Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing
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Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing Document Transcript

  • MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service HORTICULTURE PRODUCTION GUIDE Abstract: The market for mushrooms continues to grow due to interest in their culinary, nutritional, and health benefits. They also show potential for use in waste management. However, as fungi, mushrooms have life cycles very different from those of green plants. The choice of species to raise depends both on the growth media available and on market considerations. Oyster mushrooms, which grow on many substrates, are easiest for a beginner. Shiitake mushrooms already have earned considerable consumer demand. Only two mycorrhizal mushrooms, morels and truffles, have been commercially cultivated. Mushroom cultivation offers benefits to market gardens when it is integrated into the existing production system. A careful analysis of potential markets must be the first step in deciding whether to raise mushrooms to sell. Many information resources are available for further research.By Alice Beetz and Michael KustudiaNCAT Program SpecialistsJuly 2004© NCAT 2004 Introduction Small-scale mushroom production representsan opportunity for farmers interested in an ad-ditional enterprise and is a specialty option forfarmers without much land. This publicationis designed for market gardeners who want toincorporate mushrooms into their systems andfor those farmers who want to use mushroomcultivation as a way to extract value fromwoodlot thinnings and other “waste” materials.Mushroom production can play an importantrole in managing farm organic wastes whenagricultural and food processing by-products Gray Oyster Mushrooms • Glen Babcock – Garden City Fungi Contents Introduction ............................................. 1 Further Resources ................................... 15 Growing Mushrooms ............................. 2 Conclusion ............................................... 15 Choosing a Mushroom Species ............. 5 References ................................................ 16 Species for Beginners .............................. 6 Appendix .................................................. 17 Pest Management .................................... 11 Resources .................................................. 18 Marketing Mushrooms........................... 11 Spawn and Financial Analysis ................................... 14 Equipment Suppliers ............................ 21ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information service operated by the NationalCenter for Appropriate Technology, through a grant from the Rural Business-CooperativeService, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend orendorse products, companies, or individuals. NCAT has offices in Fayetteville, Arkansas(P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702), Butte, Montana, and Davis, California.
  • are used as growing media for edible fungi. The prepared to face sporadic fruiting, invasions ofspent substrate can then be composted and ap- “weed” fungi, insect pests, and unreliable marketplied directly back to the soil. This publication prices.includes resources for entrepreneurs who wishto do further research. Growing Mushrooms Many people are intrigued by mushrooms’ nu-tritional and medicinal properties, in addition totheir culinary appeal. Mushrooms contain many Mushroom production is completely differentessential amino acids; white button mushrooms, from growing green plants. Mushrooms do notfor example, contain more protein than kidney contain chlorophyll and therefore depend onbeans. Shiitake mushrooms are less nutritious, other plant material (the “substrate”) for theirbut are still a good source of protein.(Royse and food. The part of the organism that we see andSchisler, 1980) As a group, mushrooms also call a mushroom is really just the fruiting body.contain some unsaturated fatty acids, provide Unseen is the mycelium—tiny threads that growseveral of the B vitamins, and vitamin D. Some throughout the substrate and collect nutrients byeven contain significant vitamin C, as well as the breaking down the organic material. This is theminerals potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and main body of the mushroom. Generally, eachmagnesium.(Park, 2001) mushroom species prefers a particular growing medium, although some species can grow on a Asian traditions maintain that some specialty wide range of materials.mushrooms provide health benefits. Chinesedoctors use at least 50 species. Two recent books, If you are considering mushroom production,Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, become thoroughly familiar with the life cyclesHealing and Culture and Medicinal Mushrooms You of fungi. A very general description is includedCan Grow, detail existing research on the health below. A plant pathology textbook is a goodbenefits of mushrooms. See the Resources sec- resource for learning more about these complextion at the end of this guide for specifics on these life cycles.books and other sources of information. Once you are familiar with the various fungi Mushroom production is labor- and manage- life cycles, learn the growth requirements of eachment-intensive. Specialty mushrooms are not of the species you are considering. Two basic ref-a “get rich quick” enterprise. On the contrary, erences are The Mushroom Cultivator, by Stametsit takes a considerable amount of knowledge, and Chilton, and the aforementioned Growingresearch, planning, and capital investment to Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms, by Stametsset up a production system. You must also be (see Resources). Growing mushrooms outdoors as a part of a market garden involves little effort after you P have inoculated the logs or other substrate with roducing nutritious food the mushroom spawn. Your duties are mainly at a profit, while using to maintain humidity and monitor for fruiting. When mushrooms appear, you add them to your materials that would other- other garden products and sell them. (See Mush- wise be considered “waste,” rooms on the Farm and in the Garden, below.) constitutes a valuable service Most available markets, however, require more in the self-sustaining com- mushrooms than occasional fruiting provides. Indoor production can fill the gaps when outside munity we might envision fruiting lags. The entire operation can also be for the future. conducted inside. However, indoor mushroom production demands a much higher level of knowledge, continuous monitoring, and timely manipulation of environmental conditions.PAGE 2 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • These are the steps in mushroom produc- • Cleaning the facility and beginning againtion— a cycle that takes about 15 weeks (time (Cooner, 2001)varies by species) from start to finish. The substrate on which the mushrooms will• Choosing a growing medium fruit must be sterilized or pasteurized in order• Pasteurizing or sterilizing the medium to destroy any fungal and/or bacterial competi-• Seeding the beds with spawn (material tors. Low-tech substrate preparation methods from mature mushrooms grown on sterile are described in the books by Paul Stamets and media) by Peter Oei (see Resources).• Maintaining optimal temperature, mois- To produce spawn, you inoculate a pasteurized ture, and other conditions for mycelium medium, usually grain, with the sterile culture of growth and the conditions that favor fruit- a particular mushroom species. After the culture ing (This is the most challenging step.) has grown throughout the medium, it is called• Harvesting, packaging, and selling the spawn. Producing spawn requires exacting mushrooms laboratory procedures. Terri Marie Beauséjour, Figure 1 Copyright 1995 by Paul Stamets, <>. Reprinted with permission. //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 3
  • cultivation chair for the Mycological Society of tion. Evaluate this possibility only after you haveSan Francisco, has written an excellent article mastered the later stages of cultivation.that can help the beginner who is put off by thetechnical aspects of mushroom cultivation. Titled While the mycelium is growing—and until“Getting Started with Mushroom Cultivation: it fully occupies the substrate—the mushroomThe Wisdom of Simplicity,” it is available on the farmer typically manipulates the growing envi-Web at < ronment to favor mycelial growth. The atmo-tion.html>. spheric conditions are then changed to initiate “pinheads,” and then to complete fruiting. For Many mushroom suppliers sell several kinds example, in oyster mushroom production un-of spawn, and the beginning mushroom farmer der closely controlled conditions, the growershould take advantage of this selection in early lowers the temperature and the CO 2 in thetrials to determine which species grow best on grow room to initiate fruiting. Each species hasavailable materials. Eventually, learning to pro- specific requirements for its stages of develop-duce spawn might reduce your cost of produc- ment. The Mushroom Cultivator provides detailed Mushrooms in Permaculture* Design *Permaculture is a system of combining perennials, trees, shrubs, and vines to create a “per- manent agriculture.” Using an intensive design process, the natural elements of an ecosystem are replaced by food-producing relatives, creating an edible landscape. Paul Stamets was an early advocate of waterways, they acted as microfilters of integrating a variety of mushrooms into a fecal coliform bacteria generated by his permaculture system.(Stamets, 1994) In his small herd of cattle. He also planted them design, agricultural wastes like cornstalks, along greywater runoff areas. Stamets be- wheat straw, or rice straw can be used as lieves mushrooms can play a large role in growing media for oyster mushrooms. After mycofiltration.(Stamets, 2000-2001) harvest, the spent substrate can be recycled as fodder or mulch for garden soils. Stamets grows shiitakes, namekos (Pho- liota nameko), and Lion’s mane (Hericium Shaggy manes (Coprinus comatus), Sta- erinaceus) mushrooms on inoculated logs mets notes, do well on manured soils and set in a fence row, while other species like near compost piles. The King stropharia maitake (Grifola frondosa), reishi (Ganoderma or wine cap mushroom (Stropharia rugoso- lucidum), and clustered wood-lovers are annulata) grows best outdoors and plays a cultivated on stumps as part of a hardwood key role as a recycler of woody debris. Bees, forest management system. He introduces attracted to the sweet mycelium, help pol- mycorrhizal species such as chanterelles, linate the green garden plants. The mush- King boletes, and others to new areas by rooms are good to eat when small. Large, “satellite planting,” in which seedlings mature mushrooms attract fly larvae that are planted near trees that have a desired make excellent fish or poultry food. These mushroom species growing around them. can supplement feed for other on-farm en- After several years, the seedlings and their terprises or be sold to pet stores. mycorhizal associates are transplanted, cre- ating new patches of mushrooms. Morels Stamets also uses King stropharia are more difficult to propagate, but some mushrooms for their ecological benefits. types can be encouraged through the use He found that, when established along of small burns.PAGE 4 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • information on the requirements for 16 shade, wind, and humidity conditions. Gardensspecies.(Stamets & Chilton, 1983) offer ample substrates—organic waste materi- als—while plants provide shade and humidity. When you can cut the time between harvests, Plug-inoculated blocks buried among plantingsannual production increases. Short cycles are work well for oyster and Stropharia rugoso-an-what large-scale commercial producers aim for, nulata mushrooms. Beauséjour suggests usingconstantly looking for ways to increase efficiency. a misting sprinkler for mushrooms in gardens.This is the competition you face if you plan to sell (Beauséjour, 1999)your product on the wholesale market. Grower and author Ken Litchfield notes that Paul Stamets of Fungi Perfecti, an educational mulching, a standard gardening practice, notand mushroom supply company (See Resources), only regulates soil temperature and humidityhas spent most of his life studying the growth and but also nourishes fungi. He also suggests sur-cultivation of fungi. His book Growing Gourmet rounding raised beds with partially buried logs& Medicinal Mushrooms (see Resources) is an to create mushroom habitats. Inside the beds,invaluable resource for anyone considering the vegetables, flowers, and shrubs offer the requi-cultivation of any mushroom species. He de- site shade and humidity for mushroom cultiva-scribes several alternative methods of producing tion. In weedy areas, Litchfield suggests puttingmushrooms, including growing them outdoors down organic material and covering it with weton logs, on stumps, and in the garden, as well as cardboard and wood chips, an ideal substrate forindoors in bags or on columns. fungi.(Litchfield, 2002) Peter Oei, in his Manual on Mushroom Cultiva- These methods of production are not likely totion (see Resources), describes in some detail how yield huge numbers of mushrooms. However,alternative mushroom production systems have they can provide an attractive addition to directlybeen used successfully in developing countries. marketed produce.Many ideas for low-input systems are included.In practice, it is unlikely that the beginner cansuccessfully compete in the wholesale market Choosing aagainst highly capitalized and efficient mush-room companies. A better choice for the begin- Mushroom Speciesner is to develop a niche market for high-qualityfresh mushrooms, then sell them at retail, or to A mushroom cultivation kit (check with sup-produce a value-added mushroom product, such pliers listed below) is a handy way to beginas a soup mix or sauce. to understand the fungal life cycle. Once you successfully use the kit, you can begin to learnMushrooms on the Farm and the steps that precede that final fruiting stage of the mushroom life cycle. Purchase spawnin the Garden that will grow on materials you have available. Then design and test a system that duplicates Fungi cycle nutrients that nourish new life the conditions favorable to all stages of the soil. Recognizing this essential function, You can use this experience to learn how to cre-inventive gardeners integrate mushrooms into ate sterile cultures and spawn for the species youfarm, garden, and permaculture systems. Mush- are growing.rooms can also be grown in lawns, polytunnels, Choose the species to grow by thinkingvegetable gardens, and woodlands.(Edwards, about:2000) • What waste materials are readily available Terri Marie Beauséjour, a writer for Mushroom to use as a growth medium?the Journal, encourages creativity and imagination • What kind of facility or environment iswhen planting mushrooms in a garden. Look at available?the “fungamentals,” she writes, the necessitiessuch as available substrates, microhabitats, sun, //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 5
  • • How much will the necessary equipment Oyster mushrooms can become an inte- cost? gral part of a sustainable agriculture system.• What level of skill is required to manage Many types of organic wastes from crop produc- the life cycle of the fungus? tion or the food processing industry can be used to support oyster mushroom production.• What is market demand for this species? Although there are no books devoted en- According to these criteria, oyster (Pleurotus tirely to oyster mushroom production, Stamets’species) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms books provide basic information. Research onare probably best for most novices, although using various agricultural and forest wastes asthe maitake (Grifola frondosa) is also a possibil- substrates is reported in the recently publishedity. The former two are relatively easy to grow, Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, editedand there is already a market for them, largely by D.J. Royse.(Royse, 1996) Peter Oei (Oei, 1991)because commercial producers of white button documents a number of commercial production(Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms have been diver- systems for some strains grown in developingsifying into specialty mushrooms. If you intend grow mushrooms commercially, shiitake oroyster mushrooms are your best choices. These There is an increasing number of Web sites de-two species are more thoroughly covered in the voted to oyster mushroom production. Lawrencefollowing sections. Weingarten describes his production process on his Web site, complete with photos at <www. A chart in the Appendix lists other common>.species and the materials on which they can becultivated. Test each species you are considering Two Canadian Web sites also offer additionalagainst each of the questions listed above. advice: • Oyster Mushroom Cultivation Species for Beginners hort/vegetables/pihve94-03.htmOyster mushrooms Oyster mushrooms (Pleuro-tus species) are a good choicefor beginning mushroomcultivators because they areeasier to grow than many ofthe other species, and theycan be grown on a small scalewith a moderate initial invest-ment. Although commonlygrown on sterile straw fromwheat or rice, they will alsogrow on a wide variety ofhigh-cellulose waste materi-als. Some of these materials donot require sterilization, onlypasteurization, which is lessexpensive. Another advantageof growing oyster mushroomsis that a high percentage of thesubstrate converts to fruitingbodies, increasing the potentialprofitability. Flamingo Oyster Mushrooms • Glen Babcock – Garden City FungiPAGE 6 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • grown on logs, either inside or outside. Inside, they can also be grown on compressed sawdust logs or in bottles or bags. See the brief description of these production systems below. Several excel- lent books and Web sites are also listed below in Resources (shiitake). Log Production Hardwood logs approximately 4” to 6” in di- ameter and of an easily handled length (common- ly four feet) are cut during a tree’s dormant sea- son. Oaks, sweetgum, cottonwood, beech, birch, willow, and other non-aromatic hardwoods are appropriate species. The denser woods produce for up to twice as long as the softer ones. Smaller diameter logs produce more quickly than largerGolden Oyster Mushrooms • Glen Babcock – Garden City Fungi ones, but for a shorter time.• Growing Shiitake & Oyster Mushrooms on Handle the logs carefully to avoid soil contact Hardwood Logs and damage to the bark. This will help prevent contamination by competing fungi. Inoculate the grams/Forest/Pamphlet.htm logs with spawn from a strain suitable to your The MushWorld Web site, <www.mushworld. production system. There is a wide variety ofcom/home>, contains excellent technical infor- spawn from which to choose and several inocu-mation about growing oyster mushrooms. The lation requires registration, but it is free. After inoculation, the spawn develops a Oyster mushroom cultivation has one signifi- thread-like network—the mycelium—growingcant drawback: some people are allergic to the throughout the log. During this time, you mustspores. In these cases, air-cleaning equipment or protect the logs from dehydration by the sunrespirators are necessary in order to safely work and wind. Spray or mist the logs to maintainin the production facility. the humidity necessary to keep the mycelium alive and growing. When the mycelium has The consumer market for oyster mushrooms fully occupied the logs and the temperature andis being developed by the larger mushroom humidity are right for fruiting, the mycelium willcompanies as they diversify their operations. initiate tiny “pinheads” at the surface of the log.However, because of the short shelf life of many The pinheads grow into mushrooms in the nextoyster mushroom varieties, this species may of- couple of days.fer a special advantage to the local grower whomarkets directly and can consistently deliver a To stimulate fruiting, some growers soak thefresh, high-quality product. logs in water tanks and/or “shock” them by physical impact or chilling. Others leave the logs in the growing environment and harvest whenShiitake mushrooms they naturally fruit. Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes) are well suited as Be alert for signs that fruiting is beginning. Thea low-input alternative enterprise because they, best grades of shiitakes have caps that still havelike oyster mushrooms, can be grown on a small a slight curl at the edge. Harvest often if youscale with a moderate initial investment. Shiitake want to earn the best price for your mushrooms.cultivation has been thoroughly investigated, and In addition, if you want to deliver a premiuma commercial market already exists in most areas product, you must pay attention to post-harvestof the United States. Shiitake mushrooms are storage, packaging, and shipping. //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 7
  • Many shiitakes are raised or-ganically. Although it is easierto produce shiitakes organicallythan some of the other mush-rooms, “weed” fungi, as well aspests such as slugs and flies, canreduce fruiting and quality. Theproducer must monitor, quicklyidentify, and control these pestsor lose some of the crop. Federal law now controls theuse of the word “organic” inmarketing. In order to label aproduct organic, producers mustbe certified by an accreditedthird party and document theirproduction and handling prac-tices. For further information, calland request the ATTRA publica-tion Organic Farm Certification &the National Organic Program, or Shiitake mushrooms fruiting on sawdust • Glen Babcock - Garden City Fungisee it at our Web site, <>. However, innovative producers have used concrete mixers to blend supplemental ingredi- Growing Shiitakes ents and made pasteurized substrate in barrels. on Sawdust Fungi Perfecti sells pressure sterilizers for $200 to $1,000, but warns that they are not designed Today, most shiitakes and many other mush- for commercial species are raised on a sterilized sawdustsubstrate. Although this method allows a much Using hydrogen peroxide instead of conven-faster fruiting cycle and a high level of return tional pasteurization is a relatively recent in-(110% or more of initial dry weight), it also de- novation. A manual on this method and moremands a greater capital investment and more information is available at <www.mycomasters.skillful management than log production. In com/>.order to achieve fruiting as quickly as possible,you need a building in which you can control the Growing mushrooms on sawdust requires at-temperature and moisture. The building must be tention to detail—especially careful monitoringeasy to keep clean, and sanitary procedures must and timely processing of the blocks, bottles, orbe strictly followed to avoid contamination. bags. Several of the books listed below, including Stamets (1993) and Przybylowicz and Donoghue The chamber and the steam processor to pas- (1990), offer more details about this productionteurize or sterilize the sawdust can represent a method.significant initial investment. For example, CropKing sells a small mushroom production system, Shiitake Pricesincluding an inoculation table and bagging sta-tion, for about $5,000. The company’s complete The price for shiitake mushrooms fluctuatesgrowing system—including equipment, struc- throughout the season. Prices are highest in thetural components, and technical support—can winter when supply is low, and lowest in sum-come to more than $41,000. Recovering these mer when production peaks. Except in very mildcosts is a challenge for a beginner—especially at climates, the only logs that fruit in winter arecurrent mushroom prices. those maintained indoors. Using strains selected to fruit at cooler temperatures can lengthen thePAGE 8 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • harvest season and allow producers to capturethe higher prices. See the marketing section Other Mushroom Speciesbelow for ways to counteract the natural pricecycle. Mushroom Species with Limited Commercial Production Sources of Further Information Some species of mushrooms are not yet on Shiitakes commercially cultivated. Many of these are Several states, including Pennsylvania, Cali- mycorrhizal types; that is, they grow only infornia, and Oregon, support university research conjunction with the roots of a higher plant.on shiitakes and may have Extension special- Matsutakes and chanterelles are typical examplesists who can provide information to growers in of such mushrooms.their states. Others have Extension publications Mycorrhizal mushrooms are the hardest towith information specific to their areas. Some grow commercially, because the needs of both theof these resources are available on-line at Web fungus and the host plant must be met in ordersites listed in the Resources section. An excel- to produce a commercial crop. Also, the hostlent example is the site maintained by the Ohio plant typically must reach a certain physiologicalState University. maturity before the fungus will fruit. When the In states without this Extension support, one of host is a tree, this maturation may be measured inthe best ways to learn about production is to share decades. Nevertheless, highly prized morels andinformation with other growers. There are sev- truffles are mycorrhizal, and they are both noweral local grower organizations, many of which being grown commercially in the United States.publish newsletters. Ask your state Extension Morelshorticultural specialist about local organizations,or you can contact the North American Myco- Commercial production of morels on anythinglogical Association or the American Mushroom but a small-scale, seasonal basis is currentlyInstitute (see Resources). There are also several not a practical option. Morels are being grownbooks specifically about shiitake production. See year-round, using a patented process, at onlyResources (shiitake) for more information. one production facility in North America (in Alabama). The patent and facility are owned by Terry Farms and represent the only success- ful commercial process for fruiting these highly valued mushrooms out of season. It is, however, possible to establish a morel patch by using a morel starter kit. If you are suc- Morel Mushrooms cessful, these mushrooms will fruit in the spring at the same time as wild morels. Morel prices are, understandably, at their lowest during this natural fruiting season. Adding them to a farm- ers’ market stand would certainly attract morel- loving customers. You can also dry the product for year-round sales if you can grow commercial quantities in your patch. Tom Volk’s Web site, <http://botit.botany. www.c>, has particu- larly good information about morel mushroom production. Truffles Growers generally begin truffle production by //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 9
  • dipping tree seedlings in a mycorrhizal slurry tory and folklore, cooking and recipes, how tobefore planting. After several years, under favor- establish and manage a plantation, climatic andable growing conditions for both the tree and the soil requirements, and cultivation and harvest-fungus, truffles form underground fruiting bod- ing.ies that roughly resemble potatoes. These rangefrom the size of a pea to that of a fist and give Studies have revealed a lot about the condi-off a distinctive odor. Since these “mushrooms” tions necessary to bring truffles to early fruit-don’t completely emerge from the ground, they ing and then to significant production levels.have traditionally been sniffed out by pigs or However, because of the crop’s extremely hightrained dogs. value and because each success has required an investment of considerable time, it is understand- The requirements for growing the black Perig- able that some of this information is consideredord truffle, Tuber melanosporum Vitt., include proprietary. Even when fruiting begins, growerschoosing an appropriate host plant (usually oak themselves may not be able to accurately identifyor hazelnut), inoculating its roots with the spawn, what contributed most to the truffles’ growth.and planting it. Frank Garland planted his firstinoculated trees in 1980 and harvested the first Each new truffle enterprise is an experi-black truffles grown in the U.S. on October 23, ment based on what has already been reported.1993. He has written a production guide based on Check this Web site maintained by a grouphis experience.(Garland, 1996) Garland also has a of scientists investigating truffle cultivation:consulting business and sells inoculated trees. <>. One Oregon tree farmer in prime white truffle Consider combining the production of truf-country found a low-fuss method of cultivation. fles with the sale of nuts from the host trees,The white truffle, Tuber gibbosum, is a mycorrhi- growing annual or perennial crops between thezal species associated with Douglas fir and other trees, or grazing ruminants among them—sheepconifers. This farmer uses a backpack sprayer have been credited with increasing the Frenchto apply a slurry made of truffles and spores at wild-harvested crop yield.(Ludmer-Gliebe, 1997)the roots of conifers. The inoculated areas have These or other agroforestry options could provideproduced between 300 to 1000 pounds per acre additional sources of income during early, non-per year, significantly more than the unsprayed fruiting years and in the seasons when trufflesareas.(Arnold, 1996) do not produce. The truffle industry has developed rapidly Other Mycorrhizal Speciesin Australia and New Zealand. New Zealand’s Mushroom researchers continue to inves-efforts, as reported by Dr. Ian Hall, were be- tigate the cultivation of other species for thegun in 1987, with harvest recorded on June 29,1993, just months before Garland found his firsttruffles in North Carolina. (See <>.) Australian researchersalso report success in their cultivation efforts,summarized in several articles available on theWeb. The articles are found by searching thefollowing main pages for “truffle” or “Tubermelanosporum”:•• The Black Truffle (Hall et al., 1994) is out of print,but it was converted to CD ROM format in 2001 Chanterelle Mushroomsand is available for NZ$49.95 through the Inter-net at <www.crop.>. Chapters cover the symbiotic partner-ship between truffles and their host plants, his-PAGE 10 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • commercial market. A loosely organized group ing the mushroom house ventilation system willof international scientists meets intermittently to keep adult flies out. Double doors and positiveshare their research. The Web site maintained for atmospheric pressure within the structure alsothis scientific endeavor is <www.mykopat.slu. prevent flies from entering. Since adult fungusse/mycorrhiza/edible/home.phtml>. flies are drawn to standing pools of water on benches, walks, or floors, places where water Until commercial production systems are de- can collect should be eliminated. Biocontrol isveloped, mushrooms such as chanterelles and another option for several mushroom pests, thematsutake (pine) mushrooms will continue to sciarid fly among them. A predatory nematodebe collected from the wild for sale to the spe- attacks this fly in its larval form. Therefore, thiscialty mushroom market. The harvest of wild nematode can be added to the composting sub-mushrooms is strictly regulated in some states. strate to prevent infestation.Check with your state department of agricultureregarding laws that apply. You would be wise For a better understanding of IPM, see theto carry liability insurance and to be absolutely ATTRA publication Biointensive Integrated Pestcertain of the identity of mushrooms you sell. Management. It describes IPM methodologyMistakes can be fatal to the consumer. Finally, and provides extensive resources for furtherthe forest environment that supports the growth research.of wild mushrooms is a fragile one. Learn howto conduct your foraging business in a way that Each mushroom species in a specific envi-protects future harvests. ronment has a different pest complex. Because specialty mushroom production in this country Mushroom the Journal (see Resources) provides is still very new, many pests have not receivedexcellent information on wild mushrooms. There research attention. Most pests you are likely toare also many local mycological societies that encounter, however, have probably already beenschedule “forays”—trips to known mushroom studied. In any case, you will probably have tohabitats—where the inexperienced forager can design your own pest management system. Staylearn about various species and how to identify alert for any evidence of damage to the fruitingthem. mushrooms and act quickly to identify its cause. Use whatever information you can find, along Pest Management with your own creativity, to devise ways to pro- tect your crop. Use all the resources you can find—in libraries, Integrated pest management (IPM) is a least- at bookstores, or on the Web. Local Extensiontoxic approach for managing any pest. IPM views agents or state Extension specialists can helppests as a natural part of the farm environment. identify pests and, possibly, determine economicThe integrated management of a pest is accom- thresholds. They can also help you find biologi-plished by altering the environment to the disad- cal controls, if cultural and mechanical methodsvantage of that pest. In order to accomplish this, have to be able to identify what pests are ac-tive, how many there are, and how many it takesto hurt your profits. If you know the life cycle of Marketing Mushroomseach problem organism, you can take measures tomake it hard or impossible for it to complete itslife cycle. You may be able to encourage natural Marketing is the most important considerationenemies that will keep the population below the of all. If you can’t sell your mushrooms at a priceeconomically damaging threshold. that ensures a reasonable profit margin, you don’t want to invest in this enterprise. Spend some Here are some examples of non-chemical time—and even some money—educating your-methods used to control typical pests in the pro- self about marketing your potential product.duction of white button mushrooms. Mushroomflies, a common pest among many cultivated This section provides a broad overview ofmushrooms, are attracted to the smell of decaying market trends, some ideas about how to researchvegetation such as mushroom substrates. Screen- potential markets, references to useful resources, //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 11
  • suggestions about marketing channels, andadvice on financial analysis. The Mushroom Business Market research and evaluation is perhaps Stella K. Naegely writes in the Americanthe most challenging part of developing a new Vegetable Grower that the key to the mushroomenterprise. Luckily, there are many helpful business is to have established buyers and besources. A good place to start is ATTRA’s Mar- capable of consistent production. New grow-keting and Business series, particularly Direct ers might encounter an uphill educationalMarketing and Evaluating a Rural Enterprise. experience for two or three years. LaunchingThese publications detail the market evalua- a commercial mushroom operation can costtion process and include extensive resource between $50,000 and $250,000, depending onlists. Other relevant ATTRA publications cover whether a grower starts with an appropriatemarket gardening, value-added products, building. For that reason, it is prudent to startand agri-tourism. You can find the market- small. Naegely offered the following businessing publications on the ATTRA Web site at tips for people contemplating commercial<>, or production.(Naegely, 2000)call 800-346-9140 to have them sent to you. • Make the market drive your production. The many Web sites listed in Resources Talk to potential buyers about volume(below) will help you find information to fur- and prices.ther your market research. Another resource, • Explore various marketing options:as you analyze the potential for a mushroom brokers, distributors, farmers’ markets,business, is your local Small Business Admin- restaurants, grocery stores, food serviceistration office. Not only do they have helpful operations, and co-ops.publications, they also provide some one-on-one assistance. • Consider reselling other growers’ mush- rooms to offer more variety and larger volume.Market Demand • Talk to other producers and perhaps a consultant about production systems. Some 260 U.S. growers produced more than844 million pounds of mushrooms in 2002-03, • Consider buying used equipment towith a farm gate value of $889 million. (Certi- reduce initial capital investment.fied organic mushrooms accounted for only • Strike a balance between undercapital-1 percent of all sales, although 12 percent of izing and a heavy debt load.growers were certified organic.). The vast bulkof sales were of the Agaricus species, whichincludes white button mushrooms, portobellas,and criminis. The latter two are a brown strain Market Researchof Agaricus bisporus, whose cultivation is man-aged for extra large (portobella) and very small The goals of market assessment are to project(crimini) fruiting bodies. (Current statistics are the sales volume and gross income of a newfound at < enterprise, to analyze its potential profitabilityports/nassr/other/zmu-bb/>.) and cash flow, and to gather information about potential buyers and competitors (to help de- Large, well-established companies produce velop a market strategy).virtually all Agaricus mushrooms; most arelocated in Pennsylvania and California. Their Many specialty mushrooms can be cultivated,production houses are full of mushrooms in but the market, though growing, is still limited.every stage of development. Mushrooms raised If you are thinking about starting a commercialin these systems can be sold profitably on the mushroom enterprise, begin at the end: to whomwholesale market. It is very difficult for a begin- will you sell them? You cannot make money inning grower to compete with these companies at any business if you don’t have buyers for yourwholesale prices. product. Learn who buys mushrooms, whatPAGE 12 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • kinds they want, and where they shop. You • Wholesale as fresh produce (on contract ormust thoroughly investigate the demand for each by the batch)mushroom species or product— as well as theavailable marketing outlets— before committing Direct marketinglarge amounts of capital to the enterprise. If you can sell your mushrooms or mushroom Check the local situation on your own. Some products directly to an end user, you will natu-common methods for conducting initial research rally receive a better price than if you sell to ainclude observation of buyers, surveys of stores, wholesaler. Direct marketing of mushrooms atpersonal interviews with growers, and test mar- local farmers’ markets, to restaurants, or in su-keting (once you have an experimental product). permarkets is possible in many locations. WhenAnother function of market research is to evaluate competing in local markets, excellent service,the competition. This will help you determine top quality, and consistent supply, rather thanwhat market already exists and identify any the lowest price, might win the sale, particularlyniches you could fill. To find out more about your with gourmet chefs. Some chefs specialize incompetitors, use their products. Talk to them. locally grown foods and may be interested forYou may be surprised how much information that reason. Others are willing to pay for fresh,they will share. premium produce. In any case, establishing a relationship with the buyer and reliably deliver- ing a quality product are essential for this typeMarket Channels of marketing. Explore as many marketing strategies as ap- Local grocery stores are another potentialpeal to you. Below are some possibilities. buyer of fresh mushrooms. However, an Arkan-• Market the fresh or dried product directly sas grower found that local grocery chains were to your customers (at farmers’ markets, to interested in her shiitake mushrooms only if she gourmet chefs, over the Internet, through could assure them of a year-round supply. She mail-order offerings) decided that she had to add indoor production in order to meet this requirement. Natural foods• Add value to the mushroom by creating stores are a market that may be more tolerant of processed products (mushroom sauces, seasonal supply. Any chef or grocer will require dried entrée mixes, teas, extracts) assurances of both quality and regular supply before switching from established wholesaleShiitake mushrooms harvested from sawdustGlen Babcock – Garden City Fungi sources. Although the wholesaler with an established account creates stiff competition, the small, efficient producer might still have an advantage in some niche markets. For in- stance, shiitakes grown on logs are generally of higher quality and have a longer shelf life than shiitakes grown on sawdust substrates (the most common mass-production method). Log-grown shiitakes earn prices from three to eight times higher than those grown on sawdust substrates.(Anon., 2003) Find the buyer to whom //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 13
  • quality matters, and you will have found a market The Persimmon Hill Berry Farm in Missourifor your product. (see References) offers an example of how a small entrepreneur can create and market a value- Locally-grown oyster mushrooms have an added mushroom product. Persimmon Hill de-advantage because oysters have a very limited veloped a recipe for a shiitake mushroom sauceshelf life and are too fragile to ship easily. The and invested in a commercial kitchen to producegrower with direct, local sales can supply a it. The farm buys from local growers who, sincefresher product that arrives in better condition. the mushrooms are not for the fresh market, can freeze them until they have enough to make a Wholesale markets delivery to the processing kitchen worthwhile. Selling fresh mushrooms to a wholesaler will During warm weather, when production peaks,mean a lower price than if you market directly. they can likewise freeze the shiitakes until Per-However, for growers who choose not to involve simmon Hill needs them. These growers receivethemselves in direct sales, there are established a better price than they would if they were sellingwholesale markets for mushrooms. Wholesalers at the lower, peak-season prices, and Persimmonadvertise in produce industry periodicals like The Hill is ensured a steady supply for its sauce.Packer. Your local librarian or an Internet search Persimmon Hill sells its products on the Internetcan help you locate other such magazines. and through direct sales on the farm. (See <www.>.) Mr. Paul Goland of Hardscrabble Enterprisesmaintains that there is a steady and growing mar- Drying shiitakes and other mushrooms isket for quality dried shiitakes, even though the another way to add value and avoid the lowwholesale market has been depressed by Chinese prices of the peak season. For more on dryingimports. His buyers—natural foods stores and technologies, see the ATTRA publication Optionsco-ops—do not buy the Chinese products. He for Food Dehydration. (After drying, mushroomsbuys several grades of dried shiitakes from grow- should be held at 0° F. for four days to kill anyers who ship directly to West Virginia. Contact surviving pest eggs.)Paul Goland (see References) to learn whetherhe has a current demand for your product. Financial Analysis Small-scale commercial production of whitebutton mushrooms and other Agaricus varieties As a part of your market research, you needsuch as portobellas and criminis is not recom- to do a financial analysis of the potential enter-mended for the beginner, except on a small scale prise. Develop an enterprise budget with asfor direct marketing. A significant capital outlay much detail as you can provide. As with manyand a high level of management skills are re- farm enterprises, mushroom production is of-quired to begin production, and at current prices, ten only marginally profitable when labor andrecovery of the initial investment might not be management costs are taken into consideration.possible. The market is extremely competitive. An example of an enterprise budget for shiitakeMore information about the button mushroombusiness is available from The American Mush-room Institute (see Resources).Adding Value to FreshMushrooms O nly by developing a market niche for a high- quality fresh product or by Adding value to fresh mushrooms usually producing a mushroom-basedmeans either developing a processed product, food item can a small-scalesuch as a sauce, or drying surplus mushrooms for beginner hope to in the off-season, when prices are higher. Avalue-added product can be sold either directlyto the consumer or to wholesalers.PAGE 14 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • If you are adding mushroom production to Case Study: Marketing Key an integrated farming system, financial analysis is more difficult. Making a clear profit might for Small-Scale Growers not be as important as making use of off-season In the Ozarks of Missouri, Nicola MacPher- labor or the small logs from woodlot thinning to son and her husband, Daniel Hellmuth, have create a saleable product from what otherwise grown shiitakes on three acres for nine years. would have been waste. The couple grow them the traditional way on oak logs, and they market them under the la- bel Ozark Forest Mushrooms, which carries a Further Resources USDA organic seal. To sell their mushrooms, however, they’ve relied on a variety of nontra- Two periodicals that include mushroom cul- ditional marketing approaches. “To promote tivation information are The Mushroom Growers’ sales, you must be prepared to promote your Newsletter and, to a lesser degree, Mushroom the product tirelessly,” MacPherson says. Their Journal. Subscription information is included, principal markets are up-scale restaurants, ca- along with citations for several key books, in the tering companies, and gift catalogs. Customers Resources section below. Web sites devoted to who demand organic produce, such as CSA mushrooms and their cultivation are increasing (Community Supported Agriculture) subscrib- every year. A selected list of mushroom Web ers, also provide a reliable market. sites is included below. MacPherson urges beginners to start mod- Some state or local mycological societies estly, learn the process thoroughly, and de- have groups interested in mushroom cultiva- velop a small, reliable customer base—say, a tion. To locate chapters in your area, contact half-dozen regular customers—as a foundation. the North American Mycological Association (She offered free samples to help establish a lo- (see Resources). cal market.) She cautions new growers not to create a market demand that they cannot meet. Selling to supermarkets, for instance, can be Conclusion fraught with problems, including the challenge of ensuring product freshness and the recurring Commercial cultivation of mushrooms is not need for educating new produce department for everyone. It requires someone who is famil- employees.(Anon., 1998) iar with fungi life cycles and willing to commit time and money to research, designing a system, and developing a business. The mushroom cultivator must be able to carry out operationslog production is available at < on time, be attentive to details, and be vigilantpubs/vegetables/438-898/shiitakemushrooms. about pest invasions. In most cases, marketingpdf>. requires excellent public relations skills. Using this format or a generic enterprise bud- Nevertheless, there is potential for an innova-get from Extension offices or off the Internet, fill it tor who can use an existing facility, obtain a low-in with as many actual calculations and estimates cost substrate, and produce a reliable supply ofof costs as you can. If you are considering sev- a high quality product. As part of a whole-farmeral mushroom species, do a financial analysis of system, mushrooms can augment productivityeach one separately. Try to anticipate every cost at any scale. Producing a nutritious food at aso that you can construct an accurate financial profit, while using materials that would other-picture. Include an educational and/or market- wise be considered “waste,” constitutes a valu-ing component in your budget, allowing for free able service in the self-sustaining community wesamples or flyers with information and recipes, might envision for the future. It is a challengeespecially if you are developing a new product some will find worth taking.or will be doing direct marketing. //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 15
  • Park, Kwnag-ho. 2001. Nutritional Value of a References Variety of Mushrooms. <www.MushWorld. com/sub_en.html>. January. 5 p.Anon. 1998. Grower’s business is ‘mushroom-ing.’ Small Farm Digest. Winter. p. 3. Litchfield, Ken. 2002. In your yard: More than grass, shrubs and trees. Mushroom the Jour- nal. Summer. p. 20–23.Anon. 2003. Small Farms Research News.Spring. p. 3. Ludmer-Gliebe, Susan. 1997. Sheep are essen- tial to French truffle production. November.Arnold, Ralph. 1996. Grow fungi without p. 4–5.the sterile trappings? Mushroom the Journal.Summer. p. 35. Naegely, Stella K. 2000. Is there money in mushrooms? American Vegetable Grower.Beauséjour, Terri Marie. 1999. Mushrooms in February. p. 40–43.the garden. Mushroom the Journal. Fall.p. 17–19. Oei, Peter. 1991. Manual on Mushroom Culti- vation. TOOL Foundation, Amsterdam.Cooner, Deanna. 2001. Mushroom farming. p. 49–50. (A new edition of this book is nowAgVentures. June-July p. 14–15. available; see Resources.)Edwards, Richard. 2000. The missing link? Persimmon Hill Berry FarmMushrooms in permaculture. Permaculture RR 1, Box 220Magazine. No. 25. p. 37–39. Lampe, MO 65681 417-779-5443Garland, Franklin. 1996. Truffle Cultivation inNorth America. Garland Gourmet Mushrooms Royse, D.J. (ed.). 1996. Mushroom Biology andand Truffles, Inc., Hillsborough, NC. 41 p. Mushroom Products: Proceedings of the Sec- Available for $15 from: ond International Conference, University Park, Garland Gourmet Mushrooms and PA, June 9-12, 1996. Penn State, State Park, PA. Truffles, Inc. 581 p. 3020 Ode Turner Rd. Hillsborough, NC 27278 Royse, Daniel J., and Lee C. Schisler. 1980. 919-732-3041 Interdisciplinary Science Reviews. Vol. 5, No. 919-732-6037 FAX 4. p. 324–331. truffleman@mindspring.comGreen, Judy. 1988. Doing your own market re- Stamets, Paul. 2000–2001. A novel approach tosearch. Farming Alternatives. Cornell Univer- farm waste management. Mushroom the Jour-sity Resource Sheet #6. November. 6 p. nal. Winter. p. 22. Or see at <http://www. farmwaste.html>.Hall, Ian R., G. Brown, and J. Byars. 1994. TheBlack Truffle. Rural Industries Research and Stamets, Paul. 1994. Permaculture with aDevelopment Corporation. New Zealand. mycological twist. The Permaculture Activist.107 p. May. p. 8–10.Hardscrabble Enterprises, Inc. Stamets, Paul, and Jeff Chilton. 1983. TheP.O. Box 1124 (or 617 N. Main St.) Mushroom Cultivator. Agarikon Press, Oym-Franklin, WV 26807 pia, WA. 415 p.304-358-2921hardscrabble@mountain.netContact: Paul GolandPAGE 16 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • Appendix Mushroom Cultivation Media Growing Medium Mushroom Species Straw (Volvariella) Oyster (Pleurotus)Rice Straw Common (Agaricus) Oyster (Pleurotus) Common (Agaricus)Wheat straw Stropharia Straw (Volvariella)Coffee pulp Oyster (Pleurotus) Shiitake (Lentinus) Shiitake (Lentinus) Oyster (Pleurotus) Ear (Auricularis) Ganoderma (Reishi)Sawdust Maitake (Grifola frondosa) Winter (Flammulina) Lion’s Head or Pom Pom (Hericium)Sawdust-straw Oyster (Pleurotus) StrophariaCotton waste Oyster (Pleurotus) Straw (Volvariella)from textile industryCotton seed hulls Oyster (Pleurotus) Shiitake (Lentinus) Nameko (Pholiota) Shiitake (Lentinus)Logs White jelly (Tremella) Nameko (Pholiota) Ear (Auricularis)Sawdust-rice bran Shaggy Mane (Coprinus) Winter (Flammulina) Shiitake (Lentinus)Corncobs Oyster (Pleurotus) Shiitake (Lentinus)Paper Oyster (Pleurotus) StrophariaHorse manure Common (Agaricus)(fresh or composted)Crushed bagasse andmolasses wastes from Oyster (Pleurotus)sugar industryWater hyacinth/Water lily Oyster (Pleurotus) Straw (Volvariella)Oil palm pericarp waste Straw (Volvariella)Bean straw Oyster (Pleurotus)Cotton straw Oyster (Pleurotus)Cocoa shell waste Oyster (Pleurotus)Coir Oyster (Pleurotus)Banana leaves Straw (Volvariella)Distillers grain waste Lion’s Head or Pom Pom (Hericium) //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 17
  • Stamets, Paul. 1993. Growing Gourmet and Resources Medicinal Mushrooms. Ten Speed Press. Berkeley, CA. 592 p. Companion volume to The Mushroom Culti-Periodicals vator. This third edition updates cultural and growing techniques, adds growing informationThe Mushroom Growers’ Newsletter is a monthly on new varieties, and discusses strain selectionnewsletter that contains cultivation information for cultivation.and current prices of mushrooms at San Fran- Available for $44.95 from Fungi Perfecticisco and New York markets. (See address above.) Available for $35/year from: The Mushroom Growers’ Newsletter Oei, Peter. 2003. Manual on Mushroom Culti- P.O. Box 5065 vation: Techniques, Species and Opportunities Klamath Falls, OR 97601 for Commercial Application in Developing Countries. TOOL Publications, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 274 p.Mushroom the Journal is a quarterly publication First published in 1991, and now completelythat primarily contains information on forag- updated, this guide offers information on grow-ing, with limited information on cultivation. ing 12 species of mushrooms, with a particular Available for $19/year from: emphasis on growing in developing countries. Leon Shernoff The manual includes 71 drawings, 93 photo 1511 E. 54th St. illustrations. Chicago, IL 60615 Available for $53.50 plus $8 for shipping from: html Western Biologicals, Ltd. P.O. Box 283Bibliography Aldergrove, BC V4W2T8 CanadaThe National Agricultural Library (NAL) has 604-856-3339 (telephone or FAX)published several Quick Bibliographies (QBs), or westernb@shaw.caresults of database searches on a given topic.QBs have been published for both shiitake and Also available to developing countries fromoyster mushrooms. They can be downloaded C-Point Publishers in the Netherlands. Forfrom the NAL Web site. ordering information, contact Ine Klerkx, <>. Hadeler, Hajo. 1995. Medicinal MushroomsBooks You Can Grow. The Cariaga Publishing House. 196 p.Stamets, Paul, and J.S. Chilton. 1983. The Excellent guide to wood-loving mushroom cul-Mushroom Cultivator. Agarikon Press, Olym- tivation, from plugging old stumps to enrichedpia, WA. 415 p. sawdust culture in sterile bags. Covers medici- Includes growing parameters for 16 species and nal species well. Well written and illustrated; covers every aspect of mushroom cultivation. index. Available for $29.95 from: Out of print, but some are still available Fungi Perfecti from P.O. Box 7634 Olympia, WA 98507 Hobbs, Christopher, and Michael Miovic (ed.). 800-780-9126 (toll-free) or 260-426-9292 1995. Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, Healing and Culture. ThirdPAGE 18 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • Edition. Botanical Press, Santa Cruz, CA. How to Grow Mushrooms252 p. organic/990015.htm Mushroom toxicity, use in traditional medicine and in the human diet are supported by clinical From the Nova Scotia Department of Agricul- studies and explorations of cultural influences ture and Fisheries, this Web page offers a good in this technical coverage. More than 100 spe- overview of growing mushrooms in compost. cies of edible fungi are documented. Widely available for $18.95. The Mushroom Council: Six Steps to Mush- room Farming steps.htmThe North American Mycological Association From the Pennsylvania State University(NAMA) publishes a bi-monthly newsletter, Agriculture Extension Service, this page de-The Mycophile, and publishes an annual direc- scribes step by step phase I composting, phasetory that provides names and addresses of all II composting, spawning, casing, pinning, andNAMA members and every mycology associa- cropping.tion in North America. NAMA focuses moreon finding and identifying wild mushrooms Permaculture with a Mycological Twist: Thethan commercial cultivation. Stametsian Model for a Synergistic Mycosphere Annual membership is $35. Contact: NAMA This article carried on the Fungi Perfecti Web 336 Lenox Ave. site describes permaculture applications for Oakland, CA 94610-4675 mushrooms. (See the sidebar.) Mush-WorldThe American Mushroom Institute is a source information on the mushroom industry. Itserves mainly large, highly capitalized com- “Total mushroom information” is the bannermercial producers. claim here. This excellent resource features sections on cultivation, pests and disease, and AMI Washington DC Office medicinal mushrooms, as well as the monthly One Massachusetts Avenue, N.W. webzine Mushworld. Requires free registration Suite 800 for access. Highly recommended. Washington, D.C. 20001 202-842-4344 Penn State Mushroom Spawn Laboratory A comprehensive Web site with resources on AMI Avondale Office mushroom science and cultivation. 1284 Gap Newport Pike Suite 2 Gourmet Mushrooms Avondale, PA 19311 610-268-7483 Source of mushroom kits and mushroom nutra- ceuticals; extensive bibliography on the me- dicinal value of mushrooms (<www.gmush-Web sites>). [Note that addresses may change. A search of Fungal Jungal: Western Montana Mycologicalthe Web should provide current locations.] Society //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 19
  • A good example of a regional mycological Excellent reference for inland producers society Web site filled with diverse resources, Available for $17.50 postage paid from including information on morels, fire ecology, Field & Forest Products, Inc. a western mushroom photo guide, and recipe (See Suppliers.) lists. Przybylowicz, Paul, and John Donoghue. 1990.The Mushroom Council Shiitake Growers Handbook. Kendall/ Publishing Co., Dubuque, IA. 217 p. Home of the mushroom industry’s marketing Book covers a wide range of topics, from log council, this site contains useful information cultivation to sawdust cultivation. Information about consumer buying trends and providing includes both scientific material and practical for food service needs, as well as nutritional advice. Emphasis is on presenting as much and production information; focuses mainly on information as possible rather than selectively Agaricus spp. with no specialty mushroom dif- choosing the best or most advanced methods. ferentiation. Widely available for $25. Jones, Kenneth. 1995. Shiitake: The HealingResources (shiitake) Mushroom. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT. 128 p. Bibliography: shiitake, Jerry. 1996. Shiitake: Cultivated Mush- This book describes the nutritional benefits androom. Quick Bibliography Series B:90-4. Na- traditional uses in Chinese medicine for shiitaketional Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD. mushrooms. Chapters cover shiitakes used in folk medicine for controlling cholesterol, cancer A bibliography of articles on shiitake mush- prevention, treating viruses and chronic fatigue rooms. Though somewhat dated (published in syndrome. 1996), this collection still contains valuable information for shiitake producers. It’s available Widely available for $9.95. on-line at < SIC_pubs/qb9613.htm>. Web sites: shiitake The Ohio State University Extension Office Books: shiitake features a series of on-line fact sheets that detail shiitake cultivation.Harris, Bob. 1994. Growing Shiitake Com-mercially. 2nd Ed. Science Tech Publishers, • Shiitake Mushroom Production: Introduc-Madison, WI. 72 p. tion and Sources of Information and Large-scale cultivation of shiitake mushrooms Supplies using traditional oak logs. Based on many years’ work, including material from recent visits to Japan. Some of the most modern and • Shiitake Mushroom Production: Obtaining cost-effective methods are presented with photo- Spawn, Obtaining and Preparing Logs, and graphs and drawings. Inoculation Available from Mushroompeople (See Sup- pliers). • Shiitake Mushroom Production: Logs andKozak, M.E., and J. Krawcyzk. 1993. Growing Laying YardsShiitake Mushrooms in a Continental Climate. Ed. Field & Forest Products, Peshtigo, WI.114 p. • Shiitake Mushroom Production: Fruiting, Describes step-by-step year-round shiitake Harvesting and Crop Storage cultivation, from log inoculation to fruiting. 20 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • • Shiitake Mushroom Production: Economic Garden City Fungi Considerations P.O. Box 1591 Missoula, MT 59806 406-626-5757 www.gardencityfungi.comGrowing Shiitake Mushrooms Gourmet Mushroom Products From the Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Ser- P. O. Box 515 IP vice, this factsheet offers an overview of shiitake Graton, CA 95444 cultivation suitable to hardwood forests of east 707-829-7301 and central Oklahoma. 707-823-9091 FAX Spawn and Equipment Hardscrabble Enterprises, Inc. P.O. Box 1124 (or 617 N. Main St.) Suppliers Franklin, WV 26807 304-358-2921[This list is not comprehensive and does not Contact: Paul Golandimply endorsement of these companies.] L.F. Lambert Spawn Co. Amycel Spawn 1507 Valley Rd. P.O. Box 560 Coatesville, PA 19320 Avondale, PA 19311 610-384-5031 800-795-1657 or 800-995-4269 (toll-free) Long Ridge Farms 406 Tom Cook Rd. Choice Edibles Sugar Grove, NC 28679 584 Riverside Park Road 828-297-4373 Carlotta, CA 95528 707-768-3135 Mushroompeople P.O. Box 220 560 Farm Rd. CropKing Summertown, TN 38483 5050 Greenwich Road 931-964-2200 Seville, OH 44273-9413 330-769-2002 html 330-769-2616 FAX Myco Supply P.O. Box 16194 Field & Forest Products Pittsburgh, PA 16237 N3296 Kozuzek Rd. 800-888 0811 (toll-free) Peshtigo, WI 54157 800-792-6220 (toll-free) Northwest Mycological Consultants 702 NW 4th St. Fungi Perfecti Corvallis, OR 97330 P.O. Box 7634 541-753-8198 Olympia, WA 98507 260-426-9292 Sylvan Spawn Laboratory West Hills Industrial Park //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING PAGE 21
  • Kittanning, PA 16201 800-323-4857 (toll-free) or 724-543-2242 J.B. Swayne Spawn Co. P.O. Box 618 Kennett Square, PA 19348 610-444-0888 UNICORN Imp. & Mfg. Corp. 113 Highway 24 Commerce, Texas 75429 USA 800-888-0811 (toll-free) Western Biologicals, LTD. P.O. Box 283 Aldergrove, BC V4W2T8 CANADA 604-856-3339 westernb@shaw.caBy Alice Beetz and Michael KustudiaNCAT Agriculture SpecialistsJuly 2004© NCAT 2004IP 087Slot 75Version 042705PAGE 22 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING
  • The electronic versions of Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing are located at: HTML PDF IP 087 Slot 75 Version 042905PAGE 24 //MUSHROOM CULTIVATION AND MARKETING