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Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production
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Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production

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Resource Guide to Organic and Sustainable Vegetable Production

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  • 1. 8 0 0 -3 4 6 -9 1 4 0 RESOURCE GUIDE TO ORGANIC & SUSTAINABLE VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONAppropria te Technology Tra ns fer for Rura l Area s HORTICULTURE RESOURCE LIST www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA’s Rural Business -- Cooperative Service.By Steve Diver 4.8 ATTRA Publications Relating to PestNCAT Agricultural Specialist ManagementSeptember 2001 5.0 Vegetable Industry Resources 6.0 Selected Vegetable Production Materials onTable of Contents the Web 7.0 Magazines & Newsletters on Vegetable1.0 About This Resource List Production and Market Gardening 1.1 Who Should Use This Guide 8.0 Databases & Directory Links to Vegetable 1.2 How to Use This Guide Crops and Associated Production Practices 1.3 About the Use of Web Resources on the Web 1.4 What is Sustainable Vegetable Production 9.0 Organic Farming Primer 1.5 What is Organic Vegetable Production 10.0 Organic Certification and Marketing2.0 The Farmers Bookshelf: 11.0 Economics of Organic Vegetable Production 2.1 Publications on Sustainable Vegetable 12.0 Magazines & Newsletters on Organic Production, Market Gardening, and Farming and Sustainable Agriculture Commercial Vegetable Production 13.0 Publishers & Book Distributors 2.2 Specialty, Ethnic and Minor Vegetable Crops 2.3 Literature on Organic Agriculture 2.4 Modern Literature on Organic Farming 1.0 About This Resource List 2.5 Literature on Sustainable Agriculture 2.6 Literature on Alternative Farming Systems In 1994, ATTRA published a 47-page information3.0 Soil Management package titled Sustainable Vegetable Production. At 3.11 Books & Bulletins on Soil Fertility the time it was a leading information source on 3.12 Soil Fertility Web Links organic and sustainable vegetable production. 3.21 Print & Video Resources on Cover Crops However, in 1999 Dr. Vernon Grubinger, vegetable 3.22 Cover Crop Web Links specialist at the University of Vermont, came out 3.23 UC-SAREP Cover Crop Resources with a comprehensive book on this subject, 3.31 Books & Bulletins on Composts and Sustainable Vegetable Production From Start-Up to Manures Market. With the advent of Grubingers book— 3.32 Web Links on Composts and Manures published by the Natural Resource, Agriculture, and 3.41 Books & Bulletins on Soil Organic Matter Engineering Service (NRAES) in Ithaca, New 3.42 Soil Organic Matter Web Links York—weve discontinued the ATTRA information 3.51 Books & Bulletins on Earthworms, package. We think the NRAES book does an Microbes, and Soil Biology excellent job of providing a comprehensive and 3.52 Soil Biology Web Links farmer-friendly overview of sustainable vegetable4.0 IPM for Vegetables production. 4.1 Print & Video Resources on IPM 4.2 IPM Web Links In keeping with the ATTRA tradition to carve out a 4.3 Print & Video Resources on Weed Control niche where no agricultural specialist has gone for Vegetables and Row Crops before, we elected to produce a resource guide of 4.4 Weed Control Web Links educational materials that supports the needs of 4.5 Weather, Agriculture and IPM organic and sustainable vegetable farmers. Thus, we 4.6 IPM Certification and Labeling offer this title—Resource Guide to Organic and 4.7 IPM Databases & Search Engines Sustainable Vegetable Production. is a project of the National Center for Appropriate Technology
  • 2. Farmers making a transition to sustainable farming 1.1 Who Should Use This Guideneed information on a wide variety of topicse.g.,legumes as a source of nitrogen, cover crops, Farmers and others who work in commercialcompost, non-chemical weed control, biointensive agriculturee.g., Extension specialists, NRCS, cropIPM, etc. This Guide provides a summary of some of advisors, teachers, and researchers. The focus isthe best in-print and on-line sources around. heavily oriented to practical approaches to organic and sustainable farming.Moreover, ATTRA specialists will continue toaddress organic and sustainable production of 1.2 How to Use This Guidespecific vegetable crops—tomatoes, sweet corn,onions, melons, asparagus—as well as Printed literature like books and bulletins are listedcomplementary production technologies such as first; these are followed by a selection of on-linecompost teas, baking soda as an alternative resources. In some instances, a web versionfungicide, disease-suppressive potting mixes, use of corresponds with the book and these have beenrefractometers to measure sugar content, foliar noted.feeding, living mulches, flame weeding, etc. Publishers and distributors that sell the booksHere it should be noted that farmers raising herbs or reviewed here are listed in a special section at thefield-grown cut flowers face nearly identical end of this resource guide. For details on sales price,production requirements. Thus, when we talk about shipping expenses, and ordering information, contactcover crops or weed control or soil management for the publishers.vegetables, the same approach will work for field-grown cut flowers and herbs. 1.3 About the Use of Web ResourcesA Partial Listing of ATTRA Publications and The Internet has revolutionized the way informationResources Related to Vegetable Production: is distributed and obtained.• Overview of Organic Crop Production Whereas it used to take several weeks or months to• Manures for Organic Crop Production wait for a publication to arrive in the mail, with a few• Companion Planting: Basic Concepts & mouse clicks many of these items now instantly Resources appear on your computer screen. Better yet, all these• Suppliers of Organic and/or Non-GE Seeds & articles and bulletins are free. In addition, some Plants items—including many Extension Service fact• Organic Plug and Transplant Production sheets—are available only in electronic form. Thus,• Organic Potting Mixes some portions of this resource list are more heavily• Season Extension Techniques for Market oriented to web resources than others. Gardeners If you have received this resource list but you don’t• Organic Allium Production have a computer at home, please see your local• Organic Asparagus Production librarian for assistance. Most rural libraries now• Organic Sweet Corn Production have computer access.• Organic Sweet Potato Production• Organic Tomato Production How To Read Web Documents:• Specialty Lettuce and Greens: Organic Production .HTML Hyper Text Markup Language; click and• Herb Overview read online. Most common format.• Sustainable Cut Flower Production .PDF Portable Document Format; requires Adobe• Organic Certification & The National Organic Acrobat Reader to download. Program• Organic Marketing Resources• Community Supported Agriculture• Direct Marketing• Farmers’ Markets ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 2
  • 3. 1.4 What is Sustainable Vegetable Production 1.5 What is Organic Vegetable ProductionFor the purpose of an introduction, sustainable In a nutshell, organic farming is based on theagriculture can be characterized as follows: following approaches and production inputs:• Sustainable agriculture is a goal rather than a • Strict avoidance of synthetic fertilizers and specific set of farming practices. Progress or synthetic pesticides movement toward the goal may be viewed as a • Crop rotations, crop residues, mulches continuum. • Animal manures and composts • Cover crops and green manures• A sustainable farming system strives to be • Organic fertilizers and soil amendments productive and profitable, while at the same time • Biostimulants, humates, and seaweeds preserving environmental quality and making • Compost teas and herbal teas efficient use of nonrenewable resources. • Marine, animal, and plant by-products • Biorational, microbial, and botanical pesticides,• Sustainable agriculture is concerned about the and other natural pest control products well-being of rural communities and the quality of life for families and farmworkers. In 1980, organic farming was defined by the USDA as a system that excludes the use of synthetic• Though biological practices and products are fertilizers, pesticides, and growth regulators. favored over chemical inputs, pesticides and Organic certification emerged as a grassroots fertilizers may be used within an IPM production and marketing tool during the 1970s and framework. 1980s to ensure that foods labeled “organic” met specified standards of production. The OrganicOne of the quickest ways to grasp production Foods Production Act, a section of the 1990 Farmpractices associated with sustainable vegetable Bill, enabled the USDA to develop a nationalproduction is to examine the guidelines and standards program of universal standards, certificationfor integrated farming systems, such as: accreditation, and food labeling.• Integrated Pest Management In April 2001, the USDA released the Final Rule of• Integrated Crop Management the National Organic Program. This federal law• Integrated Farm Management stipulates, in considerable detail, exactly what a grower can and cannot do to produce and market aIn some instances, point systems are employed to product as organic. Application for certificationcertify the adoption of recommended best must be made, paperwork completed, fees paid, andmanagement practices. For example, a grower can annual inspections undergone. To learn more aboutearn points toward “certified IPM” status for sweet the details of the certification process, see ATTRAscorn through the use of cover crops, crop rotations, Organic Certification & National Organic Programnitrogen fertilizer applied in split application, etc. information packet.To guide decisions on ways to approach sustainable A companion ATTRA publication—Overview offarming, it is helpful to become knowledgeable about Organic Crop Production—is recommended to gainthe principles of agroecology and sustainability. a better understanding of the history, philosophy, andUltimately, each farmer adopts their own approach. practices of organic farming.Resource: Resource:Introduction to Sustainable Agriculture & An Overview of Organic Crop ProductionAgroecology By George Kuepper, ATTRAATTRAs Related Web Links Site http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/organiccrop.htmlhttp://www.attra.org/rel.html ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 3
  • 4. 2.0 The Farmer’s Bookshelf The New Organic Grower: A Masters Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and MarketHere is a selection of some of the best resources for the Gardener, 2nd Edition. 1995. By Eliot Coleman.farmers bookshelf. For-sale books are available from the Chelsea Green Publishing Co., White River Junction,sources listed in the Publishers & Distributors section. VT. 340 p.Out-of-print literature and reference titles (mainly in thehistorical section) are available through Inter-Library Loan. Eliot Coleman’s book The New Organic Grower has probably had more impact on the organic market2.1 Publications on Sustainable Vegetable gardening movement in the United States than any other single publication. Coleman advocates the use Production, Market Gardening, and of walking tractors, wheel hoes, multi-row dibble Commercial Vegetable Production sticks, soil block transplants, and other tools and techniques that help make market gardening muchSustainable Vegetable Production From Start-Up more efficient. The techniques he describes wereto Market. 1999. By Vernon P. Grubinger. honed from years of experience as a farmer, combinedNRAES-104. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and with traditional market gardening techniques fromEngineering Service, Ithaca, NY. 268 p. Europe. Yet he also injects the insights and wisdom of a pioneer in organics to help the reader acquire new Vernon Grubinger is an Extension Vegetable ways of thinking; e.g., plant positive production Specialist in Vermont. This book resulted from a philosophy. This is a complete how-to-get-started vegetable production course he taught on sabbatical at manual on conceptualizing and practicing commercial the University of Maine in 1996. Sustainable organic vegetable production. Highly recommended. Vegetable Production From Start-Up to Market is without a doubt the most comprehensive and modern How to Grow More Vegetables, 5th Edition. 1995. textbook on sustainable vegetable production. By John Jeavons. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA. Chapters address concepts and terminology associated 201 p. with sustainable and organic production philosophies, production practices (soil fertility management, on- John Jeavons’s book How to Grow More Vegetables is farm composting, crop rotations, cover crops and the classic text on the biointensive method of green manures, tillage and field preparation, seeds and production. This is the production system that transplants, weed control, etc.) as well as business emphasizes double digging, intensive spacing, planning and marketing. Special features include companion planting, organic soil preparation, and high farmer profiles and lots and lots of useful tables and yields in minimal space. Jeavons’s book is filled with sidebars. Farmer-friendly; highly recommended. useful information and charts. The Ecology Action Institute founded by Jeavons publishes numerousSustainable Practices for Vegetable Production in booklets and research results on topics relating tothe South. 1996. By Mary Peet. Focus Publishing, biointensive production methods, organic fertilizers,R. Pullins Co., Newburyport, MA. 174 p. cover crops, composts, small-scale production data, etc. Whereas the scale of production advocated by Sustainable Practices for Vegetable Production in the Jeavons is too small for many growers, the principles South by Mary Peet is the result of a USDA are universally applicable. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) grant to North Carolina State University. This For a list of Ecology Action titles, descriptions, and was the first attempt by a land-grant university to ordering information, see: collate and synthesize information relevant to http://solstice.crest.org/sustainable/ecology_action/ sustainable vegetable production. Chapters provide index.html overviews on production practices (soil management, cover crops, conservation tillage, and insect, disease, nematode, and weed management) followed by crop profiles on individual vegetable crops. The crop profiles provide a nice summary of standard production practices (botany, plant characteristics, planting, spacing, harvesting). A full-scale web version is available online at: http://www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/cals/sustainable/peet/ ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 4
  • 5. Backyard Market Gardening: The Entre- Knotts Handbook for Vegetable Growers, 4thpreneur’s Guide to Selling What You Grow. Edition. 1997. By Donald N. Maynard and George1993. By Andrew W. Lee. Good Earth Publications, J. Hochmuth. John Wiley, New York, NY. 582 p.Columbus, NC. 351 p. Knotts Handbook for Vegetable Growers is the classic Andy Lee has over 20 years of market gardening reference text for vegetable growers. It is jam-packed experience and is executive director of the Good Earth with useful tables, data, calculations, and relevant Farm School in Virginia. Lee’s book has a nice information on commercial production. section on farm equipment with black-and-white photos. Most of the book is geared to the marketing The Organic Gardener’s Home Reference: and business side of market gardening. A Plant-by-Plant Guide to Growing Fresh, Healthy Food. 1994. By Tanya Denckla.The Flower Farmer: An Organic Grower’s A Garden Way Publishing Book. StoreyGuide to Raising and Selling Cut Flowers. 1997. Communications, Inc., Pownal, VT. 273 p.By Lynn Byczynski. Chelsea Green Publishing Co.,White River Junction, VT. 207 p. The Organic Gardener’s Home Reference by Tanya Denckla is a perfect complement to Knotts Handbook The Flower Farmer is an important contribution to the for Vegetable Growers as a quick reference source on organic market gardening literature because field- vegetable production. The Plant Charts summarize grown flowers are a common part of a crop mix for production guidelines for 28 vegetable crops in an local sales. As editor of the Growing for Market easy-to-read format, including: growth conditions; newsletter, Lynn Bycznski has a knack for writing harvest; storage requirements; growing tips; selected about market gardening ideas and practices. The farm varieties; common pests and diseases; and plant allies, profiles of cut flower growers around the U.S. are a companions, and incompatibles. Other charts nice feature of her book. summarize disease and insect control options, and plant allies and companions.Producing Vegetable Crops, 4th Edition. 1992. ByJohn M. Swiader, George W. Ware, and J.P.McCollum. Interstate Publishers, Inc., Danville, IL.626 p. Producing Vegetable Crops is one of the standard textbooks on commercial vegetable production. It draws heavily on data and recommendations published by the Cooperative Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Stations. These textbooks serve as a good reference for any commercial vegetable grower, whether organic or conventional.Vegetable Growing Handbook: Organic andTraditional Methods, 4th Edition. 1990. By WalterE. Splittstoesser. An AVI Book, Van NostrandReinhold, New York. 362 p. Vegetable Growing Handbook is a second vegetable textbook worth noting. Though its coverage of organic farming methods is brief, the vegetable production summaries are well done and it contains a section on specialty vegetables. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 5
  • 6. 2.2 Specialty, Ethnic, and Minor Vegetable detailed information on 78 Oriental crops (including many greens like mizuna, aburana, komatsura, edible Crops chrysanthemums, yellow mustard); each entry includes steps of production from sowing and germinationSpecialty vegetables, baby vegetables, heirlooms, colored through thinning, weeding, and harvest.varieties, ethnic vegetables... market farmers like to raisethese minor crops and sell them at farmers markets andother niche markets. Cornucopia II: A Source Book of Edible Plants, 2nd Edition. 1998. By Stephen Facciola. Kampong Publications, Vista, CA. 713 p.World Vegetables: Principles, Production andNutritive Values, 2nd Edition. 1997. By Vincent E. Cornucopia is a superb compendium, as well asRubatzky and Mas Yamaguchi. International sourcebook, of edible plants. It contains descriptionsThompson Science (Chapman & Hall), New York, and seed or nursery sources for approximately 3,000NY. 853 p. species, with detailed cultivar listings for over 110 major crops representing the most popular fruits, World Vegetables is a textbook on vegetables vegetables, nuts, herbs, grains, and mushrooms. It produced around the world, with comprehensive also contains a comprehensive bibliography and coverage of specialty and minor vegetable crops. appendices that organize plants according to 60 different food use categories or edible plant parts.Specialty and Minor Crops Handbook, 2nd Edition. Truly a masterpiece!1998. Small Farm Center. University of California,Publication 3346. 184 p. New Crops. Proceedings of National Symposia, Vols I–IV. Center for New Crops & Plant Products, This is a beautiful publication from University of Purdue University. California that provides brief fact sheets for about 63 minor vegetables. Each crop is summarized with a The New Crops symposiums held in 1990, 1993, 1996 color photo, market information, cultural information, and 1999 were published in a series of hard-bound seed sources, and bibliography. proceedings that contain a wealth of information on new, specialty, and ethnic crops. All volumes areManual of Minor Vegetables. 1988. By James M. available for sale in print; however, the first threeStephens. University of Florida. Florida volumes are also on-line.Cooperative Extension, Bulletin SP-40. 123 p. Advances in New Crops (1990) The Manual of Minor Vegetables from University of http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ Florida was one of the first attempts by land-grant proceedings1990/v1-toc.html universities to offer informational materials on minor vegetable crops. It is mainly listed here as a reference source for southeastern U.S. farmers. New Crops (1993) http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Oriental Vegetables: The Complete Guide for CropInfoSources/NewCropsBook1993_info.htmlGarden and Kitchen. 1991. By Joy Larkcom.Kodansha International, New York. 232 p. Progress in New Crops (1996) http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ Oriental vegetables are popular in towns with Asian CropInfoSources/NewCropsBook1996_info.html ethnic markets, and Joy Larkcom’s book is one of the best popular-press books on this topic. It contains Vegetables and Fruits: A Guide to Heirloom detailed entries on over 100 varieties of Oriental Varieties and Community-Based Stewardship. vegetables categorized into three sections: vegetables AFSIC that require temperate climates; those requiring subtropical climates; and herbs and water plants. http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/ AFSIC_pubs/heirloom/heirloom.htmLet Nature Do The Growing. 1986. By GajinTokuno. Japan Publications, Inc./Kodansha A wealth of resources from the National Agricultural Library containing bibliographical material, resourceInternational, Ltd., New York, NY. 279 p. organizations and seed sources, and historical documentation. Let Nature Do The Growing is a lesser-known text on organic vegetable production in Japan. It provides ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 6
  • 7. 2.3 Literature on Organic Agriculture The Holistic Agriculture Library http://www.soilandhealth.org/ [Agriculture Library]Organic agriculture has a rich history of farmers,researchers, and philosophers writing about holistic The Soil And Health Library, a web library compiledagriculture practices. As an introduction, five classic titles by Steve Solomon in Tasmania,that provide historical perspective are listed below. features full-text on-line versions of out-of-print organic agriculture classics.In addition, three resources are provided as access pointsfor further reading: (1) Tracing the Evolution of Organic- Plowmans Folly (1943). By Edward Faulkner.Sustainable Agriculture, a bibliography from the NationalAgricultural Library, (2) the Soil and Health web library, Chemicals, Humus and the Soil (1948). By Donald P.an on-line collection of classic texts, and (3) Future Hopkins.Horizons, a literature review from University of Nebraska. Farming and Gardening For Health or Disease [later editions titled Soil and Health] (1945). By Sir AlbertAn Agricultural Testament. 1943. By Sir Albert Howard.Howard. Oxford University Press, New York andLondon. 253 p. An Agricultural Testament (1943). By Sir Albert Howard.The Living Soil. 1949. By Lady Eve Balfour. Faberand Faber, LTD., London, England. 270 p. The Waste Products of Agriculture: Their Utilization as Humus (1931). By Sir Albert Howard and Yeshwant D. Wad.Soils and Men: Yearbook of Agriculture 1938.1938. USDA. United States Department of Soil Microorganisms and Higher Plants (1958).Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 1232 p. By N.A. Krasilnikov, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow.Pay Dirt: Farming and Gardening withComposts. 1945. By J.I. Rodale. Devin-Adair Co., Fertility Farming (1951). By Newman Turner.New York. 242 p. Future Horizons: Recent Literature inFertility Pastures: Herbal Leys as the Basis of Sustainable Agriculture. 1997. Extension andSoil Fertility and Animal Husbandry. 1955. By Education Materials for Sustainable Agriculture,Newman Turner. Faber and Faber, London. 204 p. Volume 6. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Center for Sustainable Agricultural Systems. 222 p. ✼ ✼ ✼ The Center for Sustainable Agriculture Systems at theTracing the Evolution of Organic/Sustainable University of Nebraska compiled this resource guideAgriculture: A Selected and Annotated as part of a USDA-SARE grant. It reviews more thanBibliography. 1988. By Jane Potter Gates. 90 books on sustainable agriculture.National Agricultural Library, Bibliographies and On-line and for-sale print versions are available on theLiterature of Agriculture (BLA) No. 72. Internet at:http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/tracing.htm Future Horizons: Recent Literature in Sustainable Agriculture The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center http://ianrwww.unl.edu/ianr/csas/ at the National Agricultural Library compiled this extvol6.htm bibliography in 1988, yet it is still one of the best collections of literature to draw from on the history of organic/sustainable agriculture. The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture http://chla.library.cornell.edu/ Electronic collection of full-text agricultural books published between the early nineteenth century and the middle to late twentieth century. Dozens of classic titles! ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 7
  • 8. 2.4 Modern Literature on Organic Farming Global Perspectives on Agroecology and Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Vol. I and II.1980 marked a new era in organic farming literature, since 1988. By Patricia Allen and Debra Van Dusen.that was the year USDA published its landmark Report and Proceedings of the Sixth InternationalRecommendations on Organic Farming. While alternative Scientific Conference of IFOAM. Agroecologypress books written by farmers and farm advisors are Program, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA.abundant, the advent of scientific, university, and 730 p.agricultural-society-sponsored conference proceedings andtextbooks have enhanced the literature of organic Environmentally Sound Agriculture. 1983. Byagriculture. William Lockeretz (ed.) Selected Proceedings from the Fourth International Conference of IFOAM heldReport and Recommendations on Organic in Cambridge, MA. Praeger Publishers, New York.Farming. 1980. USDA Study Team. United States 426 p.Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. 94p. Crop Protection in Organic and Low-Input This is the landmark report that helped usher in a new era of scientific and policy support for organic Agriculture. 1990. By Roger Unwin (ed.) agriculture at the USDA and associated agencies Proceedings of a symposium organized by the British (land-grant universities, Cooperative Extension Crop Protection Council held in Cambridge, UK. Service, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Monograph No. 45. BCPC, Farnham, Surrey, scientific agriculture societies). Five years later, the England. 254 p. 1985 Farm Bill enacted legislation that resulted in the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education The Economics of Organic Farming: An program, or SARE. International Perspective. 1994. By Nicholas Lampkin and S. Padel (eds.) CAB International,Organic Farming. 1990. By Nicolas Lampkin. Wallingford, Oxon, UK. 468 p.Farming Press, Ipswich, United Kingdom.701 p. Organic Agriculture: Economic and Ecological Nicolas Lampkin is on the faculty at the Welsh Comparisons with Conventional Methods. 1978. Institute of Rural Studies associated with The By Robert C. Oelhaf. Allanheld, Osmun, & Co., University of Wales. Organic Farming is the most Montclair, N.J. 271 p. prominent effort by a university professor to address organic agriculture. In addition, the European Biological Husbandry: A Scientific Approach to ecological and organic farming literature—which Organic Farming. 1981. By B. Stonehouse (ed.) Lampkin heavily draws upon—is a rich source of Butterworths, London. 352 p. information. Towards a Holistic Agriculture: A ScientificAn Overview of Organic Crop Production Approach. 1987. By R.W. Widdowson.By George Kuepper, ATTRA Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. 187 p.http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/organiccrop.html George Kuepper’s ATTRA publication is one of the Agricultural Production and Nutrition. 1997. By best factsheet-type primers on organic production, William Lockeretz (ed.) Proceedings of a conference providing principles, practices, and concepts that put it held in Boston, Massachusetts. Tufts University, all together. School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Medford, MA. 213 p.The Organic Method Primer Update. 1993. ByBargyla and Gylver Rateaver. The Rateavers, San The Importance of Biological Agriculture in aDiego, CA. 596 p. World of Diminishing Resources. 1986. By Vogtmann Hartmut, et al. (eds.) ProceedingsOrganic Farming: Current Technology and Its of the 5th International Scientific Conference ofRole in a Sustainable Agriculture. 1984. By D.F. IFOAM held at the University of KasselBezdicek (ed.) Agronomy Society of America (Germany). Verlagsgruppe Witzenhausen,Special Publication No. 46. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Witzenhausen. 448 p.Madison, WI. 192 p. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 8
  • 9. 2.5 Literature on Sustainable Agriculture Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agro- ecosystems. 1994. By Miguel Altieri. HaworthBy the mid-1980s, sustainable agriculture was a term Press, Binghampton, NY. 185 p.gaining wider usage. The 1985 Farm Bill—known as theconservation farm bill—spearheaded the creation of the Toward a More Sustainable Agriculture. 1986.USDA-SARE program and Conservation Reserve Program By Raymond P. Poincelot. AVI Pub. Co., Westport,(CRP). ATTRA, the national sustainable farming Conn. 241 p.information center that created this guide and related titles,was another product of the 1985 Farm Bill. Sustainable Agriculture & Integrated FarmingIn 1980, a person could put all of the important books Systems. 1985. By Thomas C. Edens, Cynthiarelating to sustainable agriculture on one shelf. Today, Fridgen, and Susan L. Battenfield (eds.) Michiganthere are so many academic books and symposium State University Press, East Lansing, MI. 344 p.proceedings on sustainable agriculture that it would bedifficult for even a university library to keep current. The Role of Microorganisms in a Sustainable Agriculture. 1986. By J.M. Lopez-Real and R.D.Alternative Agriculture. 1989. National Research Hodges (eds.) A.B. Academic, Berkhamsted.Council. National Academy Press, Washington, 246 p.D.C. 448 p. Environmentally Sound Agriculture. 1994.Sustainable Agriculture in Temperate Zones. By Kenneth L. Campbell, et al. (eds.) Proceedings of1990. By Charles A. Francis, Cornelia Butler Flora, the Second Conference held in Orlando, Florida.and Larry D. King. A Wiley-Interscience Publication, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St.Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 487 p. Joseph, MI. 578 p.Agroecology: The Science of Sustainable ✼ ✼ ✼Agriculture, 2nd Edition. 1995. By Miguel Altieri.Westview Press, Boulder, CO. 433 p. Sustainable Agriculture in Print Series Alternative Farming Systems Information Center,Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable National Agricultural Library.Agriculture. 1998. By Stephen R. Gliessman. Ann http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/sbjsusag.htmArbor Press, Chelsea, MI. 357 p. #saip The Sustainable Agriculture in Print Series, consistingSustainable Agricultural Systems. 1990. By C.A. of three bibliographies compiled by the AlternativeEdwards, R. Lal, P. Madden, R.H. Miller and G. Farming Systems Information Center, providesHouse (eds.) Soil and Water Conservation Society, bibliographic coverage of sustainable agricultureAnkeny, IA. 696 p. literature from 1580 to 1999.Sustainable Agriculture Systems. 1994. By J. L.Hatfield and D. L. Karlen (eds.) Lewis Publishers,Boca Raton, FL. 316 p.Ecology and Integrated Farming Systems. 1995.By D. M. Glen, M.P. Greaves, and H.M. Anderson(eds.) John Wiley & Sons, New York. 329 p.Sustainable Food Systems. 1983. By DietrichKnorr (ed.) AVI Pub. Co., Westport, Conn.416 p.Farming in Nature’s Image: An EcologicalApproach to Agriculture. 1992. By Judith D. Souleand Jon K. Piper. Island Press, Washington, DC.286 p. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 9
  • 10. 2.6 Literature on Alternative Farming Biodynamic Farming Systems Biodynamic Farming Practice. 1992. By Fritz Sattler andEcological farming systems—Organic Farming, Eckard von Wistinghausen. Bio-Dynamic AgriculturalBiodynamic Farming, Permaculture, Eco-Farming, Association, Stourbridge, West Midlands, England. 336 p.Nature Farming—evolved as an alternative to chemicallyintensive agriculture. Each offers its own brand of Grasp the Nettle: Making Biodynamic Farming andphilosophy and practical farming methodologies. Here are Gardening Work. 1997. By Peter Proctor. Randomsome noteworthy titles. See the publishers catalogs and House, Auckland, N.Z. 176 p.website listings at the end of this guide for acomprehensive look at whats available. Biodynamic Farming & Compost Preparation By Steve Diver, ATTRA Organic Farming http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/biodynamic.htmlThe New Organic Manifesto. 1986. By Lee Fryer. Earth Natural FarmingFoods Associates, Wheatland, MD. 180 p. The One-Straw Revolution: An Introduction to NaturalStep by Step Organic Vegetable Gardening. 1992. By Farming. 1978. By Masanobu Fukuoka. Rodale Press,Shepherd Ogden. HarperCollins, New York. 299 p. Emmaus, PA. 181 p.Profitable Organic Farming. 1995. By John Newton. The Natural Way of Farming: The Theory and Practice ofBlackwell Science Ltd., Osney Mead, Oxford, UK. 142 p. Green Philosophy. 1987. By Masanobu Fukuoka. Japan Publications, Kodansha International-USA through HarperOrganic Farming and Growing. 1994. By Francis Blake. & Row, New York. 284 p.Crowood Press, Gypsy Lane, Swindon, Wiltshire. 221 p. The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the Paradise Lost. Eco-Farming 1987. By Masanobu Fukuoka. Japan Publications, Kodansha International-USA through Harper & Row, NewEco-Farm: An Acres U.S.A. Primer. 1991. By Charles York, NY. 377 p.Walters and C.J. Fenzau. Acres USA, Kansas City, MO.450 p. Nature FarmingScience in Agriculture. 1992. By Arden Andersen. Acres Beneficial and Effective Microorganisms for a SustainableUSA, Kansas City, MO. 370 p. World Dr. Teruo Higa and Dr. James F. ParrNon-Toxic Farming Handbook. 1998. By Philip Wheeler. http://www.agriton.nl/higa.htmlAcres, USA, Metarie, LA. 238 p. Nature Farming and Microbial Applications. 2000. Xu,The Biological Farmer. 2000. By Gary Zimmer. Acres Hui-lian, James F. Parr, and Hiroshi Umemura (eds.) FoodUSA, Austin, TX. 352 p. Products Press, The Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY. 402 p. Permaculture Nature Farming and Effective MicroorganismsIntroduction to Permaculture. 1991. By Bill Mollison By Steve Diver, ATTRAwith Reny Mia Slay. Tagari Publications, Tyalgum http://ncatark.uark.edu/~steved/Nature-Farm-EM.htmlAustralia. 198 p. Alternative Farming Systems PrimersEarth Users Guide to Permaculture. 1994. By RosemaryMorrow and Rob Allsop. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, Towards a Sustainable Agriculture. 1996. Steve Diver.NSW Australia. 152 p. New Renaissance, Vol. 6, No. 2. http://www.ru.org/artagri.htmlIntroduction to Permaculture: Concepts and ResourcesSteve Diver, ATTRA Sustainable Agriculture: Definitions and Termshttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/perma.html Mary Gold, AFSIC, National Agricultural Library http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/srb9902.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 10
  • 11. 3.0 Soil Management Start with the Soil. 1993. By Grace Gershuny. Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA. 274 p.Soil management—with its attention to cover crops, croprotations, composts, soil biology, soil testing, mineral Gershuny’s Start with the Soil is a nice complement tofertilizers—is fundamental to agriculture. Prior to the the primer noted above, Soul of the Soil. Though1970s and 80s, farmers getting into organics relied written for an organic gardening audience (Rodaleprimarily on old books and bulletins for information. Now, Press), the information, tables, and data build on herit would take a donkey cart to haul away the goldmine of previous book.useful print and web resources that awaits the beginner. Fertile Soil: A Grower’s Guide to Organic &3.11 Books & Bulletins on Soil Fertility Inorganic Fertilizers. 1990. By Robert Parnes. agAccess, Davis, CA. 190 p.Building Soils for Better Crops, 2nd Edition. 2000.By Fred Magdoff and Harold van Es. Sustainable Robert Parnes was an advisor for several years in the well-known Woods End Agricultural InstituteAgriculture Network, Handbook Series No. 4. laboratory. Fertile Soil—first published as OrganicSustainable Agriculture Publications, University of and Inorganic Fertilizers in 1986—is the other classicVermont. 240 p. soils manual from the 1980s that provides solid information to organic farmers. The tables on nutrient Building Soils for Better Crops, 2nd Edition (2000) by value and estimated fertilizer requirement for organic Fred Magdoff and Harold van Es, soil scientists at fertilizers in Parness book are the best alternative to University of Vermont and Cornell University standard N-P-K fertilizer guidelines. respectively, is a highly practical 230-page guide to ecological soil management. This is the best all-around Edaphos: Dynamics of a Natural Soil System. manual from the land-grant agricultural colleges on 1993. By Paul D. Sachs. The Edaphic Press, building and maintaining a healthy, productive soil. Topics addressed: organic matter, soil biology, Newbury, VT. 197 p. physical properties of soil, animal manures, cover crops, crop rotations, making and using composts, Paul Sachs is the founder of North Country Organics reducing compaction, appropriate tillage systems, in Bradford, VT, and Edaphos is an outgrowth of nutrient management, soil tests, and fertilizers. It also Sachss seminars and consulting work. Edaphos does features profiles of farmers implementing ecological an excellent job of explaining soil science and soil soil management practices, and is accompanied by management practices in simple terms, accompanied plenty of helpful illustrations and tables. The SAN by useful tables and diagrams. series of handbooks are well done and farmer-friendly. Highly recommended. Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers. 1992. By David E. Chaney and Laurie E. Drinkwater.The Soul of Soil: A Guide to Ecological Soil DNAR Publication No. 21505. UC SustainableManagement, 3rd Edition. 1995. By Grace Agriculture Research and Education Program,Gershuny and Joseph Smillie. agAccess, Davis, CA. University of California, Division of Agriculture and174 p. Natural Resources. 36 p. The Soul of Soil is the classic primer on ecological soil UC-SAREP—The University of Californias management, first published in 1983 as Grace Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Gershunys Master’s Thesis at the University of Program—produced this bulletin in 1992, yet it is still Vermont. The 1986 edition co-authored with Joseph the best Extension Service publication on this topic. It Smillie is the one that became a primary information uses tables, data, and diagrams to explain soil organic source for organic farmers in the 1980s and 90s. It is matter and the wide range of organic amendments and jam-packed with useful concepts, tables, data, and fertilizers that are used in organic farming. knowledge about soils, humus, compost, crop rotations, cover crops, green manures, and mineral Western Fertilizer Handbook—Horticulture fertilizers. It belongs on the bookshelf of every Edition. 1990. By Albert E. Ludwick. Interstate organic farm. Publishers Inc., Danville, IL. 279 p. Farmers need access to all kinds of information, including standard fertility data. This is one of those handy guides used as an occasional reference source. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 11
  • 12. The Soil Management Series (PC-7398) Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Biodynamic PioneerUniversity of Minnesota Cooperative Extensionhttp://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/ Bio-Dynamic Gardening and Farming. [collectedcropsystems/DC7398.html articles, ca. 1940 - 1961] Volume 1. 1983. By Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. Mercury Press, Spring Valley, The University of Minnesota recently put out a new series of Extension bulletins: New York. 126 p. 1. Soil Management (BU-7399) Bio-Dynamic Gardening and Farming. [collected 2. Compaction (BU-7400) articles, ca. 1940 - 1961] Volume 2. 1983. By 3. Manure Management (BU-7401) Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. Mercury Press, Spring Valley, 4. Organic Matter Management (BU-7402) New York. 142 p. 5. Soil Biology and Soil Management (BU-7403) Bio-Dynamic Gardening and Farming. [collected Each publication is organized according to the articles, ca. 1940 - 1961]. Volume 3. 1984. By following sections: Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. Mercury Press, Spring Valley, The Soil Manager - explains management options for New York. 132 p. improving your soil. The Soil Scientist - reviews the soil science principles Soil Fertility: Renewal and Preservation. 1983. that are important to production agriculture. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. Lanthorn, East Grinstead, Your Farm - helps you apply what you are reading to Sussex, England. 200 p. your own farm. Whats Next? - wraps up the chapter by helping you Eco-Farming Classics assess your operation and soil. Further Resources - lists people and publications to consult for more information. Agriculture in Transition. 2000. By Donald L. Schriefer. Acres USA, Austin, TX. 238 p.The Nature and Properties of Soils, 12th Edition.1999. By Nyle C. Brady and Ray R. Weil. Prentice From the Soil Up. 2000. By Donald L. Schriefer.Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 881 p. Acres USA, Austin, TX. 274 p. The Nature and Properties of Soils is probably the The Biological Farmer. 2000. By Gary Zimmer. most authoritative and well-known university textbook Acres USA, Austin, TX. 352 p. on soils. Dr. Ray Weil, a soil scientist at the University of Maryland, updated this classic with Crop Roots  The Hidden Half. Circa 1990s. By modern photographs and illustrations as well as Harold Willis. Midwestern Bio-Ag, Blue Mound, additional notes and information that addresses soil WI. 106 p. management from a sustainable viewpoint. It is an excellent, comprehensive resource; a good reference book for the farmers bookshelf. Non-Toxic Farming Handbook. 1998. By Philip Wheeler and Ronald Ward. Acres USA, Metairie,The Fertile Triangle: The Interrelationship of LA. 238 p.Air, Water, and Nutrients in Maximizing SoilProductivity. 1991. By Benjamin Wolf. Food Nourishment Home Grown. 1992. By A.F.Products Press, New York. 463 p. Beddoe. Agro-Bio Systems, Grass Valley, CA. 299 p.Fertilizers and Their Use: A Pocket Guide forExtension Officers, 4th edition Hands-On Agronomy. 1993. By Neal Kinsey andFood & Agriculture Organization (FAO) Charles Walters. Acres USA, Kansas, MO. 352 p.ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/agll/docs/fertuse.pdf The Enlivened Rock Powders. 1994. By Harvey Lisle. Acres USA, Kansas, MO. 194 p. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 12
  • 13. 3.12 Soil Fertility Web Links CCOFs Organic Practices and List of Materials http://www.ccof.org/section8.htmThese first three items are the primary web locations forsources of organic fertilizers and approved materials that California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF) is onecan be used in certified organic production. of the premier organic certification organizations in the country, in operation since 1973. The 1998 CCOF Handbook located on its website contains anSources for Organic Fertilizers and Amendments informative section on organic farming practices and aATTRA listing of approved materials.http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/orgfert.html Use this site primarily as background reading to The ATTRA resource list on organic fertilizers is an become familiar with typical categories of fertilizer extensive listing of dealers and suppliers carrying bulk products and how they fit into a certified organic organic fertilizers. It is organized by category of program. CCOF transferred the official task of fertilizer material: evaluating and listing brand-name products to OMRI in 1997. Phosphate rock Non-phosphate rock minerals minerals The following websites provide valuable information to Animal by-products Plant by-products farmers and Extension specialists who need information Marine products Worms for vermicompost and data on soil management, organic fertilizers, and Composts & blended Compost inoculants & related sustainable fertility topics. fertilizers bioactivators Cover crop seeds Bio-dynamic preparations & homeopathic Commercial Organic Nutrient Recommendations preparations University of Maine Soil Testing Lab Humates & humic Hydrogen peroxide http://anlab.umesci.maine.edu/handout/ acids organ01.HTM Mycorrhizal Microbial inoculants, inoculants enzymes, biocatalysts In these handy tables from University of Maine you Soluble organic fertilizers for drip irrigation & can quickly see how many pounds of organic fertilizer greenhouse fertilization per acre are needed to meet desired pounds of nutrient element per acre; e.g., 670 lbs fish meal equals 60 lbs Note: The ATTRA list was compiled in response to N per acre, 890 lbs fish meal equals 80 lbs N per acre, queries from farmers on where to purchase bulk and 1100 lbs fish meal equals 100 lbs N per acre. organic fertilizers and amendments. It is not an Examples are provided for 10 different organic official list of materials that can be used in certified fertilizers relative to Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and organic production. To verify approved and restricted Potassium. materials, consult the OMRI lists below. An Introduction to Organic Fertilization inOMRIs Brand Name Products Lists SaskatchewanOrganic Materials Review Institute Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food FARMFACTShttp://www.omri.org/brand_list.html http://www.agr.gov.sk.ca/farm_man/crop_prod/ organicfert.asp OMRI is the Organic Materials Review Institute. It provides a technical review of organic crop production Nutrient Content of Fertilizer and Organic materials (fertilizers and pest controls) supplied by Materials manufacturers. Products that receive an Allowed or NC State University Soil Science Regulated status can state that the product is "OMRI [HTML] Listed" and may use the OMRI seal on packaging and literature. http://ces.soil.ncsu.edu/soilscience/publications/ Soilfacts/AG-439-18/ The Brand Name Products List on OMRIs website [PDF] includes crop production materials organized http://ces.soil.ncsu.edu/soilscience/publications/ alphabetically by Generic Material, Supplier, and Soilfacts/ AG-439-18/AG-439-18.pdf Product. Convenient tables with nutrient content of standard commercial fertilizers as well as organic fertilizers and manures. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 13
  • 14. Sustainable Soil Management Soil Fertility Note 12: Fertilizing with OrganicBy Preston Sullivan, ATTRA Nutrientshttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/soilmgt.html North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services ATTRAs Sustainable Soil Management publication is http://www.agr.state.nc.us/agronomi/sfn12.htm the most succinct and informative publication of its kind on the web. The concepts and practices Guidelines for Organic Fertilization embedded in this publication provide the fundamental University Of Vermont Extension System, building blocks for a deeper and more complete understanding of soils from a sustainable farming Agricultural and Environmental Testing Lab perspective. http://pss.uvm.edu/pss161/problem/handout.htmlAlternative Soil Testing Laboratories Organic Crop ProductionATTRA Patrick Moore, The Evergreen State Collegehttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/soil-lab.html Pages 19−32, In: Organic Resource Manual Washington State Department of Agriculture ATTRAs Alternative Soil Testing Laboratories http://www.wa.gov/agr/fsah/organic/ofp.htm resource list organizes soil labs into two broad categories: (1) those that focus on biological assays Nitrogen Management in Field Vegetables including organic matter, humus content, and A Guide to Efficient Fertilisation microbial analysis, and (2) those that focus on mineral HTML analysis and organic fertilizer recommendations. The http://res2.agr.ca/stjean/info/ publicat1_e.htm resource section provides suppliers, books, and web #Technical links that address alternative fertility concepts, soil quality, and on-farm methods of soil and foliar PDF analysis. http://res2.agr.ca/stjean/recherche/azote_e.pdfOrganic Soil Amendments for Sustainable Manual on Integrated Soil Management andAgriculture Conservation PracticesCTAHR, Univ. of Hawaii FAO Land and Water Bulletin 8http://agrss.sherman.hawaii.edu/staff/hue/ ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/agll/docs/lw8e.pdf [9506 KB]organic.html Microbial Fertilizers in JapanSoil Fertility Management for Organic Crops Michinori NishioUniversity of California, Publication 7249 Food and Fertilizer Technology Centerhttp://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7249.pdf Taipei City, Taiwan R.O.C http://www.agnet.org/library/abstract/eb430.htmlSoil Management and Soil Quality for OrganicCrops Use of Microbial Inoculants and OrganicUniversity of California, Publication 7248 Fertilizers in Agricultural Productionhttp://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7248.pdf Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Taipei City, Taiwan R.O.C5-Part Series on Soil Basics http://www.agnet.org/library/article/eb394.htmlUMass Extenion, University of Massachusettshttp://www.umassvegetable.org/soil_crop_pest_mgt/ Sustainable Nitrogen Management in Intensivesoil_nutrient_mgt.html Vegetable Production Food and Fertilizer Technology Center• Hairy Vetch as a Cover Crop Taipei City, Taiwan R.O.C• Soil Basics I: Physical Properties of Soil http://www.agnet.org/library/abstract/eb442.html• Soil Basics II: Chemical Properties of Soil• Soil Basics III: Organic Matter, Key to Management• Soil Basics IV: Putting It All Together• Soil Basics V: Top Dressing and Side Dressing Nitrogen ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 14
  • 15. Natural Resources Conservation Service, or NRCS, isthe USDA agency formerly known as Soil ConservationService, or SCS. The NRCS Soil Quality Institute getsan A+ for the high-quality, farmer-friendly educationalmaterials theyve published in recent years.NRCS Agronomy Technical Notes SeriesSoil Quality Institutehttp://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/agronomy.shtml The Soil Quality Institute website, sponsored by NRCS, features on-line technical notes on soil management topics: Cover Crops; Conservation Crop Rotation; Effects on Soil Quality; Effects of Residue Management, No-Till on Soil Quality; Effects of Soil Quality on Nutrient Efficiency; Herbicides; Legumes and Soil Quality; Effects of Soil Erosion on Soil Productivity.NRCS Soil Quality Information SheetsSoil Quality Institutehttp://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/sqiinfo.html The Soil Quality Institute website, sponsored by NRCS, features on-line information sheets on soil quality topics: Erosion; Sediment Deposition on Cropland; Compaction; Salinization; Soil Biodiversity; Available Water Capacity; Pesticides; Indicators for Soil Quality Evaluation; Organic Matter; Soil Crusts; Aggregate Stability; Infiltration; Soil pH.Soil Biology Primerhttp://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/primer/index.htm The highly regarded Soil Biology Primer is reviewed in the section on soil biology.Soil Quality Test Kithttp://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/kit2.html An 82-page booklet describing procedures for 12 on- farm tests, an interpretive section for each test, data recording sheets, and a section on how to build the kit. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 15
  • 16. 3.21 Print & Video Resources on Cover Crops SAREP program—was the first Extension Service bulletin to address the benefits of cover crops in the context of modern sustainable farming systems.Cover crops are like the backbone, the linchpin, thecornerstone… of any annual cropping system that seeksto be sustainable or organic. The following two booklets from Pennsylvania and Oregon are a compilation of fact sheets on individual cover cropOrganic farmers rely on cover crops to perform multiple species. Since the selection and use of cover crops isroles and functions on the farm, including soil protection, heavily influenced by growing season, climate, croppingsoil improvement, and insectary habitat. From a fertility systems, and related geographical peculiarities, these twoangle, the cover crop seed can be viewed as a fertilizer booklets provide a nice balance for growing conditions inexpense. the Northeastern and Northwestern United States.When sustainable agriculture became a priority topic for Northeast Cover Crop Handbook. 1994. ByUSDA, land-grant universities, and non-profit institutions Marianne Sarrantonio. Rodale Institute, Kutztown,in the 1980s, cover crops were one of the first items to PA. 118 p.receive significant attention. Lots of time and energy havegone into cover crop research, on-farm trials, and The Rodale Institute was a leader in cover cropinformation dissemination. research and on-farm trials in the 1980s and 90s. The Northeast Cover Crop Handbook is the culminationSome of the key players that helped generate this new of their extension information delivery from that era.material on cover crops include the Sustainable Agriculture Topics covered are: how to choose a cover crop rightNetwork (SAN), the University of California, and the for your operation; building a rotation around coverRodale Institute. crops; choosing the best species for the whole farm; estimating the nitrogen contribution from a greenManaging Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd Edition. manure; looking at soil improvements from cover1998. By the Sustainable Agriculture Network. crops; and lowering the cost of cover cropping. TheSustainable Agriculture Publications, University of book is well written and easy to read with lots ofVermont. 212 p. drawings and charts. The appendix contains detailed management practices for 20 cover crop species, cover Managing Cover Crops Profitably is a compre- crop seed sources, and other information sources. hensive resource on cover crops— an essential desk reference! The introductory section includes Cover Crops in Oregon (EM 8704) articles on uses and benefits of cover crops, Oregon State University followed by chapters on 18 different cover crop species. Charts rate factors for each species Oregon State University Extension Service published a including drought tolerance, nitrogen yield, and 50-page booklet on cover crops in 1998 titled Using seeding rates. The top six high-performing cover Cover Crops in Oregon. Topics include the pros and crops for each region are discussed. Topics cons of cover cropping; how to choose a cover crop; include: selection of the best species for your cover crops in annual and perennial systems; how to location, planning profitable crop rotations, crop estimate nitrogen contributions to a subsequent crop; yield benefits following cover crops, and fertilizer and economic considerations of cover cropping. reduction realized from cover crops. The booklet provides detailed information on specific cover crops, including annual ryegrass, barley, oats, The full-text version can be viewed on the SAN triticale, wheat, buckwheat, cereal rye, common vetch, website: crimson clover, fava bean, field pea, hairy vetch, rapeseed, red clover, subterranean clovers, Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd Edition Sudangrass, and sorghum-Sudangrass hybrids. In http://www.sare.org/handbook/mccp2/index.htm addition, there is a fact sheet on cover crop weed suppression in annual rotations. (List price, $5.50Cover Crops for California Agriculture. 1989. from Oregon State University Publications).By P.R. Miller, et al. University of California,Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, The complete series of 18 individual facts sheets can also be found on the web in HTML and PDF formats:Leaflet 21471. 24 p. Cover Crop Fact Sheets, Oregon State University This University of California leaflet—supported http://eesc.orst.edu/tango/pubsearch/0124.qry?function by the Jesse Smith Noyes Foundation, the UC =search Davis Student Experimental Farm, and the UC ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 16
  • 17. Cover Crops for Vegetable Production in the still one of the best little primers on grasses andNortheast. 1999. By Lee Stivers. Cornell legumes in print.University Extension Service (142IB244). 12 p. Creative Cover Cropping in Annual Farming A Cornell University publication on cover crops for Systems—Video. 1993. Produced by the University vegetables that addresses: addition of organic matter to of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural soils; improvement of soil tilth and remediation of Resources. compaction; protection of soil from wind and water erosion; recycling plant nutrients; increasing the A 24-minute video that shows a selection of cover biological activity of soil; retention of soil moisture; crops used in various annual cropping systems for the and suppression of weeds, insects, pathogens, and purpose of soil fertility and pest management. (List nematodes. price, $20; available through University of California)Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures. No-till Vegetables—Video. 1997. By Steve Groff.2000. By Preston Sullivan and Steve Diver. Cedar Meadow Farm, Holtwood, PA.Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas,Fayetteville, AR. 12 p. Steve Groff, a no-till vegetable farmer inhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ covercrop.html Pennslyvania, makes extensive use of cover crops in combination with no-till vegetable production to raise high-quality tomatoes, pumpkins, broccoli, snap beans, This ATTRA publication provides a summary of the and sweet corn. He uses specialized equipment like a principal uses and benefits of cover crops and green rolling stalk chopper to knock down and crimp the manures, followed by a listing of key resources. cover crops, thus allowing him to plant vegetables into a killed cover crop mulch. This cropping systemSustainable Production of Fresh-Market requires post-emergent herbicides, but at greatlyTomatoes with Organic Mulches. 1997. By Aref reduced rates compared to conventional productionAbdul-Baki and John R. Teasdale. USDA Farmers systems. After several years of no-till production theBulletin No. 2279. 23 p. soils are very mellow and easy to plant into. (Videohttp://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/tomatoes.html price, $21.95 + $3.00 shipping from Cedar Meadow Farm). This USDA Farmers Bulletin features the no-till vegetable cropping system developed by scientists at Using Cover Crops in Conservation Production the USDA-ARS Vegetable Laboratory in Beltsville, Systems—Video. 1997. By Seth Dabney, USDA- Maryland. This system relies on hairy vetch ARS National Sedimentation Lab in Oxford, MS. established in the fall, followed by a mow-down treatment the following spring to prepare a no-till bed An 11-minute video on cover cropping systems in the to transplant tomatoes and other vegetable crops into. Deep South featuring clover species and no-till production methods. (Costs about $10 through Print copies may be ordered from: Shepherd Publications in Memphis, TN). USDA/ARS Vegetable Lab Rm. 213, B-10A BARC-West Beltsville, MD 20705 mcgahan@ars.usda.gov On-line in PDF format at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/ SustainableTomato.pdfFeed the Soil. 1982. By Edwin McLeod. OrganicAgriculture Research Institute, Graton, CA. 209 p. The classic tale of Hylas the Hare who goes to work as a seasonal farmer, only to bump into Mr. Earthworm who teaches Hylas all about green manures and soil biology and the importance of “feeding the soil.” It is ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 17
  • 18. 3.22 Cover Crop Web Links Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures. ATTRA Green Manures http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/covercrop.html http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/PDF/covercrop.pdfThe Basics of Green ManuringP. Warman Cover Crops – VegetablesEAP Publication 51, Ecological Agriculture Projectshttp://eap.mcgill.ca/Publications/EAP51.htm Commercial Vegetable Production: Cover Crops for Vegetable GrowersGreen Manures Kansas State University, MF2343Greenmount College of Agriculture and Horticulture, http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/hort2/Samplers/Northern Ireland MF2343.htmhttp://www.greenmount.ac.uk/organic/manures.htm A 28-page fact sheet from K-State, published in 1998.Catch Crops and Green Manuring in Ecological One of the better Extension publications on coverAgriculture crops for vegetables geared to a specific region.Proceedings of the Ecological Agriculture NJF-Seminar 166 Multiple Impacts Cover Cropshttp://zeus.bibul.slu.se/documents/slu/ John Luna, Oregon State Universityekologiskt_lantbruk/EKL05/EKL05Z.HTM http://ifs.orst.edu/pubs/ multiple_impacts_cover_cro.html Cover Crops – General In addition to the Cover Crop Fact Sheets published by Oregon State University, John Luna and associatesManaging Cover Crops Profitably, 2nd Edition have a special topics web page on use of cover cropsSustainable Agriculture Network in sustainable vegetable production; especially notehttp://www.sare.org/handbook/mccp2/index.htm the research results on strip tillage.Cover Crop Fact Sheets Cover Crops for Sustainable VegetableOregon State University Productionhttp://eesc.orst.edu/tango/pubsearch/ Debbie Roos0124.qry?function=search http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/Canopy/1118/Michigan Cover Crops Cover Crops & Green Manure Crops forMichigan State University & Kellogg Biological Vegetable FarmsStation Ohio Vegetable Production Guide 2000http://www.kbs.msu.edu/Extension/Covercrops/home http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/b672/.htm b672_1.html An impressive and valuable collection of information Cover Crops For Weed Control In Lettuce sheets and research reports on cover crops used in New Alchemy Quarterly, No. 40 association with vegetables and row crops. Mark Schonbeck, Judy Browne, and Ralph DeGregorioCover Crops http://www.fuzzylu.com/greencenter/q40/Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and weed9009.htmRural Affairshttp://www.gov.on.ca:80/OMAFRA/english/crops/ Cropping Systems of Intensive Desert Vegetablefacts/ cover_crops01/covercrops.htm Production University of California, Riverside• Adaptation and Use of Cover Crops http://cnas.ucr.edu/~bps/hcoopextcrop.html• Choosing a Cover Crop• Cover Crop Types ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 18
  • 19. Cover Crops for Soil Improvement in An Evaluation of Cover Crops to Reduce theHorticultural Crops Potential for Environmental Damage fromAlan Ware, Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture Intensively Cultivated Soilshttp://www.kerrcenter.com/kerrweb/html/pub4.html Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and Fisheries http://www.gov.ns.ca/nsaf/rs/greenplan/resource/conSummer Cover Crops for Tomato Production in servation/035.htmSouth Floridahttp://www.imok.ufl.edu/veghort/pubs/workshop/ Legumes and Crop RotationsBryan99.htm Crop Rotations for Vegetables and Row CropsGreen Manure Crops in Organic Vegetable Steve Diver, ATTRAProduction http://ncatark.uark.edu/~steved/rotation.htmlDanish Institute of Plant and Soil Sciencehttp://zeus.bibul.slu.se/documents/njf/ Soil Improvement with Legumes includingutredn_rapporter/NUR114/NUR114N.HTM Legumes in Crop Rotations Saskatchewan Agriculture and FoodCover Cropping in Potato Production http://www.agr.gov.sk.ca/land_wat_clim/soilEAP Publication 71, Ecological Agriculture Projects Scs0395.asphttp://eap.mcgill.ca/Publications/EAP71.htm Organic Rotations Practiced Interseeding Cover Crops Ohio State University, Special Circular 174-00 http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/ sc174/Observations on Interseeding Cover Crops sc174_9.htmlVernon Grubinger, University of Vermonthttp://ctr.uvm.edu/ctr/intrseed.htm Legume Green Manuring Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural DevelopmentInterseedings in Vegetable Production http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/100/2300202.htmlChantal Foulds, REAP Canadahttp://eap.mcgill.ca/MagRack/SF/ Crop Rotations in Organic AgricultureSummer%2089%20D.htm Andreas de Neergaard http://www.kursus.kvl.dk/shares/ea/02Materials/Relay Intercropping Brassicas into Chile and Crop-rotations.PDFSweet CornNew Mexico State University, Guide A–609 An Organic Vegetable Crop Rotation Aimed athttp://cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/_a/A-609.html Self-Sufficiency in Nitrogen K. Thorup-Kristensen, Danish Institute of Catch Crops – Sucking Up Residual Nitrates Agricultural Sciences http://www.agrsci.dk/pvf/gronsager/ktk/ oeko%5Fgronsagssaedskifte/A Farmers Guide To Reducing Nutrient Loss hp%2Dcrop%20rotation.htmlUsing Catch CropsJanet Wallace, Nova Scotia Organic GrowersAssociationhttp://gks.com/nccrp/Finalr.php3Management of Residual Nitrogen with CoverCropsTechnical Notes, Agronomy 38. Pullman PlantMaterials Center.http://www.wsu.edu/pmc_nrcs/technotes/agronomy/tntag38.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 19
  • 20. 3.23 UC-SAREP Cover Crop Resource Selecting the Right Cover Crop Gives Multiple BenefitsThe UC-SAREP program at University of California is a UC-SAREPleader in cover crop research and information http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/CCPubs/dissemination. The massive resources UC-SAREP has SelectingCoverCrop.htmldevoted to the integration of cover crops into annual andperennial cropping systems is astounding. These materials A 4-page web article that discusses: adding andare so extensive and informative, they deserve their own conserving nitrogen, water use by cover crops, pestspecial section. management, cover crops in annual cropping systems, self-reseeding cover crops, and potential advantagesUC SAREP Cover Crop Resource Page and disadvantages of cover crops.http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/sarep/ccrop/ Survey of Annual Crop Growers Regarding This is the database of all databases when it comes to Cover Crops cover crops. Includes over 5,000 items gleaned from UC-SAREP more than 600 separate sources, including journal http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/newsltr/v7n3/sa-8.htm articles, conference proceedings, standard textbooks, unpublished data, and personal communications from researchers and farmers. The information in the database concerns the management and effects of more than 32 species of plants usable as cover crops. More than 400 different cover crop images are also available for on-line viewing. One limitation—the database is regionally geared to the Mediterranean climate of California. Ideally, each region of the U.S. should enjoy such site-specific information.Cover Cropping in Row and Field Crop SystemsUC-SAREPhttp://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/slideshows/rfshow01.htm An on-line educational slide series that provides visual images and text describing the benefits and uses of cover cropping in annual crops like vegetables; 52 slides.Cover Crop Biology: A Mini-ReviewRobert L. Bugg, UC-SAREPhttp://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/ccres/35.htm A 10-page web article that reviews several aspects of cover crop biology: seeds, seedlings, root zone biology, nutrient uptake, the fate of cover-crop- derived nitrogen, community dynamics, and allelopathy. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 20
  • 21. Eight Points to RememberSamples of UC-SAREP Cover Crop Researchand Education Summaries 1. For many farms, cover crops offer the only practical means of supplying the organic matter needed to maintain soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. Barnyard manure and other manuresRelease of Nitrogen From a Leguminous Cover cannot meet the requirements of extensive areas.Crop and the Subsequent Utilization by BellPepper 2. Cultivation decreases the amount of organic matter inRichard Smith, Louise Jackson, and Phil Foster the soil and increases soil erosion on sloping land.Sustainable Agriculture Research & EducationProgram, University of California 3. As organic matter decays, it provides nutrient elements for succeding crops. Cover crop legumes substantiallyhttp://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/ccres/2.HTM increase the nitrogen available to the subsequent crop.Fall Planted Cover Crops May Improve Tomato 4. The value of a cover crop is determined primarily byYields the amount of organic matter and nitrogen it will addGene Miyao and Paul Robins to the soil. Therefore, use the crop that will produceSustainable Agriculture Research & Education the greatest growth in the particular region and theProgram, University of California alloted time.http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/ccres/1999/3.htm 5. Most winter cover crops should be planted with irrigation, since early seeding is necessary for a good stand and a lack of rain coupled with no irrigation canCover Crop Use in Vegetable Production prevent satisfactory results.in the Southern California DesertsChad Hutchinson and Milt McGiffen 6. Most winter cover crops should be seeded before theSustainable Agriculture Research & Education first of November. Seedbed preparation is important.Program, University of Californiahttp://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/ccres/1999/ 7. The best way to work a cover crop in is with a heavy4.htm cover crop disk. Two or three diskings may be necessary. In an orchard, you need not completelyNon-Leguminous Cover Crops In Cool-Season incorporate the cover crop.Vegetable Crop Systems 8. Allow legume cover crops to grow as long as possibleSustainable Agriculture Research & Education before working them into the soil.Program, University of Californiahttp://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/ccres/1996/ Source:3.HTM Cover Crops for California Agriculture. 1989. By P.R.In-Field Insectaries for Vegetable Crops Miller, et al. University of California, Division ofBill Chaney Agriculture and Natural Resources, Leaflet 21471.Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education 24 p.Program, University of Californiahttp://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/ccres/1996/7.HTMNon-Leguminous Cover Crops To Reduce NitrateLeaching In Vegetable Cropping SystemsSustainable Agriculture Research & EducationProgram, University of Californiahttp://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/ccres/1996/13.HTM ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 21
  • 22. 3.31 Books & Bulletins on Composts of experience. Of special interest are Sims’s notes on and Manures composting and the role of humus in eco-farming based on correspondence and publications fromManures For Organic Crop Production. 2000. By William Albrecht, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Sir Albert Howard, and Vaclav Petrik.George Kuepper. Appropriate Technology Transferfor Rural Areas, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 12 p. Composting for Manure Management. 1998. Byhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/manures.html the staff of BioCycle. JG Press, Emmaus, PA. 77 p. A Horticulture Technical Note from ATTRA on the http://www.jgpress.com/BioCycle/Books.html use of raw and composted animal manures in vegetable crop production. Topics: produce quality Describes methods for processing and marketing concerns; contamination; fertility imbalances; composted manure—and how specialized equipment laboratory analysis; weed problems; pollution; use as and composting systems are being used to turn a waste fertilizer and soil improver; and field application. disposal problem into a profit center. Major sections: statistics by region and livestock; composting methodsOn-Farm Composting Handbook (NRAES-54). for poultry, hog, dairy, and beef manure; water quality impact; overcoming problems—from odors to1998. By Robert Rynk (ed.) Natural Resource, leachate; and anaerobic digestionAgriculture, and Engineering Service, Ithaca, NY. technology for managing manures, as well as186 p. vermicomposting methods. The appendix contains ahttp://www.nraes.org/publications/nraes54.html directory of composting equipment. This award-winning handbook presents a thorough Farm-Scale Composting Resource List. 1998. By overview of farm-scale composting and explains how to produce, use, and market compost. Topics: Steve Diver. Appropriate Technology Transfer for benefits and drawbacks of composting; the composting Rural Areas, Fayetteville, AR. 11 p. process; raw materials; composting methods; http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ farmcompost.html operations; management; site and environmental considerations; using and marketing compost. This Agronomy Resource List summarizes the key Included are 55 figures, 32 tables, calculations, publications; web pages; associations; software; references, and a glossary. magazines, newsletters, and journals; email lists and web forums; and bibliographies and current researchField Guide to On-Farm Composting (NRAES- geared to farm-scale composting.114). 1999. By Mark Dougherty (ed.) NaturalResource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service, BioCycle magazineIthaca, NY. 128 p. biocycle@jgpress.comhttp://www.nraes.org/publications/nraes114.html http://www.jgpress.com $69/12 issues a year This is a spiral-bound, laminated field guide intended as a companion to the aforementioned On-Farm Biocycle magazine is the premier compost trade Composting Handbook . Topics covered: operations journal. Making and using farm-produced compost is and equipment; raw materials and recipe making; a regular topic. The associated compost publications composting process control and evaluation; site from JG Press are, likewise, among the best. considerations, environmental management, and safety; composting livestock and poultry mortalities; Slide Presentation: The Value of Animal Manure and compost utilization on the farm. Highlights of the P.R. Warman and I.Y. Walsh, Nova Scotia guide include an equipment identification table, diagrams showing windrow formation and shapes, Agricultural College examples and equations for recipe making and http://www.gov.ns.ca/nsaf/rs/greenplan/awareness/ compost use estimation, a troubleshooting guide, and presentations/101.htm 24 full-color photos.Fletcher Sims’ Compost. 1993. Acres, USA.Kansas City, MO. 247 p. Fletcher Sims, a compost pioneer on the High Plains of Texas, shares insights on large-scale composting and the benefits of compost based on several decades ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 22
  • 23. 3.32 Web Links on Composts and Manures California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB)Beneficial Uses of Compost in Florida Vegetable Publications on Compost & Yard WasteCrops http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/Publications/Southwest Florida Research & Education Center, default.asp?cat=2University of Floridahttp://www.imok.ufl.edu/soils/compost.htm Compost: On-Farm Systems, QB 97-12 Mary Gold, AFSICUsing Composts in Commercial Vegetable and http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/qb9712.Fruit Operations htmTexas A&M Universityhttp://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/vegetable/steph/ Carolina Composting Resource Guide: Referencecompost.html Section http://www.cra-recycle.org/CCC/resourceguide/Reducing Risks from E.coli 0157 on the Organic resource_guide1.htmFarmDavid G. Patriquin, Dalhousie University, NS Low-Tech, High-Quality On-Farm CompostingEco-Farm & Garden—Summer 2000 Vern Grubinger, University of Vermonthttp://www.cog.ca/efgsummer2000.htm http://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/factsheets/ compost.htmlComposts as a Soil AmendmentCTAHR, University of Hawaii at Manoa Composting in the Southeast – Proceedings of thehttp://agrss.sherman.hawaii.edu/staff/hue/ 1998 Conferencecompost1.html http://www.p2pays.org/ref/12/11583.htmCornell University Composting Large-Scale Production of Compost and Mulchhttp://www.cals.cornell.edu/dept/compost/ Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/exec/oppr/compost/Basis for Interpretation of Compost Analyses largescale.htmlWoods End Agricultural Institutehttp://www.woodsend.org/compost.pdf EPA Office of Solid Waste: Composting ResourcesSustainability of Modern Composting: http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/compost/Intensification Versus Costs and Quality index.htmWoods End Agricultural Institutehttp://www.woodsend.org/sustain.pdf Field Guide to Compost Use U.S. Composting CouncilLiving Compost - Living Carbon http://CompostingCouncil.org/FGCU.htmlWoods End Agricultural Institutehttp://www.woodsend.org/live-com.pdf Compost Images David Granatstein, Washington State UniversityFarm-Scale Composting Resource List http://organic.tfrec.wsu.edu/compost/imagesweb/Steve Diver, ATTRA compimages.htmlhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ farmcompost.htmlWorms for Composting (Vermicomposting)Alice Beetz, ATTRAhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/vermicom.htmlUtilization of Organic Wastes: On-FarmCompostingWest Virginia University Extension Servicehttp://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/wastmang/utiliow.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 23
  • 24. Biocycle, the Journal of Composting & Organics Using Compost To Control Plant DiseasesRecycling, offers a website with table of contents and BioCycle, June 1999, Page 61selected on-line articles (text-only ) from back issues. Thephotos and charts that accompany these articles are very New Trends in Sustainable Farming Buildhelpful, and certainly worthy of a subscription for anybody Compost Usegetting into on-farm composting. BioCycle, July 2000, Page 30BioCycle Contents:http://www.jgpress.com/BCContent.html Understanding Compost Tea BioCycle, October 2000, Page 71Lessons Learned from On-Farm Composting Time for (Compost) Tea in the NorthwestBioCycle, January 2000, Page 42 BioCycle, October 2000, Page 74Exploring the Economics of On-Farm Brewing Up Solutions To Pest ProblemsComposting, Part I BioCycle, March 2001, Page 64BioCycle, February 2001, Page 61 Latest Developments in Mid-to-Large ScaleCertified Organic Farm Relies on Compost VermicompostingBioCycle, December 1999, Page 60 BioCycle, November 2000, Page 51Composters Build Strong Links to California Worming the Way to Finished CompostFarms BioCycle, October1999, Page 34BioCycle, February 1999, Page 55 Achieveing Pathogen Stabilization UsingComposting Reduces Fuel and Labor Costs on VermicompostingFamily Farms BioCycle, November 1999, Page 62BioCycle, May 2000, Page 72 Manures and Food Residuals Compost are in theCompost Research On Wisconsin Organic Farm BagBioCycle, September 2000, Page 54 BioCycle, June 2001, Page 49The Applied Thoughts Of A Compost Dutch Farmers Find It Pays To Manage PoultryTheorist ManureBioCycle, February 2001, Page 56 BioCycle, April 1999, Page 72Troubleshooting the Compost Pile, Part I Poultry Farm Pioneers Low-Rate CompostingBioCycle, November 1999, Page 53 BioCycle, August 1999, Page 59Monitoring Moisture in Composting Systems The High Route to Managing Hog ManureBioCycle, October 2000, Page 53 BioCycle, October1999, Page 36Getting Moisture into the Compost Pile BioCycle Equipment and Systems Directory, 2001BioCycle, June 2001, Page 51 http://www.jgpress.com/BCArticles/2001/ 040182intro.htmlAdvances in Windrow TurningBioCycle, July 2001, Page 63 • Products And Services • Company IndexBuilding a Safe Pesticides Industry withBioproducts and BiomethodsBioCycle, October1999, Page 56Evaluating Microbiology of CompostBioCycle, May 1999, Page 62 ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 24
  • 25. 3.41 Books & Bulletins on Soil Organic Matter The following titles are key reference books on humus and organic matter, available through Inter-Library Loan.Soil organic matter and soil humus are criticalcomponents of any soil system. Humus is like the Soil Organic Matter, 2nd English Edition. 1966. Byglue that binds the soil together. And together, M.M. Kononova. Pergamon Press, New York, NY.humus and clay are known as the Seat of Soil 544 p.Fertility. Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition,Humus management is especially important in Reactions, 2nd Edition. 1994. By F.J. Stevenson.organic farming systems, since farmers rely soheavily on recycled plant and animal wastes to: Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 496 p.• feed the soil Soil Organic Matter: Biological and Ecological• improve soil tilth Effects. 1987. By Robert L. Tate. John Wiley &• increase water holding capacity Sons, New York. 291p.• support a complex soil food web• induce disease suppression Humus: Origin, Chemical Composition, and Importance in Nature. 1936. By Selman A.Building Soils for Better Crops, 2nd Edition. 2000. Waksman. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore,By Fred Magdoff and Harold van Es. Sustainable MD. 494 p.Agriculture Network, Handbook Series No. 4. Soil Organic Matter in Temperate Agro-Sustainable Agriculture Publications, University of ecosystems: Long-Term Experiments in NorthVermont. 240 p. America. 1997. By E.A. Paul, E.T. Elliott, K. Building Soils for Better Crops, 2nd Edition (2000) by Paustian, and C.V. Cole (eds.) CRC Press, Boca Fred Magdoff and Harold van Es, soil scientists at Raton, FL. 414 p. University of Vermont and Cornell University, focuses on building and maintaining soil organic matter Sustainable Management of Soil Organic Matter. through ecological soil management practices like 2001. Edited by R.M. Rees, et al. CABI Publishing composting, cover crops, crop rotations, mulches, and Co., New York. 440 p. animal manures. The following Soil Science Society publications areHumic, Fulvic, and Microbial Balance: Organic noteworthy mainly as reference titles that provideSoil Conditioning. 1993. By William R. Jackson. background research and schematic illustrations onJackson Research Center, Evergreen, CO. 958 p. agricultural practices that influence soil organic matter. Organic Soil Conditioning is the award-winning book Humic Substances in Soil Science and Crop on humic substances by William Jackson. Jacksons Sciences: Selected Readings. 1990. By P. book supports the current renaissance of ecological MacCarthy, et al. Soil Science Society of America, soil management whereby greater attention is being paid to the soil foodweb and deep humus. Available American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. through Acres USA. 281 p.The Carbon Catcher Program: Using the Earth Soil Fertility and Organic Matter as Criticalto Take Carbon from the Sky. 1993. By Gerry Components of Production Systems. 1987. ByWass. The Water Foundation, Brainerd, MN. R.R. Follet, J.W.B. Stewart, and C.V. Cole. SSSA31 p. Special Publication No. 19. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, This little-known booklet does a fine job of WI. 166 p. summarizing the importance of humus, outlines the basic principles of ecological agriculture, lists Interactions of Soil Minerals with Natural publications and resources, and contains a directory of Organics and Microbes. 1986. By P.M. Haung and alternative agricultural consultants and soil fertility M. Schnitzer. SSSA Special Publication No. 17. labs. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. 606 p. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 25
  • 26. 3.42 Soil Organic Matter Web Links Utilization of Composted Organic Wastes in Vegetable Production SystemsSoil Quality Indicators: Organic Matter Food and Fertilizer Technology CenterNRCS Soil Quality Institute http://www.agnet.org/library/abstract/tb147.htmlhttp://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/sqiinfo.html Soil Organic Matter North Ortago Sustainable Land Management Group,Changes in Soil Organic Matter, Chapter 5 New ZealandIn: The Health of Our Soils: Toward Sustainable http://noslam.co.nz/info_sheets/organicmatter.shtmlAgriculture in Canada (1995)Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Soil Organic Matterhttp://res.agr.ca/CANSIS/PUBLICATIONS/ Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural DevelopmentHEALTH/chapter05.html http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/500/536-1.htmlLectures on Soil Organic Matter Soil Humic SubstancesUniversity of Wales, Bangor Virtual Classroom, Prince of Songkla Universityhttp://safsdj3.bangor.ac.uk/dj/lectures/om/om.html http://classroom.psu.ac.th/users/msomsak/ ChemNutrient/humic.htmSlide Show on Soil Organic MatterCollege of Biology and Agriculture, Brigham Young Soil Organic Matter Agronomy NotesUniversity Montana State Universityhttp://ucs.byu.edu/bioag/aghort/514pres/humus/ http://scarab.msu.montana.edu/Agnotes/ category_230.htm#A229Add Organic Matter for ‘Better’ Garden SoilsUniversity of Wisconsin-Extension Soil Basics III: Organic Matter, Key tohttp://ipcm.wisc.edu/wcm/99-3soils1.html Management In: 5-Part Series on Soil BasicsOrganic Matter Management (BU-7402) UMass Extenion, University of MassachusettsIn: The Soil Management Series http://www.umassvegetable.org/soil_crop_pest_mgt/University of Minnesota Cooperative Extension soil_nutrient_mgt.htmlhttp://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/DC7402.html Experts Talk Soil at MOFGA Meetings Maine Organic Farmer & Gardener,Stabilizing Effect of Organic Matter June - August 2000 issueUniversity of Putra Malaysia http://www.mofga.org/mofgj00j.htmlhttp://www.agri.upm.edu.my/jst/resources/as/om_stable.html Featuring: • Jerry Brunetti, Agri-DynamicsThe Role of Humic Substances • Fred Magdoff, University of VermontUniversity of Putra Malaysia • Marianne Sarrantonio, University of Mainehttp://www.agri.upm.edu.my/jst/resources/as/ • Rick Kersbergen, Maine Cooperative Extensionom_humicsubs.html • Elaine Ingham, Soil Foodweb, Inc. • Mark Fulford, Agricultural AlternativesSoil Humic SubstancesAgricultural University of Wroclaw, Polandhttp://www.ar.wroc.pl/~weber/humic.htmHumic Products For Agriculture and theEnvironmenthttp://www.humic.com ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 26
  • 27. 3.51 Books & Bulletins on Soil Biology, Worms crops; pest ecology and management; the insect community; and nematodes. Practical examples and and Microbes colorful graphics enhance the educational quality of this farmer-friendly manual.Farmers enlist the aid of legions of earthworms, bacteria,fungi and other soil-dwelling creatures to decompose cropresidues and cycle nutrients to crop plants. Not unlike a Soil Microorganisms and Higher Plants. 1961. Bycrew of carpenters, electricians, plumbers, painters, and N.A. Krasilnikov. National Technical Informationbrick layers who combine forces to build a house, each Service, Springfield, VA. 474 p. Publication No.member of the microbial herd has an important task to TT-60-21126.perform in the soil. Soil Microorganisms and Higher Plants is the classicIn the past few years, it has become apparent to farmers Russian text on soil microbiology. As part of the Soiland scientists alike that a greater understanding of and and Health Library, it can be viewed online at:ability to work with soil creatures and soil food webs canhelp us achieve a healthy, sustainable agriculture. The Holistic Agriculture Library http://www.soilandhealth.org/These first two bulletins from USDA-NRCS and Michigan 01aglibrary/01aglibwelcome.htmlState University are wonderful educational resources.They are worthy additions to the farmers bookshelf. Textbooks and Library ReferencesSoil Biology Primer. 1999. By E.R. Ingham, A.R.Moldenke, and C. Edwards. USDA-Natural Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology.Resource Conservation Service, Soil Quality 1998. By D.M. Sylvia, J.J. Fuhrman, P.G. Hartel,Institute. 52 p. and D. Zuberer. Prentice Hall, NJ. 550 p. The Soil Biology Primer is a much-heralded USDA- Fundamentals of Soil Ecology. 1995. By David C. NRCS publication that went out of print faster than Coleman and D.A. Crossley, Jr. Academic Press, crap runs through a goose! This is a highly New York. 205 p. educational and graphically interesting and colorful booklet that sums up our collective knowledge about soil creatures, soil foodwebs, and soil biological Soil Biology Guide. 1990. By Daniel L. Dindal. A functions. It is a landmark publication in the history of Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, USDA. Chapters: The Soil Food Web; The Food New York. 1349 p. Web & Soil Health; Soil Bacteria; Soil Fungi; Soil Protozoa; Soil Nematodes; Soil Arthropods; The Biodiversity of Microorganisms and Earthworms. Invertebrates: Its Role in Sustainable Agriculture. 1991. By D.L. Hawkswort (ed.) To order a print copy (now back in print, 2nd Edition) CASAFA Report Series No. 4, CAB International, or to see the online web version, go to: Wallingford, Oxford, UK. 302 p. http://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/primer/ index.htm Soil Biota, Nutrient Cycling, and Farming Systems. 1993. By M.G. Paoletti, W. Foissner, andMichigan Field Crop Ecology: Managing D. Coleman (eds.) Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton,Biological Processes for Productivity and FL. 314 p.Environmental Quality. 1998. By M.A. Cavigelli,S.R. Deming, L.K. Probyn, and R.R. Harwood (eds.)Michigan State University Extension, Bulletin E-2646. 87 p. Michigan Field Crop Ecology is another landmark bulletin from the Extension Service. Its stated intent is to address the biological basis of sustainability. Chapters address field crop ecosystems; soil ecology; carbon; nitrogen; cover ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 27
  • 28. 3.52 Soil Biology Web Links Soil Ecology, The Pedosphere and Its Dynamics University of Alberta Soil Biology http://www.pedosphere.com/toc10.html Soil BiodiversitySoil Biological Communities NRCS Soil Quality Information SheetBureau of Land Management http://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/pdf/http://www.id.blm.gov/soils/index.html biodivers.pdfLife in the SoilCRC for Soil & Land Management, Adelaide, SouthAustralia Mycorrhiza = Plant + Fungus Symbiosishttp://www-crcslm.waite.adelaide.edu.au/soillife.html Mycorrhiza Information Exchange http://mycorrhiza.ag.utk.edu/Microbe ZooCenter for Microbial Ecology, Michigan State Univ. Overview of Mycorrhizal Symbiosishttp://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlc-me/zoo/ David Sylvia, University of Floridaindex.html http://dmsylvia.ifas.ufl.edu/mycorrhiza.htmThe Soil Makers Glomalin—Soils SuperglueThe Wonderful World of Insects USDA ARS Newshttp://www.insect-world.com/insects/soileco.html http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/oct97/ glomalin1097.htmLecture Notes on Soil Microorganisms, TheRhizosphere, Mycorrhiza, and Microbial Ecology Mycorrhiza.comBy Davey Jones at University of Wales, Bangor http://www.mycorrhiza.com/index.htmhttp://safsdj3.bangor.ac.uk/dj/lectures/s-lect.html EarthwormsSoil Biology and Soil Management (BU-7403)In: The Soil Management Series Earthworms and Crop ManagementUniversity of Minnesota Cooperative Extension Purdue University. Agronomy Guide AY-279http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/ http://www.agcom.purdue.edu/AgCom/Pubs/AY/cropsystems/DC7402.html AY-279.htmlNutrient Cycling and Conservation in a Self- Building Your Soil: The Role of Earthworms inContained Production System Healthy SoilsBy Lawrence Andres, Sharing the Lessons of http://maine.maine.edu/~thomascb/earthworm.htmlOrganic Farming conferencehttp://gks.com/library/OrgConf/andres.html Frequently Asked Questions About Earthworms Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre,Using Soil Fauna to Improve Soil Health Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaBy Bonnie Witt http://res2.agr.ca/london/pmrc/english/faq/http://www.hort.agri.umn.edu/h5015/97papers/ earthwor.htmlwitt.html The Worm DigestThe Soil Foodweb: Its Importance in Ecosystem http://www.wormdigest.org/HealthBy Dr. Elaine Ingham Earthworm Information at UC-SAREPhttp://www.rain.org/~sals/ingham.html http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/worms/ ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 28
  • 29. 4.0 IPM for Vegetables: Rincon-Vitova 5-Point Integrated Pest Control†Pests of vegetables—insects, diseases, and weeds— 1. Colonizing Beneficial Organismsare part of every vegetable field in the world. It ispart of their nature to eat, inhabit, and reproduce, Use insectary-raised beneficials selectively to helpusing the vegetables as hosts to complete their life restore the natural enemy complex damaged bycycle. Pest management strategies such as IPM, or pesticide use.Integrated Pest Management, are therefore critical. 2. Cover Crop RefugesIntegrated pest management is the basic frameworkused in vegetable production to decide when and how Plant strips of pesticide-free trap cover crops as a fieldpests are controlled. The primary goal of IPM is to insectary and winter refuge for beneficials.provide clear pest management guidelines to growersin order to optimize pest control in an economically 3. Monitoringand ecologically sound manner. Sample (with nets or vacuums) and observe theIPM integrates habitat modification and cultural, relative number of pests and beneficials.physical, biological, and chemical practices tominimize crop losses. Monitoring, recordkeeping, and 4. Sprayinglife-cycle information on pests and their naturalenemies are used to determine when control options Do not spray if there is no pest problem! Use "soft"are needed to keep pests below an economically pesticides that are less disruptive to natural biologicaldamaging threshold. controls.As they move towards greater sustainability, vegetable 5. Cultural PracticesIPM programs tend to go through three phases†, witheach stage using and building on previous knowledge Slight changes in farming methods can alter theand techniques: behavior of pests and their natural enemies to favor the crop. Crop rotation, hedgerows, strip cutting, and1. The pesticide management phase, characterized other refuge management techniques do make a by establishing economic thresholds, sampling, difference. and spraying as needed. Source:2. The cultural management phase, based on a thorough understanding of the pests biology and †Rincon-Vitova Insectaries its relationship to the cropping system. Tactics P.O. Box 1555 employed to control pests include delayed Oak View, CA 93022 planting dates, crop rotation, altering harvest 800-248-2847 dates, etc. 805-643-6267 Fax bugnet@rinconvitova.com3. The biological control phase, or "bio-intensive http://www.rinconvitova.com IPM," requires thorough understanding of the biology of natural enemies (in addition to that of ✼ ✤ ✼ ✤ ✼ the pest) and an ability to measure how effective these agents are in controlling pests. When natural IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by agents do not meet expected goals, "soft" pesticides combining biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools (non-toxic to non-target organisms) are used, and in a way that minimizes economic, health, and applications are timed to minimize pesticide environmental risks. exposure of beneficials. National Coalition on IPM, January 1994†Source: Ferro, D.N. 1993. Integrated pest ✼ ✤ ✼ ✤ ✼management in vegetables in Massachusetts. p. 95-105. In: Anne R. Leslie, and Gerrit W. Cuperus (eds.) When we kill off the natural enemies of a pest we inheritSuccessful Implementation of Integrated Pest their work.Management for Agricultural Crops. Lewis, Boca Carl HuffakerRaton, FL. University of California at Berkeley ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 29
  • 30. Natural Enemies and Biological Control Biological Control of Insect Pests of Cabbage and Other Crucifers. 1993. By Susan E. Rice Mahr,Enlisting the aid of beneficial insects is one of the Daniel L. Rice, and Jeffrey A. Wyman. North Centralfirst steps toward bio-intensive pest management. Region Publication No. 471. Cooperative ExtensionFarmscaping, or habitat manipulation, is the use of Service, University of Wisconsin. 55 p.hedgerows, insectary plants, and cover crops toattract and support populations of parasites and To place an order, see:predators. Flowering plants offer shelter, water, http://www1.uwex.edu/ces/pubs/nectar, pollen, and herbivorous insects and mites asfood to sustain these natural enemies of crop pests.Natural biological control makes more sense when Predatory Insects in Fruit Orchardsyou are familiar with these beneficial insects and how Publication 208, Ontario Ministry of Food andthey live. Here are the key IPM reference materials Agriculture. 32 pages.that can help you learn about: Predatory Insects in Fruit Orchards identifies over• predators and parasites 100 beneficial insects that work in the orchard. It• life cycles of beneficial insects features detailed color pictures and life cycle• which beneficial insects attack crop pests descriptions for each insect. Though this• how to provide insectary habitat particular bulletin is geared to fruit orchards, much of the information is universally applicable• how to attract beneficials to the farm to horticulture crops.Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. 1993. By To review contents and place and order, see:Michael P. Hoffman and Anne A. Frodsham. Cornell http://www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/Cooperative Extension Service, Ithaca, New York. products/newpubs.html#insects63 p. Farmscaping to Enhance Biological ControlThe complete manual can also be found on the web By Rex Dufour, ATTRAat: http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/farmscape.htmlBiological Control: A Guide to Natural Enemies inNorth America This publication summarizes habitathttp://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/ manipulation as a means to create insect refugia and attract beneficial insects to the farm, thus enhancing natural biological control. It providesNatural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide an introduction to farmscaping, practicalto Biological Pest Control. Publication 3386B4. examples of habitat manipulation employed byUniversity of California, Statewide Integrated Pest farmers, and pointers to useful print and webManagement Project. 164 p. resources.To review contents and place an order, see: Identification and Management of Major Pests &http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/GENERAL/ Beneficial Insects in Potato Oregon State Universitynaturalenemiesflyer.html http://ippc2.orst.edu/potato/ Naturalize Your Farming System: A Whole-FarmBiological Control of Insects and Mites: An Approach to Managing PestsIntroduction to Beneficial Natural Enemies and Sustainable Agriculture Network, USDA-SARETheir Use in Pest Management. 1993. By Daniel L. http://www.sare.org/farmpest/index.htmMahr and Nino M. Ridgeway. North Central Region http://www.sare.org/farmpest/farmpest.pdfPublication No. 481. Cooperative Extension Service,University of Wisconsin 91 p.To review contents and place an order, see:http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/regpubs/ncr481.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 30
  • 31. 4.1 Print & Video Resources on IPM IPM Guidebooks General IPM Reference Materials There are numerous books and manuals that address insect and disease pests of vegetable crops. Four sources, in particular, have amassed a noteworthy collection ofVegetable Insect Management: With Emphasis on educational resources on IPM: University of Californiathe Midwest. 1995. By Rick Foster and Brian Statewide IPM Project, Entomological Society of America,Flood (eds.) Meister Publishing Co., Willoughby, American Phytopathological Society, and BIRC.OH. 206 p. UC Statewide IPM Project A comprehensive 206-page manual produced by the Purdue Research Foundation, published by Meister University of California Publishing Company. Very practical. One of the best One Shields Avenue pest management guides on vegetables compiled by Davis, CA 95616-8620 the Extension Service. 530-752-7691 http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/Pests of the Garden and Small Farm:A Growers Guide to Using Less Pesticide. 1991. For-sale Publications:By Mary Louise Flint. University of California, • IPM for TomatoesStatewide Integrated Pest Management Project, • IPM for Cole Crops and LettuceDivision of Agriculture and Natural Resources, • IPM for PotatoesPublication 3339. 257 p. • Managing Insects and Mites with Spray Oils • Natural Enemies Are Your Allies! (poster) • Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide toComplete Guide to Pest Control With and Biological Pest ControlWithout Chemicals, 3rd Edition. 1996. By George • Pests of the Garden and Small Farm: A GrowersWare. Thompson Publishing Co., California. 350 p. Guide to Using Less Pesticide, 2nd edition • UC IPM Pest Management GuidelinesInsect Pests of Farm, Garden and Orchard, 8thEdition. 1987. By R. Davidson & W. Lyon. John On-line Publications:Wiley & Sons, New York. 640 p. • UC IPM Pest Management GuidelinesVegetable Diseases and their Control, 2nd Edition. Entomological Society of America1986. By Arden F. Sherf and Alan A. MacNab. John 9301 Annapolis RoadWiley & Sons, New York. 728 p. Lanham, MD 20706-3115 301-731-4535Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Canada. 301-731-4538 Fax1994. By Ronald J. Howard, J. Allan Garland, and esa@entsoc.orgW. Lloyd Seaman (editors). The Canadian http://www.entsoc.org/catalog/Phytopathological Society and the EntomologicalSociety of Canada • Complete Guide to Pest Control With and Without$65, with $15 shipping & handling to U.S.: Chemicals, 3rd Edition • Insect Pests of Farm, Garden and Orchard, 8th Edition The Entomological Society of Canada • Integrated Pest Management for Onions (Cornell) 393 Winston Ave. • Manual on Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests Ottawa, Ontario (Cornell) Canada K2A 1Y8 • Pests of the West, Revised 613-725-2619 • Numerous standard reference books: IPM, biological 613-725-9349Fax control, ecology, and behavior ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 31
  • 32. APS Press What are Biorational PesticidesAmerican Phytopathological Society3340 Pilot Knob Road Biorational pesticides, also known as least-toxicSt. Paul, MN 55121-2097 pesticides, are those that are pest-specific and cause651-454-7250 the least amount of harm to beneficial organisms or651-454-0766 Fax the environment. Examples include microbialaps@scisoc.org insecticides, insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils,http://www.scisoc.org/ insect growth regulators, sorptive dusts like diatomaceous earth, pheromones, and botanical plant• Diseases of Vegetables CD-ROM extracts.• Advances in Potato Pest Biology and Management• Compendium of Bean Diseases Resources:• Compendium of Beet Diseases• Compendium of Corn Diseases, 3rd Edition Alternatives in Insect Pest Management: Biological• Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases & Biorational Approaches• Compendium of Lettuce Diseases North Central Regional Extension Publication 401.• Compendium of Pea Diseases http://spectre.ag.uiuc.edu/%7Evista/abstracts/• Compendium of Tomato Diseases /aaltinsec.htmlBio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC) Organic Pesticide Guide for Insect and Disease Control BIRC is a leader in the field of integrated University of Georgia Entomology pest management. BIRC publishes The IPM http://www.bugwood.org/ent/pest2001/ Practitioner and Common Sense Pest Control Horticultural_Crops/Horticultural_Crops.htm Quarterly as well as an annual Directory of IPM Products and Beneficial Insects. BIRC What are Biopesticides also produces booklets and reprints on least- toxic controls for selected pests. The EPA , which sponsors a biopesticides web page, classifies biopesticides into three major categories: Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC) P.O. Box 7414 (1) Microbial pesticides contain a microorganism Berkeley, CA 94707 (e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan) as the 510-524-2567 active ingredient. For example, there are fungi that 510-524-1758 Fax control weeds, and bacteria that control plant birc@igc. org diseases. http://www.birc.org/ (2) Plant-pesticides are pesticidal substances that plants produce from genetic material that has been added to the plant. For example, the gene for the Bt pesticidal protein has been introduced into corn. (3) Biochemical pesticides are naturally occuring substances that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms. Conventional pesticides, by contrast, are synthetic materials that usually kill or inactivate the pest. Biochemical pesticides include substances, such as pheromones, that interfere with growth or mating of the pest. Resources: What are Biopesticides EPA Office of Pesticide Programs: Biopesticides http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/ what_are_biopesticides.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 32
  • 33. 4.2 IPM Web Links Beneficial Insects and Mites University of Florida Biointensive IPM in a Nutshell http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN078 Beneficial Insects Sheet 1A Total System Approach to Sustainable Pest University of FloridaManagement —The Image http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in002Biological Control as a Component of SustainableAgriculture, USDA-ARS Beneficial Insects Sheet 2http://sacs.cpes.peachnet.edu/lewis/ecolsyst.gif University of Florida http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in003A Total System Approach to Sustainable PestManagement —The Story Beneficial Insects Sheet 3Biological Control as a Component of Sustainable University of FloridaAgriculture, USDA-ARS http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in012http://sacs.cpes.peachnet.edu/lewis/lewis1.pdf This is the classic biointensive IPM article from the Beneficial Insects Sheet 4 November 1997 issue of Proceedings of the National University of Florida Academy of Science. It is accompanied by the http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in013 diagrammatic illustration that shows an unstable pyramid on the left (Pesticide Treadmill) transitioning Biological Control: A Guide to Natural Enemies through boxes in the middle (Therapeautics) + in North America (Ecosystem Manipulation) to get to a stable pyramid Cornell University on the right (Total System Management) http://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/ Host Distribution, Life Cycle, Management Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest ControlFeatured Creatures: The Good, The Bad, and University of CaliforniaThe Pretty http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/GENERAL/University of Florida Department of Entomology and naturalenemiesflyer.htmlNematologyhttp://www.ifas.ufl.edu/~insect/index.htm Assoc. of Natural Bio-Control Producers — Natural Enemy Fact Sheets Featured Creatures, a University of Florida website, is http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/biocontrol/anbp/ a great first-step IPM site to find quick, essential Factsheets.html knowledge about pest insects: Introduction - Hosts - Distribution - Description - Life Cycle - Damage - Insect Parasitic Nematodes Economic Injury Level - Management - Selected Ohio State University References. http://www2.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ nematodes/ Biological Control Beneficial Nematodes: Suppliers andBiological Control of Insect and Mite Pests Pesticide Compatibility, NematologyUniversity of Nebraska Cooperative Extension Pointer No. 45http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/insects/g1251.htm University of Florida http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in096Biological Control: Predators and ParasitoidsUniversity of Minnesota, Center for Urban Ecology Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in Northand Sustainability Americahttp://www.ent.agri.umn.edu/cues/dx/pred-par.htm California Environmental Protection Agency http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/ipminov/bensuppl.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 33
  • 34. Approaches to Biological Control of Insect Pests Least Toxic Materials for Managing Insect PestsDepartment of Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural IPM Access - An Integrated Pest ManagementExperiment Station Online Servicehttp://www.state.ct.us./caes/fsen0004f.htm http://www.efn.org/~ipmpa/leastox.html Farmscaping and Phenology: Designing the Hydrated Lime as an Insect Repellent Landscape for Beneficial Insect Habitat University of Connecticut Integrated Pest Management Program http://www.hort.uconn.edu/ipm/veg/htms/Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control hydlime.htmATTRAhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ farmscape.html Use of Baking Soda as a Fungicide ATTRAPhenology Web Links: Sequence of Bloom, Floral http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/bakingsoda.htmlCalendars, Whats in BloomATTRAhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/phenology.html Cultural Controls & Crop Rotations Biorational Pesticides Cultural Control for Management of Vegetable Pests in Florida University of FloridaAlternatives in Insect Pest Management: http://www.imok.ufl.edu/LIV/groups/cultural/pests/Biological & Biorational Approaches insects.htmNorth Central Region Extension Publication 401http://spectre.ag.uiuc.edu/%7Evista/abstracts Having Problems Controlling Vegetable Cropaaltinsec.html Diseases - Try Rotation University of Connecticut, IPM ProgramWhat are Biorational Pesticides? http://www.hort.uconn.edu/ipm/veg/htms/rotate.htmUniversity of Minnesota, Center for Urban Ecologyand Sustainability Conservation Crop Rotation: Effects on Soilhttp://www.ent.agri.umn.edu/cues/dx/bugs/bio1.htm Quality NRCS Soil Quality Institute, Agronomy TechnicalInsect Management: Botanicals Note No. 2.Sustainable Practices for Vegetable Production in the http://www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/SQI/pdf/South, Dr. Mary Peet, NCSU agronomy2.pdfhttp://www.cals.ncsu.edu/sustainable/peet/IPM/insects/botan.html Crop Rotations in Direct Seeding Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural DevelopmentBiointensive Integrated Pest Management http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/500/ATTRA 519-28.htmlhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ipm.html Crop Rotation: The Future of the Potato Appendix B: Microbial Pesticides Industry in Atlantic Canada Appendix C: Microbial Pesticide Manufacturers Eastern Canada Soil and Water Conservation Centre and Suppliers http://www.cuslm.ca/ccse-swcc/publications/english/ rotation.pdfIntegrated Pest Management for GreenhouseCrops Cultural ControlATTRA Radcliffes IPM World Textbookhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/gh-ipm.html http://ipmworld.umn.edu/chapters/ferro.htm Appendix II: Beneficial Organisms Appendix III: Biorational Pesticides ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 34
  • 35. Entomology Traditional Practices for Plant Disease Management in Traditional Farming Systems H. David Thurston, Cornell UniversityEntomology on World-Wide Web http://www.tropag-fieldtrip.cornell.edu/Colorado State University Thurston_TA/default.htmlhttp://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Entomology/www_sites.html Commercial Biocontrol Products For Use Against Soilborne Crop DiseasesInsects on WWW USDA-ARSVirginia Tech http://www.barc.usda.gov/psi/bpdl/bpdlprod/http://www.isis.vt.edu/~fanjun/text/Links.html bioprod.htmlEntomology Index of Internet Resources: ADirectory and Search Engine of Insect-Related NematodesResources on the InternetIowa State University Alternative Nematode Controlhttp://www.ent.iastate.edu/list/ ATTRA http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/nematode.htmlLand Grant University Entomological ResourcesUniversity of Florida jump site Soil Organic Matter, Green Manures and Coverhttp://www.ifas.ufl.edu/~pest/vector/ Crops For Nematode Managementlink_sub.htm#Land Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida Diseases http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu/txt/fairs/vh/17728.html Nematode Suppressive CropsPlant Pathology Internet Guide Book Auburn Universityhttp://www.ifgb.uni-hannover.de/extern/ppigb/ http://www.aces.edu/department/extcomm/ppigb.htm publications/anr/anr-856/anr-856.htmTexas Plant Disease Handbookhttp://cygnus.tamu.edu/Texlab/tpdh.html Alternatives to Methyl BromideAn Online Guide to Plant Disease Control Methyl Bromide Alternatives NewsletterOregon State University USDAhttp://plant-disease.orst.edu/index.htm http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/mba/mebrhp.htmDisease Management for Vegetables and Herbs in Methyl Bromide Phase Out Web SiteGreenhouses Using Low Input Sustainable EPAMethods http://www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr/North Carolina State Universityhttp://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/notes/oldnotes/ Organic Pest Managementvg2.htm Organic Vegetable IPM GuideMinimizing Vegetable Disease Mississippi State UniversityCornell University http://ext.msstate.edu/pubs/pub2036.htmhttp://plantclinic.cornell.edu/vegetable/minimizevege/minimizevege.htm Insect Management for Organic Crops University of California, Publication 7251Vegetable MD Online http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7251.pdfCornell University Vegetable Disease Web Pagehttp://ppathw3.cals.cornell.edu/Extension/ Plant Disease Management for Organic CropsVegetableDiseases/Home.htm University of California, Publication 7252 http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7252.pdf ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 35
  • 36. Organic Pest Control Guide for Insect and Vegetable IPM Insect NotesDisease Control North Carolina State UniversityUniversity of Georgia http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/Vegetables/http://www.ces.uga.edu/Agriculture/ vegetable_contents.htmlentomology/pest99/hort/organic/organic.htm Crop Knowledge Master: VegetablesOrganic Vegetable Production: Managing University of Hawaii at ManoaNutrients and Pests http://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/Ontario Ministry of Food and Agriculture crops/vegetabl.htmhttp://www.gov.on.ca:80/OMAFRA/english/crops/organic/Organic_Vegetable_Production.htm Pesticide Use Crop Profiles Pest Management Guidelines & Vegetable IPM USDA/OPMP Crop Profiles Database USDA Office of Pesticide Management Programs,UC Pest Management Guidelines (OPMP) & Pesticide Impact Assessment Programhttp://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/ (PIAP)crops-agriculture.html http://cipm.ncsu.edu/CropProfiles/University of California Statewide Integrated Pest A great place to find out what the standard pestManagement Project controls are for vegetable crops.http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/ Pesticide Registration DatabasesIntegrated Crop and Pest ManagementGuidelines for Commercial Vegetable Production Some states provide free access to pesticide registrationCornell Cooperative Extension databases. As a quick research tool, they can be used to identify pest control products for target pests— includinghttp://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/recommends/ biorational pesticides, botanical and microbial pesticides, and other natural pest control products.IPM in New York State Vegetableshttp://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipmnet/ny/vegetables/ Kelly Pesticide Registration Systems http://www.kellysolutions.com/Vegetable Production and Pest Control Guidesfrom Land-Grant Universities Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval SystemOregon State University http://pestworld.stjohn.hawaii.edu/cfdocs/test/hpirs.http://www.orst.edu/Dept/NWREC/veglink.html htmIPM — Fruits & Vegetables at University ofIllinois Pesticides: Education, Databases,http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/~ipm/fruits/fruits.html Manufacturers, and SuppliersVegEdge — Vegetable IPM for the Midwest Pesticide Education Resourceshttp://www3.extension.umn.edu/vegipm/ University of Nebraska-Lincoln http://pested.unl.edu/pestbkmk.htmVegNetOhio State Universityhttp://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~vegnet/index.htmlVegetable Insect Fact SheetsUniversity of Kentucky — Department ofEntomologyhttp://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/efveg.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 36
  • 37. Newsletters: Vegetable Production & IPM The Georgia Pest Management Newsletter http://www.ces.uga.edu/Agriculture/ entomology/pestnewsletter/newsarchive.htmlIPMnet NEWS Archiveshttp://www.IPMnet.org/IPMnet_NEWS/ Pest Alertarchives.html Colorado State University http://www.colostate.edu/programs/pestalert/IPM Solutions index.htmlGemplers IPM Almanachttp://www.ipmalmanac.com/solutions/archive.asp The Vegetable Gazette The Pennsylvania State UniversityVegetable IPM Insect Notes http://www.ento.psu.edu/vegetable/veggazNorth Carolina State University /veggazette.htmhttp://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/ent/notes/Vegetables/vegetable_contents.html Plant & Pest Advisory, Vegetable Edition Rutgers University, New JerseyPest Management & Crop Development Bulletin http://www.rce.rutgers.edu/pubs/University of Illinois Extension plantandpestadvisory/index.htmlhttp://www.ag.uiuc.edu/cespubs/pest/ VegNewsIntegrated Crop Management Newsletter University of ArizonaIowa State University http://ag.arizona.edu/hypermail/vegnews/index.htmlhttp://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/ Vegetarian NewsletterVegetable IPM Message University of FloridaUniversity of Massachussetts http://www.hos.ufl.edu/gjhweb/http://www.umass.edu/umext/programs/agro/ vegetarian_index_page.htmvegsmfr/Articles/Newsletters/Newsletters.htm Pay Dirt—Newsletter for Vegetable GrowersVegetable Crops Hotline North Carolina State UniversityPurdue University http://henderson.ces.state.nc.us/newsletters/http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/ext/ veg/targets/newslett.htm Vegetable NewletterPest & Crop Newsletter Nova Scotia Department of AgriculturePurdue University http://www.gov.ns.ca/nsaf/elibrary/archive/hort/http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/ext/ newslets/vegetable/targets/newslett.htm South Carolina Pumpkin NewsBiological Control News http://virtual.clemson.edu/groups/hort/vegprog.htmUniversity of Wisconsinhttp://www.entomology.wisc.edu/mbcn/mbcn.html The Illinois Fruit and Vegetable News http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/ipm/news/VegNet Newsletter fvnews.htmlOhio State Universityhttp://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~vegnet/news/newslist.htmVegetable Crop Advisory Team (CAT) AlertMichigan State Universityhttp://www.msue.msu.edu/ipm/vegCAT.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 37
  • 38. 4.3 Print & Video Resources on Weed Control Vegetable Farmers and Their Weed-Control in Vegetables and Row Crops MachinesSteel in the Field: A Farmers Guide to Weed A 75-minute educational video on cultivation andManagement Tools. 1997. By Greg Bowman (ed.) flaming equipment produced in 1996 by VernSustainable Agriculture Network, Handbook Series Grubinger, UVM Extension System and Mary Jane Else, UMass Extension with funding from USDA-No. 2. Sustainable Agriculture Publications, SARE. Cost is $12.00 from:University of Vermont. 128 p. The Center for Sustainable Agriculture Cultivation techniques and the tools used in University of Vermont & State Agricultural College association with mechanical weed control are less 590 Main Street familiar to farmers after several decades of widespread Burlington, Vermont 05405-0059 chemical weed control. Steel in the Field, a handbook 802-656-0233 in the Sustainable Agriculture Network series, 802-656-8874 Fax provides illustrations, descriptions, and practical http://moose.uvm.edu/~susagctr/index.html examples of 37 specialized tools used to control weeds. It features profiles of farmers using reduced- A Whole-Farm Approach to Weed Control: A or non-chemical weed control strategies, and contains a listing of suppliers of these specialized tools. Strategy for Weed-Free Onions Anne and Eric Nordell, Sharing the Lessons of Excerpts can be viewed on the SAN website: Organic Farming Conference, January 30–31, 1998, University of Guelph Steel in the Field: A Farmers Guide to Weed http://gks.com/library/OrgConf/1998d.html Management Tools http://www.sare.org/steel/index.htm An on-line conference paper that summarizes the weed control methods Anne and Eric Nordell use to controlCultivation Basics for Weed Control in Corn. weeds in onion fields.1997. By Jane Mt. Pleasant. Cornell University. The Nordells work with horses to raise a 6 acre marketPublication 125IB241. 10 p. garden in Pennsylvania, growing dried flowers, herbs, lettuce, potatoes, onions, and other vegetables. They Cultivation is discussed as an alternative to herbicides, use a combination of cover crops, fallowing, tillage, as well as in combination with herbicides through a and hand weeding for weed control. mixed weed control approach. A description of six inter-row and in-row tools is provided, accompanied To provide a visual image of how they integrate by color photos. Research on mechanical weed different components of their farm into a whole, the control field trials at Cornell is summarized. Nordells videotaped a slide presentation they use at organic farming workshops. The 52-minute tape is New York State Integrated Pest Management available for $10 postpaid from: Program, catalog: http://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/catalog/catalog01/ Anne and Eric Nordell lfc.html RDI Box 205 Trout Run, PA 17771New Tools for Mechanical Weed Control11.5-minute video by Robin Bellinder et al., $7.00. Cultural Weed Control in Vegetable Cropshttp://www.hort.cornell.edu/department/faculty/ Video V93-E, 18 minutes, 1993.bellinder/pubs.html Non-chemical weed control practices used by Department of Horticulture California organic row crop growers, produced by Dr. Cornell University Tom Lanini; $15.00: 164 Plant Science Building 607-255-7890 University of California rrb3@cornell.edu DANR Communication Services 6701 San Pablo Avenue Oakland, CA 94608-1239 510-642-2431 510-643-5470 Fax danrcs@ucdavis.edu ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 38
  • 39. 4.4 Weed Control Web Links Nonchemical Weed Management Strategies University of Illinois Extension Service Principles of Agroecology & Weed Biology http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/ipm/fruits/nonchem.htmlWeeds in Agroecosystems Cover Crops, Intercropping, & Crop RotationsDalhousie University, Canadahttp://is.dal.ca/~dp/reports/mcpheest.htm Intercropping Principles and Production PracticesPrinciples of Sustainable Weed Management for Preston Sullivan, ATTRACroplands http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/intercrop.htmlPreston Sullivan, ATTRAhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/weed.html Cover Crops For Weed Control In Lettuce New Alchemy Quarterly, No. 40 Sustainable & Organic Weed Management Mark Schonbeck, Judy Browne and Ralph DeGregorioWeed Management for Organic Crops http://www.fuzzylu.com/greencenter/q40/weed9009.University of California, Publication 7250 htmhttp://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7250.pdf Mechanisms of Weed Suppression By SquashSustainable Weed Management in Organic Herb Intercropped in Corn& Vegetable Production Phillip Thomas Fujiyoshi, UC Santa CruzUniversity of New England, NSW (Australia) http://www.agroecology.org/people/phillip/http://www.une.edu.au/agronomy/weeds/organic/ dissertation.htmorganic.html Cover-Cropping with Rye and Bellbeans inOrganic Field Crop Handbook — Weed California Vegetable ProductionManagement Center for Agroecology and Sustainable FoodCanadian Organic Growers, COG Systems, UC Santa Cruzhttp://eap.mcgill.ca/MagRack/COG/ http://www.agroecology.org/cases/rbcovercrop.htmCOGHandbook/COGHandbook_1_7.htm Watermelon Cover Cropping with Wheat andA Review of Non-Chemical Weed Control Barley in Niigata, JapanTechniques Center for Agroecology and Sustainable FoodS. Parish, Biol. Agriculture and Horticulture, Vol. 7 Systems, UC Santa Cruzhttp://eap.mcgill.ca/MagRack/BAH/BAH%205.htm http://www.agroecology.org/cases/watermeloncover. htmWeed Control in Ecological Vegetable FarmingSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences Contribution of Cover Crop Mulches to Weedhttp://zeus.bibul.slu.se/documents/slu/ Managementekologiskt_lantbruk/EKL05/EKL05AD.HTM University of Connecticut, IPM Program http://www.hort.uconn.edu/ipm/weeds/htms/cvrcrps.1988 REAP: Guide to Economical Weed Control htmRoger Samson, Canada-REAPhttp://eap.mcgill.ca/MagRack/SF/ Thoughts on CropsSpring%2089%20D. htm Ted Zettel, Ecological Farmers Association of Ontario NewsWeed Management Strategies in Organic http://eap.mcgill.ca/MagRack/EFA/EF_95_E_6.htmFarming SystemsDavid Oien, 1997 Direct Seeding Conference, Notes on crop rotation, and a summary of weed control in corn from two Ontario farmers.Saskatchewan Soil Conservation Associationhttp://ssca.usask.ca/97-Proceed/Oien.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 39
  • 40. Integrated Weed Management Cornell University has made a special effort to evaluate mechanical cultivators for non-chemical weed control in vegetable production. In addition to this factIntegrated Weed Management in Vegetable Crops sheet, see the Cornell video in the previous section.University of Illinois Extension Servicehttp://www.aces.uiuc.edu/ipm/fruits/iwm/iwm.html New Cultivation Tools for Mechanical Weed Control in VegetablesWeed Prevention University of Connecticut, IPM ProgramAlberta Practical Crop Protection http://www.hort.uconn.edu/ipm/weeds/htms/weeders.http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/000/ htmpp6063s1.html An HTML version of the Cornell UniversityIntegrated Pest Management Plan for Lower publication above, with additional links to equipmentKlamath and Tule Lake NWRs — Weeds images.National Center for Appropriate Technologyhttp://refuges.fws.gov/NWRSFiles/HabitatMgmt/ Use of Mechanical Cultivators for MarketKBasin/Weeds.html Vegetable Crops Horticultural Research and Development Centre,Principles of Integrated Weed Management Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaOntario Ministry of Agriculture, Publication 75 http://res2.agr.ca/stjean/recherche/weeder_e.htmhttp://www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/facts/IWM.htm Especially see the accompanying chart that illustrates appropriate time of operations for seven differentIntegrating Non-Chemical Methods to Enhance mechanical cultivators, according to stage of growth for carrots, lettuce, and beans: spring-tine harrow;Weed Management rigid-tine harrow; rotary hoe; basket weeder; torsionHorticultural Sciences Department weeder; Danish tines weeder; and rototiller.University of Floridahttp://www.imok.ufl.edu/LIV/groups/ Mechanical Weed Control: A Slide Show ofcultural/pests/weed_man.htm Equipment Vern Grubinger, University of VermontWeed & Vegetable Exchange http://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/Oregon State University mechweedcontrol/sld001.htmhttp://www.orst.edu/dept/hort/weeds/vegetable.htm Innovative Cultivating Tools Weed Identification & Photo Gallery Websites University of Connecticut, IPM Program http://www.hort.uconn.edu/ipm/weeds/htms/New Jersey Weed Gallery culttools.htmRutgers, The State University of New Jerseyhttp://www.rce.rutgers.edu/weeds/index.html Photo Gallery & Glossary of Cultivators and Implements Used in Physical Weed ControlUC IPM Weed Photo Gallery European Weed Research SocietyUniversity of California Statewide IPM Project http://www.ewrs.org/physical-control/glossary.htmhttp://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/weeds_common.html Rotary hoe, flexible chain harrow, spring tine harrow, Lilliston rolling cultivator, horizontal-axis brush hoe, vertical-axis brush hoe, finger weeder, torsion weeder Mechanical Weed Control & Equipment Consider a Wheel HoeNew Cultivation Tools for Mechanical Weed Gord Chiddicks, Ecological Farmers Association ofControl in Vegetables Ontario NewsCornell University, IPM Fact Sheet 102FSNCT http://eap.mcgill.ca/MagRack/EFA/EF_95_P_06.htmhttp://www.hort.cornell.edu/department/faculty/bellinder/publications/weeders.pdf ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 40
  • 41. Management Weeds out High Labor Costs Affordable Small-Scale Equipment forChantal Foulds, Sustainable Farming-REAP Canada Production of Transplanted Vegetables in High-http://eap.mcgill.ca/magrack/sf/spring%2091%20c. Residue, No-Till Farming Systemshtm Ronald Morse, Virginia Tech HTML Conference Source: Mulching, Paper Mulch, High-Residue http://vric.ucdavis.edu/issues/bulletinboard/ No-Till Mulch soiloptions.html PDF Article:Mulching for Weed Control in Annual Vegetable http://vric.ucdavis.edu/issues/bulletinboard/soilconf/Crops afford.pdfMark Schonbeck, VABF Inforrnation Sheet No. 9http://www.vvac.org/vabf/infosht/info1.html No-Till and Strip-Till Vegetable Production: Focus on Non-Chemical Methods of Cover CropMulches for the Garden Suppression and Weed ControlVern Grubinger, University of Vermont Steve Diver, ATTRAhttp://ctr.uvm.edu/ctr/gl/gl6.htm http://ncatark.uark.edu/~steved/no-till-veggie.htmlPaper Mulch Coated with Vegetable Oil OffersBiodegradable Alternative to PlasticUSDA-ARShttp://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2001/010312.htmPaper Mulch: Can it Replace Plastic?2000 New York Vegetable Variety and CulturalPractices Results, Cornell Universityhttp://www.hort.cornell.edu/commercialvegetables/online/2000veg/freeville/papermulch%20.pdfPaper Mulch Trial Photo GalleryCornell Universityhttp://www.hort.cornell.edu/commercialvegetables/online/2000veg/freeville/papermul.htmlNewspaper Mulch Study, 1996North Dakota State Universityhttp://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/oakes/1996Report/npms96.htmNo-Till, Mulch-Based Market GardeningMark Cainhttp://www.seedballs.com/mcain.htmlNo-Till Broccoli Production without HerbicidesRonald Morse, Virginia Cooperative Extensionhttp://www.ext.vt.edu/departments/commhort/1997-04/1997-04-03.html ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 41
  • 42. 4.5 Weather, Agriculture and IPM Weather Data / Precipitation Totals Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationWeather — especially temperature and humidity —plays a http://www.state.ct.us/caes/Weather/wxdata.htmcrucial role in insect and disease development. A modernfeature of IPM is the use of weather monitoring to predict WeatherSites: Jump Site from University ofperiods of heavy infestation. The following weather sites Michiganon the Internet specialize in agricultural data; in most http://cirrus.sprl.umich.edu/wxnet/servers.htmlinstances these sites focus on IPM at the regional level.Here, you can find data on degree days to predict insect UK Agricultural Weather Centeremergence, frost prediction, and pest-specific University of Kentuckydata such as blight forecasts (onions, tomatoes, potatoes); http://wwwagwx.ca.uky.edu/maggot emergence (onions); European corn borer forecasts http://wwwagwx.ca.uky.edu/Agwx.htmland trap catches (sweet corn); phenology; etc. The Vegetable Crops Planner—WeatherAgricultural Weather Information Service Ohio State University(AWIS) http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~vegnet/ planner.htmhttp://www.awis.com IPM Weather Data and Degree-Days: For PestSkyBit, Agricultural Weather Information Management Decision Making in the PacificService Northwesthttp://www.skybit.com http://www.orst.edu/Dept/IPPC/wea/Agricultural Weather.com Cucurbit Downy Mildew Forecastshttp://www.agriculturalweather.com North Carolina State University http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/pp/cucurbit/DTN Kavouras Weather Serviceshttp://www.dtn.com/weather/ MELCAST http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/ext/veg/Texas A&M Meteorology melcast.htmlhttp://www.met.tamu.edu/personnel/students/weather/current.html California PestCast: Disease Model Database http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/DISEASE/Oklahoma Mesonet DATABASE/diseasemodeldatabase.htmlhttp://okmesonet.ocs.ou.edu/body.html TOMCASTPAWS Weather Data (Pennsylvania) http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/%7Evegnet/tomcats/http://frost.prosser.wsu.edu tomfrm.htmThe Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET)http://Ag.Arizona.Edu/azmet/WI–MN Cooperative Extension AgriculturalWeatherhttp://bob.soils.wisc.edu/wimnext/NEWA, The Northeast Weather Associationhttp://www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ipmnet/ny/program_news/newa/newa99.htmlLeaf Wetness ObservationsUniversity of Floridahttp://www.imok.ufl.edu/weather/archives/2000/Leaf%20Wetness/leafwetness2000.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 42
  • 43. 4.6 IPM Certification and Labeling The Food Alliance http://www.thefoodalliance.orgIPM guidelines, or best management practices, have beenestablished by several state and private organizations for The Food Alliance is a non-profit organization in thethe purpose of verification and labeling. IPM guidelines Pacific Northwest that offers a brand label to farmsare being used: (1) As a checklist for farmers to evaluate transitioning to sustainable agriculture. Farms thattheir on-farm pest management programs and identify areas bear the Food Alliance label meet or exceed standardswhere management can be improved; (2) To verify and in three areas: (1) Conserving soil and water; (2) Pestdocument that IPM is practiced on the farm; and (3) As an and disease management; and (3) Human resources.educational tool that describes the scope and complexity ofIPM to farmers, government officials, community groups, CORE Values Northeastand the general public. http://www.corevalues.org/cvn/consumers/ olabel.htmlIn addition to pest management education, IPM labelinghas emerged as a green marketing strategy parallel to CORE Values is a northeastern apple label based onorganic food channels. bio-intensive growing methods.Some food processing companies—for example Wegmans An eco-label is a label or logo on a product that givesin the Northeastern U.S.—now display an IPM logo on consumers information about the environmental,canned or frozen vegetable labels, with accompanying text agricultural, or social impacts of what they buy,that touts the environmental benefits of IPM. which in turn can help people make better informed choices in the marketplace.Massachusetts IPM Guidelines: CommoditySpecific Definitions Bibliography of IPM Certification, Labeling andhttp://www.umass.edu/umext/programs/agro/ipm/ Marketingipm_guidelines/ http://www.ipminstitute.org/ipm_bibliography.htm An online bibliography listing over 70 in-print and on- The Massachusetts IPM Guidelines have been used to line articles associated with the topic of IPM verify IPM use by the USDA Farm Service Agency in certification, labeling and marketing. Massachusetts since 1990, and by the Partners with Nature IPM certification program since 1993. For certification in the Partners with Nature program, a Eco-Spuds: Prince Edward Island Farmers Work crop must be grown using a minimum of 70% of the with WWF to Reduce Pesticide Use Adjusted Total Practice Points. Qualified growers are Spudman Magazine licensed to use the Partners with Nature logo and are http://www.spudman.com/pages/ provided with marketing assistance including posters, issue00vol6_eco_spuds.html leaflets, brochures, and documentation of their certification.Elements of New York State IPMCornell Universityhttp://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/elements/index.html New York state growers can market vegetables under an IPM logo if they follow these IPM guidelines and meet at least 80% of the recommended practices.An IPM Label on SupermarketVegetables: A First for the Nationhttp://www.nysipm.cornell.edu/labeling/labels.html A partnership among growers, Wegmans Food Markets, Comstock Michigan Fruit, and Cornell has spawned the first IPM-labeled canned and frozen vegetables in the nation. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 43
  • 44. 4.7 IPM Databases & Search Engines National IPM Network Search Engine (North Central Region)IPM is knowledge intensive, so easy access to IPM http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/ncrsearch/materials and information is a big help. The Internet hasturned into a premier source of information on IPM. Here, A search engine for IPM materials published by landdozens of university programs and IPM specialists make grant institutions of the North Central Region.their materials available on-line, for free. IPM Directories & Resource SitesA few websites are designed to organize all thisinformation and make it available through databases anddirectories. Powerful search engines allow visitors to find Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Conceptsinformation by typing in keywords. and Definitions http://www.ippc.orst.edu/cicp/IPM.htmDatabase of IPM Resources (DIR) Radcliffes IPM World Textbookhttp://www.ipmnet.org/DIR/ http://ipmworld.umn.edu/http://www.ippc.orst.edu/cicp/Index.htm Pest Management Resource Center Database of IPM Resources (DIR) is an information http://www.pestmanagement.co.uk retrieval system that searches through a compendium of directories containing IPM information resources IPM Access: Integrated Pest Management on the Internet. Information Service http://www.efn.org/~ipmpa/index.shtmlDatabase of IPM Resources (DIR): InternetResources on Vegetable Pest Management StudyWeb | Science| Integrated Pest Managementhttp://www.ippc.orst.edu/cicp/Vegetable/veg.htm http://www.studyweb.com/links/2509.html Internet Resources on Vegetable Pest Management is StudyWeb | Science| Pest Management a sub-category of DIR that provides links to materials http://www.studyweb.com/links/2510.html on insect and disease problems associated with vegetable production. A great starting point! State IPM Coordinators & Web SitesDatabase of IPM Resources (DIR): Internet http://www.reeusda.gov/agsys/ipm/Resources on Potato IPM coordinators.htmhttp://www.ippc.orst.edu/cicp/crops/potato.htmDatabase of IPM Resources (DIR): Internet IPMResources on Tomatohttp://www.ippc.orst.edu/cicp/crops/tomato.htmIPMlit —The Database of Current IPMLiteraturehttp://ippc.orst.edu/IPMlit/index.html An on-line searchable database that focuses on current research and technical papers on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and related topics. Titles are selected from a wide array of technical and professional journals. IPMlit broadly groups listed papers by pest or tactic categories, e.g., Biocontrol, Entomology, Nematology, Plant Pathology, Vertebrate Management, and General. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 44
  • 45. 4.8 Appropriate Technology Transfer for Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control Rural Areas (ATTRA) Publications on http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/gh-whitefly.html Pest ManagementBiointensive Integrated Pest Management In Print Onlyhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/ipm.html • Colorado Potato Beetle: Organic ControlFarmscaping to Enhance Biological Control Optionshttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/farmscape.html • Downy Mildew Control in Cucurbits • Powdery Mildew Control in CucurbitsSustainable Management of Soil-borne PlantDiseases • Flea Beetle: Organic Control Optionshttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/PDF/soildiseases.pdf • Organic Control of Squash Bug • Organic Control of Squash Vine BorerAlternative Nematode Controlhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/nematode.htmlCompost Teas for Plant Disease Controlhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/comptea.htmlDisease Suppressive Potting Mixeshttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/dspotmix.htmlUse of Baking Soda as a Fungicidehttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/baksoda.htmlAlternative Controls for Late Blight in Potatoeshttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/lateblight.htmlManagement Alternatives for Thrips onVegetable and Flower Crops in the Fieldhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/thrips.htmlPhenology Web Links: Sequence of Bloom, FloralCalendars, Whats in Bloomhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/phenology.htmlGrasshopper Managementhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/grasshopper.htmlSustainable Fire Ant Managementhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/fireant.htmlIntegrated Pest Management for GreenhouseCropshttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/gh-ipm.htmlGreenhouse IPM: Sustainable Thrips Controlhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/gh-thrips.htmlGreenhouse IPM: Sustainable Aphid Controlhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/gh-aphids.html ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 45
  • 46. 5.0 Vegetable Industry Resources containers, packaging, transportation and other items. Single copies $20.00 from The Packer.The Source Book, American Vegetable GrowersAnnual Buyer’s Guide United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association Published every year in the July issue of American United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association Vegetable Grower. Comprehensive listing of: state 727 North Washington St. horticultural associations; government agencies; Alexandria, VA 22314 university contacts; web site directory; crop 703-836-3410 protection; application equipment; seed suppliers; 800-836-7745 greenhouse equipment and supplies; irrigation; 703-836-7745 Fax planting equipment; postharvest equipment; united@uffva.org management software; and calendar of growers’ meetings. The United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association is the national trade organization that represents all Meister Publishing Co. sectors of the fresh fruit and vegetable industry. One 37733 Euclid Avenue of its services, the United Information Center, Willoughby, OH 44094 provides data on all aspects of the fresh produce 216-942-2000 industry. This includes consumption trends, industry 216-942-0662 Fax practices, and marketing statistics. The service is avg_circ@meisterpubl.com available free to members and on a fee basis for $15.95/12 issues per year subscription to American nonmembers. Pamphlets, fact sheets, videotapes, Vegetable Grower posters and charts, and a newsletter are available. Of interest to vegetable growers is the Facts and PointersThe Packer on Fruits and Vegetables series. The Packer is the national weekly business newspaper Produce Marketing Association of the produce industry. $65/year, weekly issues. Contact: Produce Marketing Association 1500 Casho Mill Road The Packer P.O. Box 6036 P.O. Box 2939 Newark, DE 19714-6036 Shawnee Mission, KS 66201-1339 302-738-7100 913-438-8700, Ext. 327 302-731-2409 Fax 800-255-5113, Ext. 327 pma@mail.pma.com the packer@compuserve.com http://www.pma.com http://www.thepacker.com The Produce Marketing Association provides a FreshProduce Availability & Merchandising Guide Facts Education Kit. This informative kit contains pamphlets and brochures about a variety of vegetables The Produce Availability & Merchandising Guide is (Belgian endive, broccoli, iceberg lettuce, onions, compiled and published by The Packer. The Guide peppers, potatoes) as well as fruits and nuts. provides a summary of handy data (e.g., months available, nutrition facts, U.S. Grades, postharvest handling) on hundreds of fruits and vegetables, including specialty items. Single copies $35.00 from The Packer.Produce Services Sourcebook The Produce Services Sourcebook is compiled and published by The Packer. The Sourcebook provides a summary of handy data (e.g., common shipping containers, environmental conditions for shipping and postharvest handling, chilling sensitivity, load compatibility, pallet configuration, key shipping regions and destinations) for common and specialty items, with extensive listings for suppliers of ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 46
  • 47. 6.0 Selected Vegetable Production Materials Vegetable Viewpoint on the Web Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs General Vegetable Production Resources http://www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/ crops/hort/news/vegnews/viewpoint.htmlVegetable Production Guide for Commercial Penn State Online Vegetable ResourcesGrowers 2000-2001 http://www.ento.psu.edu/vegetable/University of Kentucky default.htmhttp://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id36/id36.htm2000 Ohio Vegetable Production Guide Postharvest Handling of Fruits and VegetablesOhio State Universityhttp://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/b672/ Postharvest Handling of Fruits and Vegetablesindex.html ATTRA http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/postharv.htmlCommercial Vegetable Production HandbookLouisiana Cooperative Extension Service Postharvest Technology Research andhttp://www.agctr.lsu.edu/wwwac/pub2433.pdf Information Center University of CaliforniaMidwest Vegetable Production Guide 98 http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/ext/targets/ID/index2000.htm Microbial Risk Reduction in Vegetable Production & Handling: Special Attention toVegetable Bytes Online Crop Production Safe Use of Animal ManuresInformationUniversity of California-Davis Reducing Risks from E.coli 0157 on the Organichttp://pubweb.ucdavis.edu/documents/coopext/ Farmcesutter.htm David G. Patriquin, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, CanadaUC-Davis Vegetable Research and Information Eco-Farm & Garden - Summer 2000Center http://www.cog.ca/efgsummer2000.htmhttp://vric.ucdavis.edu Progress in Defining Microbial Risk ReductionHorticulture Publications on Vegetable Practices for Animal Manure and Manure-basedProduction—Oklahoma State University Compostshttp://www.okstate.edu/OSU_Ag/agedcm4h/ Dr. Trevor Suslow, UC Vegetable Research andpearl/hort/vegetble/vegetble.htm Information Center http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/Pubs/index.htmlCommercial Vegetable Production in WisconsinUniversity of Wisconsin Manure and Food Safetyhttp://cf.uwex.edu/ces/pubs/pdf/A3422.PDF Vegetable Crops Hotline, Purdue University No. 371, March 23, 2000Farmers Bookshelf: Vegetables http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/University of Hawaii ext/targets/vegcrop/index2000.htmhttp://Agrss.sherman.Hawaii.Edu/bookshelf/vege.htm Microbial Food Safety IS Your Responsibility! University of CaliforniaCrop Knowledge Master: Vegetable Crops http://vric.ucdavis.edu/veginfo/foodsafety/University of Hawaii foodsafety.htmhttp://www.extento.hawaii.edu/kbase/crop/crops/vegetabl.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 47
  • 48. Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Organic Vegetable ProductionHazards for Fresh Fruits and VegetablesU. S. Food and Drug Administration Organic Farming Informationhttp://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/ Greenmount College of Agriculture and Horticulture,prodguid.html Northern Ireland http://www.greenmount.ac.uk/organic/index.htmOn-Farm Food Safety ProgramOntario Vegetable Growers Marketing Board Information Leaflets:http://www.plant.uoguelph.ca/safefood/ • General information about organic productionon-farm/ovgmb/report.htm • Principles of organic production • Protected cropping for organic vegetablesSeason Extending Techniques & Plasticulture • Organic potato production • Marketing organic produce • Converting to Organic ProductionSeason Extension Techniques for Market • Green ManuresGardenersATTRA Technical Booklets:http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/seasext.html • Beginners Guide to Organic Vegetable Production • Organic Ware Potato ProductionUse of Plastic Mulch and Rowcovers in VegetableProduction Organic Sweet Corn ProductionOklahoma State University North Carolina State Universityhttp://www.okstate.edu/OSU_Ag/agedcm4h/ http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-50.htmlpearl/hort/vegetble/f-6034.pdf Organic Fruit and Vegetable ProductionSustainable Vegetable Production Information Sources Mississippi State University http://www.msstate.edu/dept/cmrec/organic/Sustainable Practices for Vegetable Production in organicresources.htmlthe Southhttp://www.cals.ncsu.edu/sustainable/peet/ ATTRAs Organic Vegetable Production Series http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/horticulture.html Practical Equipment and Harvesting Tips for Vegetable Farmers Case Studies & Surveys on Organic FarmingHealthy Farmers, Healthy ProfitsUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison A Case-Study Report: Farming WithoutBiological Systems Engineering Department Chemicals in Ohiohttp://bse.wisc.edu/hfhp/ http://www.ohiocitizen.org/campaigns/pesticides/• Mesh Produce Bags: Easy Batch Processing farming/farming.html• Packing Shed Layout• Standard Containers Ohio Organic Producers: Final Survey• Narrow Pallet System Results• A Rolling Dibble Marker for Easy Transplant Spacing Ohio State University, Special Circular 174-00• A Specialized Harvest Cart for Greens http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~ohioline/sc174/• Plans for a Specialized Harvest Cart index.html ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 48
  • 49. 7.0 Magazines & Newsletters on Vegetable Veg-I-News Production and Market Gardening North Carolina State University http://ipmwww.ncsu.edu/vegetables/American Vegetable Grower veginews/Meister Publishing Co.37733 Euclid Avenue The Illinois Fruit and Vegetable NewsWilloughby, OH 44094 http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/~ipm/news/216-942-2000 fvnews.html216-942-0662 Faxavg_circ@meisterpubl.com Vegetable Crops Hotline$15.95/12 issues per year Purdue University http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/ext/targets/California Grower newslett.htmhttp://www.rinconpublishing.com Vegetable ViewpointCitrus and Vegetable Ontario Ministry Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairshttp://www.citrusandvegetable.com http://www.gov.on.ca/OMAFRA/english/crops/hort/ news/The Growerhttp://www.growermagazine.com The Vegetarian University of FloridaGrowing for Market http://www.hos.ufl.edu/gjhweb/P.O. Box 3747 vegetarian_index_page.htmLawrence, KS 66046785-748-0609 Organic Production and Marketing Newsletter$27/12 issues per year University of Floridahttp://www.growingformarket.com http://www.hos.ufl.edu/jjfnweb/organic_index.htmNew York State Vegetable Growers News VegNet NewsP.O. Box 4256 Ohio State UniversityIthaca, NY 14852-4256 http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/vegnet/news/607-539-7648 newslist.htm607-539-3150 Fax$40/8 issues per year (annual membership) California Grower http://www.rinconpublishing.comVegetable GazettePennsylvania State University California Vegetable Journalhttp://hortweb.cas.psu.edu/vegcrops/ http://www.rinconpublishing.comnewsletterlist.htmlhttp://www.ento.psu.edu/vegetable/veggaz/ California Agricultureveggazette.htm http://danr.ucop.edu/calag/The Vegetable Growers NewsGreat American PublishingP.O. Box 128Sparta, MI 49345616-887-9008616-887-2666 Faxgap@i2k.nethttp://www.vegetablegrowersnews.com$11/12 issues per year, or $28/3 years ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 49
  • 50. 8.0 Database & Directory Links to Vegetable AgWeb: The Ultimate Agriculture Research Crops and Associated Production Directory Practices on the Web ATTRA http://www.attra.org/search.htmlMAC Link List–Missouri Alternatives Centerhttp://agebb.missouri.edu/mac/links/index.htm The ATTRA Research Directory with links to prominent agriculture bibliographical and full-text MAC Link List is the Missouri Alternatives Center list databases, agricultural directories, library catalogs, of hot links to fact sheets and web pages on dozens of library resource guides, electronic journals, and search topics relating to alternative crop and livestock engines on the Internet. production, small farming, and sustainable agriculture. Especially see: vegetable crops, alternative crops, PLANT—Purdue Landscape and Nursery specialty crops, herbs, flowers, etc. Thesaurus http://bluestem.hort.purdue.edu/plant/index.htmlThe Ohio State University Factsheet Databasehttp://www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/Factsheet.html A horticultural meta-list with over 3,300 links: insects, diseases, soils and media, etc. Plant Facts is a keyword-searchable factsheet database on plant-related topics (cultivation, pest control, soils, Vegetables on the Internet vegetables) compiled by Ohio State University. It North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service contains 20,000 pages of Extension Service factsheets http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/mg/ and bulletins related to horticulture and crop science from 46 different colleges, universities, and Vegetable.html institutions across the United States and Canada. Commercial Vegetable Production Guides &E-answers Resourceshttp://www.e-answers.org Oregon State University http://www.orst.edu/Dept/NWREC/vegindex.html E-answers is a keyword-searchable database for Extension Service and Agricultural Experiment Station publications, factsheets, and bulletins published by land grant universities throughout the United States.PENpages - Pennsylvania State Universityhttp://www.penpages.psu.edu PENpages provides full-text information relating to the agricultural sciences, human nutrition, aging, family, community development, forest resources, and consumer issues. It features over 13,000 reports, newsletters, bibliographies, and fact sheets from the Cooperative Extension Service with a special focus on materials from land-grant universities in the Mid- Atlantic and Northeastern regions, including Penn State.NewCROPhttp://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/default.html The NewCROP website is sponsored by the Center for New Crops & Plant Products at Purdue University. It provides access to the CropSEARCH; CropINDEX; Indiana CropMAP; CropREFERENCE; search engines, databases, and directories with search results leading to full-text documentation on a very extensive list of traditional and alternative crops. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 50
  • 51. 9.0 Organic Farming Primer • To give all livestock conditions of life which allow them to perform basic aspects of theirThe Aims and Principles of Organic Agriculture: innate behavior. • To minimize all forms of pollution that may• nearly closed cycles of nutrients and organic result from agricultural practice. matter within the farm; • To maintain the genetic diversity of the• predominantly farm-produced manure and agricultural system and its surroundings, compost; including the protection of plant and wildlife• if needed, slowly soluble minerals for fertilizing habitats. only (P/K); • To allow everyone involved in organic• if possible, self-produced seeds; production and processing a quality of life• weed control by crop rotation, cultivation, conforming to the UN Human Rights Charter, to thermal methods and competition effects; cover their basic needs and obtain an adequate• pest control based on homeostasis and return and satisfaction from their work, including inoffensive substances, and use of predators a safe working environment. promoted by structures like hedges, flowering • To consider the wider social and ecological plants, etc.; impact of the farming system.• lasting fertility due to efficient "reproduction of • To produce non-food products out of renewable soil organic matter"; resources, which are fully biodegradable.• encouraging and enhancing biological processes • To encourage organic farming associations to (N fixation); function along democratic lines and the principle• for animal welfare, appropriate housing systems of division of power. and suitable feeding with farm-grown crops • To progress towards an entire organic production (10−15% of daily ration in dry matter can be chain, which is both socially and ecologically imported). responsible.Source: Source:FAO/IFOAM Meeting on Organic Agriculture, IFOAM Basic StandardsRome, March 19−20, 1998. International Federation for Organic Agricultural MovementsThe Principal Aims of Organic Agriculture andProcessing: Definitions and Objectives of Organic Farming:• To produce food of high nutritional quality in What is Organic Farming? sufficient quantity. Elm Farm Research Centre• To interact in a constructive and life-enhancing http://www.efrc.com/efrc/ way with natural systems and cycles. what_is_organic_farming.htm• To encourage and enhance biological cycles within the farming system, involving micro- What is Organic Farming? organisms, soil flora and fauna, plants, and Welsh Institute of Rural Studies animals. http://www.irs.aber.ac.uk/research/Organics/• To maintain and increase long-term fertility of define.html soils. Organic Farm Management Handbook• To promote the healthy use and proper care of Elm Farm Research Centre water, water resources and all life therein. http://www.efrc.com/efrc/• To help in the conservation of soil and water. /organic_farm_management_handbook.htm• To use, as far as possible, renewable resources in locally organized agricultural systems. Organic Farming Worldwide — A 100% Pesticide• To work, as far as possible, with materials and Risk Reduction substances that can be reused or recycled, either Bernward Geier, International Federation of Organic on the farm or elsewhere. Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) http://www.pan-uk.org/articles/pn40p10.htm ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 51
  • 52. 10.0 Organic Certification and Marketing CCOF Certification Handbook.In the 1970s and ‘80s organic certification emerged as a California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF) is onemarketing tool to assure consumers that foods labeled of the premier organic certification organizations inorganic were grown to specified standards of production, the United States. The CCOF Certification Handbookincluding strict avoidance of synthetic fertilizers and is a good reference guide to accepted, regulated, andpesticides. To get an organic label, farms must be restricted inputs to organic production. Cost is $10,inspected and approved by an accredited organic from:certification program. Private (Oregon Tilth, CaliforniaCertified Organic Farmers) and government (Texas California Certified Organic Farmers.Department of Agriculture, Washington State Department 1115 Mission Streetof Agriculture) organic certification programs exist. Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-2263The Organic Foods Production Act, included in the 1990 831-423-4528 FaxFarm Bill, enabled USDA to develop a national program of ccof@ccof.orguniversal standards, certification accreditation, and food http://www.ccof.orglabeling. After a long delay, a National Organic Programis now scheduled to go into effect in October 2002. CCOF Certification Standards are available on the web at: http://www.ccof.org/certification_standards.Organic certification standards not only provide htmdocumentation on what constitutes a certified organiclabel, but they also provide an excellent summary of the OCIA Certification Standardsorganic agriculture concepts, production methods, and http://www.ocia.org/PDF%20Files/OCIAStds.pdffertility and pest management inputs that can be used inorganic farming. OCIA, the Organic Crop Improvement Association, was one of the first major certification programs. AnUSDA National Organic Program 83-page PDF download.http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/ The Standards for Organic Agricultural This is the official USDA website regarding the Production National Organic Program (NOP), with links to the National Association for Sustainable Agriculture Final Rule and other regulations. Australia Ltd (NASAA) http://nasaa.com.au/standards.html#organicNational Organic Program (NOP) Final RuleATTRA Organic production standards from Australia andhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/nop.html Europe are another good place to look for organic agriculture concepts and production methods. A 75- ATTRAs guide to the National Organic Program and page PDF download from Australia. Final Rule, with timelines and highlights on key issues and topics of special importance to farmers and Organic Certification of Crop Production in organic certification organizations. Minnesota.Organic Certification Organizations and A 40-page handbook written by Lisa Gulbranson and published by Minnesota Institute for SustainablePrograms Agriculture (MISA) and the University of MinnesotaATTRA Extension Service. Available in print and on the webhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/orgcert.html at: A comprehensive listing of organic certification http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/ organizations in the United States. cropsystems/DC7202.html#01Organic Certification, Farm Production Idaho’s Organic Certification Program.Planning, and Marketing http://www.agri.state.id.us/AgInspectWeb/University of California, Publication 7247 organic/http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/pdf/7247.pdf ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 52
  • 53. Texas Organic Standards and Certification Organic Produce Information SheetTexas Department of Agriculture Dr. Roberta Cook, Department of Agricultural andhttp://www.sos.state.tx.us/tac/4/I/18/index. Resource Economics, UC Davishtml http://www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/faculty/ Roberta.C/links/Organic.pdfMaine Organic Farmers & GardenersAssociation, Organic Certification Standards Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Marketing and Tradehttp://www.mofga.org/cstandards.html Information Useful links by Dr. Roberta Cook, Department ofNOFA-Vermont Organic Standards Agricultural and Resource Economics, UC Davishttp://www.nofavt.org/Documents/ http://www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/faculty/vofstds.pdf roberta.c/cookpg2.htmWashington State Department of Agriculture Fresh Vegetable Market Gardening IndustryOrganic Food Program Fact Sheet from Ag Canadahttp://www.wa.gov/agr/fsah/organic/ofp.htm http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/200/ 5083001.htmlOrganic Certification in NebraskaUniversity of Nebraska Quality Standards: Fresh Fruits & Processinghttp://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/nebfacts/nf259.htm Vegetables USDA-Agriculural Marketing ServiceNOFA Massachusetts Organic Certification http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/stanfrfv.Standards htmhttp://ma.nofa.org/Standards.html USDA-AMS Fruit & Vegetable Market ReportsGetting Started in Organic Farming http://www.ams.usda.gov/fv/mncs/fvwires.htmEnvironment Canada and Manitoba Agriculturehttp://www.mb.ec.gc.ca/pollution/pesticides/ USDA Economics and Statisticsec00s12.en.html http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/usda.htmlhttp://www.gks.com/library/transition.html • Specialty Agriculture - Vegetables and Melons Canadian resources on organic farming and • Fresh Vegetable Prices and Spreads certification are another good place to look. Getting • Vegetables and Specialties Started in Organic Farming features profiles of eight • Vegetable Statistics organic farmers; farm management techniques such as • Agricultural Chemical Use, Vegetables Summary crop rotation and soil management; certification and • Food Consumption marketing of organic products; and other resources. • Pest Management Practices Marketing & Statistics Briefing Room: Organic Farming & Marketing USDA Economic Research ServiceOrganic Marketing Resources http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/Organic/ATTRAhttp://www.attra.org/attra-pub/markres.html • U.S. Organic Farming Emerges in the 1990s: Adoption of Certified Systems Provides a summary and contact list for a broad range • U.S. Organic Agriculture—Statistical Tables, 1992-97 of publications and web links. Many of the key organic industry publications are listed here. Also see:A Guide to Marketing Organic Produce Organic Vegetable Growers Surveyed in 1994 USDA Economic Research ServiceTexas A&M University http://www.econ.ag.gov/epubs/pdf/arei/96upd/ upd96-4.pdfhttp://sustainable.tamu.edu/publications/organicproduce/organic.html ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 53
  • 54. 11.1 Economics of Organic Vegetable Per Acre Costs of Production for Fresh Production: Crop Production Budgets Vegetables, Organic Production Practices, Northeastern United States, 1996 Organic Vegetable Crop Budgets Rutgers University & Economic Studies http://aesop.rutgers.edu/~farmmgmt/ne-budgets/ organic.htmlCultural Practices and Sample Costs for Organic Bell Pepper CabbageVegetable Production on the Central Coast of Cauliflower CucumberCalifornia — Background Report Leaf Lettuce Yellow Onionshttp://vric.ucdavis.edu/veginfo/topics/prodcosts/ Pumpkins Sweet Cornorganiccosts.html Fresh Market Tomatoes Processing Tomatoes This California report is the best effort to date toward Planning for Profit Enterprise — Vegetables estimating costs and returns on organic vegetable FBMInet-British Columbia production. Start here to read some background http://FBMInet.ca/bc/pfp/veg.htm information on production practices and economic data. Organic Carrots Organic Celery Organic Processing Peas Organic Processing BeansCultural Practices and Sample Costs for Organic Organic Processing Other Vegetable Budgets CornVegetable Production on the Central Coast ofCalifornia —Cost of Production Tables Planning for Profit Enterprise —Special Cropshttp://vric.ucdavis.edu/veginfo/topics/prodcosts/ FBMInet-British Columbiaorganicprodcosts.html http://FBMInet.ca/bc/pfp/special.htm This second link provides access to the costs-of- production tables for 20 different vegetable Organic Echinacea Organic Garlic Other Specialty Crops enterprises, cover crops, and equipment costs. Here you can download the full 89-page report, or access individual tables, as PDF downloads. A Profile of Floridas Commercial Organic Vegetable Farmers Print copies are available through: University of Florida http://hammock.ifas.ufl.edu/txt/fairs/48041 Dept. of Agriculture and Resource Economics UC Davis One Shields Ave. Standard Crop Production Budgets Davis, CA 95616 530-752-1515 530-752-5614 Fax Vegetable Crop Budgets on the Web budgets@primal.ucdavis.edu Southwest Florida Research & Education Center, http://www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/outreach/ UF/IFAS crop/cost.htm http://www.imok.ufl.edu/LIV/groups//economic/ budglnks.htm Ask For: Organic Mixed Vegetable Study, VM-CC-94-01 Production Practices and Sample Costs to K. Klonsky, L. Tourte, D. Chaney, P. Livingston and R. Smith, 1994. Produce: Chili Pepper, Eggplant, Loose Leaf Lettuce, Okra1994, University of California Cooperative University of California, Small Farm CenterExtension Sample Costs to Produce Organic http://www.sfc.ucdavis.edu/research/coststudies.htmlProcessing Tomatoes in the Sacramento Valleyhttp://vric.ucdavis.edu/veginfo/topics/prodcosts/organictom.html ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 54
  • 55. 11.2 Economics of Organic Vegetable Crop Planning & Record Keeping Spreadsheets Production: Record Keeping for Diversified Vegetable FarmsMarket Farm Forms: Spreadsheet Templates for Brookfield FarmPlanning and Organization Information on Amherst, MADiversified Farms Dan Kaplan 413-253-7991 Full Circle Farm bfcsa@aol.com 3377 Early Times Lane Auburn, CA 95603 Crop plan, field plan, planting schedule, seed order, 530-885-9201 greenhouse schedule, harvest record, field record, Marcie Rosenzweig Planet Jr. plate size. $25; available in Excel and fullcircle@jps.net Works ($45 plus $5 shipping and handling) While a number of farm management spreadsheets exist, Market Farm Forms is the best one Ive seen to help organize and calculate a mix of vegetables and related crops raised by market gardeners, truck farmers, and CSAs. On top of that, it supports the needs of certified organic growers with special features. Market Farm Forms is a 95-page book and diskette containing Excel spreadsheet templates that sells for $45, plus $5 shipping and handling. The diskette is available in PC or Macintosh formats. Seeds and purchased plants needed, farm-grown transplants, soil amendments and fertilizers, cropping and succession timelines, weekly task lists. Crop yield and income projections, actual harvest and income data, produce availability sheets, invoices and pick sheets, Community Supported Agriculture share and yield sheets, budget worksheets. Row calculations and input sheets, CSA share bed calculations and input sheets, certified organic producer certificate sheets, fax sheets, labels, order forms, point of sales labels, recipes, and flyers—it’s all there. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 55
  • 56. 12.0 Magazines & Newsletters on Organic See online articles from past issues at: Farming and Sustainable Agriculture http://www.reap.ca/publications.htmAcres Australia Ecology & FarmingP.O. Box 27, Eumundi IFOAMQld 4562 Australia. Ökozentrum Imsbach, D-66636Phone +61 7 5449 1884 Tholey-Theley, GermanyFax +61 7 5449 1889 Phone: (+49) 6853-919890http://www.acresaustralia.com.au Fax: (+49) 6853-919899$90 AUS/12 issues per year E-mail: HeadOffice@ifoam.org http://www.ifoam.orgAcres USA $30/3 issues per yearP.O. Box 91299Austin, Texas 78709-1299 The Maine Organic Farmer and Gardener512-892-4400 Common Ground Country Fair512-892-4448 Fax P.O. Box 170info@acresusa.com Unity, ME 04988http://www.acresusa.com 207-568-4142$24/12 issues per year 207-568-4141 Fax mofga@mofga.orgBiodynamics http://www.mofga.orgBiodynamic Farming and Gardening Association, Inc $12/6 issues per yearBuilding 1002B, Thoreau Center, The PresidioP.O. Box 29135 The Natural FarmerSan Francisco, CA 94129-0135 411 Sheldon415-561-7797 Barre, MA 01005415-561-7796 Fax 978-355-2853biodynamic@aol.com 978-355-4046 Faxhttp://www.biodynamics.com jackkitt@aol.com$35/6 issues per year $10/4 issues per yearEco Farm & Garden New Farmer & Grower$24/4 issues per year The Soil Association Bristol House A combined publication of Canadian Organic 40-56 Victoria Street Growers (formerly published Cognition) and Resource Bristol BS1 6BY Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP)-Canada United Kingdom (formerly published Sustainable Farming-REAP). Tel: 0117 914 2400 Fax: 0117 925 2504 Canadian Organic Growers soilassoc@gn.apc.org Box 6408, Station J Ottawa, Ontario K2A 3Y6 $26 surface; $32 air/4 issues per year http://www.cog.ca New Hope Natural Media Resource Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP)- http://www.newhope.com/ Canada Box 125 Natural Foods Merchandiser Archives Maison Glenaladale http://www.healthwellexchange.com/nsn_nfm_archiv Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec es_by_date.cfm?mag=nfm Canada H9X 3V9 514-398-7743 514-398-7972 Fax reap@interlink.net http://www.reap.ca ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 56
  • 57. Ohio Ecological Food and Farming NewsP.O. Box 82234Columbus, OH 43202614-294-3663614-291-3276 Faxoeffa@iwaynet.nethttp://www.greenlink.org/oeffaOrganic Farms, Folks & FoodsP.O. Box 880Cobleskill, NY 12043518-827-8495518-827-8496 Faxnofany@midtel.nethttp://ny.nofa.org$10/4 issues per yearOrganic Food Business NewsHotline Printing and Publishing Co.P.O. Box 161132Alamonte, FL 32716-1132407-628-1377407-628-9935 Fax74562.744@compuserve.com$99/12 issues per yearOrganic MattersIrish Organic Farmers and Growers Associationhttp://www.organicmattersmag.com/SynergyBox 8803Saskatoon, SaskatchewanCanada S7K 6S6306-652-9572306-664-6074synergy@link.ca$22/4 issues per yearThe Virginia Biological Farmerc/o Shana Kresmer-Harris1663 Jack Jouett RoadLouisa, VA 23093540-967-9212http://www.vvac.org/vabf/$25/6 issues per year ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 57
  • 58. Scientific Journals Journal of Agricultural and Environmental EthicsMany journals offer on-line table of contents, abstracts, http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/1187-7863and search options. University library users can oftenaccess full-text articles through on-line services. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture c/o BUBL Table of ContentsAgriculture, Ecosystems & Environment http://bubl.ac.uk/journals/agr/jsusagr/http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/agee/ Journal of Vegetable Crop ProductionAgricultural Systems c/o BUBL Table of Contentshttp://www.elsevier.nl/locate/jnlnr/02002 http://bubl.ac.uk/journals/agr/jvcp/Agriculture and Human Values The Journal of Agricultural Sciencehttp://www.wkap.nl/jrnltoc.htm/0889-048X http://uk.cambridge.org/journals/ags/Agroforestry Systems Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystemshttp://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0167-4366 http://www.wkap.nl/journals/nutrient_cyclingAmerican Journal of Alternative Agriculture Plant Diseasehttp://www.winrock.org/wallacecenter/ajaa.htm http://www.apsnet.org/pd/current/top.aspAnnual Reviews Entomology Plant and Soilhttp://ento.AnnualReviews.org/ http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0032-079XAnnual Reviews PhytoPathology Soil Biology & Biochemistryhttp://phyto.AnnualReviews.org/ http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/soilbio/Applied Soil Ecology Soil Sciencehttp://www.elsevier.nl/locate/jnlnr/05091 http://www.soilsci.comBiological Agriculture and Horticulture Weed Technologyhttp://www.nes.coventry.ac.uk/bah//index.htm http://apt.allenpress.com/aptonline/ /?request=get-archiveBioresource Technologyhttp://www.elsevier.nl/locate/jnlnr/02009 Organic Farming DatabaseElectronic Green Journal organic-research.comhttp://egj.lib.uidaho.edu/index.html http://www.organic-research.com/Experimental Agriculture CABI compiled a comprehensive Organic Farminghttp://uk.cambridge.org/journals/eag/ CD-ROM containing over 100,000 literature citations; available through a subscription to organic-European Journal of Plant Pathology research.com, a CABI website.http://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/0929-1873 Directory of Online JournalsHortTechnologyhttp://ashs.frymulti.com/horttech.asp AgWeb,The Ultimate Agriculture Research DirectoryIntegrated Pest Management Reviews ATTRAhttp://www.wkap.nl/journalhome.htm/1353-5226 http://www.attra.org/searchAgWeb.html ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 58
  • 59. 13.0 Publishers & Book Distributors Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC) P.O. Box 7414 Berkeley, CA 94707Acres USA 510-524-2567P.O. Box 91299 510-524-1758 FaxAustin, Texas 78709-1299 birc@igc.apc.org512-892-4400 http://www.igc.org/birc/512-892-4448 Fax Resources on IPM, biological control, and least-toxicinfo@acresusa.com pest control.http://www.acresusa.com Wide selection of titles on organic and sustainable CABI Publishing / CAB International production. 10 East 40th Street, Suite 3203 New York, NY 10016agAccess See: Fertile Ground 212 481 7018 800 528 4841APS Press 212 686 7993 FaxAmerican Phytopathological Society cabi-nao@cabi.org3340 Pilot Knob Road http://www.cabi.org/publishing/St. Paul, MN 55121-2097651-454-7250 Cedar Meadow Farm651-454-0766 Fax 679 Hilldale Roadaps@scisoc.org Holtwood, PA 17532http://www.scisoc.org/ 717-284-5152 Manuals on plant disease identification and control. http://www.cedarmeadowfarm.com Supplier for Steve Groffs video.Back40Books Chelsea Green Publishing Co.26328 Locust Grove Road P.O. Box 428Creola, OH 45622 White River Junction, VT -5001740-596-4379 800-639-4099Contact: Herman Beck-Chenoweth Books by Eliot Coleman: The New Organic Grower,locustgrove@ohiohills.com Four-Season Harvest; and others titles like Thehttp://www.free-rangepoultry.com Flower Farmer.BioCycle/JG Press, Inc. Conservation Gardening and Farming419 State Ave. Contact: Bargyla RateaverEmmaus, PA 18049 9049 Covina Street610-967-4135 San Diego, CA 92656610-967-1345 619-566-8994biocycle@jgpress.com 619-586-1104 Faxhttp://www.jgpress.com/ Bargyla Rateaver <brateaver@earthlink.net> Publisher of BioCycle magazine and related publications http://home.earthlink.net/~brateaver/ on composting and organic waste management. Distributor for organic agriculture classics; and publisher of The Organic Methods Primer UPDATE.Biodynamic Farming and Gardening AssociationBuilding 1002B, Thoreau Center, The Presidio Cornell Cooperative Extension and IPM CatalogsP.O. Box 29135 Resource Center-GPSan Francisco, CA 94129-0135 7 Cornell Business and Technology Park415-561-7797 Ithaca, NY 14850415-561-7796 Fax 607-255-2080biodynamic@aol.com Resources on IPM for vegetables.http://www.biodynamics.com Wide selection of titles on biodynamic and organic farming. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 59
  • 60. Ecology Action/Bountiful Gardens Good Earth Publications18001 Shafer Ranch Road 1702 Mt. View RoadWillits, CA 95490 Buena Vista, Virginia 24416Phone/Fax: 707-459-6410 540-261-8775http://www.growbiointensive.org/ goodearth@rockbridge.nethttp://solstice.crest.org/sustainable/ A wide selection of titles on small-scale farming,ecology_action/ market gardening, and alternative enterprises, Publications by John Jeavons and Ecology Action including Backyard Market Gardening. Institute: biointensive food production, organic fertilizers, composts, green manures. The Green Center 237 Hatchville Rd.Entomological Society of America East Falmouth, MA 025369301 Annapolis Road 508-564-6301Lanham, MD 20706-3115 http://www.fuzzylu.com/greencenter/301-731-4535 /home.htm301-731-4538 Fax Supplier of out-of-print New Alchemy publications.esa@entsoc.orghttp://www.entsoc.org/pubs/ Interstate Publishers, Inc. Extensive selection of books and IPM resources on P.O. Box 50 insect pest management. Danville, IL 61834-0050 217-446-0500Fertile Ground Publisher of Producing Vegetable Crops and related3912 Vale Ave. agriculture textbooks.Oakland, CA 94619-2222530-298-2060 Voice/Fax Kodansha Internationalbooks@agribooks.com Distributed by Kodansha America, Inc.http://www.agribooks.com 575 Lexington Ave, 23rd Floor Fertile Ground offers a wide selection of new, used, New York, NY 10022-6102 and out-of-print agricultural books with a special 917-322-6200 emphasis on small farming and sustainable agriculture. 800-451-7556 Previously known as agAccess. http://www.our-use.org Distributor for Oriental Vegetables by Joy LarkcomFood Products Press and Let Nature Do the Growing by Gajin Tokuno.The Haworth Press Inc.10 Alice St. Meister Publishing Co.Binghamton, NY 13904 37733 Euclid AvenueUnited States Willoughby, OH 44094-5992800-429-6784 440-942-2000800-895-0582 Fax 440-942-0662 Faxhttp://www.haworthpressinc.com fchb_circ@meisternet.com http://www.meisterpro.comFocus Publishing Publisher of Vegetable Insect Management: Withc/o PBS Emphasis on the Midwest.P.O. Box 390Jaffrey, NH 03452 NRAESPhone/Fax: 800-848-7236 152 Riley-Robb Hallorders@pullins.com Ithaca, NY 14853-5701http://www.pullins.com/txt/science.htm 607-255-7645 Publisher of Sustainable Practices for Vegetable 607-254-8770 Production in the South, $32.95 nraes@cornell.edu http://www.nraes.org Distributor of NRAES publications: Sustainable Vegetable Production From Start-Up to Market; On- Farm Composting. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 60
  • 61. The Permaculture Activist Video distibutor for Using Cover Crops inP.O. Box 1209 Conservation Production Systems.Black Mountain, NC 28711828-298-2812 Storey/Garden Way Publishing828-298-6441 Fax Pownal, VT 05261pcactiv@sunsite.unc.edu 800-242-7737http://metalab.unc.edu/pc-activist/ Books on small farming and organic production; The Books on permaculture, small farming, and organic Organic Gardener’s Home Reference. production. Sustainable Agriculture PublicationsPike Agri-Lab Supplies Hills BuildingP.O. Box 67 University of VermontJay, ME 04239 Burlington, VT 05405-0082207-897-9267 802-656-0484207-897-9268 Fax 802-656-4656 Faxinfo@pikeagri.com sanpubs@uvm.eduhttp://www.pikeagri.com http://www.sare.org/htdocs/docs/order.html Carries hard-to-find eco-farming titles, including Distributor of SAN books and publications, Managing Nourishment Home Grown. Cover Crops Profitably, Steel in the Field, Building Soils for Better Crops.Rodale Institute611 Siegfriedale Road The Water FoundationKutztown, PA 19530 P.O. Box H20800-832-6285, 610-683-1400 Brainerd, MN 56401610-683-8548 Fax 218-829-3616info@rodaleinst.org http://www.bogfrog.com/PRODUCTS.HTMhttp://www.rodaleinstitute.org Publisher of The Carbon Catcher booklet, $4.95. The Rodale Institute Bookstore carries a nice selection of farmer-audience titles, including classic titles in University of California organic agriculture, farmer-friendly books from The ANR Publications New Farm era, and popular press books on Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources permaculture and market gardening. Communication Services - Publications 6701 San Pablo Avenue • Farmers of Forty Centuries Oakland, CA 94608-1239 • Northeast Cover Crop Handbook 510-642-2431 • An Agricultural Testament http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu • What Really Happens When You Cut Chemicals? • Farmer’s Fertilizer Handbook University of Florida • Controlling Weeds with Fewer Chemicals Publication Distribution Center • The Rodale Institutes Farming System Trials: The First 15 years P.O. Box 110011 Gainesville, FL 32611Rodale Press 352-392-176433 E. Minor St. http://edis.ifas.ufl.eduEmmaus, PA 18098215-967-5171 University of Minnesotahttp://www.organicgardening.com Extension Service Distribution Center The Rodale Press Bookstore carries an extensive 405 Coffey Hall, 1420 Eckles Avenue collection of gardener-audience books on organic St. Paul, MN 55108-6068 gardening, soils, pest control, vegetables, & herbs. order@extension.umn.edu 800-876-8636.Shepherd Publications http://www.extension.umn.edu2256 Washington AvenueMemphis, TN 38104901-272-0350 ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 61
  • 62. Oregon State UniversityPublication Orders, Extension & StationCommunications422 Kerr AdministrationCorvallis, OR 97331-2119541-737-0817 [Fax orders]puborders@orst.eduhttp://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/Compiled by Steve Diver,NCAT Agricultural SpecialistSeptember 2001IP188The electronic version of Resource Guide toOrganic and Sustainable Vegetable Production islocated at:HTMLhttp://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/vegetable-guide.htmlPDFhttp://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/vegetable-guide.pdf The ATTRA Project is operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology under a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. ATTRA is located in the Ozark Mountains at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville at P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702. ATTRA staff members prefer to receive requests for information about sustainable agriculture via the toll-free number 800-346-9140. ATTRA // Resource Guide to Organic & Sustainable Vegetable Production Page 62

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