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People and Environment 2009 - Landscape Architecture Programme

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People and Environment 2009 - Landscape Architecture Programme

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  • 1. People and Environment 2009 Purling water Water Water has many Hiding place in the reed It fascintes, gives courages play.Department of Work Science, Business Economics and Environmental Psychology in cooperation with Department of Landscape Architecture
  • 2. LK0069 Objective The aim of the course is to provide insights into how the interaction betweenPeople and Environment, people and the physical environment functions and what different outdoor en- vironments can mean for quality of life, well-being and health. The course will provide training in the ability to analyse and investigate people’s relationships15 HEC to their surroundings and to translate this knowledge into design and planning processes. After completion of the course, the student should be able to: - describe perspectives and concepts within social science and behaviouralMänniska och fysisk miljö science, mainly within environmental psychology and urban sociology, that are relevant for the knowledge area of Landscape ArchitectureThe course is given as part of the Landscape Architecture Programme (admission - apply a selection of the methods used for investigating how people use,before 1 July 2007); Landscape Architecture Programme, Alnarp; Urban Land- experience and evaluate external environments (e.g. interviews, street walks,scape Dynamics - Master´s Programme observations or surveys) - problematise and analyse people’s different needs and interests in externalSyllabus Approved: 6 November 2007 environments on the basis of e.g. gender, age, social situation, cultural context and disabilitySubjects: Landscape Architecture/Landscape Planning - analyse and critically examine people’s relation to place and use this under-Level and Depth: Master D standing in design and planning contextsMarking Scale: 5:Pass with Distinction = A and B / 4:Pass with Credit = C / 3:Pass =D and E / U:Fail = F and Fx Content The course is characterised by perspectives of social- and behavioural science on problem issues within Landscape Architecture, Architecture and Town Plan- ning. Seminars and exercises will provide training in the ability to investigate and analyse people’s situation in relation to their surroundings. Students will also be posed different design problems and will be given the opportunity to translate their knowledge within environmental psychology and urban sociol- ogy into planning and design proposals. 2
  • 3. A course summaryThis resport is a summary, a kind of review, of the four different assignments thestudents had during this course. These projects were called Street Art, Places forMemory and Meaning, Spetsamossen and Sommarsol.The first assignment was made during week 5-6, in the Urban Sociology theme.Here the students chose wether they wanted to work with Street Art (supervisedby Emma Paulsson) or Places for Memory and Meaning (supervised by SabinaJallow) and handed in an individual assignment on it. During week 7-8 all madeindividual assignments on Spetsamossen which is an urban playground. In week9-10 all handed in individual assignments on Sommarsol; a rehabililtation centrefor people with neurological diseases. Finally the students, in eight groups, re-viewed one of these four projects.l Street Artl Places for Memory and Meaningl Spetsamossenl SommarsolAlnarp, 27 March 2009Carina Tenngart Ivarsson & Elisabeth von Essen 3
  • 4. People and EnvironmentStreet Art Eva-Marie Samuelson, Karolina Bjerler, Jessica MacDonald, Mateja Havlicek, Sona Kralikova 4
  • 5. Introduction DiscussionThe intention of this summary is to highlight the main themes and trains of The intention or message that street art is trying to get across was discussed,thought present throughout the various projects. The projects focused on traffic if the message is too hidden or difficult to understand. The message behind thesigns, switchboxes, tags and all street art. This summary analyzes the different street art is what makes it significant, however many people either do not lookmethods and results and compares the discussions between the various groups. at the street art or do not understand the message that they are trying to get across. The length of time that the street art was present was also consideredMethod because if it has been there for a long time the message may not be relevant any longer. Street art was also seen as a method of communication between theDifferent methods used were mapping, photographing and categorizing. various residents within the city, it creates a dialogue between people who wouldDifferent groups had difficulties making categories and clearly defining otherwise not communicate with one another.them. Dividing street art from advertising and political messages was hard. Ageneral comment was that there was not enough time given to develop a more The reason that stickers were thought to be so prevalent on the traffic signs waseffective method for gathering the information. Some groups thought it would also thought to be because there is such limited space on the signs. This limitedbe beneficial to go back and see the same area later on or to investigate two space does not allow for a masterpiece or a large installation so the artworkdifferent areas within the city. Also to be able to look up the links included in adapts to fit the space available.some of the art to see if it is actually street art or rather an advertisement forsomething. It may have been beneficial as well to write some notes while you are The right to the public space was considered concerning commercials andgathering the information about the different types and materials used as you advertising. The thought of how only rich people who can pay to have theirmight not be able to see it from photographs. message communicated can have a voice within public space. Some people think that street art takes up too much public space.Results Street art could be considered the life between buildings. Jan Gehl mentionsGroups with similar methods interpreted and presented the results in different that life between buildings is not just pedestrian traffic but includes social andways. Some groups created maps that showed the locations of the different recreational activities (Gehl 2006, p.14). He explains that life between buildingstypes of street art. Others created graphs that interpreted the prevalence of contains a wide range of activities that make the place have meaning and Different kinds of street art and graffiti.different types of street art as well as the locations that they were observed. aesthetics (Gehl 2006, p.14). Street art could be one of these activities that All images by Karolina Bjerler.Another group mapped out all of the traffic signs and numbered them on a create meaning within a residential area and personalize the space.map showing their locations. The graphs were effective and presented theinformation clearly but this method would not translate perfectly with thedifferent projects. 5
  • 6. Especially concerning the traffic signs and the tags repetition was used to brings up the question of what level is acceptable and what street has gone too The legal wall at parking house Anna in Malmöemphasize their work. Repetition is a marketing tool that is somewhat abused by far. The location of this installation added to the inappropriate material raising the All images by Karolina Bjerler.those making use of traffic signs for advertising. Tags were repeated to compete question of where street art is appropriate and acceptable.with others and to mark that space as their own. One thing that was discussed were the different surfaces that were used for theStickers were the most common in the traffic signs and tags were the most street art and graffiti. Smooth surfaces were more common and fences that werecommon when considering the whole environment. This was thought to be the perceived to be more public were used more often. Places that were more privatecase because both mediums are very quick to put up which is helpful when such as people’s homes were not as common, this may also be because artworkyou are doing something illegal. In the literature seminar concerning street art and graffiti are removed more rapidly.the fact that street art is illegal was discussed as something that made it moreappealing. If street art was suddenly made legal it would take away from theexcitement of it. Free zones from the text by Lieberg (1995) were discussed,opportunities for artists to freely express themselves. This discussion on free Conclusionzones or free walls can be interpreted both ways. It can be seen as a great The topic of street art exposed those who participated to different levels of graffitiopportunity for an artist to spend more time on their work and not risk being and street art. The dynamic of public space and the discussions surrounding itcaught by the police but at the same time the context of the work is very may have brought up more questions than answers.important to convey a message. So the message intended by an artist may belost if it is confined to the free zone defined by the city. References Lieberg, M. (1995). Teenagers and Public Space, Communication Research, vol 22, no 6, 1995Something that our group thought was important but not discussed was the Paulsson, Emma, Street art as a theater or a prospect, 26th of January 2009level of street art that is acceptable and how the location also informs if it is Gehl, Jan (2006). Life between buildings: using public space. 6. Ed. København: The Danish Architectural Presswell received or not. One example was given by Emma Paulsson (lecture, 2009)concerning Nazi symbols and a box said to be containing the gas that was usedto kill the Jewish people located near a Jewish synagogue. This type of work 6
  • 7. REFLECTION - STREET ARTThis is a reflection up on projects carried out during the course People and envi-ronment LK0069 in 2009.Method Street art in the public spaceWhen approachning a problem, an adequate method is needed. The method has Who has the right to the city was one common issue put forth in reflections. Itto be carefully thought through as it will be reflected in and perhaps affect the is considered to be a problem of democracy, referring to Mitchell (1995), whereresults you get. It is also important to carefully describe the method to be able the threat is that public space can start to function as a individual property, whereto evaluate the results in a good way. One way to find a suitable method for a the owner sets the rules (advertisement companies, corporations...). In this wayspecific investigation is to start up with a background research and literature the ones with financial resources has more control over the city. Furthermore itstudies, to find out what questions you want to be able to answer. Added to this was discussed that everyone should thus have the right to express themselves inuseful preparations can be making some kind of checklist to keep in hand when the city, but can this really be done everywhere in public spaces and in any way?in field. Further on it is of importance to evaluate the used method as this can Then, if the public space belongs to everyone, what right do street artists have tolead to new and better approaches of investigation in the future. In the studies do their art in the city in relation to those who does not like street art; they have adone during the course project upon street art, a very limited area of Malmö city need and right to express themselves as well. We perceive the street art as onlywas given every group, consisting of a couple of streets. This was probably due one way to express oneself in the public space, there are many other, such asto the very limited time, but as landscape architects, we discussed this in a plan- with clothes, hairstyle and music for example. What we discussed more, was thatners perspective and wants to point out that it is important to also look at the public space in fact is not thouroughly free of charge, where everyone is allowedcity in a broader perspective. It is interesting to study the whole city as a unit and to act freely and according to his beliefs. Actually we are paying taxes so in thisnot only secluded districts, which is important to have in mind for future studies. way we are paying for the public spaces in cities. There were also some interesting comparisons made how the public space can be perceived, like for example public space as a canvas for street artists or the city as a playground and the streets as aWhat is Street art? parliament where the street art phenomena takes place (Andersen, 2007). When does street art take up to much space? When it becomes too much it can start to takeWhat is art and what is not? This is a very subjective matter that all groups withinthese projects have had a hard time striving with. We cannot really define what over the city and impede the view of the city, just like advertisement in some casesart is in general, and therefore not street art. There are a lot of different motives do. Then there is no space left for the “empty” spaces that probably appeals to a lotamong artist why they do street art. It could be to send out political messages, of people. When it impedes the function of a place it is also considered too much,clearly shown or for the observer to interpret. Some artists see the reaction like when street art is put up on the front on a traffic sign and impedes the view ofperceived from people as the actual art. Artists might want to provoke the public it and in this way disturbs the drivers. It is also less accepted when the street art goin this way. Street art can also be seen as a way for the artist to show his or beyond the public realm and into the private. It can perhaps also cause disturbanceher territory and existence in the city. Some artist might just want to make the among people when it is placed in highly public places, where a lot of people notstreets more beautiful, like making a hidden corner in the city visible by putting only pass by but stay for a longer period of time.up a trophy for citizens to find. Art work seams to have some kind of meaningfor the artists but not always for the observer. If the meaning is known to the ob-server he or she has the possibility to reflect from a different point as comparedto when viewing the art when the meaning is unknown. We as designers arereflecting upon street art from our point of view and our amount of knowledge inthe subject. That is why it is important to decide on forehand what you want toinvestigate to be able to choose a proper method that will take all user groups into consideration, when it comes to public spaces. 7
  • 8. Where does street art occur? Appropriate and offensiveStreet art is found everywhere along the streets, on objects, on the ground or on Some people perceive street art as vandalism and perhaps find the expressionsthe walls. Street art in general seems to occur more frequently in semi-public ar- of the art frightening and offensive. The art is not affecting only the visual ex-eas instead of the highly public areas. Repeated objects such as traffic signs and pression of the room but also the feeling and atmosphere of it. It may also inter-switch boxes are frequently used. A constantly competition between street art, fere with the movement pattern of people, for those who percieve the street artadvertisements and the ones cleaning the limited surfaces available is a common as something negative. When people are affected in this way of street art it canscene in the streets. Artists probably think quite differently about the location of result in segregation, as people might feel that they don’t belong in certain areas.their street art. Some seems to place it very visible so that it is easy to spot for as To divide Street art in accepted and not accepted art is as difficult as describingmany people as possible and some seems to want to place it more hidden as a art because there are no answers. In the public space where the street art oftensurprise for the viewer. The connection with a certain place might also sometimes occurs, we can discuss democracy and the question of who has the right to thebe of importance, but in the projects there were no street art showing this con- public space. Is some street art more accepted than other? From the researchesnection. The street art could though give a comment on that very specific place, point of view in the studies carried out in Malmö, schablons, stickers and posterslike environmental issues on switch boxes commenting on the ongoing discus- seems to be more accepted than spray tags. One reason can be the effort andsion of the greenhouse effect. money put into the art and the more careful preparations to create a schablon, sticker or poster in contrast to spray tags. Seeing the concept of street art as temporary art installations stickers and poster are also visionary easily to removeHow do people see street art? compared to the spray tags which can be another reason to why this kind of street art is more accepted. Professionally printed stickers can also cost a lot ofWe can make a conclusion that the perception of street art (and also what is money and many people might therefore think of it as more socially accepted.treated as such and what isn’t) is in the eyes of viewer and of the individualsknowledge and background. Is he or she familiar with the special meaning of theexpressed action? Some think that street art enriches the city, but others saysit cheapens places no matter the meaning behind it. Maybe it is also a matter of Temporary artscale when accepting something as appropriate to be there. For example, a bus As it was mentioned above, tags are the ones often seen as an action of van-completely filled with graffiti expressions perhaps might work as an art expres- dalism. Making a tag more temporary by spraying it on a poster would perhapssion, but on the other hand just a tag on an otherwise clean street wall can be be precieved as more accepted. In relation to temporary art we discussed theperceived as an act of vandalism. An interesting theory about how we percieve possibilities of using paint that is easily washed away in rainy weather. As it coststhe environment is that we filter out the necessary information from the environ- a lot of money to remove spray paint and stickers from the streets, the morement and disregard the rest, as all would be too much information to process. temporary the art is, the more accepted it would probably be; something that(Grahn, P., Stigsdotter, U, 2002 p.62) street art would therefore most likely in the society do not actively has to remove. The notion of dynamics in the publicmany situations get filtered out as not important information, at least for most of space is also an interesting topic widely discussed in the course projects. Theus. appearance of the city and the street art within the city changes all the time and agitates the feeling of the art being permanent. 8
  • 9. Street art vs. advertising ConclusionThere were the conclusions that advertising occurs probably more frequent in During our task we came across with lot of further questions. We didn’t feel likethe streets than street art does. Some groups expressed that they wanted to in- we have the competence to completely answer them but to put them up forvestigate this relationship further, which demands more time for deeper research further discussions. In our reflection of the street art theme in the course weabout it. However, it was found out that advertising consumes public space for therefore tried to scoop the overall reflections, both from the student assign-sure. And there were questions about the borders between street art and adver- ments and the literature.tisement. Is it possible for them both to overlap each other? Rather many reflec-tions resulted in the opinion that advertisement impedes the view of the city. Itis also a matter of relation between size and perception. Huge advertisementsmean that you have no chance to escape. On the other hand the city gets moneyfrom advertising and not from street art.In relation to city planningWhen discussing the role of landscape architects or spatial planners in relationto street art, we can draw a line that street artists do more temporary things.One student expressed it as the street art is a way of temporarily tattooing thecityscape and leaving visual traces behind. Landscape architects and plannersthough plan and design the city as a whole and in a more permanent way. It isalso important to mention that these professions have a more objective perspec-tive and see to the needs of the user groups. One can think of street art as abeginning of revival of urban wastelands which offer a lot of possibilities fortemporary uses and street artists – areas where less people are affected by theirart. Street artists can be seen as catalysts in planning in the way that they bringlost places back in people’s minds, as Oswalt (2007) claims. There is perhaps aneed to include this potential in our formal planning to make our surroundingsmore interesting and exciting. There was also a notion of Lieberg’s thought ofbackstage places in the cities where teenagers can try out new things, like streetart. As we can agree with Oswalt’s statement that spontaneous, temporary usescould have positive long term effects, we can at the same time discuss that thestrictly defined areas where there is no room for backstage expressions maybecannot contribute to a place for all. The public space in the city should representthe city’s heart and its people. L e n a A g r e l l , E v a - B r i t t K a r l s s o n , Ta d e j a R o z m a n 9
  • 10. Places for Memory and MeaningNicholas Pettinati, Karolina Alvaker, Marielle Karlsson, Shabnam Gholoobi 10
  • 11. INTRODUCTION Background Memory and meaning in public spaces, whether an urban square or acountry road, is a difficult issue to discuss. However, this was the subject for oneof the projects in the course People and the Environment at SLU. The assign- The site that was selected for the design is located along the coast inment was to design an urban space in the Western Harbor of Malmö as a place the Western Harbor of Malmö. The physical site itself is a large square that isfor memory and meaning. The assignment started with a review of some relevant elevated, overlooking the sea and the Oresund Bridge. Also, in the northwest cor-literature and continued with a walking tour of some different spaces in Malmö. ner there is a small platform that protrudes from the square and forms an over-Ultimately, the students prepared a group presentation about their thoughts on look. This corner has been nicknamed “the Titanic” after the scene in the moviememory and meaning, and an individual proposal for the site they were asked to where the two main characters are hanging off the bow of the boat pretendingdesign. to fly. In the center of the square there is a stage that is handicap accessible. The entire site is handicap accessible via ramps up to the square. The space also The students read through several relevant texts to gain a deeper un- fits into the larger scheme that forms a boardwalk along the coast. The area isderstanding behind the concepts of memory and meaning. The texts dealt with extremely popular in summer, with hundreds of people lounging, swimming, andsome very difficult theories regarding memory and provided a general framework diving into the sea.for the students. After a discussion of the texts the students embarked on awalking tour to try and discover places for memory and meaning that already As was mentioned previously, the goal of the design was to create aexisted in Malmö. The goal was to try and photograph places that had charac- space for memory and meaning. Some of the difficult questions that the studentsteristics of memory and meaning as a basis for thinking about the site. These had to answer are how do you create a space for memory and meaning in thespaces weren’t necessarily meaningful places, but spaces that could have some public realm? Whose memory and/or what meaning should the space have?elements that create meaning. The walk culminated with a visit to the design Does there have to be an event that occurred to make a space meaningful?site, and the begining of the design process for the students. What about the meaning that the space already has? What characteristics or ele- ments give a space meaning? The design proposals answer all these and many The goal of this paper is to summarize the results from these proposals more questions in amazingly unique ways.and the overall success of the assignment. There is also a brief summary of the Pictures of the site (provided by Matejatexts that were used for this assignment. We will start with a brief background and Tadjea)of the site, and some of the questions that faced the students as they began thedesign process. Then we will move to a discussion of the proposals themselves,and the themes that we felt emerged from the designs. Finally, we will end withsome of our own thoughts and comments on the project. 11
  • 12. THEMES While each proposal addressed the issues associated with creating be decrbied as a parallel reality where an anti sound installation makes you aware memory and meaning in an urban public space in their own way, there were also of sounds by creating absolute silence at a place which should have sounds...” several themes that emerged from the designs. The three main themes focused The next proposal, by Tadeja Rozman, also used the view as a driving on the view of the sea, the element of water, and the use of sculpture. force for her design. “To feel its drops, to smell and taste the salt (of life!), to hear The proposal by Jenny Åkesson, Johanna Verbaan and Sofia Fribyter the roaring, to see the ocean`s horizon and its eternal vastness. Just being here used the view as a major element in their design. They created “cave-like” rooms and now, in the present of the preseence of all sense sactivated. It gives a shelter, (see graphic below) that could be entered and used as a place to quietly reflect. a possibility to draw back, be among people, but still alone, hearing stifled sounds They wanted to highlight the view of the sea and the powerful meaning associ- of the ocean and of people´s voices somewhere around...” She talks about using ated with it. and also use silence as a way to create meaning. “...The place could this space as a place to pause from the everyday flow of life,Picture from the proposal “Silence” by Graphic provided by Tadeja RozmanJenny Åkesson, Johanna Verbaan andSofia Fribyter 12
  • 13. and creating meaning through taking this break. Using this space as a chance to Finally, the last theme that developed from the different proposals Left: Graphic Provided bystop and reflect on whatever we can. centered around the use of scupltures, and their ability to create meaning. The Mateja Havlicek Middle: Graphic Provided by The second theme that emerged from the different proposals revolves proposal by Emily Hansen used a sculptural element to create activity and mean- Cordula Gielen ing simultaneously in the space. She created several different pillars that can be Right: Graphic Provided byaround the element of water and its possible uses on the site. The proposal by Emily HansenMateja Havliček focuses on just this element. She wanted to create a space used for sitting, standing, jumping, demonstrating, and anything else someonewhere the experience of water drives the meaning of the place. She accom- can think of. The focus is on the social interactions that can be created by theseplished this through a shallow pool that flows into a waterfall off the edge. This elements and the people in the space, and the possibility for that social narrativepool can be experienced by all through as many senses as possible, and as such to evolve and change. “The social character of the space exists in an alternatecreates a new meaning for the space through water. “The tactile experiences of sort of reality, one that continues to define and redefine the space through ex-sight, sound and touch have a big value in this project.” periences and interactions of and between people in the collectively recognized physical setting.” Cordula Gielen also used water as an important element in creatingmeaning in the space. Similar to that of Mateja, she brought the predominant The proposal by Eva-Britt Karlsson also uses a sculpture to bring mean-element of the site (the view of the ocean) into the actual physical space. As the ing to the site. However, her sculpture is one that has a great cultural significancegraphic above depicts, the center stage has been turned into a shallow reflect- and historical background. The idea she had was to have different artists toing pool that can be experienced in many different ways. Her main concept was create a sculpture of a hand in the center of the stage. This hand could changeto use the idea of reflecting, both metaphorically and physically (in the water), to through time and the idea of the hand has a great deal of meaning attached to it.bring new meaning to the area. “Consequently, this place provides possibilities As thefor being active as well as being spirtiual. They just happen side by side.” 13
  • 14. Conclusion graphic to the left depicts, even the shapeorientation of the hand can alter its As evidenced by the various proposals, there is no correct answer on meaning. This simple gesture changes the makeup of this urban square and how to add meaning and memory to a space, especially one in the urban public accomplishes the goal of creating new meaning. “No one knows who the hands fabric. However, there are some elements that emerged from this design exer- belong to, (accept the designer). The meaning is to show that all people have the cise as possible solutions. right to the public space.” All the proposals dealt with the existing conditions, and those conditions The next proposal by Karolina Alvaker takes in the sense of hearing in have a large impact on the design of the site. The themes that developed evolved the memorial experience. Echoing sounds and wind passing through the sculp- from the interpretations of the site, and the conditions that are present there. It tural elements creating music which stimulates the senses and draws upon the would be interesting to see what would happen if a completely different site was idea of remembrance in a playful way. “With particular focus on sense and spirit, given for this same exercise. and with the natural elements as a mirror rather than any connection to a god, The question of how to create meaning or memory in a space is still a the Titanic Memorial is built to capture the individual person i a vast crowd.” difficult one to address, but this assignment helped to shed light on some pos- The proposal by Ann Henrikson also uses the idea of wind and sculp- sible ways to deal with the very complex issue. ture to define meaning in this urban space. Her concept revolves around the idea of wind as a way to trigger a fascination about the site. The sculptures force an extra awareness about the environment that surrounds the users of the site, and adds a new dimension. The statue of the wind formalizes the idea of the sculptures and the concept that they symbolize. “...a public meeting place where the perception of feeling and being a human being is in focus. The memorial of the wind is in fact a masque of the human perception of the wind...” Finally, the proposal by Nicholas Pettinati, deals with sculpture in a slightly different way. He wanted to use the memories of the people who use the Top: Graphic provided by Ann Henrikson site to add meaning to the space. He accomplished this goal by creating a photo Bottom: Graphic provided by collage as the paving pattern for the center stage, and on the walls of the space. Nicholas Pettinati The photographs to be used would be donated by people who use the space and would be constantly evolving, with more and more photographs being added. This collage is a physical representation of the memories that have occured on the site, and as such embody the meaning of the place. “The installation has a pround effect on the meaning of the space. Now, it is not only about what activi- ties are occuring there, it is also about remembering and re-living those experi- ences and learning about the experiences of others”Top: Graphic provided by Eva-Britt KarlssonBottom: Graphic provided by Karolina Alvaker 14
  • 15. REFLECTION We want to take this opportunity to share our thoughts and comments proposal, but was difficult for some to get started. It definately added a uniqueon the project. To start some general thoughts on the process; The literature for dimension to the proejct.this project was helpful as a starting point, and definately got us thinking about Overall, we all really enjoyed this project and would reccomendmemory and meaning. However it didn´t directly relate to the site, or the task. For The Titanic Corner, Picture by Cordula Gielen doing something similar in another course. It provoked someus, it provided more of a framework for the design, and the design evolved more very difficult and challenging questions about how peoplefrom the site conditions and the individual thoughts of the students. interact in an environment. Those types of questions Memory and meaning also occur on a very individual level, and we we think are at the core of this course andquestion whether you can create a space for everyone that is meaningful in a should be the ones to be exploredspirtual way. The question of religious vs nonreligious is always at the back of further.our minds when talking about this issue and another big question is how do weresolve that? Getting to the actual proposals, we thought it was incredible how therewere so many different solutions to this problem. Each proposal handled thesedifficult questions in a very unique way. It was also really interesting to see howthe themes evolved from the projects. It showed us how while each project wasindividual the group discussions had a great impact on how the process washandled. The discussion with Sabina Jallow also had a very profound impact onthe process. Sabina Jallow talked about how the ocean allows us to be silent, andeven just that comment influenced the designs.Another really interesting aspect of this project was the requirement to write it asan article from a third persons view. This was an excellent way to critique our own 15
  • 16. MEMORY AND MEANINGLiterature reviews- a summary • Spiritual and memorial places can be used for all outdoor activities; necessary, voluntary and social activities. These places can today also often be more symbolic than religious. As the time goes on, the use and meaning of a memorial place furthermore changes.The following summary is made from reflections on the course Many memorial objects, such as statues in the city, act for instanceliterature made by the students working with “places of memory as places for meeting where the original meaning of the object noand meaning” and from our group discussions. longer is important. • Spiritual places can gather people and act as meeting points • The remembrance can be voluntary, but it can also bein the outdoor environment. The experiences of a tragedy also uncontrollable. Memories are often recalled by complex andoften get people in difficult situations which can make them work individual triggers and not by places themselves. The triggers cantogether and get stronger. Memorial places can however also act be a certain symbol, feeling, spatiality, detail, etc. Of these triggers,excluding in the way that they sometimes can have a too directed some can be more effective than others. One of the triggers thatdesign or purpose. can be very important for our remembrance is the activation of our senses since they are a primitive part of us. • Memories can be personal and/or public. There havetherefore to be a balance between memorial places for individuals, • Sometimes people want to remember actively, which oftenwhich are person-oriented and can be individualized, and places for make them connect the memory to a certain thing or a place. Thethe public, which are spiritual and suitable for different people and active remembrance can however be created in a lot of differentcultures. Every person has however their own mourning process and ways.there are therefore good if it is possible to make room for individualmourning expressions in places with common monuments. • Memories are not the whole truth, but a creative imagination of the past. The memory and meaning of an event or thing can • Both the past and the future are important for the present therefore vary a lot between different individuals.time as the present exists in between the two. Since we can relateto things in the past it can be a great source of information andinspiration when forming the future.For a person who is morning it can be very hard to look into thefuture as one wants to remember the past, but it can also be hard asyou see that the future will be different than you had pictured. The reviews where based on the literature, which references are on the next page. 16
  • 17. References Guidelines and Tip-offs• Gehl, J. (2006). Life between buildings: using public space. 6. These guidelines are inspired by and canalized of what we have readed. København: The Danish Architectural Press. Or in Danish; Gehl, in the literature reviews/articles and of our discussion.J. (1996). Livet mellem husene. Udeaktiviteter och udemiljö.3. uppl.Köpenhamn: Arkitektens Forlag.• Hillier, J. (2007). Stretching beyond the Horizon. A MultiplanarTheory of Spatial Planning and Governance. pp 94-95Lieberg, M.(1995). Teenagers and Public Space, Communication Research, vol TOOLS: TEASE THE SENSES & SYMBOLISM22, no 6, 1995, pp.720 -744.• Mitchell, D. (2003). The Right to the City. Social Justice andthe Fight for Public Space. New York: The Guilford Press. Chapter 4, • TEASE THE SENSESThe End of Public Space? , pp 118-160. - To strengthen or weaken one or more senses:• Parr, A. (2008). Deleuze and Memorial Culture. Desire, o Stimulate one sense by e.g. using a significantSingular Memory and the Politics of Trauma. Pp 181-189. Edinburgh. smell or sound.Edinburgh University Press. o To mute one sense by e.g. make a place quiet.• Petersson, A. (2004). The Presence of the Absent. Memorials o Stimulate all the senses by using one phenomenon,and Places of Ritual. Lund University: Dept. of Architecture. Chapter1 e.g. water that you can touch, smell, taste and hear.and 3. o To emphasize by using contrasts, e.g. dark and• Santino, J. (2006) (Ed). Spontaneous Shrines and the Public light, loud and quiet, small and big, high and low, etc.Memorialization of Death. Goldstein, D. E. & Tye, D. The Call ofthe Ice: Tragedy and Vernacular Responses of Resistance, Heroic - You can control some senses more than others e.g. youReconstruction, and Reclamation. New York. Palgrave Macmillan. can decide whether you like to touch something but it’s harder to not experience a smell or a sound.• The Wanås Foundation (2008). Loss. Svenle, E. Defining thePast within the Present: Loss at Wanås. pp 13-32. Laholm. TrydellsTryckeri. ISBN 978-91-973972-9-2. 17
  • 18. • SYMBOLISM BE AWARE OF: THE PUBLIC SPACE & THE PERSONS - Who will understand the symbolism and what does it mean if you do not understand the symbolism? • THE PUBLIC SPACE - Use symbolism from the past, the moment or for the - A memorial place can exclude some people e.g. different future. religions, different cultures, people who are not mourning, - Beware of the change of symbolism, e.g. the swastika etc. that was a symbol for sun but now are connected with - Memorial places can act as meeting points where people Nazism and the christian cross that should be the symbolIs this hope? can share a memory with others, e.g. a memorial place of an for hope but now are perceived as a symbol of death by accident. How does the dis- many. tance affect you? - The accessibility, e.g. for disabled people, wheelchair - Use the universal symbolism of nature elements, e.g. users and different genders, ethnicity, religion, age, etc. water can be recognized as the source of life. - How to raise a memorial. - Use contrasts that make the symbolism clear, e.g. a water element might have a stronger influence in a dense city - How to take a memorial away e.g. build up something than in direct connection to the seaside. new with another meaning. - Use the written language, e.g. quotations written on a - That different places are more or less appropriate for street in Stockholm that remind you of certain things. memory and meaning and that the right design for the place is important. What happened? • THE PERSONS - That a traumatic memory can pop up trigged by some thing in the environment. - That the memory can be actively evoked, e.g. by some ritual. - The fact that a memory is not the whole truth but a creative imagination of the past, e.g. some childhood memories of certain happenings get more “pink” after a period of time. What do we remember? - Different kinds of stages in for e.g. the mourning. ...or just Summer? 18
  • 19. Influences by the literature Influences by the groupIt was quite interesting to regard the influence of the literature Every design proposal is based on, first of all, the person’s ownbackground on the final design proposals. We figured out that experience of the place and it has the marks of the concerningthere is an obvious connection between the given literature and literature. As people worked on this task in several groups, and theythe proposals. The literature directed the thoughts of the students’ had group discussions, the effects of the discussions are noticeabledesign process. While discussing about the different proposals we in each person’s individual work. For example:noticed that for us senses could play an important role in triggeringmemories. Although senses like the sense of hearing play animportant role in several designs, students hardly discussed about it • when elements of nature were emphasized on a discussion, it isperhaps as they had no text to rely on. noticeable on the students works • it is the same effect with triggersEven if the students had the same theoretical background, the • or the importance of public interactionliterature was used in different ways. Some students used clear • the most of students kept the original identity of the traced areareferences to the texts and thus created a proposal with a veryscientific character. Other students however used the literature • and a group which discussed the importance of height, viewmore like a first inspiration. Although they did not use strict and freedom, it is mentioned in the individual texts as well.references it is obvious that they refer to the same theoreticalbackground. As we noticed, every work was seemingly completely different, but looking behind it – reading the text – there were marked signsWe regard it as very important to do either or. If one uses references which group they belonged to. This shows the importance ofone should try to do it in a correct and stringent way because parts talking to different kind of people, different kind of user groups andof the proposal without references seem to be one’s own ideas. professionals.Without any references the reader of a text might be aware that theauthor draws upon a given theoretical framework. 19
  • 20. SPETSAMOSSENGroup 7: Anna Ekdahl, Anna Stefkova, Hrafnhildur Hrafnkelsdóttir, Karin Ingemansson, Sigrid Lönnerholm 20
  • 21. THE TASKOur task was to make proposal for a kind of urban playground in part of Spetsa-mossen park in Vaxjo. The city is surrounded by water, which is a major elementof this town. The park is located in the downtown. People pass through the siteeveryday to get to work or city centre but there is no inviting atmosphere that willmake them stay and spend some time there. The municipality have now decidedto rebuild the park because it is considered to be unsafe and of limited use bythe citizens. The new suggestion for the park structure came from Kragh & Ber-glund architects.Difficulties:One of the difficulties we were confronted with was how we were supposed tomake the proposal if we didn’t know how the place exactly looks like and didn’thave opportunity to see it.Another question was the concept of an “urban” playground. An urban play-ground feels a bit on contrary to what we have learned or read in the literature.Many people defined urbanity with materials, shapes, vegetation which can givean urban character to a space.Safety: A lot of people didn’t consider the park as a safe place. Lighting and alsovegetation were considered as elements to counteract this perception.Activity was also mentioned according to different age groups. People came upwith question if it is possible to include all age groups to one place and makeeverybody satisfied and active. If you try to please everyone you may loose thefascination of the place.The term “playground” tends to be used for children and it was confusing to workwith. Also play was included between all age groups- from the children to elderlyand disabled people.Some people made their assignment as a professional design proposal for themunicipality; the others made it more as a school assignment and were writingmore reflectively about their ideas than promoting them. 21 Illustration: The proposed activity area (Kragh and Berglund Architects)
  • 22. THE KRAGH AND BERGLUND PROPOSAL In this assignment we were given an overall proposal from the Architect Com- pany Kragh & Berglund. The students have different attitudes to this concept, whereas no one has chosen not to work with it all, people have used their con- cept differently and in varying degrees. The distinct paths are a subject that many students have mentioned, and many have seen the paths as an urban shape and something that will contribute to the desired urban character of the park. Some have decided to work further on these, also on a more detailed level in the urban activity area that we were given. And that seems to have worked well, the activity area then look more connected to the rest of the park. Some are critical against the elevated paths, that they will direct the movement too much and prevent people from finding their own way around in the park. And also that they will give a feeling on being on-stage and possibly make people feel very visible, vulnerable and exposed. The Kragh and Berglund concept have raised a discussion about urbanity among many students. Especially when they mentioned that materials as asphalt and concrete would contribute to the urban character many students questioned what urbanity is? The conclusion is that urbanity partly lies in the choice and use of materials, but also distinct shapes, elements and lighting etc. are important to get the desired urban feeling. Also it is argued that the many different activities that will take place in the park can give it an urban feel, that this density of activities is very urban. Some think that the Kragh and Berglund proposal have divided the different ac- tivities in the park and not made the park inclusive enough. They describe it as a park consisting of different ‘activity islands’. Some have reflected on that it might be a good idea to extend the ‘Urban activity’ area and lead the main path trough it so that it will be a natural place for people to stop by at, and thus avoid it to be another separated ‘activity island’. This division is feared to lead to divided age groups and less integration in the park.Illustrations from top: Carina Daubner,Zita Lándori, Sofia Fribyter 22
  • 23. THEMES IN DESIGNPROPOSALSA great variation in handed-in material could be noted. Some proposals were very • Area divided into “islands” Illustrations from left: Anna Ekdahl, Erikaconceptual whereas others were more detailed, some had illustration plans and Jonasson, Emily Hansen, Jessica Macdonaldothers simple sketches illustrating basic ideas. When looking through the design • Inspiration for idiomproposals we found some common themes and similarities. WaterWetland/Bog Water has been used in almost all of the proposals in one way or another. It is, by many, considered a playful element that increases well-being just by being pres-A lot of the proposals discussed the context of Spetsamossen as a formerwetland and used this as an inspiration for the design of the activity area. This ent.background was first introduced in the Kragh & Berglund concept. • Water-play • FountainNature-like design or actual biotope • Streaming water • Still waterIn some proposals the wetland as a biotope or natural elements from it have beenused, for instance:• Dewatering area with reed and jumping stones Use of all senses Exploration with other senses than just vision (touching, tasting, smelling andSymbolic listening) affects the experience of place. Activity does not necessarily have to beOther proposals have mainly been inspired by the shapes or forms found in wet- physical, it can also be mental.lands, for example: • Tactile elements • Exploring with your body and activating your brain 23
  • 24. Eye catching objects MultifunctionalityIllustrations from left: Mateja Havlicek,Merle Talviste, Magdalena Galle, Eva-Britt Karlsson Objects that attract attention and evoke curiosity. Work like magnets that draw This theme includes objects or elements that have no specific function and can people into the area from where they can start-off and discover other parts. be used in more than one way. Places can also have multiple functions. Some examples of this: • Maze Idiom • Disco-game with musical tiles lighted in different colours. Some have used an over-all idiom, like a certain shape or pattern, often devel- • High-rope course oped from the concept of Kragh & Berglund, others have used objects conse- quently throughout the area. • Original swings/hammocks • Spectacular furniture Security • Red path • Play-sculptures The problems with rape and criminality in the park have been considered in many • Creative lighting of the proposals, often by avoiding dense shrubberies and putting emphasis on lighting. Other aspects of security are all the regulations concerning play equip- ment and public places. This is not something that is discussed to any larger Hills and levels extent in the proposals, perhaps because it might be limiting in the conceptual stage of the design process. Arguments for using hills or other differences in height include that they promote motion and evoke curiosity of what might be behind. They can also provide a place for overview of the area. Examples of this: Accessibility • Rocks or structures to climb Access for all seems to be an important issue in all of the proposals. It has been • Large hill as border/viewpoint considered in the choice of ground-material, by making paths and by allowing • Group of smaller hills activities for everyone, including people with disabilities. • Modeling of landscape 24
  • 25. USE OF REFERENCESWe think it is important to think about who will be reading your proposal. Who is o three elements: the permanent, the changeable, the momentaryyour target group? Will your use of the references be easily understandable to o provide a feeling of freedom and keep play goingthose who have not read the literature, or have forgotten what the literature was o use of all senses when experiencing placeabout? The references must be presented in such a way that the reader willknow what they are referring to and be able to connect them to your work. o awareness of geography, concrete place and not just abstract o gender perspective, boys do not necessarily need more space than girlsReferences in individual proposals were used to strengthen and support thestudent’s concept in the design proposal. Some were relevant to the literaturewe have been reading, while others weren’t. Cooper Marcus and BarnesReflections on children’s play, public places, the senses, activities, users, objects o gardens must convey a sense of securityand vegetation were the most common ones. The researchers with the most o positive effects of waterreferences to their work were Gehl, Cele, Mårtensson, Kylin and Boldeman. o positive effects of being outdoorsReferences - literature for every- Gehl o people gather where the main attractions areone; o primary seats and secondary seating o new activities begin in the vicinity of events that are already in progressBoldeman o people as social creatureso better motor skills in natural environments o activities grow from the edge to the middleo different height levels important o people are attracted to other people, especially if they are activeo a green environments triggers activity o public places have changed from being used because of needs to beingo vegetation protect children from dangerous sun radiation Illustration: Lavanya Asogamoorthy places for optional, recreational activitieso physical qualities of outdoor places important to trigger healthy behav o human scaleiour in children o other people are the main attraction of public spaceso physical elements like sculptures result in more spontaneous play than prefabricated equipment o public spaces need to have opportunities for people and meetingso fenced-in surfaces can have a hindering affect on physical activity GiffordCele o passive observation most of the timeo object o people have different experience and thoughts of placeo problems with creating labelled places o if groups feel welcome and use it, there will be more life 25
  • 26. Grahn and Stigsdotter o elements that allow you to test your senses o benefits of being outdoors Kylin o absence of large green areas o children, special place, special meaning o children’s need to manipulate environments o dens – hidden places where children can observe without being observed o possibilities to climb, hide, meet with friends o layers of vegetation is important to play o dens vary from very secret to very socialIllustration: Emma Ekdahl o vegetation promotes activity o children needs a more intimate scale, this triggers them to create their own space o teenagers need to have opportunities to feel free and independent o step-by-step, smaller children keep closer to parents o respect for children’s own creativity and needs is necessary when planning for them Lieberg o on stage, offstage o teenagers seek to avoid adult supervision o teenagers have few places in the city in which they can hang out o in between/ free zones o places to retreat 26
  • 27. References - from lectures: References – for further reading: JacobsGrahn o the mixture of users and uses is what changes a place into an urban placeo easier to find something they like if the place offers one function, and easier to find something to do if one part is used for a particularplay or activity Wardo usage of the eight park characters o defining aspect of a park is accessibilityo using an orange colour as stimulation of activity- white and bluish co lours are good in relaxing environments References - from other than those in our literature list:Mårtenssono objects Appeltono objects, something to touch, things to do o prospect, refugeo own rules, play and usage of spaceo vegetation promotes activity Illustration: Cordula Gielen Delshammar, Timo vegetation should be emphasized in the outskirts of the area, focus on edges which promote play o user participationo children create their own world in which they define roles, places that can be related to each other like high or low, dense or open support this Diarmuid Gavin kind of play o wooden platforms inspired one studento areas for children are often too organizedo children need to have places for their own F.L.Right o quotation:” form follows function “Nebelongo stimulate the senses Gaventa o traditional public places are not enough to meet the needs and wishes of people today Kaplan and Kaplan o sitting places with open front and closed back make you feel comfortable 27
  • 28. Integrated sitting facilities gives the possibility to rest, observe, listen, meet randomly a friend. These one of the activities that can take place next to a urban playground. Children are experiencing the ru Spetsamossen playground human figures. The figures in a active poses can trigger others also be active in this park. Illustration by Merle Talvieste. 28Rubber element next to the playground (first characteristics). It function as a space in its own. It opens up
  • 29. INTRODUCTION SPETSAMOSSEN PROJECTThis project holds the summary and reflection of the project Spetsamossen. Our given proposal site is in the Spetsamossen Park. Our task for the site was to The proposed urban pathways for the Spetsamossen park illustrated byThe ideas, opinions, and discussions are that of spring 2009 students of the create an untraditional urban playground. This space had previously been very Kragh&Berglund.class People and Environment. This student project took place in the campus of unsafe and more of a forgotten nature area. It has been neglected and underap-Alnarp, SLU Agricultural Sciences. The results and reflection are those concern- preciated. The municipality would like to change the park to something that alling the design of the site Spetsomossen and general design elements that may citizens can use and take pride in. Kragh & Berglund are the landscape architectsbe effective elsewhere. We tried to provide an impression of all these proposals taking part in this project and have provided a proposed plan for the entire site.without evaluating each design proposal. Thus, we wanted to reflect and maybe However, our task was to look into this one specific part located south of theprovide some feedback on how to incorporate the design of Spetsomesson to skateboard area. We were supposed to create a suitable design considering thefuture design proposals. What were the basic questions asked by students? How context and requirements of the site. In this process questions and discussionscan this be related to the current understanding of the public’s view? What is were formulated to provide a better understanding of the task at hand. This sum-the outlook on future designs concerning the matters discussed in this project? mary and reflection is a conclusion of our findings, of our questions and futureWhat elements are repeated? These are some questions that are addressed in this design possibilities.report. 29
  • 30. Gräs GräsKRAGH&BERGLUND Gräs Amfi_ Sittplattformar Lekplats_GummibeläggningPROPOSAL Dagvattenbassäng _ Vasskog Parkering Græs Grus Dagvattenbassäng Sand _Gräs GräsGeneral ideas Sittsten Gräs Gräs When having a closer look at certain elements there Gräs Sten med vide Gräs Paviljong might be too less lighting to animate people to use Gräs PaviljongThe proposal from Kragh & Berglund is to create an urban park that offers many Gräs this area in the night as well.different activities. Spetsamossen should be a place for everyone; a park where The shape of the paths was something people hadpeople can meet and integrate. contrarily opinions about. On the one hand, it creates Gräs Parkering Gräs an urban character and provides an interesting design. Gräs Sten med videKragh & Berglund main idea is that the park should have an urban feeling and On the other hand, the elevated paths probably will Gräsbeing a central meeting place. They state that a functioning urban space should Sittsten Parkering cause a problem of accessibility for elderly and disabled Elefantgräsconsist of three elements; permanent, changeable and passing elements. This Sten med vide Grus persons. They might even prevent spontaneous move-means the park should contain solid objects and interior that is permanent as ment and animate the people to stay on the paths and Bollbanorwell as having a possibility to arrange temporary social events. But there is also a Skärmar Paviljong Cirkusplats not to go into the single parts because they direct too Sittsten Gruswish for creating a place where spontaneous activities and meetings can occur. Gräs much. Furthermore, the elevation creates a feeling of Sten med vide being on-stage and therefore being vulnerable. People Sten med vide Sten med videThe design proposal features a system of irregular concrete pathways that will Grillplats feel uncomfortable. Grusconnect the different parts of the park with each other. The main idea with these Skärmar Projektorer The uncommon pathways might even induce peoplepaths, besides getting an urban feeling, is to encourage movement in the park Gräs Projektorer Minigolfbana to avoid the park at all because shortcuts are not easy Gräsand to divide the park into different zones, where every zone has its own activi- Skärmar to be done and people always think about the shortestties. The range of different activity-zones provides an opportunity for every Skatebane Paviljong way. Sittstengroup to have a place to go to. The main road will go through the park instead Energipil Allmänning Sand Gräsfrom around it and this will bring more people to the park, even though they are Gräsjust passing through. Some other elements in the park will be storm-water basinsand a wetland character in the choice of plant material. How students worked Gräs Gräs Petangue Projektorer with the ideas Skärmar Projektorer Gräs Sten med sivThoughts about the proposal Projektorer Sten med vide Resulting out of these thoughts, there have been dif- Gräs Paviljong Energipil Gräs ferent ways of dealing with the proposed design. LekplatsThe students had a lot of thoughts about the proposal of Kragh&Berglund and Grus A lot of students tried to integrate Kragh & Ber-formed different opinions about their design-ideas. Avvattning_ Hoppstenar glund’s ideas. To work with the paths, the dewater- Gräs Bladvass ing zone, certain materials and elements (steppingIn general, the proposed design seems to be too determined, inflexible and not stones) and vegetation can be taken as few ex-open for spontaneous movement and play. Every area has a certain function. amples. SittstenKragh & Berglund separated different activities from each other and thus there is Tuvtåtel Sandless possibility that different people can meet and interact spontaneously. Differ- There have been also ideas of how to solve weak PONERINGSPLANent groups have their “own” area that likely causes a lack of integration. Ankomst points of the Kragh & Berglund’s design. Putting attrac-In this context there were doubts about an appropriate choice of the activities’ tive elements into the “islands” might trigger people to step Avvattning_Vasskoglocations (skatepark next to barbecue and pentague area). from the paths and therefore to foster a more intense interac- Gräs tion between people and this place. etsamossen There was also the idea of changing certain activities or to locate them at a different place. 30 The proposal plan for Stetsamossen by Kragh & Ber- glund Landscape architects.
  • 31. are flexible and versatile; making the basic blocks for many different Square and changing surroundnings. WHAT IS ACTIVITY? Jump Climb Sit- VARIOUS SWINGS | Everybody can do it if the DESIGN of the swing fits the user group. And it´s social too. STEP1: Irresistible SWINGING. Because we were supposed to make a proposal for an untraditional playground, How to define activity is based on different factors like age and physical ability. more like an activity park, everyone was struggling with the question: What is But overall does active activities mean more advanced physical activities like activity? What does activity mean for different people and groups? playing and sports and the passive activity is calmer and includes observing and Grove sitting, listening, talking; evoking our senses and just being in the present and being aware of yourself »here and now«.. Social interaction is another activity, Illuminated in the night Activity is a broad concept and can mean both play and calm Naturewhich important element activities is an and it is important that children are a part of the social life (Cele, 2006). It’s impor- means that we can create activity for the body as well as for the mind.urban environment. Here in the Even Water tant that there is room for passive activities like observing, because if we cannotiday (Wikipedia, 2009- though passive is the opposite word of active most of us were in common children can play freely and cre- see people we might not go to a place, although the place offers attractionsnd total freedom to Entrence thought that there is both an active activity and a passive activity. Is there any (Gehl, 2006).Furthermore, if there is not room for basic activities - that are more Water has many different qualities. create both active and passive activation in the same their own little hide-aways.hey also invites you to way you can ate place? passive - the advanced activities do not proceed (Gehl, 2006). In this, the concret boxes makethe in your garden, fascintes, gives relaxion and en-east reed It courages play. an exciting element. Social integration by cooperation lending| the by Emmaa illustrated shape from UNIFORM SWING CHARACTERS Visible fromerial I think that they Activating your body and challenge yourself as Ekdahl. distance, perhaps the street lamps.serve as the necessary illustrated by Jessica MacDonald. The difference between user groups is that children are more physically active; way to all the other 0 10 20 30 40m they become active through interaction environment and use their whole body ds, rest for a while or in their play. They run around, climb and searching. For kids play is a way of living and through that they learn and sense the world (Kylin, 2003; Cele, 2006). Even though they are mainly active, they also do more passive activities. Children need calm places too where they can withdraw and be by themselves (Kylin, 2003; Cele, 2006). PAGE 5 Adults and elderly do more passive activities like sitting and observing, talking. Le : Placing of the hammocks But they can do more active activities if they wish and have the strength. Adults Jumping stones play could be described more as anPlay and hide in the is conceive as a entertainment. Usually it grove Below: How it can look Observing is an important passive activity as illustrated by Magdalena Galle Rambe. pleasure where the competition moment adds the adrenalin. Many of us com- mented that it is difficult to know how adults see at activity and play since there Playing for children is more than running around. It’s also about calm play and learning about the world as is hardly any literature about the subject. illustrated by Lavanya Asogamoorthy. Teenagers are both active and passive. They are looking for specific activities like sports and skateboarding, as well as being out of reach of adults’ supervision and “hang out”. They need both on-stage and off-stage places in their environment (Lieberg, 1995). An example of hammocks that invites you to lie in them and relax but also to act more active by swinging in them as illustrated by Maria Malmstöm. 31
  • 32. o hilly landscape is interesting and makes people curious Walker o public spaces are for everyone- question of accessibility Michaela Lica o colour affection Mitchel o grass root activity Moore & Cosco o safe and security can sometimes result in a loss of play opportunities for children Osberger o colour affection Skovbakke Villadsen, Kielgast o strongly specialized spaces can become destination places for networking in the neighbourhood and the cityIllustration: Anna Stefkova Sullivan o quotation: ” form follows function “ Villarreal, Edgar L. o stormwater in an urban context Worpole o users need protection from each other 32
  • 33. Assignment: An urban playground Johanna VerbaanTARGET GROUPS Activity and User groups Children Adults Older people TeengersWho is the target group and what are their needs? The target group can be any To bring together different users invites greater social interaction in which one af- Illustration by Johanna Verbaan.group of people divided by age, gender, social status, background, disability, ter effect is influence. Thus, is it better to force different users to interact throughillness, and so on. Each of these target groups has their special needs such as creative activity? If so, then how to bring about multiple target groups into oneconsidering physical challenges, accommodation, and culture to name a few. Be- space? This might mean we need to generalize the interests of each user or vicecause of each target Main target group group’s special needs conflicts can occur when facing other group Secundary target versa and includegroup activities and alternatives so that all interests are met. It Secundary target many Secundary target groupgroups because of differing views and interests. For example, children like to play might mean using one user group to invite or force other user groups to partici-and be noisy but adults desire peace and quiet. pate within the space. For example, to create a place for children might influence the space used by parents and grandparents.Is it appropriate to integrate all user groups into one space or it is better to dividethe space? Focusing on a single target group means their individual needs are We should also keep in mind that people attract other people to come to a space.met but when shared with other users it means that the needs of the whole are Maybe, understanding that adults need play as well can bring together various Mainly active but Mainly passive but also ac- Mainly passive but also ac- Both passive and activemet rather than the individual group. If one separates the targettive activity if wished. also passive activity groups there is useractivity if wished. incorporate challenges that satisfies all targetthe tive groups. How to activity, depending on groups? Manythe loss of interaction with other users. There are fewer challenges in the social in their review of Spetsamossen have explained that maybe and the is the answer. time of the day nature amount and type of peoplerealm. Nature provides interest for all audiences and provides play through the imagina- in the area. tion. 33
  • 34. To be able to choose where you would like to go and who you want tos meet is important for the personal feeling of freedom (Cele, Gifford). The viewpoints are important for the fascination keep to the interest of what is happening around the corner but struggling with the fear of violence in the park the balance between open and closed have to bet carefully considered. The main character is according to Kragh and Berglund open and flat.m URBANITYoo The pavilion is considered to be a roof, for sun or rain protection.on The benches are partly movable, tracks in the concrete floor makes it  possible to furniture the scene. To be able to change a place gives thisof  area a dynamic design, and its satisfying to be able to change your environment (Mårtensson,Kylin). I  have a vision where I see different age groups as Lieberg or Gifford says hanging out here and socialize.       was to create an active place for everybody in an urban context The assignment for everybody the environment has to be multifunctional and open for different  park of Spetsamossen. Therefore, every student asked about the term of for the kinds of fantasy and creativity.  urbanity. There has been also the opinion that urbanity excludes nature, that urbanity  There have been thoughts about the use of certain materials (concrete, asphalt,  means less greenery or that nature does not fit into an urban context at all.  and shapes (sharp, strict, determined) but also colours (grey or glass, plastic), As one can see, there are different opinions about urbanity and that it can mean  ones like blue, red, green, yellow). But it has to be mentioned that more intensive different things to different people. One group stated the difficulty to handle this  really defined urbanity in this way and some asked about if this is some students  as planners because everybody has his/her own image of urbanity and one never meant to be urban.  knows if it meets other opinions and if this urban character is recognizable and      For a lot of students urbanity goes together with a high density of (mixed)  appreciated by others at all. people who meet and interact with each other. Furthermore, urbanity might with a lot of activities that happen in one place, different activi- When looking at the single proposals it becomes obvious that the discussion be connected about urbanity and the results of it lead to design-ideas. ties according to activities in natural environments (skateboarding, etc) and a and materials as illustrated by Eva-Britt Urban shapes Karlsson. lot of movement and happenings in general. Kragh&Berglund proposed special The use of defined shapes and certain materials like Magdalena’s concrete boxes, Movable, multifunctional, plastic cubes the eye-catching-effect of intensive colours (Johanna’s cubes or Merle’s red rub- in bright colors evoke creativity illus- lighting for this park of Spetsamossen. The huge lamps initiated thoughts about trated by Johanna Bilfeldt. lighting and urbanity. When considering the sun as the natural light, (such) artifi- ber objects) the importance of social interaction (Jenny’s dancefloor, Cordula’s cial lights create an urban feeling anyway. ferries) as illustrated by images. Some groups thought about the need of an urban park in this place of Spet- samossen, if it suitable at all. On the one hand, there was the municipality’s demand for an urban park and the central location that might make an urban CUBS character eligible. But on the other hand, there were proposals that struggled The cubs are made by plastic and should be hollow with an urban character being aware of Mårtensson’s (2009) statement of a natural environment that is more suitable for children’s play. Some even negated heavy. The cubs will be placed where the pathway urbanity for this place. is that the cubs can be moved around and people ca Ferries fostering cooperation in the design by Cordula  It was often the case that urbanity has been put in relation to natural/rural envi- kind of purpose. I was also thinking that the cu Gielen. ronment. children to experience their body, use their balance The more people see the world from different angles. For example c Some were thinking about if urban character excludes nature or how it is pos- you are, the fast- er it goes and the sible to integrate nature in an urban way. Maybe just to shape vegetation in a or jumping around and playing don’t touch the grou sounds will become sharp or geometric form, or to use uncommon species for the certain location on the cubs, watching the children, the vegetation a melody. instead of planting common species in more layers, can be one way of how way also can be seen as artwork that have differen to bring the two terms together. Urban seems to be more determined, more place will change and it will be interesting do go shaped, more defined and natural more complex, unordered, undirected, more happened, what have other people create. Some of open for creativity and fantasy. Thus, there was this notion that it has been the ground and on the night there will be light insid difficult to decide how to integrate urbanity when it is more determined, less flexible and seems to have a certain function. When designing an active place I will also put some of the stucked cubs into the v The dynamic lighting and colors of the dance floor fosters social the feeling that the rised pathways give the feeling t integration as illustrated by Jenny Åkesson. to go on them and and not in the vegetation. Throu things into the vegetation I think that people will f in the vegetation. The cubs can then be used as 34 lie down watching the sky, reading a book or stud around. They can also be meeting places for teenage
  • 35. is also could rest, meet other person orave de- observe what is happening.ir loca- On the left side the wood sticksshapes thicket creates see troughrdance screen. t kinds Stones next to the woodenng, hid- pathway allows to enter differ-fferent DESIGN FOR ACTIVITY ent room. The red rubber formt , but I catches the eye from the dis-fferent tance. The use of it depends be the on the user groups. It could be object This sketch could illustrate my visioned first characteristic a meeting place, sitting area or area. It is a rather open area next to the water collecting used as a slide or climbing tool. pond. There is a combination with rubber balls and stones. The surface here is sand. I found it very important because a lot of people make this relation to beach, maybe vacation, Stone islands relation. So this could work for a adult as a restorative area, sunny spot or make a will to clime? As in the research (lec- Multifunctional use ture with P.Grahn) with the children the sand is very impor- tant play tool. So here it isn’t putted in a box, it allows to act everywhere. Stimulate different senses The wooden pathway leads to a hidden place on the water. Is it betterA lot of research has shown that water is a very pleasing and elements to have a flexible or more specified design? A place A design that stimulates different senses has many advantages. It creates a closer that can be used in many different ways can pathway allows to element in the landscape. The wooden evoke creativity and fantasy. There and deeper interaction with the environment. It means that there are more di- access to this spot fort every one, even elderly people. may also be a risk of, when using very defined functions or elements, that it may mensions to explore. It can also be a very successfull method when dealing with a distract some user groups negatively since they feel that it’s not made for them. variety of user-groups because it has something to give people regardless of dis- Entry to a water Consequently, a more open-ended design can therefore be an advantage. When platform. Bend- ability or limitations. It can be choosing different materials or materials that have being able topathway ing transform the place yourself, perhaps there is a better possibility to many different qualities, like fruit-trees, soft leaves, pouring water and rounded makes wonder generate place attachment because you have the opportunity to make the place what is behinf the stones. Plants and vegetation is very useful because it stimulates so many differ- whatever you want it to be. corner. ent senses and also provide diverse qualities throughout the year. On the other hand, a few people raised the question that very open-ended de- Create variation and possibilities Some of the stone islands are mixed u Various objects to stimulate the senses illustrated by Red rubber spheres, undefined objects for sign could make people uncertain about how to behave. Perhaps more defined Some stone islands only consist of one Erica Jonasson. creative play and imagination as illustrated elements, where it’s clear what the purpose of the function is, might make it A design which has variation in roomsother of different materials, with vegetation that can work as screen material and possible experiences can serve differ- by Merle Talvieste. easier for some people. For example, adults might not be as used to as children in ent uses and user-groups at the same time. It is also likely that a variated place shapes and sizes. that divides the place into smaller rooms FORM, MATERIALS & also evokes a sense of freedom of the vegetation does however differ between children and older when one can The main thoughtsto go. levels areneed both on-stage andlanes with choose where for the People that they should function like off-stage In some places the vegetation lanes therefore have a very natural l interacting deeply with their natural environment. will hold people’s interest for a longer time. ItACTIVITIES the same form expression as the ordinary paths in the park, but with dif- many plant layers and different kinds of species. This kind of vege places which aferent heights, widths, materials and uses/activities. The edgy form of the perfect for children’s play and it encourages them to build dens as ordinary paths is not just taken in the horizontal plane but also in the verti- �ind good places that correspond to their size and the environmen design should take into account (Lieberg). Attracting people and plan for cal plane. That is, the lanes height changes in an edgy way, like it is made of butes with the material that they need in their construction (Kylin ramps (see view images). The direction of the lanes is irregular and made Cele S., 2006). In other places the vegetation is more cultivated an so that the end of them cannot be seen. The bene�its from this are that the since adults often prefer more tidy looking vegetation. The most im social interaction Heights and levels attention is directed on the surrounding environment, the atmosphere gets thing for the plants is though, as mentioned earlier, that they have variations in qualities throughout the year as possible. The vegeta When the ground plane varies, this can motivate be experienced as longer than a stronger spatial feeling and the lanes can people to activate too. Climbing they really are. Although the lanes only run in one direction it is possible to sest to the pentangue/boule area and the main paths should be low Textures go or benches provide paths perpendicular to the lanes. These physical more open due to security (mostly experienced security). Next to hills, walls, steps between them by smallerdifferent challenges and healthysmall tangue/boule plants should also be used that have �lowers during movement and body-awareness. Hillsby the use of the visitors themselves. sand, bark for well as spring andground materials, like wood, turf, gravel, paths could either be done in less urban materials (for example in Modules that can be put together to create Seeing, meeting and talking to other people is not only an important part of “changing chairs” as illustrated by Michael or wood chips) or be created are a well-used element in playgrounds as A variation in autumn. In some 1) Transparant surfaces mixed children, but can bethese paths could start adults as well. of stairs over a larger height places an enjoyment for by a narrow �light being activated – people are also very attracted by other people and especially difference and in some on places where the height difference is none or very Schmölz. when other people are active. A good way of creating activity is therefore to plan mysterious expression. Differe sand and rubber illustrated by Lavanya Asogamoorthy. for a good meeting place. This might include choosing a good setting close to a small. ferent ways which gives the p To make people start spending time in and experiencing the level landscape there are some usual activities integrated in the lanes. In one glade next to main path and providing good places for seating. Another way is to design some- Benches the water there is a grill area and in another glade there is a pentangue/ Sitting is a very important activity, perhaps especiallysouthadults the skate park It boule area. From the arrival crossing in the very for part to and elderly. thing spectacular, fascinating or irresistable. This, in itself, will attract people and Ground 2) Natural stones have a very Temporary activities like exhibitions there is also a lane for the skaters. Here youths can skate and practice some Hide-and-seek or letting the children paint The concret boxes give an urban make them want to explore the place. Another way is to plan for activities that gives possibilities to tricks to edges made in the people, toon the corners ofor talk to a of their rest, on observe other ground and read a book the lane impression at the same time as they are flexible and versatile; making stones are unique. Natural s friend. Strategically placedhave to be strengthened by an important part of the design walls (corners benches is therefore metal). In this lane the lane walls the basic blocks for many different and changing surroundnings. fosters cooperation, and which gives people a reason to interact. could also be made extra high and function as “legal walls” for graf�iti. which makes them very pleas and should provide different possibilitiesthatprivacy,the same throughout the Each lane has a special character in either is sun/shade and on-stage/ Jump Climb 1 2 off-stage. Light, movable chairs has evenway. Some of them consists of water, some whole lane or changes along the more possibilities for people to choose Sit- of concrete paths and some of vegetation. The lanes of concrete paths are the perfect spot a darker color than with each other.with a rougher surface treat- in and to interact the main paths and Seating is very important in the Versatile concrete boxes as illustrated by Magdalena public square as it one of the requirementsfrom the ordinary system of Whyte. ment, which makes them stand out suggested by William paths. All Galle Rambe. of the lane walls (the sides that take up the height differences) are made of Grove Illuminated in the night the same light (white) concrete as in the main paths. The vegetation in the Nature is an important element in the urban environment. Here lanes does in some of them only consist of cut providing interest andtrees, Elevation changes grass while in other of activation for Entrence children can play freely and cre- ate their own little hide-aways. shrubs and/or perennials.thethe form of the lanes Carina Daubner. As users illustrated by has an urban character In this, the concret boxes make an exciting element. the vegetation can be more natural without losing the urban feel. Although more urban vegetation (as trees in hard surfaces etc.) can be very nice, much 0 10 20 30 40m Stone islands research establishes a general preference of more natural vegetation (Kap-ng stones lan & Kaplan, 1998; Ottosson & Ottosson, 2006). The amount of naturalness Stones are other objects that can be used to experi- Stones can also w Play and hide in the grove 35 ment with different height levels and also be used by the important me children in their play by climbing up and down the like chairs and b like stairs, fountai where they make their own “private” places. bining these seat enced as abandon
  • 36. Vegetation and nature When it comes to childrens’ play, nature and vegetation has proved to be very stimulating and provide many possibilites. Plants provide places to hide, to observe other people, it can be manipulated into paths and dens and it activa- tes many different senses. Vegetation can have restorative effects and activate people, even if it’s not be as physically engaging as it may be for children. To include plants in the design is therefore very useful in most places, but perhaps even more so where you want people to activate. Water Water is a very useful element offering many different experiences and activities if added to a place. It can be a very calming material and at the same time be a good element to transform and use in activities; touching it, making it move, hearing it, making things float or sink to the bottom. Combined with bridges or stepping stones over the water, it can add a challenge to the ordinary activity of walking. Dens Dens are an important part of childrens’ play, making them create a world of their own, feel freedom and observe other people while hiding. A place where there is possibility to create dens will be a good place for children, and the use of vegetation is especially good for this purpose. Could there be something similar Stepping stones in water brings excitement and closeness to water as to dens which adults may want to use? Jessica MacDonald. PAGE 4 36
  • 37. LITERATUREFor the different design proposals the students used various kind of literaturethat has also been discussed in the literature seminars. ReferencesTo mention only some, Cele (2006), Mårtensson (2009), Kylin (2003), Boldemannet al.(2006) provided a broad spectrum of what planners have to consider when Kragh and Berglund Landskapsarkitekter A/S Köpenhamn. (2007) Program fordesigning environments for children. It was very helpful to work with it. The Spetsamossen Växjö.discussion of a natural environment being more suitable for people’s well-beingsand children’s play than an urban environment often occurred and was mainlyfed by the various authors’ statements. Boldeman, C. et al. (2006). Impact of preschool environment upon children’s physical activity and sun expo¬sure. Prev Med 42(4), pp 301-308.The place in the Spetsamossen Park was supposed to be an active place foreverybody. Therefore, it was interesting to think about activity for adults andelderly as well. Unfortunately, there was literature missing that gave us a deeper Cele, S., (2006). Communicating Place. Methods for Understanding Children’sinsight in what kind of features and elements can activate them. Experience of Place. Doct Diss, Stockholm University pp 9-80.When having a look at the single proposals, there are other works that have beenhelpful to refer to (not an entire list): Gehl, J. (2006). Life between buildings: using public space. 6.Jan Gehl ed. København: The Danish Architectural Press.Robert GiffordMats Lieberg Gifford, R. (1987). Environmental Psychology, principles and practice. Allyn and Bacon, Boston. Chapter 10: “Community environmental psychology” Kylin, M. (2003). Children’s Dens. Children, Youth and Environment. 13(1), Spring 2003. Lieberg, M (1995) Teenagers and Public Space, Communication Research, vol 22, no 6, 1995, pp. 720-744 Mårtsensson, F., (2009). Lectures “Place attachment – from childhood to adult- hood” and “Health promoting outdoor settings”, 2009-02-16, Alnarp. 37
  • 38. People and Environment ASSIGNMENT SOMMARSOL Emma Ekdahl, So a Fribyter, Erika Jonasson, Merle Talviste and Johanna Verbaan 38
  • 39. Introduction How does the design process a ect the nal result of a design? What are the possible approaches of a design process and what are the de nitions and representative features of these? We have gone through the projects of Sommarsol, trying to analyze and spot possible categories and types of approaches for this task. Finally we ended up with four categories which we interpreted as di erent ways of dealing with the rather intricate and complex assignment of Sommarsol. This analyze is one way of re ecting of what has been done in the Sommarsol project and such an analyze could create an awareness of possible ways of approaching this type of project in the future. The four categories Structural/general focus (12%) Conceptual view (40%) Detailed focus (28%) Focusing on Details (20%) 2 39
  • 40. Structural/General focusPeople with neurological diseases further require an environment that supportsactivities for learning basic functions (Bengtsson, 2006). By connecting possible outdoorrehab activities and place those close to the existing indoor rehab activities, the rehab The pool areagarden is probably more likely to be used by staff as a complement to the differentindoor programs.Finally, in making sure that this new healing garden atSommarsol will be used as both a therapeutic gardencontaining physical training as well as a restorative gardenfor passive enjoyment, I believe it should be created wherethe major existing lawns are today. This is a much largerarea with greater possibilities to attend to all thosedifferent characters needed in a healing garden.Preferably it could be divided into two smaller gardens; oneinner and one outer related to the pool area in between.The inner garden could hold a more therapeutic approach,focusing on activities, security and social meetings. Theouter garden could then have a more restorative approachwith possibilities of finding a private secluded place,including paths for walking that could be connected to theway to the beautiful surroundings; the sea and the forest.Placing the garden here, it would also be visible for allvisitors and could strengthen the identity for Sommarsol. Ifthere were more time for this assignment, now the processof planning the gardens in detail could begin together withthe staff working at the facility.... The approach of a structural/general focusrestorative The outer in a design process Most frequently used literature within this category Illustrations: and private garden Emma Ekdahl and Carina Daubner seems to aims towardstherapeutic The inner an overall analyze, to nd arguments and guidelines further on in the design process. This point of view and social garden Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fischer, J.F. & Baum, A. (2001) Public space and territoriality. emphasises the importance of connecting desired environment to pp251-292. Environmental Psychology. Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont CA. the most preferable location through analyze and structuring. By Bengtsson, A & Carlsson,C. (2006). Outdoor Environments at Three Nursing analyzing the basic conditions, considering the wants and needs of Homes: Focus Group Interviews with Sta . Journal of Housing for the Elderly, the users, looking into desired features and elements in the envi- 19(3), 49-69 ronment, the designer aims to de ne zones to clarify what has to be done in this di erent zones to create a design which applies to Ottosson, J. (2007). The Importance of Nature in Coping: Creating increased un- derstanding of the importance of pure experiences of nature to human health. the whole structure. The structural/general focus requires a visual SLU Reproenheten, Alnarp. material which shows the site in a greater context with its sur- roundings. Ulrich, Roger S; (1999). E ects of Gardens on Health Outcomes: Theory and Re- search. In: red, Cooper Marcus, Clare., Barnes, Marni. Healing Gardens, Therapeu- Representative features: .Maps with colour schemes connected to tic Bene ts and Design Recommendations. pp235-322. New York. de nitions are the most common representative features. Stigsdotter, U.and Grahn, P. (2002) What makes a garden a healing garden. Jour- nal of Therapeutic Horticulture, AHTA, Volume XIII 3 40
  • 41. FEEDING FAITH LK0069 March Sixth 09 Jessica MacDonaldConceptual viewThis method has a strong concept as a basic, from what the design Most frequently used literature: within this category Illustration: Jessica McDonaldis proceeded. It is in a way hierachical approach, where every nextsept is tted to a previous setting It is not focused on the detail, Cooper Marcus, C. & Barnes, M. (Eds). 1999. Healing Garden: Theraputic bene tsrather on an impression and space cognition that the design needs and design recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.to express. It handles a question between person and environ-ment both in a mental and physical level. Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fischer, J.F. & Baum, A. 2001. Environmental Psychology. Public space and territoriality. Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont CA.Process features:1. based on one feature (like sense, path) Bengtsson, A. and Carlsson, C. (2006). Outdoor Environments at Th ree Nursing Homes: Focus Group Interviews with Sta . Journal of Housing for the Elderly,2. based on restorative method (mental level, being aware of the nature) 19(3), 49-69.3. based on physical restorative method4. based on di erent space and territoriality question (personal space and Tenngart Ivarsson, Carina (in press). Utvärdering av utemiljöerna vid psykiatrin i interaction with the others and cognition about the environment ) Göteborg.5. why-how method (analyzing)6. starting a dialogue between opposites fragments (like users, spaces, arti cial features vs nature)7. looking beyond the clinic area (try to connect to overall concept)8. connections and accessibility 41
  • 42. FEEDING FAITHLK0069March Sixth 09Jessica MacDonald Detailed focus To make sure that all guests at Sommarsol can get a view over the garden, a glass veranda is placed in the north western corner of the garden. This also enables a use of the garden sight every day of the year. The comfortable (s) environment that the veranda offers might be extra important for guests that are sensitive to weather exposure (Bengtsson & Carlsson (2006). The glass veranda & passage veranda will be connected to the house with a glass passage. The possibility (s) to see through the walls of the passage will enable the ones that pass, either from Sommarsol towards the new elderly home or coming from the other direction, to get a view into the oasis. pergola There are several rooms facing the sight of the garden. To keep their privacy high, it’s important for everyone’s well-being that while one is in the garden, he or she is not able to look straight into the guest rooms (Bell, Greene, Fisher (s) & Baum, 2001). Therefore a wooden pergola, to be covered with climbers, is placed along the façade of the house. The border between private and more public space is made ever more clear by a stone wall, which at the same time creates a path for the guests with rooms facing the garden so that the can have a direct access to the garden from their rooms. seating area (s) Landscape architect Anna Bengtsson held a lecture where she meant that agree. I think it’s important that a designed area is created for its users, so elevated plant beds that it can be meaningful to them. When I’ve chosen materials, shapes and colours for this design, I’ve done it with a typical guest at Sommarsol in mind. Besides the fact that a guest often suffer from some kind of disease, we know that the average age of the guest list is quite high. Therefore I did not want (s) water system to make the design too modern. On the other hand, I did not want to put an obvious focus on the physical disabilities of the patients. Earlier mentioned Bengtsson did at the same lecture discuss the theory of gerotranscendence, where you look at aging as gaining things and abilities instead of loosing them wooden fence (Alnarp, 2009-03-03). All the paths shall be wide enough for two wheelchairs to meet (min. 1.80 meters), but I didn’t want them to look that adjusted. Instead of designing equally wide paths, I let the shapes of the plant beds form surfaces to walk and sit on. These shall be paved with Y1 asphalt, with (s) a surface of 4-8 mm gray gravel, so that it will be smooth and suitable for wheelchairs, walkers and heavy feet. The detailed focus approach of the design process aims towards a llustrations: Lena Agrell and Eva-Marie Samuelsson design solution with de ned forms and elements which shows the Most frequently used literature: within this category design of the site. This type of approach mainly considers the area Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fischer, J.F. & Baum, A. Environmental Psychology. Public in focus and only brie y discusses the context which surrounds it. space and territoriality. Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont CA, 2001. The detail level of representation is high and the designer often aims to express the atmosphere of the design through sketches, Bengtsson A. & Carlsson, C. (2006) Outdoor environment at three nursing homes: illustrations, images of inspirations which visualize desired ele- Focus group interviews with sta . ments, functions and activities of the site. You could say that this approach is guided by functions and elements required in the Sachs, N. (1999) Environments for psychiatric care, In: red, Cooper Marcus, Clare., Barnes, Marni. Healing Garden: Theraputic bene ts and design recommenda- speci c environment, and not by an overall idea, a concept. tions. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Zeisel, J & Tyson, (1999) Alzheimer’s treatment gardens, In: red, Cooper Marcus, Representative features: An overall view connecting the assigned Clare., Barnes, Marni. Healing Garden: Theraputic bene ts and design recom- place, illustrations and sketches connected to a detailed plan. mendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 5 42
  • 43. Focusing on DetailsThis group seem to focus more on the possible contents of this Most frequently used literature: within this category Sketches and layout from left; Eva-Britt Karlsson, Cordula GIelen,healing garden without placing all the proposed features in a Shabnam Gholoobi, Anna Stefkovaprecise plan, or at most connect them to a very loose one. How to Bengtsson, A. and Carlsson, C. (2006). Outdoor Environments at Th ree Nursingconnect the assigned garden to its surroundings is also brought Homes: Focus Group Interviews with Sta . Journal of Housing for the Elderly,up in most of the assignments, trying to understand and give this 19(3), 49-69.particular place a meaning in doing so. Ulrich, Roger S; (1999). E ects of Gardens on Health Outcomes: Theory and Re- search. In: red, Cooper Marcus, Clare., Barnes, Marni. Healing Gardens, Therapeu- tic Bene ts and Design Recommendations. pp235-322. New York.Representative features: loose plan or no plan at all, inspirationalpictures, , sketches of details, many loose examples of what to do, Zeisel, J & Tyson, (1999) Alzheimer’s treatment gardens, In: red, Cooper Marcus, Clare., Barnes, Marni. Healing Garden: Theraputic bene ts and design recom-follows no clear concept. mendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons. U.and Grahn, P. (2002) What makes a garden a healing garden. Journal of Thera- peutic Horticulture, AHTA, Volume XIII Sachs, N. (1999) Environments for psychiatric care, In: red, Cooper Marcus, Clare., Barnes, Marni. Healing Garden: Theraputic bene ts and design recommenda- tions. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 6 43
  • 44. Common features and discussionSOCIAL MEETING FRUIT TREES CLOSED AND ENCLOSED SPACES CREATED WITH PLANTS/ARTIFICIAL FEATURES WATER VIEWING NATURE PRIVACY SENSES ORIENTATION SEASONAL FLOWERBEDS MULTIFUNCTIONAL FURNITURES PATH LABYRINTH VEGETABLES ACTIVITY MEMORY OBJECTS ARC/PERGOLA GLASS HOUSE RAILINGS FRUIT BUSHES HERBAL/KITCHEN GARDEN VEGETATION WITH SENSATIONAL SMELL, FEELING AND COLOUR. TRANSPARENT SCREENINGS RAISED BEDS SITTING PLACES INSIDE PLANTS STONES ANIMALS FAMILIAR MATERIALS WOOD DECKINGThe hard part was to gure out, how to deal with this task, where The design and form of features (f.ex raised beds, paths, waterthere were very di erent proposal. features) could have been very di erent from each other, even ifThe variation accrued probably, because many of us did not under- they are an evidence based design. It means that there weren’t sostand how to solve the problem; garden in a clinical facility. Thus to say crazy design. Perhaps this could depend on the limited timeit was interesting to see how di erently students start to deal with schedule that made it impossible to develop the design furtherthe situation. but it could also be a matter of lacking knowledge of how much it’s possible to change a feature without a ecting its positive e ect onEven if the students used di erent approaching analysis of the the users that is stated in the literature?place it was still possible to nd in common features for all proj- When looking at these proposed gardens and also the read litera-ects. This could be explained as a fact that the same literature has ture, then came the question what is the solution for the healingbeen used as references to make evidence based design proposals garden? Are there universal features that we should use in thesewhich have limited the students individual design thoughts that projects?occurred in the beginning of the project. An interesting question that could be connected to the used litera-Because of the di erent approaches it was hard to make any exact ture is; how many common features could have occurred if every-manual about design guidelines for the features. That would not one had to search references on their own? Would there been morehave been correct, because of the time we had for this task and variation between di erent proposals? Were the students beinggaining additional knowledge about the patients needs. more encouraged to go their own way?From that reason it felt wise to use process features that could It showed that almost all of use used additional material. Thatdescribe , give an overall impression and understanding about the re ects that there lack of information about this speci c topic as avarious thinking processes that students decided to use. neurological disease and patients’ needs. Even though there was aThe interesting part was to see, how one issue (f.ex space) is used lot of material that could be used in this approach.in a di er scales through various projects. Is it taken as a basis or asa tool to form the detail design? We are on to something…but it needs some more time… !!!!!!! 7 44
  • 45. Additional literature in Structural/General Focus and Conceptual ViewStructural/general focus Conceptual viewAntonovsky, A. (1991) Hälsans mysterium, Natur och Kultur, Köping. Lynch, K. (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Bengtsson, A. (2003) Utemiljöns betydelse för äldre och funktionshindrade rehabilitation. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved March 05, 2009, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.refer-–Kunskapssammanställning. Statens Folkhälsoinstitut. ence.com/browse/rehabilitationEckerling, M. (1996) Guidelines for designing Healing Gar-dens, Journal of Therapeutic Grahn, P. (1991) Om parkers betydelse. Stad & land 93. Movium / institutionen förHorticulture, American Horti-cultural Therapy Association, Gaithersburg. landskapsplanering,Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet,AlnarpGrahn, P. (1991) Om parkers betydelse (Doktorsavhandling) Stad & Land nr 93. Alnarp. Kaplan Rachel, Kaplan Stephen, & Ryan Robert L. (1998) With people in mind. Design andGröna Fakta (2004) Växter skapar rum för samvaro och vila. Tankvärda trädgårdar. 2004:4. management of everyday nature, Washington D.C.pp IV-V. Movium & Utemiljö. Lawton, M.P. The Elderly in Context: Perspectives from Environmental Psychology andKaplan, R. Kaplan, S. (1989) The experience of nature, University Press, New York, Cam- Gerontology. Environment and Behavior, 17, pp. 501-519. 1985.bridge. Kielhofner, G. Conceptual foundations of occupational therapy (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F.Ke-Tsung, H. (2001) A review: Theories of restorative en-vironments, Journal of Therapeu- A. Davis. 1997.tic Horticulture 2001;XII. Ottosson, J. & Grahn, P. 2007. The role of natural settings in crisis rehabilitation. LandscapeMcGrath Salamy, V. (1996) Stress Management through Garden Design, Journal of Thera- Research, accepted.peutic Horticulture, American Hor-ticultural Therapy Association, Gaithersburg. Ottoson, j.; Grahn P. Utemiljöns betydelse för äldre med stort vårdbehov, Med ögon käns-Olsson, T. (1998) De urbana grönområdens betydelse för människors hälsa och liga för grönt, Stad & Land, 155:1998, Alnarpvälbefinnande. Ottoson, j.,The importance of nature in coping with a crisis, Creating increased under-Ottosson, J. (2007) The Importance of Nature in Coping - Creating increased understand- standing of the importance of pure experiences of nature to human health, SLU Reproen-ing of the importance of pure experiences of nature to human health. Diss. Alnarp: Swed- heten, Alnarp. 2007.ish University of Agricultural Sciences. Searles, H.F. The Nonhuman Environment in Normal Development and in Schizophrenia.Ottoson, J & Grahn, P. (2007). The role of natural settings in crisis rehabilitation. International Universities Press, New York. 1960.Landscape Research, accepted. Simson, S. & Straus, M.C. Horticulture as therapy: Principles and practice. New York: FoodOttosson, J. 1997. Naturens betydelse i en livskris. Stad & Land 148. Movium,Alnarp. Products Press. 1998.Schibbye B. Pålstam Y, (2001) Landskap i fokus. Utvärdering av metod för landskaps- Kaplan, R. & Kaplan, S. 1989. The experience of nature. Cambridge,MA: Cambridge Univer-analys, Riksantikvarieämbetets förlag, Stockholm. sity Press.Searles, H.F. (1960). The nonhuman Environment in Normal Development and in Shizo- Stigsdotter, U. & Grahn, P. (2003). Experiencing a garden: A healing garden for peoplephrenia. International Universities Press, New York. su ering from burnout diseases. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 14, 38-49. Grahn, P. (2005). Att bota sjuka i en trädgård – om trädgårdsterapi och terapeutiska trädgårdar. In M. Johansson & M. Küller (Eds.), Svensk Miljöpsykologi [Swedish Environmental Psychology. In Swedish], Lund: Studentlitteratur, in press. 8 45
  • 46. Additional literature in Detailed Focus and Focusing on DetailsDetailed Focus Focusing on Details (20%)Hultman, S.G. (2005) Naturvärden i vården, Grön terapi och rehabilitering-en naturlig del Küller Rickard & Küller, Marianne: Stadens grönska, äldres utevistelse och hälsa, Byggfor-av framtidens hälso- och sjukvården? Förstudie för Landstinget I Uppsala län. skningsrådet R24:1994, Stockholm, 1994.Linden, S. & Grut, J. (2002) The healing elds. London: Frances Lincoln Limited. Jonasson, Inger. Marklund, Ber3l & Hildingh, Cathrine, (2007). Working in a training garden: Experiences of pa3ents with neurological damage. In Australian Occupa3onalMaynard, A. (2004) A sense of a place Therapy Journal.Ottoson, J. & Grahn, P. (1998) Utemiljöns betydelse för äldre med stort vårdbehov. “Med Schmidtbauer, Grahn&Lieberg, (2005), Tänkvärda trädgårdar när utemiljön blir en del avkänsliga ögon för grönt”. Stad & Land. 155:1998. Alnarp vården, Stockholm:FormasOttoson, J. (1997) Naturens betydelse I en livskris. Stad & Land, nr. 148:1997. Movium, SLU.Schmidtbauer, P. Grahn, P. & Lieberg, M. (2005) Tänkvärda trädgårdar när utemiljön blir endel av vården. Stockholm: Formas 9 46
  • 47. Sommarsol 47
  • 48. Introduction - the work we have done Our assignment is to look at the work we have done designing a garden for When you are designing a garden for people with special needs, there are the rehabilitation and recreation centre, Sommarsol. The aim was to come up some certain things that you need to think about. First, of course it is important with a checklist that could be used to guide the design of gardens for people to identify what these special needs are. By identifying the users of the space with special needs. you can begin designing by a user oriented approach with the goal of creat- Background research is an important part of being able to understand what ing an environment that in the end will meet the user’s needs. There are some is required to create spaces that accommodate and stimulate people with categories that are most important, when designing for people with special psychological, physical and neurological limitations needs, and always have to be considered like accessibility, how to divide the We summarized our student work which was based on the introductory lit- space and that all the senses have to be content. These main ideas were erature in order to create these guidelines. Then we made some conclusions reflected in the literature, student reviews and design projects. based upon that work. Restorative and Therapeutic Gardens Accessibility Sensual Experience/ Inspiring Design Divison of space Security Private and PublicEmily Hansen, Johanna Bilfeldt, Marie Malmström, Lubomir Krupa 48
  • 49. Accessibility The outdoor environment can be demanding, especially for people with com- promised mental and physical capacities. The physical characters of a space and the atmosphere of place must take into account these limitations but also provide stimulation to encourage positive effects. There are certain standards and physical requirements that make it possible for people to use and enjoy Security outdoor environments in ways they have not been able to before. In these types of institutional environments, like Sommarsol, there are often many different people with many different needs therefore variety and flexibility in the outdoor space is important. As psychological and physical capabilities become compromised people avoid certain outdoor environments in which they feel unsafe or unable to access a sense of control over themselves or their surroundings. In these cases we must consider design measures that enable people feel comfortable in the outdoor Raised beds can make it possible for people with compromised physical abili- environment. This concept is explored by Bengtsson and Carlsson (2006) ties to interact with natural elements. when they looked at the outdoor environments of nursing homes but is an idea Positive effects increase when contact with natural elements is linked with an that should be considered when designing environments for all people. activity such as gardening (Tennagart Ivarsson, in press) Ground surface are important to ensure people can move easily through the Precautionary design (Bengtsson and Carlsson, 2006) is described as creating space, hard surfaces provide constant predictable ways to navigate through environments where people can feel safe, secure and in control of their sur- space also allowing for use by wheelchairs and people with other mobility aids roundings. These characters of a place allow people to explore their surroundings more in- dependently which may be more or less important based on a patients specific Active space should incorporate opportunities for challenges and stimulation condition. to avoid some more advanced user groups becoming bored. Walking loops of varying lengths is one way people can choose activity based on ability. Familiarity is important but may be more of a consideration for elderly people with psychological diseases (Bengtsson and Carlsson, 2006). For others incorporating elements that users can recognize will increase their Sitting and passively experiencing a place is an important activity for elderly confidence in the environment encouraging them to explore and experience people especially. Access to seating is important for people with psychological new things. impairments who have trouble processing complexities of the outdoor environ- The practise of allowing patients to personalize outdoor space, as they person- ment alize indoor space, especially in places where they will spend longer periods of Bell (2001) stresses the importance of personal space; designers must then time. understand how much space people require based of physical or psychological conditions. Illustration from: Anna Ekdahl, 2009 Illustration from: Johanna Verbaan, 2009Emily Hansen, Johanna Bilfeldt, Marie Malmström, Lubomir Krupa 49
  • 50. The sensual experience Inspiring design Inspiring design has to promote stimulation of senses and provide positive impressions for the user. Like Carina Daubner writes in her Literature Review w.9-10, “people with mental illness or other health problems are vulnerable and sensitive to things that in some way could be perceived as threatening or depressing”. This is very important to think about when you design a garden for people that are mentally instable, and also when designing gardens for elderly people since you don’t want to be reminded about things like death and illness when you already live on the edge of life. In a garden like this there should only be things that can be perceived as positive. One way to guarantee that is with user participation, to ask the staff and the users what they want. An environ- ment that offers these types of positive impressions makes, due to Kaplan and Kaplan’s theory about direct attention v. soft fascination, the user to feel more relaxed and at the same time alert (Grahn, 2009). Illustration from: Erika Jonasson, 2009 To stimulate all your senses, to give the user a sensual experience, there are a lot of things to think about and tools to work with. Vegetation can offer a lot of different opportunities when it comes to designing a garden. There are plants for all types of needs, colors in almost all nuances and structures that offer experiences as different from each other like leaves as soft as the ear of a bunny or as sharp as a needle. The four Elements – fire (as in the sun and warmth), wind, water (as in ponds, streams and rain) and earth. These are all important to include and work with in your design. Illustration from: Karolina Alvaker, 2009 The Seasonal changes are an important element to consider because it shows how the time goes on and it is also something to trust when everything else is upside-down that “after winter comes spring again”. There the plants and more stabile things like stones, sculptures and equipment (benches etc.) are equally important. Senses – sight, smell, taste, sound, touch. They should all be satisfied in the garden. Different structures to feel and walk on, eatable plants to taste, the sound from running water or the wind rustling through the leaves. Fragrant flow- ers and colors and structures that gives you something to look on. Garden work gives people the opportunity to experience natural elements in combination with a rehabilitation activity, they can become closer to nature. Feeling, smelling, tasting, seeing and hearing. In addition to its sensual qualities garden work can be fulfilling provide a means of social interaction. Illustration from: Merle Talviste, 2009Emily Hansen, Johanna Bilfeldt, Marie Malmström, Lubomir Krupa 50
  • 51. Division of space Public and private Separation of space is especially important when designing spaces where user ‘Transition zone’ between indoor and outdoor space can encourage people to groups with specific needs will interact. The design problem at Sommarsol was use the outdoor environment providing the opportunity to move more slowly challenging as we had to deal with incorporating adjacent private rooms into form one extreme to another. Incorporating natural elements into indoor spaces the public space while maintaining access. can make a stronger connection between inside and outside making the entire There was also the challenge of designing for guest of Sommarsol, both reha- space more of a cohesive whole. bilitation and recreation, and residents of the proposed elderly homes in the Entry and exit points must be clearly defined and could exist as a focal point of adjacent property. the space to help with way finding (Bengtsson and Carlsson, 2006). It is also important however not to encourage people to gather at these points which could be intimidating for people who are not prepared for high social contact Social space is especially important in places where patients or residence are (Tenngart Ivarsson, in press) confined and have little or no contact with outside life (Bengtsson and Carls- son,2006). This opportunity for social interaction needs to exist in such a way that people have the opportunity to choose the way in which they will interact Views into and out of the space are important and achieving a balance between Illustration from: Ann Henrikson, 2009 with others and the environment. In some cases it may be more comfortable for openness and security is key to people’s comfort in a space. At Sommarsol this social contact to happen in conjunction with an activity to ease the transi- the private rooms immediately adjacent to the gardens provide a challenge and tion towards more social behaviour. creating a buffer of semi private space could be a solution to understand the shift. Views out of the garden and within the garden should also be considered however they are more important when designing gardens for elderly people Providing all of these types of spaces is important to facilitate different types of with dementia or patients with other psychological diseases. social interactions. Opportunities for different types of social interactions then become part of a healing process when it is inherently linked with the structure of the outdoor environment. Private space is important for those who have low mental power. As confidence and mental power increased people have the opportunity to explore semi-public and public places within the same space. This diagram from Merle Talviste, 2009 shows the importance of a connection between indoor space and outdoor space. Illustration from: Emily Hansen, 2009 A strong connection can help to create a cohesive environment and encourage people to use the space on more of a regular basis. This illustration by Johanna Verbaan, 2009 shows the use of ‘transition space ‘ as an intermediate step between use of the indoor environment and use of the outdoors. In this space people can expe- rience some of the sendual experiences Illustration from: Merle Talviste, 2009 of the outdoors without over stimulation.Emily Hansen, Johanna Bilfeldt, Marie Malmström, Lubomir Krupa 51
  • 52. Conclusion Although the task to design the environment for people with mental disease seems to be clear, we should be aware of complexity of the problem. This complexity dwells in satisfying the different users’ needs, which differ with the various diseases. Although we had the opportunity to deal with the issues of designing for those people, there are still some difficulties we face. It is really tough task to find the balance between the accessible and inspired environ- ment; both two extremes are harmful. On one hand, too accessible settings may fit to one group of the most impaired people but such an environment becomes too boring for those with better health condition. On the other hand, a complex environment may seem too challenging for people with compromised abilities and be recognized as unfriendly, which is not acceptable. There is still the challenge of how to make the environment the most therapeutic and restorative as possible and every landscape architect is responsible to fulfill it the best as he/she can. Each rehabilitation garden should include the aspects we were referring to (accessibility, security, division of space, sensual experi- ence) and the interpretation of these aspects depends on the nature of the garden which users it is to address. However, there are no exact rules which can ensure the success in this field and it is the responsibility of the landscape architect to fully understand the Illustration from: Anna Ekdahl, 2009 nature of each design problem. For sure, it is worthwhile to follow the findings of former and current research in this field. The Evidence Based Design and user-oriented approach has proved to be successful when designing gardens for people with special needs. Illustration from: Marielle Karlsson, 2009Emily Hansen, Johanna Bilfeldt, Marie Malmström, Lubomir Krupa 52
  • 53. ReferencesBell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fischer, J.F. & Baum, A. (2001). Environmental Psychology. Public space and territoriality. Th omson Wadsworth, Belmont CA. (pp 251-292).Bengtsson, A. and Carlsson, C. (2006). Outdoor Environments at Th ree Nursing Homes: Focus Group Interviews with Staff . Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 19(3),49-69.Tenngart Ivarsson, Carina (in press). Utvärdering av utemiljöerna vid psykiatrin i Göteborg.Lecture. Patrik Grahn; Attention Restoration theory and Aesthetic Affective Theory. 02/23/09 53