Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits
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Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits

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Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits

Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits

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Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits Document Transcript

  • ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS HORTICULTURE PRODUCTION GUIDE Abstract: This publication focuses on organic practices for blackberry and raspberry production. Included are discussions of site selection and preparation; fertility; weed, disease, and insect management; greenhouse production of raspberries; and economics and marketing. Electronic and printed resources are provided.By George L. Kuepper, Holly Born,Janet BachmannNCAT Agriculture SpecialistsJune 2003 Table of Contents Introduction ........................................ 1 Insects ................................................. 11 Untangling Brambles ............................ 2 Economics and Marketing ..................... 12 Cultural Considerations ....................... 2 References ............................................. 14 Weed Management ................................. 5 Further Resources .................................. 16 Fertility Management ........................... 6 Greenhouse Raspberry Production ........... 8 Diseases................................................ 9Introduction This publication addresses the nuances in-volved in the production and marketing of or-ganic bramble fruit. As such, it does not dealwith many of the basics of bramble culture, likevarietal selection, pruning, and irrigation, whichare largely the same under both organic and con-ventional management. For basic informationon brambles, please contact your local Coopera-tive Extension. If you have not already done so,we encourage you to read ATTRA’s Overview of © 2003 ARSOrganic Fruit Production; it provides valuable in-troductory information on organic fruit culture.ATTRA’s Overview of Organic Crop Production isalso suggested.ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information service, operated by the National Centerfor Appropriate Technology through a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S.Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products,companies, or individuals. NCAT has offices in Fayetteville, Arkansas (P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville,AR 72702), Butte, Montana, and Davis, California.
  • Organic growers use cultural practices, natu-ral fertilizers, and biological controls rather than Cultural Considerationssynthetic fertilizers and pesticides. When done The Basics of Bramble Productionwell, organic farming is more friendly to the en-vironment and is believed to produce healthier The classification bramble fruits applies to afood. Experience has shown that bramble fruits large number of plant species within the genusare relatively easy to produce using organic Rubus. The most commonly known bramblemethods. fruits are blackberries and raspberries, but other However, while anyone can choose to grow types—such as dewberries, tayberries, boysen-organically, federal regulations now control the berries, and loganberries—are also popular.labeling and marketing of all organic products. If Many of the bramble types and varieties areyou have a commercial farm and plan to repre- thorned, though some are not. Plant breederssent your produce as organic, you will need to have worked especially hard in recent years tobe certified. To learn about organic certification develop thornless varieties. Growth habit alsoand the steps involved, read ATTRA’s Organic varies among bramble fruits. Some have pros-Farm Certification and The National Organic Pro- trate growth and require trellising for commer-gram. cial production; others grow fully upright and don’t need trellising.Untangling Brambles Red raspberries can be either of two types. Summer-bearing red raspberries have the typical biennial life cycle of a bramble: they bear their fruit from late June to August of their second year, and the canes die after fruiting. Primocane-bearing types such as Heritage are the exception to this life cycle: they bear fruit during the first year. Also called “everbearing” raspberries, they will fruit again in the spring, on the buds below those that fruited the previous fall. Be- cause both of these red raspberries produce new canes (suckers) primarily from the root system, they are usually grown in a hedgerow. They are the most winter-hardy of the raspberries. Black raspberries initiate new canes from the crown of the plant rather than from root suck- ers. Because of this, they are grown in a “hill” system: each plant is grown independently, with pruning and maintenance done on a per-plant basis. They require summer tipping, unlike red raspberries, because individual canes will grow to unmanageable lengths. Black raspberries bear their fruit in late June through July, and are the most winter-tender of the raspberries. Purple and yellow raspberries are also available but are not widely grown, though they can be a very high-value specialty crop. Purple varieties include Success, Brandywine, and Royalty. Yellow varieties include Fall Gold, Kiwi Gold, and Goldie. Eastern blackberries can be thorny and erect, or thornless and trailing. Breeders have recently been able to produce thornless and erect cultivars. Thornless types are much more cold sensi- tive (to 0°F). Cultivars with a trailing growth habit require trellising. Thorny types often have excellent fruit quality but the thorns make harvest difficult. Generally, thorny types of black- berries will tolerate temperatures to about -5°F. They do not require trellising. Tayberries were bred by crossing a blackberry with a raspberry. The flavor of the fruit re- flects this parentage, and many people feel that a ripe tayberry is the most flavorful bramble of all. Unfortunately, tayberries are very soft when fully ripe, so they don’t lend themselves to commercial production. Although they are quite thorny, they grow in a manner similar to trailing blackberries and require similar planting, training, and pruning techniques. Other brambles, most of which are either hybrids among Rubus species or specific cultivars of blackberry, such as Loganberry, Boysenberry, Marionberry, and Ollalaberry, are grown ex- tensively in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. They have excellent fruit quality, but are not well adapted to environmental conditions in the Northeast and should not be grown there. Their most limiting characteristic is their cold-tenderness. Source: Small-Scale Fruit Production: A Comprehensive Guide (Penn State Cooperative Extension Publication), available online at <http://ssfruit.cas.psu.edu/chapter7/chapter7a.htm>.PAGE 2 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • modate tractor operations, allow for air move- ment, and optimize sunlight penetration (1). Brambles, especially blackberries, are fairly drought-tolerant and are sometimes grown without supplemental irrigation. Most com- mercial plantings, however, are irrigated to as- sure quantity and quality of production. Be- cause bramble fruit is highly perishable, mar- keting strategies must be developed well in advance. Many growers rely on direct mar- keting—particularly U-pick, roadside stands, and farmers’ markets—to sell their crop. Site Selection and Preparation A planting site higher than the surround- ing area provides air circulation and water drainage, reducing disease and insect prob- lems. Sites with adequate air circulation also reduce the possibility of winter injury and late spring frosts. However, where strong prevail- ing winds occur, open sites (such as the crests of hills) may expose plants to desiccation and excessive wind stress—major causes of winter kill in brambles. © ARS 2003 Brambles are adapted to a wide range of soils but do best when planted on well-drained, deep, fertile soil that is high in humus and free Typically, bramble canes are vegetative dur- of hardpan. A pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is preferred. Com-ing their first year of growth, and in this stage pared to raspberries, blackberries are more tol-they are called primocanes. They are called erant of heavy soils and the soil-borne diseasesfloricanes the following season, during which they often associated with heavy soils. Adding or-bear fruit. New primocanes emerge while the ganic matter and planting in raised beds can beolder floricanes fruit, so mature plants have both of help in avoiding these problems.active primocanes and floricanes in evidence Sites previously established in fruit cropseach season. Several raspberry cultivars are (e.g., peaches, apples, grapes, brambles, etc.) areprimocane-fruiting. These varieties produce a poor choices because of potential problems withlate summer or fall crop on the upper portions of crown gall infection. Likewise, land recentlythe primocane stem in the first year. The next planted to solanaceous crops (e.g., tomatoes, po-year, the same cane—now a floricane—produces tatoes, peppers, eggplant, tobacco) presents in-a second crop lower on the stem. creased risks of verticillium wilt. Nearby thick- Because growth and fruiting habits vary ets of wild brambles should also be removed, ifamong bramble species, so do production prac- possible, to reduce sources of insect pests andtices. It is important that the grower seek out the diseases. Experts advise a minimum of 300 tocultural guidelines for the specific berry being 400 feet of separation from wild hosts or othergrown. commercial plantings (2). Most bramble plantings are established either Perennial weeds, especially aggressivefrom root cuttings or plants. Spacing within rows grasses such as bermuda, should be controlledat planting depends largely on the species. Even- in advance of planting, or an alternative sitetually, most bramble fruits are managed as con- should be chosen. This is extremely importanttinuous hedgerows rather than as individual in organic and reduced-herbicide plantings, asplants. The row spacing for commercial perennial weeds are especially difficult to man-hedgerow plantings is typically 12 feet to accom- age with non-chemical methods. //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 3
  • Species and Cultivar Selection gested. The practice of simply allowing weeds It is advantageous to organic and low-input to grow as a cover crop is discouraged, as manygrowers to select well-adapted species and vari- may go to seed and increase problems in the fu-eties, especially those genetically resistant to ture.common diseases. By so doing, growers find they Permanent sodded alleyways offer the great-have more time and resources to spend on other est protection against soil erosion and the loss ofcritical areas, such as weed control. Cultivar in- nutrients through leaching, while also suppress-formation is readily available from state or ing weeds. Conventional recommendations forcounty Cooperative Extension services and from sodded alleyways advise the maintenance of alocal nurseries. When purchasing, it is also im- four-foot-wide vegetation-free strip in the plantportant to buy from reputable suppliers to en- row, to reduce the competitive effects of the coversure virus-free and nematode-free planting stock. crop on the berries (2). With one exception, there are few restrictions The selection of plant species for use in sod-on proximity when planting different varieties ded alleyways is also important. Non-aggres-and species of brambles on the same farm (as- sive sod-forming grasses like bluegrass, fescue,suming all are locally adapted). Black and purple and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) areraspberries are much more susceptible to dam- often recommended (7), as these are only mod-age from mosaic and leaf curl viruses than are erately competitive with brambles. Aggressivered and yellow cultivars. Since these diseases species like bermuda are definitely discouraged.are vectored by aphids, black and purple variet- The use of non-aggressive legumes as win-ies should be separated as much as possible, and ter cover crops or as a companion to grasses inlocated upwind, from red and yellow raspber- sodded alleyways offers the advantage of pro-ries (3). viding a significant amount of the annual nitro- gen needs through biological fixation. The down- Alleyway Management side of legumes is the buildup of stinkbug and tarnished plant bug populations. In Oklahoma, Brambles can be managed either under clean at the Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture, acultivation or with sodded alleyways. In some blend of subterranean, Dutch white, and ladinoinstances, the alleyways between new plantings clovers was successfully used in alleyways in aare clean-cultivated, with a permanent cover crop blackberry planting (8). Frequent mowings ap-planted at a later date. Brambles have extensive peared to reduce the threat from stinkbugs androot systems, and as plantings mature, deep till- plant bugs and prevented weed seed develop-age between berry rows must be avoided to pre- ment. No evidence of winter damage from ex-vent root damage, unwanted suckering, and in- cessive soil nitrogen was observed.creased susceptibility to crown gall through plant In a Canadian study, raspberries were grownwounds. According to Kansas recommendations with white clover and perennial ryegrass cov-(4), cultivation should not exceed 4 inches in ers. The white clover cover resulted in higherdepth; Georgia (5) advises cultivating no deeper berry yields, improved vegetative growth, andthan 1½ inches. better nitrogen nutrition than the perennial Where clean cultivation is used, the establish- ryegrass. When compared to clean cultivation,ment of annual winter cover crops in alleyways yields with the white clover cover crop were com-is encouraged to reduce erosion, build soil or- parable (9).ganic matter, and act as a catch crop for nutri- In all cases, sodded alleyways do competeents. Establishment of a good cover crop in late with the bramble crop for nutrients and mois-summer or early fall also precludes the need for ture. Their benefits, however, usually outweighfall cultivation, which stimulates excessive late- the negatives; growers can compensate by ap-season cane growth—tissue that is especially plying supplemental irrigation and additionalvulnerable to winter kill (4). A cereal crop such nitrogen fertilizer if needed.as rye (Secale cereale) is normally recommended For additional details on cover crops, pleasefor use as a winter cover crop, though annual request ATTRA’s Overview of Cover Crops andryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lamark) is also sug- Green Manures.PAGE 4 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • Pruning & Trellising these implements are provided in ATTRA’s Over- view of Organic Fruit Production. Whatever the technology employed, all mechanical weeding The appropriate means of pruning, training, must be shallow to avoid root damage.and trellising a bramble crop is largely dictated Weeder geese can eliminate most of the grassby the species and varieties grown. Good infor- and many of the tender broadleaf weeds from amation on specific procedures is provided in con- planting. Since geese will also eat the ripe fruitventional literature available from Cooperative and perhaps even some of the newly emergingExtension. A few details, however, are of spe- primocanes, their use should be timed appropri-cial note to organic and low-input producers. ately. Obviously, stocking rates will be much Destruction of spent floricanes is important lower and management will be easier on clean-for disease and insect pest control. Removing cultivated plantings.and burning these floricanes is commonly rec- Investigators at the Kerr Center for Sustain-ommended, though shredding and soil incorpo- able Agriculture have used weeder geese for ef-ration are sometimes practiced. While trellising fective weed control in blueberries with soddedis necessary on most trailing brambles, it is also middles. The center’s strategy entails the use ofan option for most raspberries and a number of movable electric fencing and intensive grazingother bramble species. (8). Call ATTRA for additional information on While somewhat expensive, trellising in- weeding with geese.creases air movement in the plant canopy—re-ducing the need for sprays to manage plant dis-eases. Trellising also enhances the effectiveness Mulchingof pesticides, by allowing better spray penetra-tion (11). And because trellising allows easier Research over the years has demonstratedaccess to fruit, cleaner picking is possible, result- definite advantages to mulching in raspberriesing in fewer overripe berries—lessening the at- (15, 16) and thornless blackberries (17). Mulch-traction to picnic, sap, June, and Japanese beetles ing conserves moisture, moderates temperature(12). fluctuations, decreases weed pressure, and en- Air movement and sunlight penetration can hances yield. Results of research at the Missourialso be enhanced by using alternate row produc- Fruit Experiment Station, however, show thattion in regions with suitable growing seasons. while mulching with organic materials can beIn this approach, every other row is mowed dur- helpful in controlling some weeds, it is not suffi-ing dormancy, resulting in a much more open cient for total weed control by itself. In fact, ex-field during the early part of the season. Aggres- cessively deep in-row mulching can interferesive regrowth in the primocane rows is excep- with primocane emergence. It may also harbortionally competitive with weeds, and yields in damaging rodents.floricane rows are heavy. Reduced pruning cost Mulching can also aggravate phytophthorais an additional benefit (13, 14). root rot problems on susceptible red raspberry cultivars grown on heavy (clayey), irrigated soils. In such a situation, New York researchers rec-Weed Management ommend straw mulch during the establishment year only (18). Aspects of weed management already dis- Geotextile mulches, such as woven plasticcussed include suppression via cover crops and and weed barrier fabrics, are gaining favor asthe importance of pre-plant weed control. Refer long-term weed control solutions, and appearto ATTRA’s Overview of Organic Fruit Production suitable for use in bramble plantings. The fabricfor details on pre-plant weed control strategies. must be slit properly to minimize suppressionSubsequent weed control in established bramble of emerging primocanes. Plantings have beenplantings through cultivation, hoeing, or hand- made using the fabric solely as an in-row cover,weeding is very difficult. The use of traditional and also as a seamless mulch sheet, extendinggrape hoes or more modern versions such as row to row across the middles. Though the ini-Weed Badger™ and Green Hoe™ cultivators has tial cost is high, it may prove reasonable whenbeen suggested. Descriptions and contacts for amortized over the expected lifetime of 10 to 12 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 5
  • years. Available fabric mulches include to establishment or as a maintenance fertil -Sunbelt™ by DeWitt Co. (19) and Lumite by izer should take special note, since poultryShaw Fabrics. Additionally, county or state Ex- wastes are especially high in phosphates.tension Services can provide information on fab-ric mulches, and, in some cases, might supply •Brambles are also sensitive to chlorine salts,these products themselves. and natural sources of potassium chloride should not be used ei- ESTIMATES OF NITROGEN REQUIREMENTS ther pre-plant or as a FOR BRAMBLE CROPS maintenance fertilizer. Even when cover crops Bramble Type Growth Stage Pounds per Acre and mulches are used, of Nitrogen* annual applications of supplementary fertil- Upright blackberries Establishment Year 25 to 30 izer—especially nitro- Summer-bearing purple Maintenance 50 to 60 gen—are needed in and black raspberries most bramble plantings to sustain good yields. Organic growers prima- Trailing blackberries Establishment Year 30 to 35 rily use manures, com- Summer-bearing red Maintenance 65 to 75 posts, animal by-prod- raspberries ucts, and vegetable or seed meals to make up Primocane fruiting Establishment Year 30 to 40 the difference. Esti- raspberries (no summer) Maintenance 95 to 115 mates of total nitrogen fertilizer requirements * Reduce rates by 10 to 24% for dryland production are provided below. During the establish- ment year, application should be delayed until the canes have emerged, especially if salt- based materials or manures are applied,Fertility Management since young brambles are easily salt-dam- aged. Maintenance rates shown can be ap- Sustainable fertility management in brambles plied as a single spring application (pre-begins well in advance of planting, with soil test- bloom), or split to apply one-half immedi-ing and site preparation. Refer to ATTRA’s Over- ately after harvest.view of Organic Fruit Production for general infor-mation on pre-plant soil preparation for fruit Additional guidelines for supplemental fer-crops, plus additional information on fertiliza- tilization include:tion. Some specific aspects of site preparationfor bramble crops should be noted: •Be certain to credit the nitrogen contribu- tion from cover crops and reduce supplemen- •Brambles tolerate a fairly wide pH range tary fertilizer rates accordingly. ATTRA’s from 4.5 to 7.5. However, the optimum pH Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures range is 6.0 to 6.5. Lime or other suitable provides information useful in making this amendments should be applied in the year estimation. prior to establishment to bring the soil into •It is a good rule of thumb to assume that his pH range. only 50% of the nitrogen in most manure or compost will be available during the year of •Avoid excessive applications of phosphate. application. (The availability of nitrogen in High levels of soil phosphorus have been fresh poultry manure may be closer to 90% associated with zinc deficiency in brambles. in the first year.) However, the remaining Growers planning to use poultry litter prior nitrogen will become available in subsequentPAGE 6 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • years and should be credited accordingly. lbs of blood meal per 10 feet of row (assum-•Be especially cautious to avoid nitrogen ing 12-foot row spacing).burn and nutrient imbalances when using •All solid organic fertilizers should be ap-manure. The fertilizer value of manure is plied in the mid- to late winter to allow ad-highly variable and usually unbalanced with equate decomposition time before the springrespect to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potas- growth spurt. Also, if applied too late, solidsium (N-P-K). Considering these properties, organic fertilizers may still be releasing nu-specific application rates are impossible to trients to plants late in the season, which canrecommend. Typically, farmers apply ma- result in cold damage to tender late growth.nures at roughly 1-4 tons per acre, depend- •Magnesium and boron deficiencies some-ing on the fertility of the soil. Poultry ma- times occur in brambles, though these are lessnures, which are usually higher in nitrogen, likely under a sound organic fertilizationare applied at 1-2 tons per acre. scheme. Magnesium deficiencies can occur•The timing of manure applications is very under conditions where excessively highimportant. Manure cannot be applied to the potassium levels are accompanied by lowplants within 120 days of harvest under con- calcium. Dolomitic limestone, sul-po-mag,ditions where the fruit is either in contact and epsom salts are suitable for correctingwith the soil or can be splashed with soil from soil deficiencies. Boron deficiencies are mostrainfall or irrigation. Manure cannot be ap- likely in high pH soils, particularly in theplied within 90 days of harvest where the Northwest. Small amounts of Solubor™ orfruit is elevated or otherwise shielded from borax are commonly used as amendmentssoil contact. (20, 21).•If manure is fully and properly composted, •Biannual soil and/or plant-tissue testing isit can safely be applied at higher rates and at advisable to identify nutrient imbalances andany time during the season. For further de- adjust fertilization accordingly. Testing ser-tails on manure and composting require- vices are usually available through countyments, see ATTRA’s Manures for Organic Crop and state Cooperative Extension.Production.•When using organic fertilizers—especially For an overview of soil fertility in organicunprocessed manures—growers find that farming systems, see ATTRA’s Sustainable Soilany material not finely textured is difficult Management. For further information on alter-to spread within an established bramble native fertilizer materials, see ATTRA’s Alterna-hedge-row. Large clumps of organic matter tive Soil Amendments.can also impede primocane emergence.Coarse-textured compost or manure is moreeasily applied if sieved or simply broken upwith spading forks or shovels. The ATTRApublication Manures for Organic Crop Produc-tion provides useful information on manure-spreader calibration.•In contrast to animal manures, cottonseedmeal (N-P-K approximately equalto 7-2-2) is more predictable as to nutrientcontent, and its texture makes it easy to ap-ply to brambles. Though more expensivethan cottonseed meal, blood meal (N-P-Kapproximately equal to 12-1.3-0.7) is widelyavailable, easily applied, and more rapidlyavailable to plants. To apply roughly 60 lbsof actual nitrogen per acre, one would needto apply almost 860 lbs of cottonseed meal or500 lbs of blood meal per acre. This is equiva- © ARS 2003lent to about 2 1/3 lbs of cottonseed or 1 1/3 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 7
  • Greenhouse Raspberry Production By Marvin P. Pritts Department of Fruit and Vegetable Science Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. (Reprinted with the author’s permission) Raspberries are uniquely suited for winter greenhouse production in the U.S. Unlike strawberries, no significant domestic sources of winter raspberries exist. The vast majority of winter raspberries are flown in from the Southern Hemisphere. Quality is generally poor because raspberries have an extremely short postharvest life, and bruise easily during ship- ping. As a result, consumers are willing to pay between $3.00 and $6.00 per half-pint for fresh fruit, and restaurant chefs seem willing to pay even more. Compared to field production, greenhouse produced berries are larger, firmer and much less prone to fruit rot. Only 6% of our greenhouse berries were crumbly or otherwise unmar- ketable, whereas the percentage of field-grown berries that are unmarketable is usually much higher. Fruit tends to be slightly less sweet and more acid in the greenhouse, but well within the limits of acceptability. Only Royalty purple raspberry and Heritage red raspberry (“sum- mer crop”) did not produce fruit of acceptable flavor. Procedure Although we have not optimized the system, these procedures work reasonably well. Summer-bearing (floricane-fruiting) tissue-cultured raspberry plugs are planted into 1 gallon pots filled with equal parts sand:peat:perlite:vermiculite in May, allowed to grow outdoors on a gravel bed with irrigation until late December, then brought into the greenhouse. While outdoors, plants are fertilized weekly with a complete soluble fertilizer solution containing 100 ppm N, and pest outbreaks are managed using conventional practices. Once in the green- house, canes are trellised and plants watered with a 100 ppm N fertilizer solution. Tempera- tures are maintained at 65F during the day, and 50F at night - ideal for raspberries but too cold for most other plants. Supplemental light can accelerate development by 2 to 3 weeks and increase yield by 20 –30%. Six weeks after moving plants into a lighted greenhouse, they flower. Bumblebees are used to pollinate the flowers, and fruiting can begin as early as mid-February, about 10 weeks after moving plants indoors. Once flowering begins, the nutrient solution is reduced to 50 ppm nitrogen. With one- year-old plants, we use double rows (with row centers 5 ft. apart) and a pot-to-pot spacing so that approx. 26 plants are contained in each 3 m length of row. Each plant produces about two half-pints (350g) of fruit. New primocanes are removed when they reach a height of 18 inches. (Removing all primocanes as they emerge is detrimental to the carbohydrate status of the plants.) Those that are 18 inches tall near the end of harvest are retained for fruiting the following year. After the first harvest is over in April, we transplant into 7 gallon pots and place plants outside for the second growing season. We return plants to the greenhouse in mid-December after the chilling requirement has been fulfilled. Rapidly satisfying the chilling requirement is one advantage that northern growers have over more southern producers. Outdoors in full sun, plants are watered regularly and fertilized once a week with a soluble balanced fertilizer (100 ppm N). Canes are held upright with trellises as they grow. In the second production cycle, we space plants 22 in. apart in single rows, with 5.5 ft. between rows, and trellis canes upright to a single wire.PAGE 8 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • Pests amd Diseases We regularly released Phytoseiulus persimilis for twospotted spider mites (there are no pesti- cides labeled for use on raspberries in greenhouses). Household fans are used to circulate air down the rows to reduce pockets of high humidity (ideal is 65–75%) and the subsequent risk of fungal infection. Economics At our orchard store, we sold raspberries for $3.00 per half-pint without consumer resistance. We have calculated that net profits of $2,500–$5,000 per 1,000 sq. ft. are reasonable. Raspberries are well-suited to greenhouse production, and the economics appear to be favorable. For more information on greenhouse raspberry production, visit the Web site: <http://www.hort.cornell.edu/department/faculty/pritts/Greenhouse/Frontpage.htm>.Diseases The foundations of organic disease control fungi contain large amounts of organic matter,are sanitation (removal and destruction of in- plentiful calcium, and nitrogen in the ammoniumfected plant parts); keeping the plants in good form (decaying organic matter will produce am-vigor through weed control, good fertility, and monium nitrogen) (27). Planting on raised bedsmoisture management (mulching and irriga- is also helpful.tion); and using resistant varieties. For descrip- Cornell researchers found that amending thetions and diagnoses of plant diseases, refer to soil with gypsum (calcium sulfate) reduced theCooperative Extension publications or contact incidence of phytophthora in red raspberries.an Extension specialist. Also see Chapter 7: Other amendments tested—including compost,Small-Scale Fruit Production—A Comprehen- lime, sulfur, and potassium—were either ineffec-sive Guide (Penn State Cooperative Extension tive or inferior to gypsum against phytophthoraPublication), available online at <http:// (28).ssfruit.cas.psu.edu/chapter7/chapter7a.htm>. As mentioned earlier, mulching susceptible red raspberry cultivars can foster phytophthora Phytophthora Root Rot problems. This appears to be common only in irrigated plantings on heavy soils. If all factors Phytophthora root rot is not known to be a are present—susceptible cultivars, heavy soil, ir-problem on blackberries and causes minimal rigation—research indicates that mulch is advan-problems in black and purple raspberries (22, 23). tageous during the establishment year, but mayIt can, however, be a problem in some soils on favor phytophthora thereafter (14).susceptible variet-ies of red raspber- PHYTOPHTHORA RESISTANCE OF RASPBERRY VARIETIESries. A listing ofknown resistantand highly sus- Phytophthora-Resistant Varieties Phytophthora-Susceptible Varietiesceptible varieties,compiled from Boyne Latham Canby Munger Bristol Lauren Chilcotin Reveilleseveral sources Cherokee Meeker Comox Ruby(22, 23, 24, 25, 26, Chilliwack Newburgh Cumberland Skeena28), is provided Dundee Nordic Festival Taylorbelow. Fall Red Pathfinder Heritage Titan Soils naturally Killarney Sumner Hilton Willamettesuppressive of Jewel Sunrisephytophthora //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 9
  • Verticillium Wilt trolling this disease, but there are biological con- trols proven effective against gray mold (34). Verticillium wilt is caused by the fungus Ver- Unfortunately, none of these biological controlsticillium albo-atrum. To avoid soil-borne verticil- are as yet EPA-registered for use on abovegroundlium wilt problems, an often-repeated recom- plant parts.mendation is that growers should wait at least The incidence of gray mold can be reducedthree to four years before planting in a field through advanced planning in site selection—where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, or choosing a location with good soil and air drain-tobacco have been grown; however, research has age, and orienting crop rows with prevailingshown Verticillium species to be capable of sur- breezes. Subsequent cultural management toviving in the soil for more than 14 years in the improve sunlight entry and air movement (e.g.,absence of a host (29). trellising, alternate row production, removal of Also, common weeds such as black night- spent floricanes, thinning, weed control, andshade, redroot pigweed, lambsquarter, and cover crop mowing, etc.) and maintaining a tighthorsenettle support verticillium (30). Soil solar- picking schedule to reduce the presence of over-ization can greatly reduce the verticillium inocu- ripe fruit also contribute greatly to suppressinglum (refer to ATTRA’s Overview of Organic Fruit gray mold.Production for more information on soil solariza-tion). Leaf Spot Among red raspberries, which tend to bemore tolerant, Cuthbert and Syracuse have Another fungal problem in humid climatesshown to be resistant under field conditions (10). is leaf spot (causal organism: Sphaerulina rubi).Among blackberries, Himalaya and Evergreen Most blackberries are resistant, but raspberries—are verticillium-resistant (30). especially those growing in the southern ex- tremes of their adapted region—can be hard hit. Crown Gall Practicing good sanitation, especially the removal and destruction of old floricanes, and managing Crown gall is caused by the bacterium to increase air movement and sunlight penetra-Agrobacterium radiobacter var. tumefaciens, which tion work to suppress leaf spot. Overwinteringusually enters through wounds in the roots or inoculum can also be reduced with a single de-crowns of raspberry and blackberry plants. The layed-dormant spray of lime sulfur (35).disease is best controlled by planting healthy There is some genetic resistance to leaf spotstock on a “clean” site. On a planting site where among raspberry varieties. Heritage, Southland,crown gall has been known to occur, a waiting Fall Gold, and MN 659 appear especially resis-period of three to five years is advised before tant, and black raspberry varieties demonstratereplanting. As an alternative, a biological treat- moderate resistance. Red raspberry varietiesment (dip) with a non-pathogenic strain of a Sentry, Taylor, Skeena, Killarney, and Canbyclosely related bacterium (A. radiobacter var. appear most susceptible (36).radiobacter strain K84) can protect the plantingstock from infection by the virulent A. radiobacter Orange Rustvar. tumefaciens (31). Two commercial formu-lations of this treatment are available (32, 33). Orange rust affects blackberries and black raspberries. The organism Gymnoconia peckianus, Gray Mold which causes rust-colored lesions on leaves, will commonly infect the whole plant, stunting some The only serious disease of bramble fruit is plants seriously. Control measures largely fo-gray mold, caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. cus on the planting of clean stock and diligentGray mold can be devastating if rainy weather scouting to rogue out infected crop and wildcoincides with harvest when fruits are at their plants, roots and all. Practices to improve air cir-ripest and most susceptible. Raspberries are culation are also advised (37).more susceptible than blackberries. No organi- Among blackberry cultivars, Eldorado,cally acceptable fungicides are available for con- Raven, Snyder, and Ebony King appear resistant.PAGE 10 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • Among thornless blackberry varieties, Hull, of excessive nitrogen fertilization—a more fre-Chester, and Arapaho appear resistant. quent problem where soluble nitrate fertilizer is used. Anthracnose Organic growers usually find that, if they don’t spray, naturally occurring enemies of the aphids will eventually exert control. However, Anthracnose (causal organism: Elsinoe veneta) organic growers may also use insecticides suchcan be a serious disease on blackberries and black as soap sprays, rotenone, and pyrethrum for con-raspberries. It is less of a threat to purple and trol.red raspberries, and most of the thornless black-berry varieties exhibit resistance. Again, sanita-tion procedures and practices to improve air cir- Borersculation play major roles in disease suppression.Anthracnose can also be controlled organically Other major insect pests of brambles includewith a single delayed-dormant spray of liquid the borers: the raspberry crown borer, the rasp-lime-sulfur (7). Under severe conditions, addi- berry cane borer, and the red-necked cane borer.tional later sprays using bordeaux, burgundy Despite the names of these pests, all three attackmix, or a fixed copper may help. blackberries as well as raspberries. Control of all three is best achieved organically by rogue- Spur Blight ing out and destroying infested plants. Spur blight (causal organism: Didymella Beetlesapplanata) is a fungal disease of red raspberriesand sometimes of purple raspberries that can Japanese and June beetles can be major pestsreduce the yields and life of a planting. Control of bramble fruit if their adult emergence coin-procedures are essentially the same as those for cides with the ripening. Since ripe berries areanthracnose. The cultivars Amity, Festival, picked every day or every other day, there areHaida, and Prestige all show some resistance (38). few pesticides (organic or otherwise) that are both effective against these beetles and usable Viruses up to the day of harvest. Some botanicals—such as rotenone— can legally be There are several bramble viruses of used even theeconomic importance. Again, planting day of harvestclean stock and rogueing out and de- according tostroying infected plants are important current labelpractices in limiting virus spread. Rasp- restrictions;berries can be particularly hard hit in however,areas where aphid vectors of viruses are none havepresent. Breeding for resistance to proved ad-aphid vectors has proved highly effec- equate fortive in restricting virus infection in June and Japa-plantings (39, 40). nese beetle control.Insects Consequently, organic growers have to re- sort to other methods to control these pests. Hand picking, trapping, exclusion with row cov- Aphids ers, and reducing the immatures (grubs) in the soil with tillage, milky spore disease, and/or Besides vectoring viruses, aphids can be beneficial nematodes have all been attempted bytroublesome on brambles when feeding is so in- growers with varying degrees of success. Tar-tense that leaves become curled and distorted. geting the grubs requires advance planning—theHigh aphid populations are often an indication beneficial nematodes and milky spore disease are //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 11
  • not effective against adult beetles. Grubs can clay is nearly impossible to wash off from be- be especially plentiful in undisturbed pasture tween the drupelets (the individual seed-bear- or turf soils. Tillage and soil treatment with ing structures that together make up the “berry,” beneficial nematodes or milky spore disease which, botanically, is more correctly called a are helpful in destroying pupae or grubs, but “drupe”). As a result the Surround label cau- since the adults can fly in from relatively dis- tions that Surround should only be applied to tant sites, it is often impractical to till or treat berries intended for processing (42). enough ground adjacent to the bramble planting to effectively suppress a local popu- Refugia lation. Attempts have been made to exploit a be- While cover crops may provide shelter to havioral phenomenon of these pests for con- several bramble pests, cover crops and adjacent trol. Apparently the beetles are initially at- vegetation also harbor beneficial insects that tracted by the odors of ripening fruit and fruit pollinate the crop and help to suppress pest in- yeasts. After the first beetles find the food sect and mite populations. When crops and field source, they emit an aggregation pheromone borders are managed with beneficials in mind which functions as a scent beacon for other they are often referred to as refugia, and repre- beetles. Commercial traps that use these sent a new approach to pest management based pheromones for trapping the beetles are on planned biodiversity. To learn more about available through mail-order garden supply refugia, please request the ATTRA publication companies, but growers and researchers alike Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control. caution that they can end up attracting more beetles to the planting than the traps can handle, making the problem even worse. However, understanding this behavioral Economics and Marketing phenomenon reinforces the importance of hand picking or otherwise dealing with those Overview of Bramble Economics first few beetles. Arkansas researchers report that buckets In the U.S., large-scale commercial of water and rotting fruit attract June beetles bramble production is located almost exclu- (41). The water can be laced with a pesticide sively in states along the Pacific Coast. The or the beetles scooped off and otherwise remaining bramble fruit production is scat- killed. In any case, these researchers caution tered in small plantings throughout the that the buckets must be emptied of beetles United States. Most of the commercial crop is regularly because the pests soon accumulate processed, with only a small amount making to the extent that its way to the fresh the last-arriving “Demand and prices for blackberries market. In general, beetles may be un- fresh bramble fruit able to reach the and raspberries are rising...” doesn’t ship well water and thus eas- and thus is gener- ily crawl out. The ally most appropri- fruit brew may also need to be changed if it ate for local markets. Still, it can bring high appears to have lost its yeast-like smell or is prices. no longer attracting the beetles. In all in- More than 95 percent of the bramble fruit stances where beetle traps are employed, cur- grown in Washington and Oregon is sold for rent wisdom advises placing them away processing. California brambles are grown from the field to avoid the possibility of mainly for the fresh market, since shippers use drawing the pests to the crop. the fresh-market infrastructure developed for Surround™ WPis a kaolin-clay-based in- strawberries to handle and sell raspberries. Sta- sect repellent effective against both June and tistics are not available for other states, but in Japanese beetles. It is considered “organic” California the fresh market, especially direct-to- by the Organic Materials Review Institute, consumer sales, reportedly accounts for most and is registered on brambles. However, the sales (43).PAGE 12 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • Demand for both fresh and processed However, market prices will vary by region,bramble fruit is increasing. Recent reports indi- affecting economic returns. For example, whilecate that prices and sales are rising. Raspberries the Kansas study above was based on a marketare the most important commercial bramble fruit,and the black and red types the mostpopular. Purple and yellow raspber- Organic production is typically moreries are less widely grown than the oth-ers, but demand is still strong (44). costly than conventional production.Blackberry acreage and yield are alsoincreasing as that crop becomes more price of $1.25, a survey conducted by Ohio Satepopular. University in 2001 showed average black rasp- Bramble fruits can be a good crop to add to berry prices in Ohio to be $2.37 per lb in pick-the production mix for the small-scale and/or your-own markets, $3.33 per pint in on-farmpart-time farmer. Once established, raspberry markets, and $3.79 per pint in farmers’ marketsplantings, for example, should produce for at (6).least six years, and some produce for more than For more information on marketing and eco-20 years (45). Bramble fruits, which ripen shortly nomics, see Ohio State University Extensionafter strawberries or later in August or Septem- Service’s publication “Brambles—Productionber, can extend the small producer’s harvest sea- Management and Marketing” online at <http:/son. However, since bramble fruits have special /ohioline.osu.edu/b782/index.html>.production requirements and a very short shelf While the bulk of brambles are grown con-life and marketing season, growing them is not ventionally, there is some commercial organicappropriate for everyone. production. Organic production is typically The high cost of machinery, irrigation, qual- more costly than conventional production.ity plants, and labor requirements often discour- Among the factors that often increase per-unitages growers from getting into the bramble mar- production costs in organic systems are theket. Economically, raspberries or blackberries are added labor and machinery costs associated withconsidered to be a medium- to high-risk crop weed control, the loss of benefits associated withbecause of a high initial investment, returns de- scale (organic operations are typically smaller),layed for two or more years, biological factors and reduced yields due to pest pressure.including the climate, and high fixed costs (44). However, small-acreage organic raspberry Establishment costs can range from $3,000 to fields, carefully hand-harvested every day over$4,500 per acre. Plantations should consist of at a 4-week period, can be lucrative. Expectedleast 3 acres to provide enough fruit for sale. yields in 1997 for mechanically harvested organicMost growers report needing at least five to ten raspberries (in the Pacific Northwest) were be-good pickers per acre to keep up with the ripen- tween 3 and 4 tons an acre, with hand-harvesteding fruit. Growers who plan to harvest their crop berries yielding 4 to 5 tons per acre. Prices havewith mechanical harvesters generally need at been high, with premiums of up to 35 cents aleast 10 acres in production to justify renting a pound over conventional. However, increasedmachine (46). acreage in both the U.S. and overseas is expected In budgetary information developed by Kan- to continue to drive down prices by increasingsas State University in 1993, the total variable and supply (47).fixed costs for an acre of red raspberries were$2,222 in the establishment year and $1,720 ineach of the three subsequent years. (Note that Marketingthese figures do not include costs associated withirrigation, land payments, interest, or returns to Can you make money growing raspberries?management.) Based on these costs, it was esti- To help decide, first consider where to marketmated that, at an average yield of 1 ton per acre the berries. Options include wholesalers, coop-and a market price of $1.25 per lb, the grower eratives, local retailers, roadside stands, pick-would remain in a negative cash position for at your-own, farmers’ markets, and processingleast three years, since no crop is produced in firms. Many small, independent fruit producersthe establishment year (1). find it increasingly difficult to market their ber- //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 13
  • ries. Eighty percent of all fresh fruits and veg- Marketing Health through Bramble Fruitsetables sold at the retail level are presentlyhandled by chain stores in the United States. The demand for nutritionally enhanced foodsHigh labor costs and lack of a wholesale market continues to grow. Beyond their vitamin andat a fair return has made direct marketing much mineral content, bramble fruits are now knownmore attractive to small growers. The cost/price to contain important phytochemicals (naturallysqueeze is particularly dramatic in the case of occuring compounds). The term nutraceuticalbrambles. Direct marketing provides a means refers to a phytochemical substance that may beof increasing the grower’s net return. considered food (or part of a food) and that pro- Before you plant organic fields, make your vides medical or health benefits, including pre-marketing arrangements. Since costs are high, it vention and treatment of disease. Nutraceuticalsis crucial to locate markets that will pay the pre- represent one of the most important food-indus-mium prices required to turn a profit. For help try trends for marketing to an increasinglywith understanding, researching, and locating knowledgeable and health-conscious consumer.organic markets, see ATTRA’s Organic Market- Information on nutraceutical properties ofing Resources. bramble fruits can be found at <http:// A study from Ohio (44) examined the profit- www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~sfgnet/ellagic.html>.ability of three different bramble fruit markets:pick-your-own (PYO), hand-harvested for eitheron- or off-farm sales, and mechanically harvested Value Addingfor either immediate processing or individuallyquick frozen (IQF) storage. Since bramble fruits are so perishable and PYO marketing is highly attractive as a low- easily damaged, the farmer may have a lot ofinvestment alternative. However, researchers damaged berries unsuitable for the fresh marketfound that these operations were required to sell on his or her hands. While it is not recommendedat relatively low prices, PYO being less popular to rely exclusively on culls for value-added prod-today than it used to be. Also, marketing op- ucts, culls can make up a large part of fruit in-tions for PYO can be limited for operations lo- gredients in products such as fruit leathers andcated far from population centers. Inclement jams and jellies.weather can have a particularly depressing ef- For more information on adding value, re-fect on this marketing strategy, too. Hand-har- quest the ATTRA publications Adding Value tovested berries can be sold directly to consumers Farm Products: An Overview and Keys to Successor to retail. Hand-harvesting requires the man- in Value-Added Agriculture.agement of additional seasonal workers. Theresearchers found that growers need to chargeat least $1.00 more per pound for hand-harvestedberries than PYO-harvested berries to turn aprofit. Machine-harvested berries are generallytaken to a processor for freezing or juicing. Lowyields and few hours of machine use per yearincrease the cost of machine-harvested berries.Mechanical harvest requires a business that canhandle large volumes of berries in one day. Pro-cessed berry prices tend to change more rapidlythan fresh berry prices. The researchers foundthat when growers with small farms are capableof producing an average of 3,200 pounds or moreper acre, they are able to compete with largerfarms in marketing machine-harvested berries.However, it may be difficult to locate processors ©ARS 2003outside the Pacific Northwest.PAGE 14 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • References1.) Morrison, Frank D., Ned Tisserat, Ed Hellman, and Donald B. Erickson. 1993. Commercial Blackberry & Raspberry 9.) Bowen, Pat, and Stan Freyman. 1995. Produc tion in Kansas. Kansas State Uni- Ground covers affect raspberry yield, versity.Manhattan, KS. 21 p. photosynthesis, and nitrogen nutrition of primocanes. HortScience. April. p. 238-2.) Poling, E.B. 1992. Blackberry Production 241. In North Carolina. Leaflet No. 200-B. North Carolina Cooperative Extension. 10.) OSU. No date. Brambles—Production North Carolina State University. Raleigh, Management and Marketing. Ohio State NC. 7 p. University Extension Service. Bulletin 782-99.3.) Bartels, Steve, Henry Bartholomew, Michael A. Ellis, Richard C. Funt, Stephen 11.) Goulart, Barbara. 1991. Raspberry trel T. Nameth, Ronald L. Overmyer, Harold lises: Pitfalls and possibilities. Northland Schneider, William J. Twarogowski, and Berry News. June. p. 14. Roger N. Williams. 1988. Brambles: Pro duction, Management, and Marketing. 12.) Otten, Paul, and Thomas M. Schuett. Bulletin 783. Ohio Cooperative Extension 1991. The econotrellis for primocane Service. Ohio State University. Colum raspberries for under $275/acre. bus, OH. 58 p. Northland Berry News. March. p. 1-3.4.) Morrison, Frank D., Ned Tisserat, Ed 13.) Edberg, Kevin. 1994. Alternate row crop- Hellman, and Donald B. Erickson. 1993. ping of Boyne raspberries. Northland Commercial Blackberry & Raspberry Berry News. September. p. 16. Production in Kansas. Kansas State Uni- versity. Manhattan, KS. 21 p. 14.) Kuepper, George, and Tommy Williams. 1989. Alternative pruning system for5.) Krewer, Gerard, Stephen Myers, Paul blackberries. Pomona. Fall. p. 51. Bertrand, and Dan Horton. 1987. Commercial Bramble Culture. Bulletin 15.) Makus, D.J. 1989. Mulch, evaporative 964. University of Georgia Cooperative cooling improve yield of Arkansas-grown Extension. Athens, GA. 12 p. raspberries. April-May. p. 9-10.6.) Anon. 2001. Black raspberries most popu- 16.) Pritts, Marvin P. 1991. Mulch those lar on growers list in Ohio survey. The newly planted raspberries. Organic Fruit Growers News. November. p. 63. Farmer. Summer. p. 38-39. 17.) Funt, Richard C., Henry M. Bartholomew,7.) Pritts, Marvin, and David Handley (edi- Mark C. Schmittgen, and John C. Golden. tors). 1989. Bramble Production Guide. 1994. Straw mulch increases yield of NRAES -35. Northeast Regional Agricul- thornless blackberry cultivars. tural Engineering Service. Ithaca, NY. HortScience. May. p. 453. 189 p. 18.) Wilcox, Wayne, and Marvin Pritts. 1993.8.) The Kerr Center for Sustainable Agricul- Phytophthora root rot of raspberries: Re- ture, P.O. Box 588 Poteau, OK 74953. Tel: view and update on recent research. 918-647-9123. Cornell Small Fruits Newsletter. Jan-Feb- Mar. p. 8-9. //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 15
  • 19.) DeWitt Co. RR 3, Box 31, Sikeston, MO 31.) Cook, R.J., and K.F. Baker. 1983. The 63801. Tel: 800-888-9669. Nature and Practice of Biological Control of Plant Pathogens. APS Press, St. Paul,20.) Anon. 1991. Boron for brambles and blue MN. p. 59. berries. Northland Berry News. March. p. 6. 32.) AgBioChem, Inc. 3 Fleetwood Ct. , Orinda, CA 95617. Tel: 415-756-7177.21.) Scheer, William P.A. 1992. Magnesium and boron deficiencies in raspberries. 33.) IPM Laboratories Northland Berry News. September. p. Main St. 14. Locke, NY 13092 315-597-312922.) Wilcox, Wayne F. 1992. Integrated con- trol of phytophthora root rot of raspber- 34.) Daar, Sheila. 1989. Trichoderma ries. LISA Small Fruits Newsletter. Sum- biofungicide registered in U.S. The IPM mer. p. 6-9. Practitioner. September. p. 19.23.) Wilcox, Wayne F. 1990. Phytophthora 35.) Wilcox, Wayne. 1990. IPM practices for rootrot of raspberry/red stele of straw small fruit disease control: A review. berry. Northland Berry News. March. p. Northland Berry News. June. p. 16, 18. 12-13. 36.) Wilcox, W.F., and M.P. Pritts. 1988.24.) Jennings, D.L. 1988. Raspberries and Evaluation of leaf spot severity on 39 rasp- Blackberries: Their Breeding, Diseases berry cultivars. Biological and Cultural and Growth. Academic Press, New York, Tests. Vol. 4. p. 8. NY. p. 89. 37.) Kleiner, Bill. 1993. Understanding orange25.) Himelrick, David G. 1994. Raspberry root rust on black raspberry. Northland Berry rot. American Fruit Grower. June. p. 16. News. June. p. 14.26.) Anon. 1997. Variety spotlight. Ameri- 38.) Daubeny, Hugh A., and H.S. Pepin. 1974. can Fruit Grower. p. 13. Susceptibility variations to spur blight (Didymella applanata) among red rasp-27.) Cook, R.J., and K.F. Baker. 1983. The berry cultivars and selections. Plant Dis- Nature and Practice of Biological Control ease Re porter. Vol. 58. p. 1024-1027. of Plant Pathogens. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. p. 270. 39.) Jennings, D.L. 1988. Raspberries and Blackberries: Their Breeding, Diseases28.) Pritts, Marvin, and K. E. Maloney. 1998. and Growth. Academic Press, New York, Calcium sulfate soil amendment reduces NY. p. 110. incidence of phytophthora root rot in raspberry. HortIdeas. August. p. 87. 40.) Schaefers, George A. 1988. Studying aphid-resistant brambles. Fruit Grower.29.) Jennings, D.L. 1988. Raspberries and June. p. 8. Blackberries: Their Breeding, Diseases and Growth. Academic Press, New York, 41.) Barbara Lewis & Dr. Donn Johnson (Per- NY. p. 87, 88. sonal communication.) Dept. of Entomology30.) Ellis, Michael A., and Wayne F. Wilcox. University of Arkansas 1992. Bramble diseases: IPM works. Fayetteville, AR 72702. American Fruit Grower. May. p. 22-24. Tel: 479-575-2501PAGE 16 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • 42.) http://www.engelhard.com/surround Further Resources43.) http://www.rma.usda.gov/pilots/ feasible/txt/bramble.txt Publications:44.) http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/ %7Eohioline/b782/b782_34.htm Compendium of Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases and Insects45.) Penn State Ag Alt. Pub Ellis, M.A., et al. (ed.). 1991. The American Phy- http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/ topathological Society, St. Paul, MN. 122 p. ua285.html Available for $49 + shipping from: APS PRESS Customer Service46.) Brun, Charles. 1997. Red Raspberries: A 3340 Pilot Knob Road Most Lucrative Crop for the Pacific North Saint Paul, MN 55121-2097 west. Sustainable Agriculture Farming for Toll-free ordering: 800-328-7560 Profit & Stewardship. April. p. 3. http://store.yahoo.com/shopapspress/ 41213.html47.) Wiffig, Hans. 1997. Organic red rasp- berry production in the PNW. Northland Galleta, G.J., and D.G. Himelrick (ed.). 1990. Berry News. Vol. 11, No. 2. Small Fruit Crop Management. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 602 p. Krewer, Gerard, et al. 1987. Commercial Bramble Culture. Bulletin 964. The University of Geor- gia CES, Athens, GA. 11 p. Pritts, Marvin, and David Handley (eds.). 1989. Bramble Production Guide. NRAES-35. North- east Regional Agricultural Engineering Service. Ithaca, NY. 189 p. Available for $45 (NY residents add 8% sales tax) plus $5.50 shipping from: Publications Distribution Center The Pennsylvania State University 112 Agricultural Administration Build ing University Park, PA 16802-2602 Ithaca, NY 14853 (814) 865-6713 Fax: 814-863-5560 E-mail: AgPubsDist@psu.edu Code Number: NRAES-35 American Fruit Grower Meister Publishing Company 37733 Euclid Avenue 440-942-2000 Fax: 440-942-0662 Willoughby, OH 44094 Published monthly, $15.95 per year. //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 17
  • Northland Berry News Northwest Berry and Grape Information Net- 595 Grand Ave. work. A joint effort of Washington State, Oregon St. Paul, MN 55102-3674 State, and Idaho Universities 651/265-3413 http://osu.orst.edu/dept/infonet/ Fax: 651/292-9699 E-mail: subscriptions@berrynews.com Small fruit strategies after a disaster. Virginia http://www.berrynews.com/ Cooperative Extension. index.html http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/disaster/Quarterly, $20 per year or $35 for two years. 490-316/490-316.htmlSmall Fruit News of Central New York Raspberry Production Summary 2002. Cornell 3288 Main St. University Extension. Mexico, NY 131154 http://www.hort.cornell.edu/extension 315-963-7286 commercial/fruit/Newsletters/Monthly, $35/year. Raspjo1.htmFruit Growers News Disease and Insect Control Programs for Home 343 South Union Street Grown Fruit in Kentucky Including Organic Al- P.O. Box 128 ternatives. 2001. University of Kentucky Coop- Sparta, MI 49345 erative Extension Service. Phone: 616-887-9008 http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/ Fax: 616-887-2666 id21/id21.htm E-mail: gap@i2k.net http://www.fruitgrowersnews.com/ Southern Region Small Fruit Center Web site. ASubscription cost is $11.00 per year or $28 joint effort of Clemson University, the Univer-for 3 years. Some articles available online. sity of Georgia, and North Carolina State Uni- versity. http://www.smallfruits.org/ Electronic Resources: Berry Growers’ AssociationsOhio State University Extension Web site Minnesota Fruit & Vegetable Growers Assn. http://ohioline.osu.edu/lines/ Marilyn Johnson fruit.html#FRU.6 15125 W Vermilion Circle, NE Ham Lake, MN 55304University of California Fruit & Nut Research Phone: 763-434-0400and Information Center Fax: 763-413-9585 http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/ rasp.html New York State Berry Growers Association James C. AltemusSmall fruit production information index. North 14 State St.Carolina State University Blooomfield, NY 14469 http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/ Phone: 716-657-5328 hil/smfruit-index.html Fax: 716-657-4642 E-mail: goodberries@aol.comGreenhouse Raspberries, by Marvin Pritts. http://www.hort.cornell.edu/grower/ http://www.hort.cornell.edu/ nybga/ department/faculty/pritts/ Greenhouse/Frontpage.htmPAGE 18 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS
  • North American Bramble Growers Richard Fagan, Executive Secty. 13006 Mason Rd., NE Cumberland, MD 21502 Phone: 301-724-4085 Original publication by Guy K. Ames Fax: 301-724-3020 June 2000 E-mail: rfagan@mindspring.com http://www.hort.cornell.edu/grower/ Updated by George L. Kuepper, Holly nabga/index.html Born, & Janet Bachmann NCAT Agriculture SpecialistsOregon Raspberry & Blackberry Commission 4845 B SW Dresden Ave. Edited by David Zodrow and Corvallis, OR 97333 Phone: 541-758-4043 Paul Williams Fax: 541-58-4553 Formatted by Ashley D. Hill E-mail: berries@oregon-berries.com http://www.oregon-berries.com/Washington Red Raspberry Commission 1333 Lincoln St., Suite 182 Bellingham, WA 98226 Phone: 360-354-8767 Fax: 360-354-0948 E-mail: WAredberry@aol.com http://www.red-raspberry.org/ IP022 / Slot 31 The electronic version of Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits is located at: HTML http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/ bramble.html PDF http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/ sbramble.pdf //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS PAGE 19
  • photos© ARS 2003PAGE 20 //ORGANIC CULTURE OF BRAMBLE FRUITS