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Organic and Low-Spray Peach Production
 

Organic and Low-Spray Peach Production

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Organic and Low-Spray Peach Production

Organic and Low-Spray Peach Production

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    Organic and Low-Spray Peach Production Organic and Low-Spray Peach Production Document Transcript

    • ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION HORTICULTURE PRODUCTION GUIDE Abstract: This publication describes the major diseases and insect pests of peaches and discusses organic or least-toxic control options for each. It emphasizes the considerable climatic differences between the arid West, which is relatively amenable to organic peach production, and the humid East, where it is very difficult to grow peaches without synthetic fungicides and insecticides. It profiles a successful organic peach grower in California, discusses new-generation synthetic pesticides, and introduces a model reduced-spray program for the East. The last section lists additional references, publications, and electronic information sites. ©2003www.iband.comUpdated by Steve Diver, NCAT Agriculture Specialist,and Tracy Mumma, March 2003 Introduction Peaches can be difficult to produce even under good conditions and with a full spray schedule.At least two key insect pests and several serious diseases present formidable obstacles to organic orlow-spray production. Nevertheless, with proper management, resistant cultivars, and a good site,growers can greatly reduce—and in some cases eliminate—their reliance on synthetic pesticides. Be-cause of new directions in research emphasizing biological and other alternative pest and diseasecontrols, the future looks promising for low-spray and organic peach orchards. Many considerations and practices are the same for both low-spray/organic and conventionalpeach growers. For instance, all growers need to make variety choiceswith cold hardiness and chilling requirements in mind. Also, prun-ing and training will be approximately the same for all kinds of cul-ture. Information on these topics is available through traditional re-source channels such as the Cooperative Extension Service, statepeach production councils, orcharding texts, and trade magazines. This publication focuses primarily on controlling insect pests and diseases. Organic ap- proaches to managing fer- Table of Contents tility, weed control, and Introduction ............................... 1 orchard-floor vegetation Geographic Factors that Affect apply universally to most Disease and Pest Incidence...... 2 tree-fruit crops (apples, Diseases ................................... 4 peaches, pears, cherries, Insect Pests ............................ 11 plums). For general infor- Conclusion .............................. 15 mation on these organic References .............................. 15 orchard practices, see Additional Resources .............. 16 ATTRA’s Overview of Or- ©2003www.clipart.com ganic Fruit Production. ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information service operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology, through a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. NCAT has offices in Fayetteville, Arkansas (P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702), Butte, Montana, and Davis, California.
    • A Note on Terms Related ATTRA Publications The term low-spray has no precise defini- • Overview of Organic Fruit Production tion. It simply refers to a reduced synthetic- • Organic & Low-spray Apple pesticide spray program relative to a Production region’s prevailing conventional practices. • Organic Pear Production For example, instead of 8 to 12 spray ap- • Low-spray & Organic Plum plications during a growing season, a low- Production spray program may consist of 2 to 4. • Organic Grape Production • Postharvest Handling of Fruits & Vegetables The terms organic and organically grown • Insect IPM in Apples: Kaolin Clay have precise legal definitions. Organic pro- • Farmscaping to Enhance Biological duction and marketing of food crops is now Control regulated at the federal level. Before land • Notes on Compost Teas can be certified organic it must be free of • Use of Baking Soda as a Fungicide synthetic pesticides and commercial fertil- • Biointensive Integrated Pest izers for three years, and thereafter only Management approved organic pest-control and fertilizer inputs may be used. Producers who want to label or market their produce as organic must be certified by an agent accredited by USDA’s National Organic Program. For Geographic Factors more information, see the ATTRA publica- tion Organic Farm Certification & The Na- that Affect Disease and tional Organic Program. If your operation is certified organic or if you are seeking certification, check with your certifier Pest Incidence before using any pest-control material Geographic location and climate play a par- mentioned in this publication (whether ticular role in the incidence and severity of peach we describe it as “organic” or not) to diseases and pests. Primary threats in one grow- confirm its acceptability for organic pro- ing area may be of little concern in regions where duction. the weather is drier, insects or diseases are not established, or the growing season is shorter. Re- IPM, integrated pest management, IFM, in- sistant cultivars, especially those suited to a spe- tegrated fruit management, and phero- cific climate, can also reduce the impact of cer- mone-based pest management are mod- tain diseases. ern fruit production systems that pay close The plum curculio, a key pest of many tree attention to best management practices fruits, is not present west of the so-called “tree and reduced pesticide use. IPM guidelines line” (running roughly from Fort Worth, Texas, are being used 1) as a checklist for farm- through Fargo, North Dakota). The curculio’s ers to evaluate their on-farm pest manage- absence—coupled with reduced disease pressure ment programs and identify areas where in much of the arid West—facilitates organic management can be improved; 2) to verify peach production. The peach twig borer, how- and document that IPM is practiced on the ever, is a greater problem west of the Rocky farm; and 3) as an educational tool that de- Mountains than in the East. Meanwhile, in the scribes the scope and complexity of IPM high-rainfall areas of the Pacific Northwest and to farmers, government officials, commu- coastal California, peach leaf curl is a common nity groups, and the general public. In ad- disorder. dition, IPM labeling has emerged as a Eastern growers must contend with plum “green” marketing strategy parallel to or- curculio, bacterial spot, and increased incidence ganic food channels. of fungal diseases. At present, commercial-scale organic production of peaches in the East wouldPAGE 2 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • be very difficult, largely because of the plum curculio and the brown rot fungus, which is endemicunder wet, humid conditions. However, some of the new-generation pest control products discussedhere can improve the opportunity for low-spray peach production in the East. Eastern commercial-scale growers wanting to reduce the amount of pesticides sprayed on theirpeach crop can take some encouragement from studies conducted by Clemson University Coopera-tive Extension personnel. Results of this South Carolina research indicate that under proper manage-ment the number of annual sprays can be reduced from 12 to 6, resulting in a savings of almost $50per acre (1). Details of this management program are presented in the box “A Reduced Spray Pro-gram for Eastern Growers.” Pest and disease problems that can be economically damaging for peach growers include brownrot, peach leaf curl, plum pox, bacterial spot, peach scab, peach mosaic virus, peach tree borers, peachtwig borers, Oriental fruit moth, plum curculio, and tarnished plant bug. These problems are ad-dressed below. Information on other pests and diseases of local or intermittent importance is usuallyavailable from regional Cooperative Extension publications. A Reduced Spray Program for Eastern Growers More than 15 years ago Clemson University Extension specialists Clyde Gorsuch and R. W. Miller reported research that would allow peach orchardists to cut the number of pesticide applications in half, from 12 to 6, provided they met certain criteria (1). Gorsuch and Miller’s basic principles are still relevant, and better fungicides available today might allow for reduc- ing pesticide use even further. Their criteria for a minimal spray schedule included: • All trees are sprayed thoroughly and applications carefully adjusted to the proper stage of plant development (e.g., a “petal fall” spray must be applied at petal fall); • There are no sources of brown rot within a quarter mile (wild plums and unsprayed peaches are the main culprits to be eliminated); • Anthracnose and powdery mildew are not a threat; • Scab has been controlled in previous years; • No resistance to Benlate or Topsin-M has been detected (newer fungicide options make this critierion a little less important than it was 15 years ago, though development of resistance to pesticides by pathogens must always remain a concern); • The spray materials used are chosen according to weather conditions and disease develop- ment in the orchard; • Weed control is excellent (unmown weeds and grass provide an ideal environment for spore production from peach mummies and provide habitat for catfacing insects like stink bugs); and • Brush piles are destroyed before bloom. A primary focal point of these criteria is sanitation in and near the orchard to remove sources of brown rot and of insects. Early-season sprays for plum curculio still have to be applied, and if diseases other than brown rot and scab are a problem, the producer may have to adjust the spray schedule accordingly. The authors cautioned that this is an effective program for good managers who are willing to scout the orchard on a weekly basis for brown rot, scab, other diseases, plum curculio, oriental fruit moth, Japanese beetles, and other potential pests. If problems appear, prompt application of a pesticide will probably be required to avoid economic loss. This reduced spray program should be attempted only when such prompt action can be applied when needed. //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 3
    • Diseases BROWN ROT When peaches are grown under the warm humid conditions conducive to fungal diseases, it canbe difficult to forego the use of fungicides. Brown rot (causal organisms: Monilinia fructicola and M.laxa) is foremost among fungal diseases, and peach producers struggle with it continually, as it affectsboth fruit yield and quality, and infests blossoms, twigs, and fruit in all stages. Brown rot is lessprevalent west of the Rocky Mountains than in the East, but even in the West brown rot can betroublesome in seasonably wet or foggy microclimates. Life cycle information on brown rot is pre- residual inoculum present in cankers and fruit,sented in Figure 1. Ideal conditions for infection even without blossom blight (2).arise during warm rainy periods (70–77°F is op- In the East, control of brown rot is compli-timum). Brown rot occurs as blossom blight early cated not only by higher rainfall and humidityin the growing season. Two to three weeks be- but also by increased levels of insect feeding,fore harvest it infects the fruits as they soften and which spreads the inoculum and opens the fruitripen, causing rot both at harvest and in storage— to infection. Moreover, the presence of alternatesome of the infected fruit may not display symp- hosts such as wild plums and other wild Prunustoms until after harvest. Blossom blight during species can further aggravate the situation. Un-bloom is an indicator for extensive brown rot in- der such conditions, commercial-scale organicfections later in the season, although a wet year production of peaches is currently extremely dif-can produce heavy infections of brown rot from ficult.PAGE 4 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • Control of brown rot involves the integration growth rate of the pathogen; and 4) removal ofof several tactics. Cultural practices and orchard propagules from the plant surface through ero-sanitation are the first line of defense. Planting- sion of the particle film (4).site selection and pruning are critical to provid- Carl Rosato of Woodleaf Farm near Oroville,ing sufficient air circulation within the canopy. California, received funding from the OrganicGood air circulation through the tree facilitates Farming Research Foundation (OFRF), therapid drying of the foliage and flowers after rain Kokaro Foundation, and the University of Cali-or overhead irrigation. Thinning branches to fornia, to test “natural” anti-fungal substancesopen the center of the tree is a good practice— on his 3-acre peach orchard during the 1992–‘94this can be done in July, as well as during the growing seasons. The substances included com-regular dormant-season pruning. Orchard sani- post tea, hydrogen peroxide, kelp sprays, grape-tation practices include pruning and removal of fruit seed extract, rock dusts, a pink mucoid yeast,infected twigs and cankers and disposal of copper fungicides, vinegar, and combinations ofdropped, culled, or mummified fruit. these. In descending order, better control was University of California researchers deter- obtained with : Algrow kelp mixed with basaltmined that excessive nitrogen fertilization in- rock dust (55% marketable fruit); Algrow kelpcreases fruit susceptibility to brown rot (3). They alone (42%); compost tea + pink mucoid yeastalso found that pre-harvest sprays of calcium (41%); hydrogen peroxide + pink mucoid yeastreduced brown rot infection over non-sprayed (40%); and so forth. Rosato’s full research report,trees but were not equal to fungicidal control. Peach Brown Rot Control (OFRF Grant 92-96), is Organic growers have traditionally relied on available on the OFRF website (5).sulfur to control brown rot. The first application In 2002, Rosato provided ATTRA with anof sulfur should be done at the “pink” stage, just update on his brown rot control strategy. First,before the petals open. This should be repeated it is helpful to understand that the part of Cali-at seven-day intervals, especially if rain occurs, fornia where his farm is located has a Mediterra-for a total of three applications. Two other ap- nean climate—a wet winter season alternatingplications should be made—one at petal drop, with a dry warm growing season—which is idealthe other at sepal drop (usually about 10–14 days for fruit production. Secondly, Rosato growsafter petal drop). The crop is still susceptible to about 45 varieties of peaches selected for fresh-infection later in the season, but treatments dur- market quality as well as brown rot resistance.ing the early “critical” stage will reduce the For brown rot control, Rosato relies prima-amount of crop loss without leaving a sulfur resi- rily on a spray mixture of micronized sulfur +due at harvest. When the weather is hot and dry, rock dust (e.g., Azomite™). However, for a dy-the need to spray is not as great. namic foliar spray that provides both nutritive A promising organic control strategy for and pest-control benefits, Rosato likes to blend abrown rot, according to Dr. Michael Glenn at foliar “brew” for all pre-bloom, bloom, and post-USDA’s Appalachian Fruit Research Station in bloom sprays. A common tank mixture (per acre)Kearneysville, West Virginia, is to combine sul- may include: 6–8 lbs Azomite; 5–15 lbs micron-fur with Surround™ WP Crop Protectant. De- ized sulfur; 5 lbs soluble potassium sulfate; 1 lbrived from processed kaolin clay, Surround is an Solubor™ (boron); 5 lbs kelp; and a yucca extractOMRI- (Organic Materials Review Institute) ap- for a sticker. For the pre-bloom spray, he addsproved pest control product shown to control or copper specifically for brown rot control. Whensuppress certain insects and diseases. The peach twig borer is present, he adds B.t. (e.g.,mechanism by which Surround suppresses pow- Dipel™). Bloom sprays begin at one-third bloomdery mildew, sooty blotch, fly speck, and fire and proceed every 5–7 days all the way throughblight (but not scab) in apples is thought to in- petal fall, for a total of 3–4 sprays altogether. Post-volve one or several of the following mecha- bloom sprays depend on the weather. When rainnisms: 1) physical separation of propagules from or humidity approaches, he religiously applies athe plant surface, thus interfering with brew spray as a prophylactic before weather ar-chemotaxic responses required for infection; 2) rives, again every 5–7 days depending on envi-physical abrasion of the hyphae leading to inef- ronmental conditions. Brown rot pressure de-fective infection; 3) physical dilution of nutrients creases dramatically when it is hot and dry—at the plant surface that reduces the vigor and around 85-90° F. //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 5
    • Rosato, who is also a soil consultant, empha- Hot water treatments hold some promise forsizes that nutrition is a fundamental aspect of post-harvest control of brown rot. The hot wa-orchard management. He follows the Albrecht ter treatment takes two basic forms, mist or dip.approach to mineral balancing and soil manage- In both cases the water is 50–52° C (approxi-ment, paying attention to calcium-magnesium mately 122° F), but the mist treatment lasts ap-ratios, optimum micronutrient levels, and soil proximately 15 minutes, while the dip lasts onlyorganic matter. For example, he applies 6 tons 2–4 minutes. Chlorinated water can be used, andof compost per acre each year at the beginning some additional chlorine added to help preventof the growing season. He also feels the potas- post-harvest diseases, but note that organic cer-sium and boron components of the brew mix tification standards in California permit a maxi-contribute to brown rot control. mum of 10 ppm residual chlorine downstream The Organic Farming Research Foundation of the product wash step. For additional infor-also funded studies at Oregon State University, mation, Postharvest Handling for Organic Crops isconducted by Hans Wittig and Dr. Jay Pscheidt available from the University of California Divi-between 1992 and 1995, that looked at anti-fun- sion of Agriculture and Natural Resources (pub-gal properties of aerated compost tea, seaweed lication 7254) <http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu>.extracts, micronized sulfur, a yeast Peach cultivar resistance to brown rot is not(Aureobasidium pullulans), and M-Pede™ insecti- highly developed, yet some differences do exist.cidal soap. Of these, insecticidal soap, sulfur, and For example, see the table on peach cultivar sus-a yeast + seaweed mixture were most effective ceptibility to brown rot fungus at thein suppressing peach brown rot in the wet spring Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Extensionand arid summer conditions of western Oregon. Center (West Virginia University) websiteA synopsis of Wittig’s research is available on <http://www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville/the OFRF website (6). tables/brownrotsus.html>. A new biofungicide, Serenade™ (Bacillussubtilis, QST 713 strain), has demonstrated labo-ratory and field control of brown rot in Califor-nia, but is not yet labeled for peaches. Serenadeis a broad-spectrum preventive product regis-tered for cherries, grapes, apples, pears, walnuts,hops, and vegetables. Diseases targeted includegray mold, powdery mildew, downy mildew,and sour rot. Serenade is OMRI approved fororganic production, and organic peach growersare especially interested in the product. For moreinformation on Serenade, see the AgraQuestwebsite <http://www.agraquest.com>. A demonstration project in Fresno County,California, that was assessing the impact ofcomposted yard trimmings in a commercialpeach orchard found that composted green ma-terial not only compared favorably to other fer-tilizing materials tested, but may also suppressbrown rot in peaches (7). Harvested fruit is also susceptible to brownrot infection. To prevent infections at harvestand during storage, peaches should be pickedand handled with care to avoid punctures andskin abrasions on the fruit. Any damaged fruit ©2003www.clipart.comshould be discarded, since wounds facilitate en-try of the fungus. Rapid cooling or hydrocoolingto remove field heat prior to refrigeration at 0° to3° C. will also help reduce infection (1).PAGE 6 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • Farmer Profile: Carl Rosato, Organic Peach Pioneer(Excerpted by permission from “Woodleaf Farm” in the Winter ‘97–‘98 edition of CaliforniaCertified Organic Farmers newsletter; for subscription information call 831-423-2263 or see theCCOF website at <http://www.ccof.org>)If Carl Rosato ever decides to erect a sign at the entrance to his Woodleaf Farm, itshould read “Home of the Pampered Peach.” Tucked onto a hillside near Lake Oroville[California] are three and a half acres of Carl’s trees, producing peaches with a near-legendary flavor.Carl’s fertility program would make any tree happy. When preparing a new orchardsite, he starts with 50 tons per acre of organic matter, then adds limestone, gypsum,and kelp. For established trees, he applies six tons per acre of compost in the fall,and more in the spring if it’s been a wet winter. “After the heavy rains, the poor guyswant to eat,” he says affectionately.Carl also makes aerobic compost tea in a 3,000 gallon “brewer.” A circulating systempumps water through 1,500 pounds of compost suspended above the vat, so thatplenty of air is introduced into the mix. Diluting 100 gallons of the brew into a 250gallon sprayer, he foliar feeds each acre every ten days. “Then you’ve got it made,”he says. “You’ve got the soil fertility and you’re feeding them all the time—of course,you’re going to get good results.”Farmers’ market shoppers throughout northern California agree. Carl commands topdollar for his product, working a staggering eleven markets per week in Berkeley,Marin, Sacramento and Davis. A master of understatement, he concedes that, “Itgets a little intense during the peak ten weeks of summer.” After eleven years heknows many of his customers by name and acknowledges that their willingness to paya premium price allows him to make a good living from three acres of trees.Although there are few disease problems on the farm, Carl battles brown rot in someyears. He’s experimented with different foliar sprays, including rock dust, sulfur, andkelp, and feels that rock dust works as well as anything. Peach twig borer is con-trolled with applications of Dipel (Bt) at bloom and with pheromone twist ties later inthe summer. He worries about gopher control now that strychnine bait is no longerallowable by CCOF rules, and plans to install barn owl boxes to augment his trappingefforts. //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 7
    • PEACH LEAF CURL Peach leaf curl, caused by the fungal organism Taphrina deformans, is a common disorder in peachand nectarine orchards, especially during wet springs. Infected leaves become misshapen, deformed,and necrotic, resulting in premature defoliation with subsequent re-sprouting of new leaves. Thiskind of stress reduces fruit yield and predisposes the tree to pest attack. Some “tolerance” to peachleaf curl exists in the Redhaven series of peach cultivars, but none are truly resistant. The life-cycle diagram in Figure 2 shows that Many orchardists spray just prior to budswellthe infection period for leaf curl is when new during the months of February and March. Or-leaves start emerging from buds in the spring. chards with a history of severe peach leaf curlSpraying after the buds have opened is ineffec- benefit from a double application: in the autumntive, because infection takes place as the young at leaf fall and again in late winter or early springleaves emerge, and the fungus develops inside just before budswell.the leaf. Fortunately for the organic grower, lime sul- Accordingly, sprays must be applied during fur—one of the most effective fungicides for con-the trees’ dormant period—after the leaves have trol of peach leaf curl—is allowed in certifiedfallen and before the first budswell in the spring. organic production . Bordeaux and copper fun-PAGE 8 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • gicides—also approved for certified organic pro- PLUM POXgrams—are effective as well, but not as effectiveas lime-sulfur. In October 1999, the presence of plum pox, Pscheidt and Wittig (6) performed trials com- or Sharka Virus, was confirmed in Adamsparing Kocide™, lime-sulfur, several synthetic County, Pennsylvania—the first outbreak infungicides, and Maxi-Crop™ seaweed for leaf North America. The disease has since been foundcurl control. Lime-sulfur and one of the synthet- in Cumberland County, PA, and in Canada. Thisics (ziram) were best, roughly twice as effective has caused much concern among producers, be-as Kocide. Seaweed sprays, despite positive an- cause plum pox is an exceptionally destructiveecdotal reports, were completely ineffective. disease of stonefruit. Infected fruit are unmar- Severe leaf curl infection can cause the tree ketable because of spots and ring blemishes, andto shed many of its leaves and to replace them fruit may also drop prematurely. Plum pox iswith a second flush of growth. At this time the transmitted either by aphids or by grafting. Thetree will benefit from a light feeding with a disease was not found in nursery stock, and anquickly-available soluble fertilizer such as com- ongoing quarantine has apparently contained thepost tea or fish emulsion to help it recover. outbreak of plum pox to a limited area, although There are various levels of resistance to leaf testing continues.curl among varieties; however, because of therelative ease of controlling the disease, breeding BACTERIAL SPOTfor resistance has not been a priority. Redhaven,Candor, Clayton, and Frost are some of the culti- The tell-tale symptom of bacterial spotvars with resistance to leaf curl, though none is (caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas pruni) isimmune. In contrast, Redskin and cultivars de- small light-brown lesions on leaves. Eventuallyrived from it are susceptible. the affected tissue falls out, leaving a character- istic shotgun-hole appearance. Severe bacterial spot infections may cause premature defoliation and subsequent re-sprouting, similar to peach Pest Control Products in Organic leaf curl. Bacterial spot on fruit occurs as sunken, Production, The OMRI List dry lesions that eventually crack, opening the fruit for secondary infections and reducing fruit OMRI is the Organic Materials Review In- quality. Selecting disease-resistant cultivars is stitute. It provides a technical review of the principle means of controlling bacterial spot. organic crop production materials (fertiliz- See the table on peach cultivar susceptibility to ers and pest controls) supplied by manu- bacterial spot at the Kearneysville Tree Fruit Re- facturers to determine compliance with cer- search and Extension Center (West Virginia Uni- tified organic standards. Products that re- versity) website: <http://www.caf.wvu.edu/ ceive an Allowed or Regulated status may kearneysville/tables/bspotsus.html>. use the “OMRI Listed” seal on packaging Fortunately for organic growers, copper fun- and in literature. gicides—unique in that they also function as bac- tericides—are recommended for control of bac- terial spot. The first spray should be applied The Brand Name Products List on OMRI’s before the tree leafs out in the spring; this timing website includes crop production materials often allows copper-based peach-leaf-curl sprays organized alphabetically by Generic Mate- to double for bacterial spot treatment. The next rial, Supplier, and Product. Farmers look- period when infection pressure is heavy is petal ing for pest-control products in organic pro- fall and three weeks thereafter. Additional spray duction will find that the OMRI List is a help- coverage may be necessary depending on vari- ful starting point. etal susceptibility and humid weather conditions. OMRI’s Brand Name Products Lists Since the occurrence and severity of bacte- Organic Materials Review Institute rial spot depend on moisture, it is rarely a prob- http://www.omri.org/brand_list.html lem west of the Rocky Mountains, and in the East growers are able to rely on resistant varieties as the best line of defense. Contact the Coopera- //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 9
    • tive Extension Service for resistant varieties suited search that is yielding a new generation of saferto your region. and more effective fungicides. Some of these new fungicides are noteworthy because they meet PEACH SCAB guidelines for certified organic production. Other fungicides, though not permitted in or- Peach scab is caused by a fungus (Cladospo- ganic programs, are based on new types of chem-rium carpophilum) that overwinters in twig le- istry and biology that are seen as improvementssions. Splashing rain spreads the fungal spores over older fungicides.to young fruit and new shoots. Scab symptomsinclude small dark-green spots on the immature “Organic” fungicidesfruit. As the fruit matures, the spots enlarge andturn brown, and may cause the fruit skin to crack. New-generation fungicides approved for or-Sulfur and most other fungicides that are applied ganic production are mostly microbial antago-for brown rot will also control peach scab. There nists—they consist of “good guy” fungi, yeasts,are no resistant cultivars. Pruning to improve and bacteria that suppress “bad guy” plantair circulation and reduce wetness in the tree can pathogens. Among the microbials, one of thehelp manage the fungus and prevent twig infec- most promising introductions is Serenade™, ation. product of AgraQuest, Inc. <http://www. agraquest.com>. The active ingredient in Ser- PEACH MOSAIC VIRUS enade is a bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, QST 713 strain. This microbe inhibits germination of plant First identified in the United States in 1931, pathogen spores and restricts their growth oncepeach mosaic virus has since appeared in a num- established through a number of biocontrolber of western states. Spread by grafting and the mechanims. Though Serenade is not currentlypeach bud mite, the disease results in delayed labeled for peaches, future developments mayand rosette foliation, low fruit production, and result in a new tool for peach growers.deformed fruit. The disease has largely been In addition to biofungicides, other diseasecontrolled in the United States through quaran- control products that may be used in organictines and destruction of infected trees (9). In ar- production include fungicidal soaps, copper andeas where peach mosaic virus quarantines have sulfur fungicides, peroxides, and botanicalsoccurred there may be restrictions on planting (products derived from plants). Because botani-susceptible cultivars. cals break down quickly, they are less persistent in the environment. This makes them more chal- OTHER DISEASES lenging to use—the grower must time applica- tions very carefully, and in some cases make them more frequently. This can be a significant Root and crown rot diseases like Phytophthora, cost consideration since botanicals are generallyVerticillium, and Armillaria are important when more expensive than synthetic pesticides. Also,choosing planting locations and rootstocks. botanicals—particularly when frequently ap-Other peach diseases that may be significant, plied—can harm beneficial insects.depending on grower location, include peach One of the most commonly used botanicalsrust, powdery mildew, and shothole fungus. is Rotenone, derived from the roots of SoutheastBacterial canker can also affect peaches, though Asian and Central and South American plants.research shows that hedgerows can provide a It is somewhat effective against a large numberprotective barrier for organic orchards (10). of insect pests, including the plum curculio and tarnished plant bug. Other botanical include: New-generation fungicides: • Azadirachtin, also called neem, derived from the seeds of the African and Asian neem tree. Safer and more effective Field testing on single-tree plots in 2000 showed that it significantly reduced damage Concerns about the toxicity of fungicide and from certain insects including tarnished plantpesticide residues on food have prompted re- bug and oriental fruit moth (8).PAGE 10 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • Insect Pests• Sporan™ , an OMRI-approved rosemary-oil- based fungicide developed by EcoIPM <http://www.ecoipm.com>. It’s labeled for tree fruits, soft fruits, and vegetables, with activity for powdery mildew, botrytis, and PEACH TREE BORERS late blight.• Trilogy™, an OMRI-approved neem-based The peach tree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and botanical fungicide from Certis <http:// lesser peach tree borer (S. pictipes) can be major www.certisusa.com>. It’s labeled for brown pests of peaches. Borers feed on the inner bark rot and shothole in tree crops, and for pow- of trees, where they may kill the tree by girdling dery mildew and Botrytis in wine grapes. or cause the bark to peel away, exposing the tree• OxiDate™, a hydrogen dioxide disinfect ma- to other pests and diseases. Other hosts for the terial with peroxide chemistry from BioSafe borers include wild and cultivated cherry, plum, Systems <http://www.biosafesystems prune, nectarine, apricot, and certain ornamental .com>. It’s labeled for brown rot control on shrubs of the genus Prunus. The adult peach tree peaches, among other crops and diseases. borer is a clearwing moth, steel blue with yellow or orange markings. The moths are day fliers Although these compounds appear promis- and can easily be mistaken for wasps.ing, field efficacy data are lacking for many of These insects overwinter as larvae in burrowsthese new products. at the base of the host tree. Because the eggs are laid over a long period of time, the larvae vary Newer, safer synthetic fungicides greatly in size. Some are more than a half-inch in length, while others are very small, not more New classes of fungicides include strobilurins than an eighth of an inch long. The larvae pu-and phenylpyrroles, which were both initially dis- pate in the trunk of the tree, and usually begin tocovered in nature (though fungicide formulations emerge as adults in June. Adult emergence andare synthesized analogs). Strobilurin, for ex- egg-laying occur from June through September,ample, was first isolated from wood-decaying peaking during August.European strobilurin mushrooms, while The females are attracted to trees that havephenylpyrroles were first found in bacteria. The previously been damaged by borers, or to whichstrobilurin fungicides Abound™ (azoxystrobin) some mechanical injury has occurred. Therefore,and Flint™ (trifloxystrobin), and the it is important to prevent damage to the tree trunkphenylpyrrole fungicides Medallion™ in order to minimize borer attack. Trees in poor(fludioxonil) and Scholar™ (fludioxonil), exhibit vigor because of weed competition or droughtgood activity against brown rot in peaches. Be- stress also seem to be more susceptible to borercause these fungicides have low mammalian tox- attack and damage.icity and short persistence in the environment, Peach growers seeking to reduce pesticides can Organic peach growers can use a variety ofthe EPA has classified them as reduced-risk pes- use a variety of tactics to control this pest. Interior tactics to control this pest. Interior white latexticides. white latexbe painted or sprayed on on the base paint can paint, painted or sprayed the base of The sterol inhibitors are the next class of new of the trunks,This provides a physical barrier to the trunks. provides a physical barrier, inhibit-fungicides. They include Elite™ (tebuconazole), ing newly hatched larvae from entering the trunk. the newly hatched larvae, inhibiting their entryIndar™ (fenbuconazole), Nova™ (myclobutanil), The paint also fills cracks in the bark, the preferred into the trunk. The paint also fills cracks in theand Orbit™ (propiconazole), all of which are reg- site for oviposition and larval feeding. Because the paint is more the larvae prefer ato feed and the bark, where a deterrent than perfect control,istered for peaches and exhibit excellent brown some of these growers mix rotenone in the paint adult moths prefer to lay eggs. Because with therot control, yet boast very low mammalian tox- paint; no data have than a perfect control, some is more a deterrent been collected to verify thaticity. However, the nature of their mode of ac- the rotenone increases rotenone in with the paint; organic growers mix the paint’s efficacy. Accord-tion predisposes them to development of resis- ing data have use ofcollected, however, to verify no to OMRI, been latex paint is not allowed intance by the pathogen. One way to avoid this organic production systems. the paint’s efficacy. that the rotenone increasesresistance is to rotate fungicide use among dif- It is easy to detect a tree that is infested withferent chemical classes—for instance, alternate peach tree borers, since large amounts of gumsprays of a strobilurin with a sterol inhibitor. exude from the damaged areas. The grower can //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 11
    • use this exudate to locate a larva, and then kill it Two to three Bacillus thuringiensis sprays at bloomby using a knife or flexible wire to probe it out of also appear to be effective against the twig borer.the trunk. The soil should be removed from The peach twig borer has many natural en-around the base of the tree to a depth of three emies and parasites, including the parasiticinches before starting this process, since larval wasps Paralitomastix varicornis, Macrocentrusdamage also occurs under the soil line. This ancylivorus, Euderus cushmani, Hyperteles lividus,method of control is feasible for small plots but Erynnia species and Bracon gelechiae, as well asprobably not practical in a commercial orchard. the grain mite Pyemotes ventricosus. The Califor- The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) can nia gray ant, Formica arrata, can be beneficialbe used to control the larvae before they have when it preys on peach twig borer, but it unfor-entered the trunk. The products Dipel™, tunately also protects aphids and scales (12).Thuricide™, and Javelin™ are formulations Other predators of the peach twig borer includemade from this organism. Because B.t. does not lacewings, ladybugs, and minute pirate bugs.have a long residual effect, the trunk should be These insects can be attracted to the orchard bysprayed weekly with one of these materials dur- habitat plantings, cover crops, and hedgerows.ing the period of peak moth flight, late July The ATTRA publication Farmscaping to Enhancethrough August. Biological Control provides information on this A biological control, the commercially avail- topic.able insect-parasitic nematode Steinernema Mating disruption can also be effective ifcarpocapsae, has also been used to successfully properly implemented (see the box, “Pest Con-manage peachtree borers, when applied as a trol with Pheromonal Mating Disruption.”)lower-trunk drench in warm spring or fallweather (11). Pest Control with Pheromonal PEACH TWIG BORERS Mating Disruption The peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella) is Many growers use mating disruption withonly a minor pest in the eastern U.S., but it’s a sex pheromones—chemicals naturally pro-significant problem in Texas and the West. The duced by insects as a means of communi-larvae emerge in the spring and then bore into cation—as part of an overall IPM program.twigs and buds before pupating into dark gray Specific pheromones are available, in vari-moths. Later generations of larvae attack ma- ous types of dispensers, to control peachturing fruit during the summer, entering fruit twig borers, peach tree borers, and Orien-near the stem end and rendering it unfit for sale. tal fruit moths. The most common dis- Treatment after borers have entered the tree penser is a twist-tie that’s attached to theis much less effective than treatment during the upper limbs of orchard trees. During thedormant or bloom period. Peach twig borers are mating period, female insects releaseusually not a problem in orchards that are pheromones that signal their location tosprayed each year at the delayed dormant pe- males. By releasing quantities of theseriod with lime-sulfur or with a 3% oil emulsion. pheromones into the orchard, the grower can confuse and disrupt the insect’s mat- ing cycle. Efficacy is greatest in orchards that have low moth populations and are not close to other untreated peach or almond orchards. In order to work, the system must be applied as evenly as possible to areas at least three acres in size. Small orchard size and uneven orchard terrain will limit the success of mating disruption. UC Statewide IPM Project ©2001 Regents, University of California Photo by Jack Kelly Clark Continued on page 13 Minute pirate bugPAGE 12 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • There are up to seven generations of worms each Continued from page 12 year, with the earliest one feeding on young leafy shoots in the same way the peach twig borer does, Place pheromone dispensers in orchards and later ones feeding on the fruit, like the co- according to state Cooperative Extension dling moth in apples. The overwintering stage is recommendations or when moths are first a full-grown larva from the last generation of the caught in pheromone traps. Correct tim- previous season. The larva spins a cocoon in the ing during the pest life cycle is crucial in litter around the trees or on the bark itself. Pu- applying the pheromone confusion prod- pation and adult emergence occur in the spring, ucts effectively. and the moths lay their first eggs just after the peaches bloom. Trees that are allowed to grow Monitor the orchard regularly to identify dense succulent foliage are especially attractive which species is emerging and when. It is to the moths. also important to identify the time of sec- Control measures begin with planting the ond flight emergence for the peach twig right peach varieties. Early-maturing types dis- borers, as well as the second flight of Ori- courage damage because the peaches are picked ental fruit moths, so that treatment can be before the insects attack the fruit. This reduc- renewed at the most effective time. Regu- tion in the moths’ food supply helps control their lar monitoring also verifies that the system population. Remove infected fruit and stem tips is working and alerts the grower if additional to further reduce populations. Good orchard or alternative treatment is needed. sanitation—removing leaf litter and dropped or culled fruit where larvae overwinter—will fur- Mating disruption twist ties or lures for ei- ther reduce attacks. Dormant larvae can be de- ther the peach twig borer or Oriental fruit stroyed by cultivating to a depth of 2–4 inches, moth are available through Peaceful Val- 1–3 weeks before the peaches bloom. Another ley Farm Supply (13) or Harmony Farm part of cultural control is annual pruning to con- Supply (14). Pacific Biocontrol Corpora- trol overly vigorous growth on the trees, mak- tion (15) makes pheromone disruptors for ing them less attractive to the moths. peach tree borers. Its Isomate pheromone- Parasitic braconid wasps can be used as part based management systems are distrib- of an IPM strategy against the Oriental fruit moth. uted through independent agricultural Growers have had success with five releases of chemical dealers. In research trials, new adult wasps four days apart, beginning in May high-dosage, low-density microsprayers and using about 500 adults per acre. To effec- and “puffers” have shown promise as a tively control the moth, some growers supple- means of dispensing pheromones with im- ment a parasitic insect program with a single proved consistency and less labor com- spray of rotenone shortly before harvest. pared to the twist-tie system. Pheromone-based mating disruption systems for Oriental fruit moth have been available for several years. One product, the Isomate-M™ pheromone dispenser, has proved as effective as chemical control in California tests. See the box ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH “Pest Control with Pheromonal Mating Disrup- tion.” The Oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha molesta) Degree-day models or charts can help grow-is related to the codling moth, a pest of apples, ers in timing pesticide application or placementand causes the same type of fruit damage. Lar- of mating disruption lures to coincide with thevae burrow in the new shoots in the spring, then emergence of the pest. Many state Extension of-move through the stem into the developing fruit. fices or universities provide such tools developedThey feed near the pit, so there may be no vis- specifically for their regions.ible damage to the fruit on the surface, but the Surround™ WP Crop Protectant is a rela-fruits become much more susceptible to brown tively new organic tool that is effective againstrot, and they break down rapidly after harvest. codling moth. It is discussed in the next section. //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 13
    • PLUM CURCULIO In addition to plum curculio, Surround sup- presses Oriental fruit moth, stinkbug, tarnished Another insect that frequently attacks peaches plant bug, rose chafer, and Japanese beetles thateast of the Rocky Mountains is the plum curculio attack tree fruits. Further details on the use of(Conotrachelus nenuphar). This pest is especially kaolin clay in fruit production can be found indifficult to control organically. No effective at- the ATTRA publications Insect IPM in Apples:tractant traps or selective monitoring tools are Kaolin Clay and Kaolin Clay for Management ofcurrently available for detecting this pest, though Glassy-winged Sharpshooter in Grapes, as well aspromising research on plum curculio traps is on- at Dr. Michael Glenn’s website (19).going (16). Thus, biological monitoring is more Several cultural control methods can be em-difficult than for other insects and is more labor- ployed against the plum curculio, but none aloneintensive. or in combination provides a cost-effective level Visual observation of adult beetles and their of control for the commercial orchard. Fruits thatcrescent-shaped oviposition marks is the best are infested with curculio larvae normally droptechnique available for detection. Since the plum from the tree before the larvae complete theircurculio moves into orchards from woodlots, feeding. Therefore, prompt gathering and dis-fence rows, or hedges during bloom, it is impor- posal of these fruit drops—before the larvae leavetant to carefully check trees along the perimeter them to enter the soil—reduces the number ofof the orchard. Observations in nearby aban- first-generation adults. Sometimes the fruit thatdoned orchards or other groups of trees will help drops in May contains very few curculio larvae;to determine when intensive monitoring should in these cases the drop may be a result of heavybegin in the commercial orchard. fruit set, poor pollination, or both. Examine a Peach producers may have to employ a vari- sample of the drops to determine whetherety of strategies to control the plum curculio. Dr. enough are infested to justify quick disposal. TheRon Prokopy, an entomologist at the University drops on the two or three outside rows of theof Massachusetts, has been developing low-spray orchard are more likely to be heavily infestedfruit production techniques for more than two than those farther inside the orchard. Carefullydecades (17). He uses 2–3 sprays of the syn- destroy the infested drops.thetic pesticide Imidan™. If he does not spray, The adult beetles can be knocked from treeshe experiences at least some damage on 80–99% by using a padded board to jar the limbs. Theyof his fruit. “play dead” when frightened, and will drop from A 5% formulation of the botanical insecticide the tree and land on a tarp or sheet placed be-rotenone provides some control of the plum low. This practice should be done early in thecurculio. However, coverage must be very thor- morning, while it is still cool, or the beetles willough, and applications made at roughly weekly fly away. Curculios caught in this manner canintervals for a total of 12 to 15 treatments to keep be crushed or dropped in a can of kerosene. Thecrop damage under 25% (18). Such frequent treat- grower can encourage free-ranging fowl such asments with rotenone are costly and can be detri- chickens, ducks, and geese to scratch for the lar-mental to beneficial organisms. vae and beetles by mixing wheat seed into the Surround™ WP Crop Protectant, derived soil under the trees. However, such methods byfrom processed kaolin clay, is an OMRI-approved themselves do not provide commercial levels oforganic pest control product shown to be effec- control.tive for control of plum curculio. Developed by Disking during the pupal period is a me-Drs. Michael Glenn and Gary Pertuka with USDA- chanical control method. In its pupal form theARS in Kearneysville, West Virginia, in coopera- plum curculio is very fragile. If the pupal cell istion with the Englehard Corporation, Surround disturbed it fails to transform into an adult. Pu-is unique in that it provides pest control through pation usually occurs within the upper twoparticle film technology rather than toxic chemis- inches of soil. The most desirable time to begintry. Particle films deter insects by creating a cultivation for destruction of pupae appears tophysical barrier that impedes their movement, be about three weeks after the infested fruits startfeeding, and egg-laying. to drop from the tree. Cultivation should be con-PAGE 14 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • tinued at weekly intervals for a period of severalweeks. Cultivation before the curculios pupateis of little value. If the pupal cell is broken be- Conclusionfore pupation occurs, another cell is made by the Intense disease and insect pressure makelarva. Covering the drops with soil before the peaches one of the most difficult tree fruits tolarvae emerge from them is undesirable since it produce organically. In parts of the arid West,protects the larvae from drying in the sun. commercial organic peach production is feasible Although whole-orchard cultivation is mod- when the grower adequately addresses brownerately effective in controlling the curculio, his- rot, peach twig borers, and Oriental fruit moth.torically it was also responsible for severe ero- In most of the East, commercial-scale organicsion and loss of soil organic matter. It is a non- production is greatly complicated by the plumchemical means of curculio control, but its soil- curculio and brown rot. However, with new pestdegrading effects make it unsustainable in most management tools — Surround™, Sporan™, Tril-situations. ogy™, OxiDate™ — organic peach production is far more plausible than just a few years ago. TARNISHED PLANT BUG Meanwhile, low-spray production with limited use of the least-toxic synthetic inputs is a proven Tarnished plant bugs, lygus bugs, and stink alternative for eastern growers.bugs are insects that pierce and feed on youngfruit, causing depressions known as “catfacing”in the mature fruit. The best Referencescultural control for these in- 1) Agrios, George. 1978. Plant Pathology.sects is orchard sanitation Academic Press, Orlando, FL. p. 311-316.and groundcover mowing be-fore bugs arrive, to keep 2) Brannen, Phillip, and Guido Schnabel.the growing area free of 2002. Management of preharvest andweeds and ground de- postharvest brown rot of peach in thebris that house these in- Adult lygus bug Southeast. Southeastern Regional Peachsects. An alternative strat- Newsletter. May. p. 5.egy is to use habitat plantings that attract these 3) Burnham, T. J. 1994. UC researchers findbugs as well as their predators. Keeping the habi- dicloran alternatives for stone fruit. Cali-tat watered and lush may keep the bugs from fornia Grower. September. p. 35-37.migrating to the crop. Predators of these pestsinclude big eyed bugs, damsel bugs, assassin 4) Glenn, D. M., T. van der Zwet, G. J.bugs, and collops beetle, as well as the egg para- Puterka, E. Brown, and P. Gundrum. 2001.site anaphes ioles. In addition to these potential Efficacy of Kaolin-based particle films tocontrols, botanicals such as rotenone and neem control diseases in apples. Plant Healthappear effective against tarnished plant bug. Progress an on-line journal. doi : io. 1094/ PHP-2001-0823-01-RS. OTHER PESTS 5) Peach Brown Rot Control. Organic Farm- ing Foundation Research Report, Grant 92- Other pests that may directly or indirectly 26. Carl Rosato, Woodleaf Farm,affect peach crops, and whose severity varies de- Oroville, CA. Accessed July 2002. <http:/pending on location, include Japanese beetle, /www.ofrf.org/publications/Western flower thrips, and mites. Infestations of Grant%20reports/these insects and mites can reach levels that have 92.26.03.Rosato.Fall92.IB1.pdf>an economic impact on the crop. Aphids andscale can also be major pests, particularly for or-ganic growers in the West. Nematodes are an-other potential pest; nematode-resistantrootstocks are available. //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 15
    • 6) Wittig, Hans and Jay Pscheidt. 1996. 14) Harmony Farm Supply Evaluation of organic foliar amendments 3244 Hwy. 116 North for managing diseases of tree fruits and Sebastopol, CA 95472 grapes. OFRF Information Bulletin. 707-823-9125 Winter 1996. p.6-7. <http:// http://www.harmonyfarm.com/ www.ofrf.org/publications/news/ 15) Pacific Biocontrol Corporation ib2.pdf> 620 E. Bird Lane7) California Integrated Waste Management Litchfield Park, Arizona 85340 Board. 1998. Compost Use on Peaches— 623-935-0512 Fresno County. Accessed July 2002. http://www.pacificbiocontrol.com/ <http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/publica- 16) Prokopy, Ron. 2002. An odor-baited tions/organics/42198006.doc> “trap-tree” approach to monitoring plum8) Kain, Dave, and Art Agnello. 2001. Grow curculio. Fruit Notes. University of your own. Scaffolds Fruit Journal: Update Massachusetts. Winter. p. 23-24. on Pest Management and Crop Develop- 17) Dr. Ron Prokopy ment. Cornell University. Vol. 10, No. 21 Department of Entomology (August 6th). University of Massachusetts9) Swift, Curtis. 1998. Peach Mosaic Virus in Amherst, MA 01003 Western Colorado. Colorado State Univer- 413-545-1057 sity Cooperative Extension Tri River Area. E-mail: prokopy@ent.umass.edu Accessed June 2002. <http:// http://www.umass.edu/ent/ www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/ faculty_staff/prokopy/index.html TRA/PLANTS/pmv.html> 18) Anon. 1990. Recent research on organic10) Tabilio, M.R., A. Chiariotti, P. Di orcharding. NOFA-NY News. May-June. Prospero, and M. Scortichini. 1998. p. 12. Hedgerows: A barrier against pseudomo- 19) Dr. Michael Glenn - Particle Film Technol- nas syringae pv. Syringae infections in an ogy online resources organic peach orchard. Acta Hort. (ISHS) http://afrsweb.usda.gov/mglenn.htm 465:703-708. Accessed at: <http:// www.actahort.org/books/465/ 465_88.htm>11) Hammon, Bob. 2001. Peach Tree Borer: Additional Resources Life History and Management Options for Western Colorado. Colorado State Univer- PUBLICATIONS sity Cooperative Extension Tri River Area. Accessed June 2002. <http:// www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/ Titles from the University of TRA/PLANTS/peachtreeborer.html> California:12) U.C. Statewide Integrated Pest Manage- ment Project. 1998. Natural Enemies Integrated Pest Management for Stone Fruits. Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Publication 3389. 1999. 264 p. Biological Pest Control. University of A manual for managing pest problems and California Publication 3386. p. 18. diseases in apricots, cherries, nectarines,13) Peaceful Valley Farm Supply peaches, plums, and prunes. ($35.00) PO Box 2209 Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-272-4769 http://www.groworganic.com/PAGE 16 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • Peaches, Plums, and Nectarines—Growing and These publications are available through:Handling for Fresh Market. Publication 3331.1989. 252 p. APS Press From orchard site selection to produce distribu- 3340 Pilot Knob Road tion. 153 color photos, 36 black and white Saint Paul, MN 55121-2097 photos, 44 tables and charts, glossary, and 800-328-7560 Toll-Free index. ($45.00) 651-454-7250 Fax: 651-454-0766Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated E-mail: aps@scisoc.orgGuide to Biological Pest Control. Publication http://www.shopapspress.org3386. 1998. 162 p. Illustrated how-to book that helps to identify natural enemies to control pests with a combi- Selected titles from North Central nation of cultural, physical, chemical and Regional Extension: biological controls. ($35.00)IPM in Practice: Principles and Methods of In- Diseases of Tree Fruits in the East, NCR 045.tegrated Pest Management. Publication 3418. 116 p. ($10)2001. 296 p. A comprehensive, practical field guide developed Common Tree Fruit Pests, NCR 063. 252 p. ($10) for setting up and carrying out an IPM program in any type of crop or landscape. ($30.00). Available through Michigan State University: MSU Bulletin Office These publications are available from: 10-B Agriculture Hall Michigan State University DANR Communication Services East Lansing, MI 48824-1039 University of California Fax: 517-353-7168 6701 San Pablo Avenue http://ceenet.msue.msu.edu/bulletin/ Oakland, CA 94608-1239 800-994-8849 or 510-642-2431 From Natural Resource, Agriculture, Fax: 510-643-5470 E-mail: danrcs@ucdavis.edu and Engineering Service (NRAES): Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide, Selected titles from American NRAES-75. 1995. 361p. Phytopathological Society: http://www.nraes.org/publications/nraes75.htmlCompendium of Stone Fruit Diseases. 1995. 322 color images.128 p. Available through:http://www.shopapspress.org/41744.html 168 color images ($49). NRAES 152 Riley-Robb HallDiseases of Orchard Fruit and Nut Crops—CD Ithaca, NY 14853-5701Rom. 2002. 607-255-7645http://www.shopapspress.org/disoforfruit.html Fax: 607-254-8770 500 full color images ($79) E-mail: nraes@cornell.edu http://www.nraes.org //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 17
    • Titles from Good Fruit Grower: and fungicidal controls for a range peach diseases and pests, as applied during each stageOrchard Pest Management: A Resource Book of the growth cycle.for the Pacific Northwest. 1993. 276 p. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences’ Published by Good Fruit Grower. ($35). Pennsylvania Tree Fruit Production GuideOrganic Tree Fruit Management. 1998. 240 p. http://tfpg.cas.psu.edu/part1/part16a.htm Published by Certified Organic Associations of A guide to conventional peach production, British Columbia. ($38). addressing site selection, cultivars, planting, and pruning. Available through: West Virginia University Index of Fruit Dis- Good Fruit Grower ease Photographs, Biology, and Monitoring 105 South 18th Street, Suite 217 Information Yakima, Washington 98901 http://www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville/ 509-575-2315 Local wvufarm8b.html#PEACH 800-487-9946 Toll-Free This portion of the Mid-Atlantic Orchard Fax: 509-453-4880 Monitoring Guide Web Site for Tree Fruit http://www.goodfruit.com Pathology furnishes photos that can be used to help identify diseases on leaves and fruit. WEB-BASED RESOURCES Organic Control of Peach Brown Rot in Cali- fornia, USAVirginia Fruit Web Site: Virginia Stone Fruits http://www.agroecology.org/cases/http://www.ento.vt.edu/Fruitfiles/Virginia brownrot.htmPeachSite.html The Agroecology website from UC Santa Cruz This site presents current information on peach includes a case study on Carl Rosato’s organic research, as well as peach pest management. peach orchard in Oroville, California.University of California Fruit & Nut Research Insect and Disease Control On Peaches,and Information Center: Fresh Market Stone Apricots, Nectarines, and PlumsFruits http://entowww.tamu.edu/extension/http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/crops/ bulletins/b-1689.htmlstonefruits.shtml This Texas A&M online extension bulletin This page provides links to University of includes a spray schedule for peaches and California and other publications covering topics contains information on pesticide toxicity. such as peach varieties, peach pests, retaining The Georgia Peach postharvest quality, and costs for establishing an http://www.griffin.peachnet.edu/caes/ orchard. gapeach/2002 North Carolina Peach and Nectarine Dis- This site from The University of Georgia Collegeease and Pest Management Guide of Agriculture and Environmental Sciencehttp://ipm.ncsu.edu/peachguide/ncpeach provides a variety of peach information, includ-2002.pdf ing IPM updates, research reports, and publica- This PDF publication from North tions, as well as market updates for CA, GA, Carolina Cooperative Extension and SC, and posted copies of the quar- Service and available online terly Southeastern Regional Peach provides evaluations of the Newsletter. effectiveness of different cultural ©2003www.iband.comPAGE 18 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION
    • Peach and Nectarine Information Linkshttp://www.citygardening.net/peachinfo/ The City Gardening website provides an exten- sive list of information links for both the home gardener and commercial grower, including sources in numerous states for publications and websites on peach varieties, diseases, and pests.Original publication by Guy K. AmesMarch 2000Updated by Steve Diver, NCATAgriculture Specialist, and Tracy MummaEdited by Paul WilliamsFormatted by Gail M. HardyMarch 2003 IP047/35 The electronic version of Organic & Low-spray Peach Production is located at: HTML http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/peach.html PDF http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/peach.pdf //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION PAGE 19
    • ©2003www.clipart.comPAGE 20 //ORGANIC & LOW-SPRAY PEACH PRODUCTION