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Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
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Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers

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Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers

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  • 1. Oilseed Processing forATTRA Small-Scale Producers A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Al Kurki, Janet There are many varieties of seeds and nuts that can produce oils for food, nutraceuticals, skincare prod-Bachmann and Holly ucts, aromatherapies, fuels and industrial lubricants. This publication describes the basic processesHill, NCAT Agriculture involved in oil processing including seed cleaning, extraction, clarification, packaging and storage.Specialists Sources for more information and equipment are included in the References and Resources sectionsLakeitha Ruffin and at the end of the publication.Byrhonda Lyons,NCAT InternsMatt Rudolf, plant-derived oils can be used to make soap,Piedmont Biofuels body and hair oils, detergents and paints.Cooperative Some can also be used to make industrial© 2008 NCAT lubricants. A wide range of oilseeds and other oil-producing plants are high-qualityContents feedstocks for biodiesel. Oilseed processingIntroduction ..................... 1 expands the use of crops such as sunflowersGetting started ............... 1 and brings value to grape seeds, which areBasic processing usually waste products.steps ................................... 2Oilseed by-products: Most oil processing in the United StatesMeal and hulls ................ 6 is done on a large industrial scale. Small-Adding value scale oil extraction is more commonplace inadds costs ......................... 7 other parts of the world. As a result, manyReferences ........................ 9 of the useful resource materials and muchResources .......................... 9 of the appropriate-scale machinery come from other countries. However, interest in small- to intermediate-scale oilseed process- ing on the part of farmers and others in the United States grew dramatically in the past Photo courtesy Sustainable Systems, LLC five years. This publication describes the Safflower oil. basic processes of oilseed production, with extensive sources for additional information Introduction and equipment. Farmers and small business owners are asking if it is possible and profitable to add Getting started value to their seeds and nuts by extract- Culinary oil businessman and consultant ing the oil. This is not an easy question to E. Peter Matthies, now living in Germany, answer because there are so many vari- suggests that you ask yourself the followingATTRA—National Sustainable ables, some of which are noted in the fol- questions before starting oil processing:Agriculture Information Service lowing sections of this publication.is managed by the National Cen- • Why do I want to start oil processing?ter for Appropriate Technology(NCAT) and is funded under a Culinary oils include olive, sesame, saf- • Will it be a hobby or a new economicgrant from the United States f lower, sunf lower, grape seed, canola, enterprise?Department of Agriculture’s RuralBusiness-Cooperative Service. apricot kernel, coconut, hazelnut, peanut,Visit the NCAT Web site (www. pumpkin and walnut oils. Advertisements • How big will the operation be?ncat.org/sarc_current.php) for more informa- for these culinary oils tout their health • How many different products will betion on our sustainable benefits and unique flavors. Some of these made, including both oil and the pressagriculture projects.
  • 2. cake left after the oil is pressed out of • Clean. Fine dust in the seed may clog the raw seeds or nuts? the oil press hardware. Chaff left in the • Do I want to target mass markets or spe- seed will absorb some of the oil and cialty markets? keep it from getting squeezed out of the expeller. Sand in the seed will wear out • What geographical area do I want to the press. Stones damage the oil press cover? screw or piston. The first question is important because it • Dry. Moist seed leads to low yields and affects the answers to all the other ques- clogs the screw or cage, a part of the tions. It even affects how you read this pub- press. Moist seed may also get moldy, as lication. If you crush oilseeds for biodiesel mold spores are present in all crops. A or straight vegetable oil fuel production, you rule of thumb is that the moisture content need to pay special attention to several spe- of the seed should be close to 10 per- cific processing steps. cent. The number varies considerably for For culinary oils, there are several more specific oilseeds. For example, rapeseed processing steps and technologies to con- should be dried to a 7-percent moisture sider and possibly add to your plan. You content, camelina to about 6 percent and may forego some of the more complex, sunflower to 8.5 percent. Safflower needs costly steps for exclusively personal-use only to be dried to 11 percent and soy- cooking oil or biofuel. bean is safe for storage and processing at 12 percent (Alam, 2007). Later in this publication, Matthies describes how he got into this new oil business after There are at least two methods of testing retiring from the petroleum business. seed moisture levels. Hand-held moisture testers allow the user to simply place the seed in the tester, turn it on and select Basic processing steps the type of seed to test. The tester pro- vides an instant readout. These testers Seed cleaning cost from $400 to $700. Brand names Preparation of the raw material often include DICKEY-johns mini GAC, the includes removing husks or seed coats Graintec HE-50 and GE Sensing’s Pro- from the seeds and separating the seeds timeter Grainmaster. from the chaff. There are a wide variety ofThis canola seed will small- to intermediate-scale approaches to Here is a lower-tech, low-cost way ofneed very little cleaning and technologies for effective seed clean- moisture testing: Weigh a sample ofbefore crushing. ing. Approaches range from seed, and then heat the sample in an using various sizes of hard- oven at 300 degrees Fahrenheit for one ware cloth screens in tandem hour. Reweigh the sample. The weight (Clothier) to using a compact lost in the oven is equal to the moisture fanning mill such as the Clip- content of the original sample. Calculate per Office Tester and a spi- the percentage by dividing the weight ral separator for small farms lost by the original weight and multiply- (Small Scale Grain and Pulse ing the result by 100. Production forum, 2008). Even dry seed can quickly get damp by See the Resources sec- being in contact with damp earth. Once tion for examples, types and the seed is dried and bagged, it must be sources of equipment. carefully stored to keep it from absorbing moisture. Seed preparation and • Warm. Warm seed will yield the most conditioning oil for the least effort. The optimum heat For successful pressing, the range for oil extraction is from 100 to Photo by Holly Hill, NCAT seed must be: 160 degrees. There are several ways toPage 2 ATTRA Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
  • 3. preheat the seed in advance of extrac- example, the Täby Press is a screw press tion. For very small batches, heating the manufactured in Sweden. It is similar to seed in an oven or double boiler works, the Komet Oil Expeller described below. as does concentrated sunlight in a solar Various models are available for cold press- food dryer or some other solar collector. ing rapeseed, linseed, flaxseed, sunflower For larger batches, a heating element in seed, sesame seed, peanut, groundnut, a hopper located between the seed stor- mustard seed, poppy seed, cotton seed, age facility and the oilseed press works jojoba and more. All of the Täby line of well. screw presses are distributed in the United States by Magic Mill International. See theExtraction by cold pressing Resources section for more information.Oil can be extracted mechanically with a Komet Vegetable Oil Expellers are manu-ram press, an expeller or even a wooden factured by IBG Monforts in Germany. Themortar and pestle, a traditional method company’s range of products covers smallthat originated in India. Presses range from hand-operated machines as well as indus-small, hand-driven models that an individ- trial machines. According to product litera-ual can build to power-driven commercial ture, Komet oil expellers feature a specialpresses. The ram press uses a piston inside cold pressing system with a single convey-a cage to crush the seed and force out the ing screw to squeeze the oils from variousoil (Herz, 1997). oil-bearing seeds.Expellers have a rotating screw inside a The machines operate on a gentle mechan-horizontal cylinder that is capped at one ical press principle that does not involveend. The screw forces the seeds or nuts mixing and tearing the seeds. Virtually allthrough the cylinder with gradually increas- oil-bearing seeds, nuts and kernels can being pressure. pressed with standard equipment and with-The seed is heated by friction and electric out adjusting the screws or oil outlet holes.heaters or a combination of the two. Oncethe cap is removed, the oil escapes from the Figure 1. Sectional view of a Komet (single cylinder) oil expeller.cylinder through small holesor slots and the press cake,or meal, emerges from theend of the cylinder. Boththe pressure and tempera-ture can be adjusted for dif-ferent kinds of feedstock.There are two distinct expel-ler press designs — a singlecylinder press that expelsthe press cake out in pelletform and a traditional cage-style screw press that expelsthe meal out in large flakes.Oil expellersThere are many manufac-turers of single-cylinderpresses. Most presses aresold in European countriesand designed primarily forrapeseed, or canola. Forwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 3
  • 4. Some advantages and disadvantages of each Photo courtesy Ken DeBoer. type of press are: Single cylinder: Advantages: • Simple to use and adjust for multiple feedstocks • Designed for continuous use • Easier to unclog if it gets backed up, which happens occasionally • Works quite well out of the box. Disadvantages: • Not for use for large, industrial-scale presses due to the very large pressure This 1-ton press was too small and slow for what its owner planned for it. generated on the press head • Expensive are too small for what is needed to produce Cage style: biodiesel or straight vegetable oil fuel on an Advantages: average Montana grain farm. • Less expensive for small and large elec- tric-driven presses Solvent extraction of oil • The expeller of choice for larger capaci- Oils can also be extracted with solvents, but ties of more than 3 tons per day solvent extraction is a complex and costly Disadvantages: operation. Solvent extraction isn’t suited for • Difficult to adjust for different sizes of small-scale processing because of high cap- seeds ital and operating costs, risks due to fire • Needs more constant monitoring and explosions from solvents, and the sheer complexity. Management of solvents such as Note: Reports from farmers who bought hexane is a problem as well (Principles of certain imported Chinese models included Oil Extraction). lower than expected quality and consider- able setup time. They may need new parts or motor upgrades to function properly. Clarification Clarification removes contaminants such as If you want to process larger amounts of oil- fine pulp, water and resins. You can clarify seed crops, a 3-ton to 10-ton per day cage oil by allowing it to sit undisturbed for a few press may be what you want. You can also days and then removing the upper layer. If link multiple cylinder presses in tandem to the oil needs further clarification, filter the perform the same function. Another option oil through a fine filter cloth. Finally, you is the Instapro press, which is a semi-indus- can heat the oil to drive off traces of water trial-scale press available in the 20-ton per and destroy any bacteria. Very clean oil is day capacity. important in all uses, including biodiesel. Both cylinder and cage presses have signifi- cant electrical requirements. Any press with Degumming a capacity over 3 tons per day will likely Degumming is the process of removing the require three-phase power and smaller phospholipids from the oil. Many people presses require 220-volt power. advise that you allow the resulting oil to settle Choosing the correct size of press for what out the gums, or hydratables, over a period you intend to do is very important. For of one to two weeks. However, you need example, Montana farmers’ experiences led more chemical processing to make high-qual- to the conclusion that 1-ton per day presses ity culinary oil or biodiesel feedstock.Page 4 ATTRA Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
  • 5. The RBD process gets oil to commercial The chemistry of degumming for grade specifications. biodiesel production Degumming is a critically important process The RBD process includes: for oilseed processors who use their oil in a • Refining. Refining usually consists of two high-quality biodiesel or in straight vegeta- steps. The first step is degumming, which ble oil fuel. These gums are similar to normal triglycerides; however, one gum chain is a is described above. The second step is phosphorus molecule. Most of the gums are neutralization, in which the free fatty hydratable with water, meaning that either a acids (FFAs) in the crude oil are caustic- normal settling or a water wash followed by stripped with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) settling will get gums out. Some of the gums in an aqueous solution. The resulting soap are non-hydratables, so the oil must be mixed stock is settled, filtered or centrifuged out with phosphoric or citric acid to cause the (Van Gerpen et al., 2006). non-hydratable gums to swell up and come out of solution. • Bleaching. In this step, the oil is mixed with certain types of bleaching clays to The amount of non-hydratable gums formed, absorb colors and some other contami- as well as the acid content of the oil, will often depend on the oil extraction temperature. nants such as soap, trace metals and sul- Within a certain temperature range, lipases, fur compounds. the enzymes that consume fats and oils, are • Deodorizing. This is a distillation pro- active during oil extraction. These lipases can cess that occurs at high temperatures and cause the free fatty acid (FFA) content or the low pressure (Van Gerpen et al., 2006). amount of non-hydratable gums to increase. Higher gum levels and FFA levels are not good The oil is put under a vacuum and heated for biodiesel production. with steam to remove any leftover taste or odors and FFAs. Deodorizing can also Getting the non-hydratable gums out may or be achieved by treatment with activated may not be critical, depending on the appli- cation. For instance, most of the hydratable charcoal (Pilgeram, 2008). gums will come out in the glycerin phase in RBD is not always beneficial to nutrition. biodiesel production, but the non-hydratable Crude oil contains more vitamin E, trace gums that are left over will cause the producer elements, phytosterols and more. The trade- to miss on the American Society of Testing off is that crude oil is healthier but less sta- and Materials (ASTM) phosphorus specifica- tion for their B100, or 100-percent biodiesel. ble (Pilgeram, 2008). Oil packaging and storageRefining, bleaching and Use clean, dry containers to package and store oils. Sealed glass or plastic bottles aredeodorizing adequate for small quantities. Colored con-The vegetable oil produced and processed to tainers in a dark box help increase shelf life.this point does not need refining, bleaching Steel or plastic tanks work well for largeor deodorizing as long as the natural taste,smell and color are acceptable to the user.However, getting the oil to commercial food Full-cycle farming?grade may be an important step in oilseedprocessing if your market demands it. For Everdale Organic Farm in Ontario, along with Piedmont Biofuels fromexample, restaurants require oils that have a North Carolina, came up with a novel way to use the same batch of oilrelatively high smoke temperature and may for food and fuel. For example, a farmer could “rent the oil” by harvest-or may not want the taste of the natural oil. ing his canola, processing the oil seeds to food-grade standards andGetting the oil to food grade will add value “renting” the oil to a restaurant for a price lower than the restaurant typically pays for their oil. After using the oil, the restaurant returns theand can make small-scale biodiesel from oil to the farmer for conversion to biodiesel. This way there is no com-oilseeds more feasible for those who intend petition between food and fuel and the economics work out favorablyto use the oil in a manner similar to the for small-scale biodiesel production from oilseed crops.full-cycle farming story at right.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 5
  • 6. quantities. The shelf Oilseed by-products: life of oil is usually six to 12 months if it is Meal and hulls properly packaged and Soy hulls and sunflower shells removed kept away from heat before pressing are used as animal feed. and sunlight (Fellows Soy hulls are used as a replacement for corn and Hampton, 1992). or winter hay. Keeping air away from Seed meal is a valuable by-product of press- ing oilseeds. Sesame seed cake is valuable oil is perhaps the most Photo courtesy Montana State University. as a human food. Sunflower seed cake is important step to pre-Camelina seed is very small compared to other not suitable for people, but it makes a good vent rancidity. Com-oilseeds. addition to chicken, pig or cattle feed. It is pletely fill whatever quite high in crude protein, but contains size container you chose so there is no air very few carbohydrates. It should be used space and then cap the container tightly as a feed additive, not a feed by itself. (Van Gerpen, 2008). Canola, soy and safflower meal are also Shelf life of oil may vary depending on the used as animal feed supplements. At the type of oil as well as the storage conditions. time of this writing, extensive camelina For example, flax and grape seed have a animal feeding trials are being conducted. shorter shelf life than canola or sunflower Table 1 shows the nutrient levels of various due to the large amount of polyunsaturates oilseed meals. present. Just as with oilseeds, proper storage of seed If the stored vegetable oil does not reach cake is extremely important. Moldy seed sustained temperatures of 100° F or more, cake is a twofold problem. First, moldy seed its vital components will be preserved. cake does not taste good to animals. Ani- Therefore, vegetable oil is excellently suited mals may not be willing to eat moldy feed. for natural nutrition. As long as the oil is Worse, some kinds of mold make mycotox- stored in a dark, cool place, it will have a ins such as aflatoxin. These poisons can long shelf life. make people and animals sick. Some of the What’s in the meal? Be clear on oil content of the oilseed and the cake. Crushing the whole seed rather than dehulling it before pressing increases the fiber levels. All of the numbers describing the various oilseeds on the next page are the oil, or fat, content of the meal. The words fat and oil are interchangeable. Keep in mind that any variability in an oilseed crusher’s efficiency and effectiveness in removing the oil will affect factors such as feed ration recommendations and shelf life. For example, canola seed is about 40 percent oil, based on methods that extract virtually all the oil, usually solvent extraction. However, if cold pressing canola gets only 70 percent of that 40 percent, the amount of oil left in the cake is more than what a processor that removes 85 percent of the oil would leave. Meals of the oilseeds in the brassica family contain glucosinolates, which are organic compounds that function as natural pesticides and give brassicas their bitter taste. Glucosinolates have anti- nutritional qualities that block absorption of some nutrients. Mustard meal has very high levels of these compounds. Camelina and canola have much lower levels, making them far more suitable for feeding. Soybeans contain trypsin inhibitors that need to be deactivated by cooking before animals can derive the full value of the protein in the meal (Van Gerpen, 2008). There is a large body of litera- ture on what meals are best suited for ruminant or monogastrics like swine and poultry animals. See the Resources section for a sample of those sources.Page 6 ATTRA Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
  • 7. Table 1. Nutrient composition of various oilseed meals resulting from solvent or mechanical extraction Source – Biodiesel benefits for Cattle Producers: Feeding Byproducts of Biodiesel Production, 2008, Greg Lardy. Dry matter basis DM, CP, Fat, TDN, NEm, NEg, ADF, Ca, P, % % % % Mcal/lb Mcal/lb % % % Camelina meal, mechanical extraction 91.5 36.5 14.1 88.6 .97 .64 19.2 .38 .77 Canola meal, mechanical extraction 90 41 7.4 76 .8 .52 16 .6 .94 Canola meal, mechanical extraction, 92.6 36.9 14.1 88 1.09 .77 NG .6 1.02 On-farm press Canola meal, solvent extraction 90 43.6 1.2 69 .73 .45 18 .67 1 Mustard meal, mechanical extraction 93 34.5 5.5 73 .76 .48 NG NG NG Safflower meal, mechanical extraction 91.9 23.5 7.2 56.1 .55 .25 NG .26 .66 Safflower meal, solvent extraction 92 25.4 1.1 57 .55 .29 41 .37 .81 Soybean meal, mechanical extraction 90.7 46.7 5.2 84.9 .94 .62 NG .31 .65 Soybean meal, solvent extraction 89 49 1.2 84 .94 .64 NG .33 .71 Sunflower meal, mechanical extraction, 93.1 23.6 19 90.5 1.13 .8 NG .43 .79 On-farm press Sunflower meal, solvent extraction 90 38.9 1 64 .65 .35 28 .39 1.06 Abbreviations: DM = dry matter; TDN = total digestible nutrients; NEm = net energy for maintenance; NEg = net energy for gain; CP = crude protein; ADF = acid detergent fiber; Ca = calcium; P = phosphorus; NG = not given.poisons from moldy seed will end up in the Adding value adds costsoil, but most remain in the seed cake. The Although value-added processing can be atoxins can also get into the meat, eggs and way to increase a farmer’s share of the farmespecially the milk of the animals that eat product dollar, adding value doesn’t comethe cake. free. At each step, one is adding more work,Rancidity is another shelf-life issue for oil- buying additional equipment and suppliesseed cake. Shelf life of meal is most affected and using more energy. Information needsby the content of unsaturated fatty acids increase. Wholesaling or retailing culi-and the content of antioxidants such as vita- nary oil will require nutritional labeling.min E and derivatives. Unsaturated fatty And depending upon the situation, liabilityacids, such as omega-3s, decrease the shelf insurance may become a must.life. Antioxidants increase shelf life. Stor-age, temperature, humidity, moisture con- A key point to remember is that addingtent and seed type are also important factors value to any foods by processing increasesto consider. For example, camelina and flax safety risks due to the increased handling.both have high concentrations of omega-3 Therefore, rules and regulations are estab-fatty acids. However, camelina meal con- lished by each state to protect public health.tains higher concentrations of vitamin E and In addition, the Food and Drug Administra-subsequently has a longer shelf life than flax tion regulates products going out of state.meal. Canola oil contains less unsaturated Anyone considering processed foods as afat than camelina oil. Subsequently, canola value-added business should contact theirmeal is more stable (Pilgeram, 2008). state health department before proceeding.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 7
  • 8. One (bio)oilman’s story E. Peter Matthies has been involved with pressing oil from in Canada or grape seed oils from wineries or certain immi- seeds and nuts for more than 15 years. The following is from grant groups who like special oils they were used to from a communication Matthias sent to one of the authors of this their home country. publication and serves to illustrate one man’s experience with Later I became known for the special quality of the truly cold oilseed production. pressed oil (less than 90 degrees) and I was asked to test vari- “Upon my retirement I started to ranch (and) raise cattle in ous varieties of certain products, such as grape seed oil from western Colorado. A professor at Colorado State University sug- different grapes, like an oil “a la merlot” or “a la pinot noir.” I gested that I plant alfalfa and rotate it with canola rather than produced oil on contract for several companies until they had other small grains. With a press, I would get some oil and the established their own markets, at which point they acquired by-product (press cake) would also have economic value. their own production plants. When I found the special cold press equipment in Germany, I Small-scale operators, who consider oils as a sideline, might purchased a couple of presses and got started. I learned from be able to sell to local shops and restaurants. Health spas are the equipment company representatives about other oils from always in need of special oils. Make sure you have a good hazelnuts, peanuts, walnuts, macadamia nuts, sesame, sun- name for your product and present the oils in appealing flower, hemp, Saw palmetto and others and started to make containers. oils. I also tried some very special oils, like coffee oil and oil In regard to pricing, find out what other people charge and see from dried orange peels. I went to some of the big shows and if you can live with that. Or concentrate on high price markets met marketing and distributing people. I furnished them with like certified organic stores or Kosher (markets). Prices for the samples and received substantial orders. I shipped anywhere same oil are different in different parts of the country. Can you from 1-gallon containers to 55-gallon drums. A local cattle be competitive at those rates? Can you sell just under those feed lot sent their truck twice a month to pick up any press rates and still be economical? Certified organic and Kosher cake that I didn’t use for my own horses and cattle. (products) cost extra for inspection in addition to the instal- Slowly my name became known by word-of-mouth. People lation and operation of the plant. Is the market large enough sent me different seeds or nuts to test for oil content and for to pay for the higher costs? the taste and value of such oils. Through a Web page I attracted I believe there is no sure-fire way (to sell oils) in all parts of the universities and other companies. country. But one thing is necessary wherever you are: You’ve Some people who bought the special Komet presses from got to go out and toot your horn!” me concentrated on special markets, such as hemp seed oil (Matthies, 2004)Page 8 ATTRA Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
  • 9. References ResourcesAlam, M.S. November 2007. Basic of fats and OilsChemistry: Factors Affecting Crude Oil Quality. Pre- Oilseed crusherssented to the Vegetable Oils Extraction Short Course, (Neither NCAT nor the authors of this publicationTexas A&M Food Protein R&D Center, College Sta- endorse any of the products listed here. It is intendedtion, Texas. as a sample, not a comprehensive list of equipment suppliers.)Clothier, Tom. Seeds http://tomclothier.hort.net/page28.html. Cropland Biodiesel Oilseed PressFellows, Peter, and Ann Hampton (eds.). 1992. Cropland Biodiesel sells three models of screw pressesSmall- Scale Food Processing: A Guide to Appropriate with the option to buy the press itself or the press andEquipment. Practical Action Publishing – formerly motor together for an additional cost. Catering to thethe Intermediate Technology Development Group. farming community, Cropland Biodiesel has custom-158 p. (A second edition was published in 2003. See ized units with a Thermostatically Controlled HeatedResources for ordering information.) Press, giving the ability to dial in the exact tempera-Herz, Jonathan. 1997. Using and Maintaining the ture necessary to expel the highest amounts of oil fromRam Press. Enterprise Works Worldwide. Washington, the seed crop.DC. 42 p. CLB-100Lardy, Greg. 2008. Biodiesel Benefits for Cattle Pro- Capacity: 1 ton per 24 hoursducers: Feeding Byproducts of Biodiesel Production. CLB-300Western Organizations of Resource Councils, Billings, Capacity: 3 ton per 24 hoursMT. 28 p. CLB-500Matthies, E. Peter. 2004. Personal communication. Capacity: 5 ton per 24 hoursSee the Resources section for contact information. Contact:Pilgeram, Alice. July 2008. Correspondence with Doug Fluitauthor. Cropland BiodieselPrinciples of Oil Extraction. Practical Action Publish- 2003 Pangborn Rd.ing (formerly the Intermediate Technology Group), Lynden, WA, 98264Colchester, Essex, UK. (360) 815-7061 hunter@croplandbiodiesel.comSmall Scale Grain and Pulse Production forum. May www.croplandbiodiesel.com17, 2008. Cleaning Up. Small Scale Grain and PulseProduction: A Forum for Information on Grain and Kern Kraft Oilseed PressPulse Production for Food. http://grainsandpulses.blogspot.com/2008/05/cleaning-up.html. The German Kern Kraft oilseed presses range from ¼ ton per day to 4 ton per day capacity. Circle EnergyVan Gerpen, Jon. July 2008. Correspondence with in Wisconsin distributes German Kern Kraft oilseedauthor. presses and filters as well as Evolution biodiesel pro-Van Gerpen, Jon, et al. Building a Successful Biodie- cessors. Jon Becker-Schickel is a Circle Energy repre-sel Business. Second edition. 2006 Biodiesel Basics. sentative located in Thermopolis, Wyo. For prices and277 p. further information, contact: M. Jon Becker-Schickel 1531A Owl Creek Road Thermopolis, WY 82443 (307) 867-2233 (563) 581-0048 cell www.circle-energy.comwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 9
  • 10. Biopress Series Oilseed Press (780) 466-9031 fax info@trimlinedesigncentre.comBiopress200Capacity: 5 ton per 24 hours Woodleaf Biodiesel Innovations Vaughn RuthBiopress400 6340 Woodleaf RoadCapacity: 10 ton per 24 hours Woodleaf, NC 27054 (704) 278-2256Biopress oilseed press distributors info@woodleafbiodiesel.comBioFuel Canada Ltd. www.woodleafbiodiesel.com280 Midpark Way S.E.Calgary, Alberta CanadaT2X 1J6 Hybren Oilseed Press(403) 255-4820 The Danish Hybren press is specifically intendedwww.biofuelcanada.ca for small seeds such as canola and mustard and has a capacity of 1/2 ton per day and retails for aboutCentralBioDiesel $3,500. www.hybren.dk8208 NW 6th St.Coral Springs, FL 33071 Hybren Oilseed Press distributors:(954) 889-7BIO (7246) Sustainable Villagesales@centralbiodieselhtp.com 1080 Oakdale Placewww.centralbiodieselhtp.com Boulder, CO 80304 (303) 998-1323 or (888) 317-1600Mammoth Oilseed Press (303) 449-1348These presses are the cold press type producing both info@sustainablevillage.comuseable oil for diesel engines (after proper filtering www.sustainablevillage.comor processing) and a valuable by-product, feed cake NBT Building Products Ltd.for animals. They are a screw-press-type unit and Unit 9000 Suite 305typically can produce a gallon of oil from a 5-gallon 190 Trans Canada Highway NEbucket of canola. Salmon Arm, BC, Canada V1E 1S3Mammoth MSP-2T (250) 833-0275Capacity: 2 ton per 24 hours (866) 835-1031 faxMSRP: n/a info@plantdrive.ca www.plantdrive.caMammoth MSP-4TCapacity: 4 ton per 24 hoursMSRP: $3,995 Rosedowns Mini Oilseed Press The Mini Press Range has been designed to cover theMammoth MSP-6T needs of both the smaller specialty oil processor and aCapacity: 6 ton per 24 hours pilot plant operation. The presses have been designedMSRP: $4,495 for cold pressing most oilseeds without pre-treatment.Mammoth MSP-10T Contact for prices.Capacity: 10 ton per 24 hours Mini 40MSRP: $9,950 Capacity: 1 ton per dayMammoth Oilseed Press distributors: Mini 100 Capacity: 3 tons per dayTrimline Design Centre Inc.6772-99 Street Mini 200Edmonton, Alberta Canada Capacity: 5 tons per dayT6E 5B8 Mini 500(780) 466-9034 Capacity: 10 tons per dayPage 10 ATTRA Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
  • 11. De Smet Rosedowns DELUMPER (R) Div., Franklin Miller Inc.Cannon St, Hull 60 Okner Pkwy.East Yorkshire Livingston, NJ 07039-1604HU2 0AD, United Kingdom (973) 535-9200+44 (0)1482 329864 Manufacturer of standard and custom ultra-sanitary+44 (0)1482 325887 fax crushers for hops, seed and oilseed crushinginfo@ Rosedowns.co.uk applications.www.rosedowns.co.uk Pulva Corp.US contact: P.O. Box 427Jenkins Centrifuge Company Saxonburg, PA 16056-04271123 Swift (724) 898-3000North Kansas City, MO 64116 www.pulva.com(800) 635 1431 Pulva Corportation produces crushers. You can sendRJenkins@jenkinscentrifuge.com them a 5-gallon pail of seeds and they will crush themwww.JenkinsCentrifuge.com for a free test trial. See their Web site for more information.Other Oilseed Press manufacturers The French Oil Mill Machinery, Inc.IBG Monforts Oekotec 1035 W. Greene St.An der Waldesruh 23 P.O. Box 92041238 Mönchengladbach Piqua, OH 45356-0920Germany (937) 773-3420+49 (0) 2166 8682 90 The French Oil Mill Machinery manufactures oilseed+49 (0) 2166 8682 44 fax crushers on a small and large scale.oekotec@ibs-monforts.de ATTRA has an eight-page document that shows sche-E. Peter Matthies matic drawings and photos of hand-powered oilseed20 Marshall St. presses, along with very small-scale electric poweredd-52066 Aachen presses. Call 800-346-9140 and request the “SmallGermany Scale Oilseed Presses” document.+49 241 160 7122+49 241 160 7123 fax Other equipment manufacturersfruitoil@hotmail.com and suppliers(Matthies serves as a U.S. sales contact for Komet BAR N.A., INC.presses) 309 W. Hensley RoadSkeppsta Maskin AB Champaign, IL 61826-7200Bengt Jonsson (217) 398-0000, ext.222Täby Skeppsta (217) 398-0002 faxS-705 94 Őrebro This company produces small-scale planting and har-Sweden vesting threshing machines. The company also makes+46 19 228005 processing equipment for soy milk, dairy analogs, tofu,sales@oilpress.com mechanical extraction of processing equipment for veg- etable oils, infant foods, low-cost foods, filling, packag- Magic Mill International Headquarters ing and labeling and snack TVP. Royalux Corporation 105 Pleasant Avenue Seedburo Equipment CompanyUpper Saddle River, NJ 07458 1022 W. Jackson Blvd. (201) 785-8840 Chicago, IL 60607 (201) 785-8841 fax (312) 738-3700tabypress@gmail.com (800) 284-5779 (312) 738-5329 fax sales@seedburo.comwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 11
  • 12. ALMACO Food Protein R & D CenterP. O. Box 296 Cater-Mattil Hall 373 Olsen Blvd.99 M Avenue 2476 Texas A&M UniversityNevada, IA 50201 College Station, TX 77843-2476(515) 382-3506 (979) 845-2741(515) 382-2973 fax (979) 845-2744 faxsales@almaco.com marwaha@tamu.edu The mission of the Oilseeds Processing Program is toHuntsman, Inc conduct basic and applied research to help add value2362 Warren Ave. to oilseeds and to serve as a technical resource to theTwin Falls, ID 83301 oilseeds processing industry.(208) 733-2214(877) 733-2214 The Oilseeds Processing Program has experience with(208) 733-2240 fax essentially all row-crop oilseeds as well as a numbermail@huntsmaninc.com of industrial crops. Row crop expertise includes famil-Huntsman, Inc. supplies used and reconditioned food- iar edible oilseeds such as soybeans, cottonseed, cornprocessing equipment, including seed cleaners and germ, canola, peanuts, sunflower seed, safflower seedpackaging. and flax seed. Industrial crop expertise includes castor seed, rape seed, crambe, jojoba and others in variousFood Processing Machinery & Supplies Association stages of commercialization. Specific services include1451 Dolley Madison Drive, Suite 200 practical short courses and customized training.McLean, VA 22101(703) 761-2600(703) 684-1080 fax Oilseed meal and animal feedinginfo@fpsa.org Pilgeram, Alice. Camelina Sativa, A Montana Omega-FPM&SA is a nonprofit trade association founded in 3 and Fuel Crop1885 to provide a business link between food and www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/ncnu07/pdfs/beverage processors and suppliers. The association pilgeram129-131.pdfis made up of several hundred industry members. It Specifications on Sunflower Meal. Meal/Whole seedcan provide information about sources of all kinds of Feeding of Sunflower. National Sunflower Association.equipment and supplies. Processfood.com is the asso- www.sunflowernsa.com/wholeseedciation’s electronic marketplace. Canola Meal Feed Guide. Canola Council of Canada.Small-to-mid-scale seed cleaners www.canolacouncil.org/canola/canola-meal.aspxA.T. Ferrell Company Animal Feed Resources Information System —www.atferrell.com/aboutClipper.asp Canola OilThis company manufactures clipper fanning mills. www.fao.org/ag/aga/agap/frg/afris/Data/724.HTM Saskatchewan Canola Development CommissionOilseed production and processing www.saskcanola.com/canola/meal.htmlSchumacher, Joel. Small Scale Oilseed Processing. Lardy, Greg. Biodiesel Benefits for Cattle Producers:Briefing Number 88. May 2007. Montana State Uni- Feeding Byproducts of Biodiesel Production. 2008.versity Extension Service. Western Organizations of Resource Councils, Billings,www.ampc.montana.edu/briefings/briefing88.pdf MT. 28 p.Grubinger, Vern. Final Report: On-farm Oilseed www.worc.orgBiodiesel Production. May 2007. University of Ver-mont Extension Service. Publications from organizationsHow to Process Oilseeds on a Small Scale. Several private, nonprofit organizations involved withwww.howtopedia.org/en/How_to_Process_ development work around the world have publicationsOilseed_on_a_Small_Scale that provide information on technologies appropriate for smaller-scale farms and businesses. PublicationsPage 12 ATTRA Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
  • 13. related to small-scale oilseed processing are followed Potts, K.H., and K. Machell. 1993. The Manual Screwby contact information for the organizations that dis- Press for Small-scale Oil Extraction. Practical Actiontribute them. Publishing. 72 p. This book describes a small-scale process of oilNow Build This – The Sunflower Seed Huller and extraction for use in rural areas, as well as ways toOil Press. market and distribute the oilcake.Digitized print of original article by Cox, Jeff. 1979.The sunflower seed huller and oil press. Organic Gar- Anon. 1993. Oil Processing. Practical Action Publish-dening. Rodale Press. April. 13 p. ing. 48 p.www.green-trust.org/2000/biofuel/sunfloweroil.htm. This book is aimed at volunteers training for food pro- cessing projects and their trainers, and for the non-Enterprise Works Worldwide (EWW) specialist already involved in projects and seeking1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 630 specific information on technology choice. ContentsWashington, DC 20005 cover raw materials from which oil can be extracted,(202) 293-4600 methods of oil extraction and processing, descrip-(202) 293-5698 fax tions of types of improved technologies, case studies,info@enterpriseworks.org a checklist of questions to ask when planning a projectHerz, Jonathan. 1995. How to Use Your Ram Press. or enterprise, facts and figures on a range of prepro-EWW. cessing and extraction equipment, references, further reading and contacts.Herz, Jonathan. 1997. Using and Maintaining theRam Press. EWW. 42 p. Kessler, Nathan. No date. Understanding Solvent Extraction of Vegetable Oils. VITA. 12 p.Herz, Jonathan. 1995. Construction of the This technical brief outlines the procedures andCAMARTEC BP-30 Press: A Workshop Manual. equipment required to extract vegetable oil usingEWW. The EWW manual describes feed rations solvents.for commercial broiler chickens, cows and pigs thatinclude sunflower seed cake. PACT Publications 1200 18th Street, NWPractical Action Publishing [formerly known as the Washington, DC 20036Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) ] (202) 466-5666To subscribe to Waterlines or Enterprise Development books@pacthg.organd Microfinance, contact: ECHOSubscription Manager 17391 Durrance Rd.Commerce Way, Whitehall Industrial Estates N. Ft. Myers, FL 33917Colchester, Essex, CO28HP, U.K. (239) 543-3246+44 (0) 1206-796351 (239) 543-5317 fax+44 (0) 1206-799331 fax echo@echonet.orghttp://practicalactionpublishing.org http://echobooks.orgTo order a book, call: Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization is+44 (0)1926 634501 (9 am to 5 pm, Monday to Fri- a nonprofit Christian organization dedicated to theday, U.K. time) fight against world hunger. ECHO’s Web site provides+44 (0)1926 634502 fax access to resources and services for small farm tropi-www.developmentbookshop.com cal agriculture from around the globe. ECHO’s most popular publications are online and include severalAnon. No date. Principles of Oil Extraction. Practical about oilseed crops. A for-sale publication is TheAction Publishing. 11 p. (316K PDF) Manual Screw Press for Small-Scale Oil Extraction.Anon. No date. Food Processing Building Design.Practical Action Publishing. 3 p. (60K PDF)www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 13
  • 14. Web sitesTiny Tech UDYOGwww.oil-refinery.com/Armfield Limitedwww.armfield.co.uk/Palm Oil Processingwww.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y4355E/y4355e04.htmThe Sunflower Seed Huller and Oil Presshttp://journeytoforever.org/biofuel_library/oilpress.htmlMinor Oil Crops – Individual Monographswww.fao.org/docrep/x5043e/x5043e00.htmSpecialty Olive Oil Production Photo courtesy Great Northern Growers.www.sfc.ucdavis.edu/pubs/SFNews/archive/94111.htm Camelina grows in a Montana field.Page 14 ATTRA Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers
  • 15. Noteswww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 15
  • 16. Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers By Al Kurki, Janet Bachmann and Holly Hill NCAT Agriculture Specialists Lakeitha Ruffin and Byrhonda Lyons, NCAT Interns Matt Rudolf, Piedmont Biofuels Cooperative © 2008 NCAT Holly Michels, Editor Robyn Metzger, Production This publication is available on the Web at: www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/oilseed.html or www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/oilseed.pdf IP134 Slot 140 Version 021708Page 16 ATTRA

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