsrpc.org for updates.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 5
Shaik, S.A., T.H. Terrill, J.E. Miller, B. Kouakou, 2006. Sericea lespedeza hay as a natural dewormingG. Kannan, R.K. Kallu, and J.A. Mosjidis. 2004. agent against gastrointestinal nematode infection inEffects of feeding sericea lespedeza hay to goats goats. Veterinary Parasitology 139. p. 150–157.infected with Haemonchus contortus. South African Terrill, T.H., J.A. Mosjidis, D.A. Moore, S.A. Shaik,Journal of Animal Science. Volume 34 (Supplement J.E. Miller, J.M. Burke, J.P. Muir, and R. Wolfe.1). p. 248–250. 2007. Effect of pelleting on efﬁcacy of sericea lespe-Shaik, S.A., T.H. Terrill, J.E. Miller, B. Kouakou, G. deza hay as a natural dewormer in goats. VeterinaryKannan, R.M. Kaplan, J.M. Burke, and J.A. Mosjidis. Parasitology 146, p. 117–122.Related ATTRA Publications • Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats • Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock • Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small • Small Ruminant Sustainability Checksheet Ruminants: Copper Wire ParticlesNotes:www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 7
Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza By Linda Coﬀey, Margo Hale, Tom Terrill, Jorge Mosjidis, Jim Miller, and Joan Burke NCAT/ATTRA and Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control, 2007 This publication is available on the Web at: www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/sericea_lespedeza.html or www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/sericea_lespedeza.pdf IP316 Slot 315 Version 112007Page 8 ATTRA