Lavender Production, Products,  ATTRA Markets, and Entertainment Farms   A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agr...
Soil Preparation                        Patty Crawford likens growing lavender in Memphis, Tennessee, to “digging a $200 h...
may not come true to type, and lavan-                 The English lavender (L. angustifolia) cul-din seed is sterile. The ...
number of visits to all U.S. primary care        Lavender Production                      physicians by $243 million, and ...
• Solvent extraction uses organic          Pescadero, California (www.fl oragenics.      solvents to extract both essential...
An Essential Oils Consultant’s Thoughts on                                                                     The differe...
Lavender Creek Farm Mackinaw, Illinois http://lavendercreek.store.yahoo.com/   Lavender Creek, one of the only commercial ...
A list of lavender farms in California                        winters. Sequim (pop. 4,400) is in the “rain                ...
products on-line through its Web site (see        potpourris, aromatic waters, candles, ink,list of farms, below). A recen...
Lavender Farms on the Web Arkansas Owl Creek Lavender Farm www.owlcreeklavender.com             Stout Mountain Lavender ww...
References                                                  10.      Susan Ditz. 2005. E-mail to Katherine                ...
Purple Haze Lavender Farm                                      McNaughton, Virginia. 2000. Lavender: The Grower’sMike Reic...
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Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms

  1. 1. Lavender Production, Products, ATTRA Markets, and Entertainment Farms A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Katherine L. Adam This publication is intended for a beginning lavender grower with some horticultural experience. TheNCAT Agriculture publication discusses geographic and climatic considerations for lavender, soil preparation and cultivationSpecialist techniques, lavender propagation materials, and field production. The publication also addresses lavender© 2006 NCAT essential oils, evaluation of the bulk distillation industry, direct marketing of a variety of lavender products, and the potential for lavender agri-tourism. This publication also surveys clusters of lavender farms in Texas, California, and Washington, the lavender entertainment industry, and on-farm lavender product sales. Newly expanded lists of U.S. lavender farms and Web sites are also offered, as well as a list of other resources. Contents Introduction ............... 1 Cultivation ................. 2 Cultivars and ............. 3 Propagation Field Production of Lavender .................... 3 Essential Oils ............. 3 Lavender and Agri-tourism .............. 6 Dungeness Valley Lavender Tourism .... 8 Introduction Suitable Locations for Direct Marketing ...... 9 Lavender is a small, aromatic shrub used Lavender Production Requirements for in the fragrance, specialty food, and alter- Lavenders originated around the Medi- Success in Lavender native medicine industries. Although fam- terranean in poor, rocky soils and mild Production ................. 9 ily farmers may find large-scale extraction coastal climates. Lavandula angustifo- References ................ 11 of lavender’s valuable oil too expensive and lia (English lavender) is the most hardy, Additional Links ...... 12 laborious, small-scale lavender production but high-camphor lavandin (Lavandula x Further Reading ...... 12 is feasible for some farmers using alterna- intermedia) cultivars like Grosso may be tive marketing strategies. Entertainment successfully grown all over the U.S. with- farming has been a very successful form out winterkill, under certain circumstances. of alternative marketing for lavender, espe- Bodies of water can greatly moderate other- cially as a focus for annual festivals and wise inhospitable climates. For example, L. product sales. angustifolia can be successfully grown in Like most herbs, lavender has few if any the British Isles, due to the influence of theATTRA—National Sustainable insect pests. Few fungal diseases attack lav- Gulf Stream; Ukraine can produce laven-Agriculture Information Serviceis managed by the National Cen- ender, but since there are no known reme- der around the Black Sea; Japan producester for Appropriate Technology dies for them, chemical applications are not several metric tons a year; and Argentina,(NCAT) and is funded under agrant from the United States an issue. Lavender ranks high as a sustain- Brazil, and East Africa have some produc-Department of Agriculture’s able crop because it does not rely on pes- tion. Each location has a climate moder-Rural Business-Cooperative Ser-vice. Visit the NCAT Web site ticides and fertilizers. It does not require ated by a large body of water, which can(www.ncat.org/agri. fertilizing, although in rare circumstances create microclimates several zones differ-html) for more informa-tion on our sustainable irrigation may be called for. The biggest ent from those nearby. Some types of lav-agriculture projects. issue is finding a viable marketing method. ender have been grown successfully near
  2. 2. Soil Preparation Patty Crawford likens growing lavender in Memphis, Tennessee, to “digging a $200 hole for a $2 plant.” She says, “It’s not the cold here that gets lavender; it’s our humid summers and our wet, wet winters. This is the reason for the hole. While digging it won’t really cost you $200, you might begin to feel like it.” Lavender cannot survive simply being stuck into clay soil. Beds must be worked down 18 to 24 inches. It is best to raise the bed about 6 inches above ground level and mix in 1/3 sand, 1/3 loam, and 1/3 clay soil. Too much sand is better than too much clay. Plain builder’s sand from the local hardware store is fine for improving soil friability. A good soil mix like ground cotton seed, mulched leaves, old potting soil, and compost—sweet- Related ATTRA ened with a bit of lime or egg shell—would work for loam. The ATTRA publication, Potting Mixes for Publications Certified Organic Production offers more recipes for organic soil mixes. If old potting soil is used, be sure it is disease free. Herb Production for Purchase healthy propagation materials (plants or plugs) from a reputable dealer. Make sure the lav- Organic Systems ender variety is appropriate for your climate zone. Direct Marketing Placing white marble (not slate or rock) chips around the base of a lavender plant reflects the sun Edible Flowers into the interior of the clump and helps dry condensation. Growers like Crawford (and Delaware State University’s Art Tucker) believe that weakly acidic rainfall erodes marble chips (or limestone) Entertainment and, over time, makes the soil more alkaline. Farming and Agri-Tourism Raised, sandy beds allow the drainage necessary to avoid root rot. Remember that lavender toler- ates too little watering more than too much. Keys to Success in Value-Added (Adapted from a 1999 Web article by Patty Crawford, Lavender, Earth Inc., Memphis, Tennessee. The Web Agriculture site has been discontinued.) NCAT’s Organic Crops Workbook Lake Champlain in upstate New York and either with L. angustifolia oil or with com- Plug and in the “Banana Belt” south of Lake Ontario. mercially available essential oils, to create a Transplant llinois, northern Nevada, Idaho, and even pleasing fragrance. Whole plants in flower Production for Minnesota produce lavender. can be used for essential oil production. Organic Systems Buds, flower spikes, and flowering tips—both Elevation, topography, and the severity Potting Mixes for fresh and dried—have a variety of culinary, Certified Organic of winters are other climatic factors that fragrance, and decorative uses. Production influence lavender farming. Elevation can significantly influence plant survival, with Virginia McNaughton (see book listing under Sustainable Small-Scale Nursery valleys being less desirable. Heavy mulch- Further Reading) notes that “the East Production ing of plants is necessary to protect them Coast states are affected by either cold win- through severe winters. Continuous snow ter temperatures or high summer humidity, cover could have much the same effect. which causes fungal infection.” This is true Excellent drainage is crucial to the survival also of the Gulf region. Growers trying to of lavender plantings. establish a cluster of lavender farms in 2000 in the Hill Country of Texas (Gillespie and Cultivation Blanco counties) lost 90 percent of Grosso and Provence plantings to rhizoctonia (a root Lavender (Lavandula) can be a long-lived disease). These were the initial plantings perennial, with a typical productive life of intended for essential oil production. about 10 years, although plants have been known to live for 20 years. English lavenders (L. angustifolia) have the finest fragrance. Cultivars and Propagation However, their oil production (see box) is Lavender—a small, non-hardy perennial much lower than the high-camphor lavandin. evergreen shrub—is best propagated from Oils from lavandin are commonly blended, softwood cuttings of standard types. SeedPage 2 ATTRA Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms
  3. 3. may not come true to type, and lavan- The English lavender (L. angustifolia) cul-din seed is sterile. The purpose for which tivar Munstead is commonly grown in Newthe lavender is being raised heavily influ- England, as is the lavandin (L. x intermedia)ences cultivar choice. Most growers favor cultivar Grosso. Munstead is reportedly thedeep blue flowers, lush growth, and hardi- only English lavender that does well at highness. See Table 1 to compare differences altitudes and was recently reported doingin chemical constituents of angustifolia and well in Nevada. Nurseries may market cul-lavandin. Other types of lavender—such tivars of L. angustifolia and L. x intermediaas Spike—are not commonly grown in the (lavandin) under deceptively similar names.U.S. except as specimen plants. White and For example, ‘Hidcote’ is L. angustifolia,pink forms of angustifolia are curiosities while ‘Giant Hidcote’ is L. x intermedia.sometimes seen in home gardens. Althoughsome California growers favor ‘Irene Doyle’ For more complete information on the cul-for its fragrance, ability to flower bi-annu- tivars of lavender and lavandin, see Arthurally in Zone 7, and its “slightly darker lav- Tucker’s article in the scientific journal Bai-ender blue” flowers, the most commonly leya, Curtis Beus’s booklist, and Virginiagrown cultivars in all parts of the U.S. are McNaughton’s Lavender: The Grower’s Guidethe lavandins Provence and Grosso. Grosso (see Additional Links and Furtherattracts attention in tourist areas, creating Reading below).a striking effect of large fields of “purplehaze.” It is very hardy and grows to three Field Production of Lavenderfeet in height. Products of acceptable qual- The best U.S. resource for details on large-ity can be made by judicious blending of scale lavender production is WashingtonGrosso distillate with imported sweet oils. State University (WSU). Curtis Beus, PhD, WSU Extension, Port Angeles, Washing- Table 1. Properties of Lavender Oils ton, has published extensively on field pro- Angustifolia Lavandin duction of lavender. He helped organize the Specific Gravity first lavender conference in Sequim in 2000. 0.876-0.892 0.885- For detailed information on such topics as 0.897 soils, establishment, irrigation, fertilization, Chemical Profile pests/diseases for large-scale production, see Washington State University Small Farm Camphor 0.5-1% 4-11% Connection. If you do not have Web access, Caryophylene 3-12% contact ATTRA at 800-346-9140 to order a Cineole 1-2% 5-10% print-out of the agronomic information. Beus Linalool 30-49% 30-40% can be consulted by e-mail or by phone at 360-417-2279. His specific recommenda- Linalyl acetate 30-45% 20-30% tions for cultivars and local suppliers are for Ocimene 2.5-6% the Pacific Northwest. See the Cultivars sec- Based on Australian production. Lavender Grow- tion for considerations in choosing cultivars ing for Oil Production. p. 4. (www.dpi.vic.gov.ac) for other parts of the U.S.Additional research on the chemistry of Essential Oilsessential oils for the industrial distillation From about 1985 to 2000 prospects seemedprocesses can be found by searching AGRI- favorable for developing an essential oilsCOLA on-line or by consulting other agri- industry in the U.S. Essential oils are usedcultural databases. The moderated lavender as flavors and fragrances in manufacturing,discussion group at lavandula@yahoogroups. as well as in aromatherapy, an alternativecom is a good source of information. Lav- health discipline.ender researchers and growers from aroundthe world discuss contemporary issues. A 1997 study found that visits to alterna-Membership is by application. tive medicine practitioners exceeded thewww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 3
  4. 4. number of visits to all U.S. primary care Lavender Production physicians by $243 million, and the total out-of-pocket expenditures for these ser- • An acre of true lavender (L. vices was about $27 billion, comparable to angustifolia) produces from 300 the out-of-pocket payments for all U.S. phy- to 1,800 pounds of dried flowers sician services that year. (1) Since alterna- (12 to 15 pounds of essential oil— tive therapies now receive such broad public about 2 gallons). support, and the food and fragrance indus- • An acre of one of the lavandin cul- tries are growing, the main question is, “Can tivars (L. x intermedia) yields the limited-resource farmer in the U.S. find from 3,500 to 4,500 pounds of a profitable niche with lavender?” dried flowers per acre (53 to 67 A related questions is, “Can the independent pounds of essential oil). In the American farmer find a place in the custom- Pacific Northwest, Beus estimates ary procurement chain supplying raw materi- only 1,000 to 1,500 pounds of als to the flavor and fragrance industries?” dried buds per acre for Grosso— equalling 35 to 180 lbs. of essen- The Essential Oils Industry tial oil. Capital investment, transportation, and • More than 30 different types labor considerations (cost and availabil- of lavender oils and blends are ity) dictate that most essential oils produc- traded on world markets. (3) tion take place outside the U.S. The U.S. mint industry is centered in the Pacific Northwest and about 9 million pounds of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development, oil was extracted in 1995. However, most Alberta, Canada, has published an exten- of the essential oil produced in the U.S. is sive overview of the essential oils process. orange oil, which can be cheaply produced (4) The following is the methodology: as a by-product of the citrus juice industry.A lmost with- The next largest volume is of cedar oil, a • Hydro distillation (also known as out excep- by-product of the forestry industry. World- water distillation) is a process in tion, lav- which water and plant material are wide, most essential oils (including mostender farmers in aromatherapy oils) are distilled from tropi- boiled together in a tub. The resultthe U.S. are all in cal plants not widely grown in the U.S. is a “hydrosol,” rather than a purethe entertainment essential oil. Hydrosols are the basis Australia and New Zealand have developed for a variety of retail products.farming business. a lavender oil industry. Some of the smaller • Steam distillation uses dry steam operations there received initial govern- ment support. However, similar support for to vaporize and extract the oil. essential oils distillation does not exist in Steam distillation is used in large- the U.S. for small farmers. The Avoca Divi- scale production of essential oils sion of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. does pro- for commercial purposes. It is the duce some high quality aromatherapy oils. method of choice for leafy crops like lavender that have specific gravity However, Reynolds and other integrators of less than 1.0 (lighter than water). do not buy raw materials from independent Small-scale steam distillation can farmers, nor do they offer grower contracts. be accomplished with a pressure Rather, they produce the crops on their own cooker on top of a kitchen stove, but land to their own specifications, under the only a few drops of oil are produced supervision of their own farm manager. (2) per batch. The process is described in some detail in Marcel Lavabre’s Oil Extraction Options Aromatherapy Workbook. (5) Turn- There are four methods to derive essen- key operations have only recently tial oils from plants. The Department of become available.Page 4 ATTRA Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms
  5. 5. • Solvent extraction uses organic Pescadero, California (www.fl oragenics. solvents to extract both essential com), offers several sizes, including the oils and oleoresins, which are then large 50-gallon still. This is a turn-key separated. (Oleoresins complete the system with all necessary parts, hoses, flavor profi le of food-grade essential and fittings. A description of a commer- oils.) Use of many of the organic sol- cial distillation process carried out at The vents would not be compatible with Essential Oil Company facility at Warm “certified organic” labeling. Springs, Oregon (illustrated with 41 pho- • Supercritical extraction uses tographs showing procedures and equip- carbon dioxide under extremely ment), has been published by Robert high pressure to extract both essen- Seidel. (6) The Warm Springs facility is a Native American tribal enterprise. tial oils and oleoresins. Essential oil produced as a by-product of the While conditions in lavender marketing citrus industry requires a four- in the U.S. have changed somewhat in story fractionating tower. Oleores- the past five years, Ben Alkire’s assess- ins separated out at the beginning ment (7) should still be heeded. As with of the process are added back at other niche markets, there is always the the end. Citrus oils claim by far danger of a sudden decline due to too the biggest share of the essential many new producers. For a 64-page risk/ oils market. benefit assessment of growing herb cropsTo produce essential oils or hydrosols, for essential oils in Montana, see Marketplants typically are steamed. As the steam Opportunities and Strategic Directions forpasses up through the plant material— Specialty Herbs and Essential Oil Crops inbark, stems, roots, or fresh or dried flow- Montana (www.ams.usda.gov/TMD/FSMIP/ FY2000/MT0294.pdf).ers (as in the case of lavender)—it carriesboth the oil and other plant essences intoa receiving container. As the distillatecools, essential oil fl oats to the top and Table-top units cannot achieve and maintain the temperatures necesary to extract a highis siphoned away. The liquid left behind percentage of essential oils.is hydrosol.As noted above, commercial-scale pro-duction of lavender essential oils relies onsteam distillation. (A modest steam dis-tillation unit that would fit inside a barncosts $8,000 to $11,000.) Table-top unitsthat sell for $2,000 to $2,500 over theInternet will usually produce only hydro-sols; they cannot achieve and maintain thetemperatures necessary to extract a highpercentage of essential oils. Some small-scale herbalists use hydrosols, however, inmaking soaps, body lotions, and salves.Production of essential oils in the U.S.—except for orange and cedar oils derivedfrom industry by-products—has tendedto be more of a hobby or farm incomesupplement than a full-time business.However, since 2002 a new sourceof distillation equipment has become avail-able. Floragenics Distillation Systems, www.happyvalleylavender.comwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 5
  6. 6. An Essential Oils Consultant’s Thoughts on The different cultivars of lavender dif- Growing Plants for Oils fer slightly in specifi c gravity (s.g.) and have distinct chemical profi les. Since lav- After working at Purdue University with ender oils are lighter than water (s.g. of James E. Simon, PhD, for ten years on essen- less than 1.0), they rise to the top. The tial oils projects, Ben Alkire (7) launched his lower the s.g., the more easily the oil is consulting firm, Benzalco, in 1999. In 2000 volatized. More information on distilla- Alkire re-assessed the decades-long effort to tion parameters may be found in E. Guen- develop a broad-based domestic essential oils ther, 1948-52, The Essential Oils, 4 vols.; industry. Alkire specializes in design and sale Brian Lawrence, 1976–78, The Essen- of products for distillation/handling of aro- matic herbs and spices in the bulk oils market. tial Oils, 3 vols.; the Journal of Essential Like most of his colleagues, he now consults Oils; and the Journal of Agricultural Food with firms in Asia and Africa. He directs his Chemistry; also see Seidel. (6) Chemi- comments to small landowners and farmers cal profi le affects the olefactory proper- attracted to the “lifestyle” of distilling essen- ties of an essential oil—hence the quality. tial oils. Alkire writes: A lavender oil high in camphor is much • Chances are pretty slim for profits and less desirable as a fragrance than one low a living wage generated through a in the camphor constituent. See Table 1 small-farm essential oil operation. for the s.g. and chemical profile of • So many diverse tasks and skills are L. angustifolia compared with L. x inter- needed for herb cultivation, distilling, media (lavandin). marketing, and business management that it is not suited to be a one-per- Lavender and Agri-Tourism son operation. Large families, granges, Amish communities, and other such A cluster of farms in Gillespie and Blanco networks, however, have considerable counties north of San Antonio has raised advantages. lavender since the late 1990s. An annual festival features the Lavender Tour and a • Why buy a cow when milk is so cheap? Why not just purchase inexpensive lavender lunch among the attractions that commercial oils and use those for stimulate regional tourism. A variety of value-added products? products and services are offered, includ- ing a bed-and-breakfast. Although no dis- • Sales of value-added products— hand-made soaps, lotions, perfumes, tillery has yet been built, the group hosted incense, massage oils, potpourri, can- a well-attended Lavender Conference in dies, beverages, and other items— March 2005. (9) ”stretch” the value of essential oils. • Existing direct marketing channels, especially in “tourist” areas, can facilitate development of farm-for- mulated fragrance and flavoring products into a seasonal supplemen- tary farm income. • Vineyards and commercial mushroom growers can utilize existing equip- ment (such as boilers) and technical expertise to combine their operations with an essential oils distillery. • Sell tickets to watch the process; sell the product at a loss. Make your profit on the tickets, pop machine, gifts, and food service. (8) www.happyvalleylavender.comPage 6 ATTRA Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms
  7. 7. Lavender Creek Farm Mackinaw, Illinois http://lavendercreek.store.yahoo.com/ Lavender Creek, one of the only commercial lavender farms in the Midwest, was begun in 1999 by Ruth and Tom Hertzfeldt on eight acres, surrounded on three sides by corn and soybean fields. The farm is located near Mackinaw, Illinois, on Route 9. The Hertzfeldts have expanded their plantings from 1,500 in 2001 to “thousands” in 2003—mostly new French hybrids. A third field was planted in April 2003, and was eight inches tall by July. Marketing ideas from Texas Hill Country The Hertzfeldts completed their retail sales facility, the New Country Barn, in July 2003 to accom- Lavender Farms modate an expanded lavender product line. At the Third Lavender Harvest Festival in June, Miss Illinois 2003 was on hand to crown the first “Miss Mac-ka-fest.” Miss America has also visited the farm, and more celebrities are expected. Tours (annual Lavender Trail) Visitors enjoy gathering bouquets of “wands” (spikes of blooming lavender gathered for drying) from the fields. The farm entrance and the grounds are landscaped with mounds of Grosso lav- Festival ender. (See farm logo photo at http://lavendercreek.store.yahoo.com) The Hertzfeldts grow test Bed & Breakfast plots of various kinds of English lavender and “herb-de-provence” (lavandin). Cut-your-own bundle on In 2000 the Hertzfeldts attended the first North American Lavender Conference in Sequim, Saturdays Washington, where they met Mike Reichner of Purple Haze Lavender Farm and many other U.S. growers. Since then Ruth has been learning as much as possible from Reichner and others about Live plants, plugs lavender production and marketing. It is very important to network and gain experience with Farmers’ market the plants. bouquets Lavender Creek has a flair for marketing its wide selection of fragrance products. Ruth takes lav- Pillows, room ender products to 20 fairs a year. They also do business on-line and by mail order, and promote fresheners, car sachets Lavender Creek Farm through national advertising. The Hertzfeldts love hosting the public. Moth repellant In 2005 Lavender Creek Farm began serving luncheons (for six or more) and featuring garden walks Wednesday through Friday. Organic scorpion deterrent The Hertzfeldts’ work with the town of Mackinaw (pop. 1,452) to develop local festivals and tour- ist attractions has paid off. Featured at the festivals they have started are lavender-spiced culi- Picnics in the lavender nary treats: lavender-flavored lemonade, iced tea, fudge, and barbequed beef. A mile down the field, annual lavender road is a start-up vineyard and winery, and several other Mackinaw County farms now promote luncheon tourism through farm visits. Aromatherapy The Lavender Creek Farm profile was developed from information gathered on a farm visit by Kather- workshops/seminars ine Adam in July 2001, through telephone interviews with Ruth Hertzfeldt, and from an article in the Potpourri (sold to business section of the Peoria Journal-Star, July 17, 2001. p. C-2. Updated by e-mail 7/03 and from the retailers) Web site 9/05. Wreaths, wands Candles, soaps, sachets, lip balm, lavender water National Organic Program Ruling Food products, Two rulings by the National Organic Program (NOP) in 2005 potentially affect lavender garnishes products. The NOP posted a memo to certifiers that any product meeting the Final Rule Organic body care may be certified, and if it meets the requirements for “100 percent organic” or “organic,” it products may use the USDA Organic seal. See www.ota.com/pp/usregulatory/606background.html. The memo reverses an initial decision to disallow organic certification for some categories of products derived from certified organic agricultural products, including personal care items. Another ruling makes it more difficult to use non-organic agricultural ingredients (such as small amounts of essential oils used for flavoring or fragrance) in otherwise organic products, even when organic counterparts are not available. (Source: OTA News Flash, Sept. 1, Sept. 9, 2005.)www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 7
  8. 8. A list of lavender farms in California winters. Sequim (pop. 4,400) is in the “rain Communities Farms shadow” of the Olympic Mountains—pro- tected by the mountains from rain sweep- San Diego Vista Rusty Acres ing in from both east and west. Its annual Santa Clairmont Farms mid-July Celebrate Lavender Festival draws Barbara thousands of visitors to view the purple haze Santa Ynez Rona Barrett Lilly Bee of harvest-ready lavender fields. Sequim Lavender Lavender also has a thriving bedding plants industry Ojai Rivendell Ojai Lavender Aromatics and sponsors an herb festival each May. In fact, Sequim is a growing tourist and retire- Willows Eatwell Farms ment center, with festivals scheduled for Napa Napa Valley Harms almost every month in the year. Lavender Vineyards Sonoma Sonoma Sonoma The lavender farms around Sequim provide Lavender Lavender Barn a significant boost to the local economy and Lavender are an established part of the local tour- Meadows ist industry, promoted by both local and Santa Rosa Matanzas Creek Winery state governments. The 2000 Festival was Products from Hollister Fox Hollow Farm held in connection with a national confer- Olympic Peninsula Bonny Doon Bonny Doon Lavender ence on lavender, and 2003 marked the Lavender Farms Morro Bay Lavender Cherry Creek Seventh Annual Festival. Tours of lavender Lavender splashes Central Herbs farms and a Lavender Street Faire show- Cash Creek Cash Creek Lavender case lavender products and services from Iron water Rescue A Friend of the Earth Lavender the Sequim-Dungeness Valley, as well as Bath soak Whitmore Tuscan Heights regional garden products and natural crafts. Dried bundles Sierra Nevada Mountain Lavender Co. Other attractions include an open air mar- ket, lavender crafting demonstrations, food, Corral de Tierra Purple Pastures Lavender Shower & bath gel aromatherapy, dance, music, clowns, and Mt. Aukum South River Lavender Body lotion face painting. (For contact information, Cayukos Whalerock Lavender Farms see Lavender Farms on the Web.) For the Sachets Many of the new California lavender farms do not have their publication Entertainment Farming and own Web sites, and most belong to distillery grower groups. Lavender honey List was supplied by Susan Ditz. (10) Agri-Tourism, please contact ATTRA. Lavender dijon The 2005 event (third week of July) was mustard billed as a “Festival Conference,” sponsored California Lavender Farms by Washington State University Extension, California boasts 63 lavender farms, and Clallam Sequim Lavender Growers Associa- 2004 saw the fi rst regional festival in Ojai. tion, and the 9th Annual Sequim Lavender The Ojai Lavender Festival had its own Web Festival committee (www.lavenderfestival. site for the June 5, 2005, festival. At least com/special-events/seminar.html). The edu- two distilleries are in operation produc- cational dimension featured seven speak- ing lavender oil from networks of growers. ers/presenters. Lavender tourism in northern, central, and Olympic Lavender Farm, near Sequim, man- southern coastal California has blossomed. ufactures a number of fragrance products from its 1,200 lavender plants on five acres. Dungeness Valley Lavender This farm also hosts a U-pick operation dur- Tourism ing the Celebrate Lavender Festival. Sequim (pronounced skwim) in Washing- Participants in the farm tour can view a ton’s Dungeness Valley has been proclaimed demonstration of lavender oil distillation. the “lavender capital” of the U.S. Sequim Olympic also sells lavender in bulk to local has a favorable geographic location for lav- cottage industries and provides custom dis- ender, with warm summers and cool, dry tillation. Olympic sells its line of lavenderPage 8 ATTRA Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms
  9. 9. products on-line through its Web site (see potpourris, aromatic waters, candles, ink,list of farms, below). A recent communica- homemade paper, etc. Once made, scentedtion from the farm confi rmed that the pri- oils must be used quickly or stored in amary purpose of its distillation operation tightly sealed bottle. Making perfumes atis entertainment. home requires a recipe, additional un-dena- tured ethyl alcohol, and an appropriate fixa-Purple Haze Lavender Farm offers lunch on tive (such as storax oil, sandalwood oil, orthe lawn, lavender margaritas, and lavender orris root). More information on these meth-ice cream during the festival. Other attrac- ods and products, some of which may have Other U.S.tions include aromatherapy classes, mas- potential as value-added farm enterprises, Lavender Productssages by the pond, crafting classes, pho- is provided in Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclope- Soapstographers to take your portrait in the field, dia of Herbs. Additional recipes and formu-espresso, music, and a demonstration on las are found in Growing 101 Herbs That Heal Lotions, miststhe latest in organic composting techniques. (see Further Reading below). ShampooThis farm has five acres of lavender fields.(See list of farms for Web address.) Conditioner Requirements for Success in TeasSequim Valley Ranch is in the plant busi-ness, advertising itself as the “prime provider Lavender Production Sconesof beautiful two-gallon field-grown lavender Successful lavender producers typically Cookiesplants and plug trays, as well as two-inch, invest considerable time (at least a year) justfour-inch and one-gallon lavender plants for doing research, traveling to conferences, Biscuitsthe nursery market.” This 700-acre ranch and talking with established farmers before Brownieshas almost 20 acres planted in lavender. setting up operations. Many travel to FrancePlants are started in three large greenhouses. to view fi rst-hand the lavender industry in CandlesDemonstrations, food, and entertainment are Provence. The pioneers in the U.S. indus- Bath blendsoffered during the festival. try have had other assets such as familiar- Wreaths ity with essential oils production, consult- ing experience, extensive marketing and ArrangementsDirect Marketing engineering experience, a university con- VinegarsOccasionally, lavender products are sold at nection, and ready access to capital. Whilefarmers’ markets. For example, dried laven- there is no national lavender growers associ- Jelliesder wands, sachets, and other lavender prod- ation and no comprehensive list of lavender Wandsucts are offered for sale by the McGowans farms, interest continues to grow. Curtis Body scentsand the Morrills at the Fayetteville Farm- Beus, PhD, of Washington State Universityers’ Market, Fayetteville, Arkansas. (How- Cooperative Extension (11) writes:ever, it’s a small niche. A recent study by the Most U.S. lavender producers must developKerr Center, Poteau, Oklahoma, found that their own products and markets, or partneronly 35 percent of farmers’ market patrons with someone who will. There is no estab-would consider purchasing “dried herbs.”) lished U.S. market or market infrastructureMethods for direct marketing of horticultural for lavender. Value-added products are oftenproducts are discussed in the ATTRA pub- key to marketing.lications Direct Marketing and Farmers’ Mar-kets. For more information about producingpotted lavender plants (also direct marketed),see the ATTRA publications SustainableSmall-Scale Nursery Production and Plug andTransplant Production for Organic Systems.For those interested in a cottage fragranceindustry, there is an older method of small-batch production called enfleurage. Fats,oils, or alcohol are used to extract the plantessence, for scenting soaps, bath oil, lotions, www.happyvalleylavender.comwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 9
  10. 10. Lavender Farms on the Web Arkansas Owl Creek Lavender Farm www.owlcreeklavender.com Stout Mountain Lavender www.stoutmountainlavender.com California Green Acres Lavender Farm www.greenacreslavenderfarm.com Rancho Alegre www.ranchoalegre-lavender.com Operates distillery. Santa Ynez Lavender www.santaynezlavender.com Operates distillery. Ornbaun-Gibson Ranch www.ornbaunlavender.com Whalerock Lavender Farm www.whalerockcastle.com The Lavender Fields® www.thelavenderfields.com Idaho Valley View Lavender Farm al@valleyviewlavender.com Illinois Lavender Creek Farm www.lavendercreekfarm.com Massachusetts Cape Cod Lavender Farm www.capecodlavenderfarm.com Lavender & Herb Growers of Franklin Co., MA www.lavenderland.com Michigan Leelanau Lavender Breezes www.leelanaulavender.com Montana Rocky Mountain Lavender www.rattlesnakecreekvineyard.com/rocky_mountain_lavender Ontario, Canada Stoney Hollow Herbal Treasures www.stoneyhollowherbaltreasures.com Oregon Shooting Star Lavender www.shootingstarlavender.com Victoria’s Lavender Gardens www.victoriaslavendergardens.com Pennsylvania Lavender Green® www.lavendergreen.com Tennessee Scott County Lavender www.scottcountylavender.com Texas Hill Country Lavender www.hillcountrylavender.com Becker Vineyards Lavender www.beckervineyards.com Virginia Norfolk Lavender www.norfolklavender.com Washington Angel Farm www.sequimlavenderfarm.com Cedarbrook Herb Farm www.cedarbrookherbfarm.com Hood River Lavender www.lavenderfarms.net Jardin du Soleil Lavender www.jardindusoleil.com Lavender Fields Farm www.lavenderfields.com Olympic Lavender Farm www.olympiclavender.com Purple Haze www.purplehazelavender.com Sequim Valley Ranch www.lavenderfestival.com/index.html Willow Farm www.lavenderfarms.com/willow Other Lavender Farms Mountain Crest Gardens, Etna, CA E-mail: mc-garden-gifts@mc-garden-gifts.com Large-scale propagation of lavender plants by contract only.Page 10 ATTRA Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms
  11. 11. References 10. Susan Ditz. 2005. E-mail to Katherine Adam. April 15. 2 p.1. Eisenberg, D.M., R.B. Davis, S.L. Ettner, S. Appel, S. Wilkey, M. Van Rompay, and R.C. 11. Curtis Beus Kessler. 1998. Trends in alternative medicine WSU Cooperative Extension use in the United States, 1990–1997: Results Small Farms Program of a follow-up national survey. Journal of the www.smallfarms.wsu.edu/crops/lavender.html American Medical Association. Vol. 280, Propagation, soils, spacing between rows, price No. 18. November 11. p. 784-787. Cited in of plants, establishment, irrigation, fertilization, Shoshana Zuboff and James Maxmin. 2002. weed control, pests and diseases, cultivars, flower The Support Economy. Viking Press, New yields (Grosso), oil production (Angustifolia and York. p. 5. lavandin), harvesting/pruning, marketing, prod- ucts, prices, local sources for plants.2. Adam, Katherine. 2000. NCAT Trip Report: 15th Annual Conference of the International Herb Association, Saskatoon, Sask. Additional Links Brian M. Lawrence described Avoca opera- Australian lavender industry tions in some detail in the course of giving the www.lavenderaustralia.com/ Richter Memorial Lecture, “Which Essential Lavender listserve Oil Crops Have Potential in North Carolina?” Lavandula@yahoogroups.com Of particular interest was the economic calcu- lation in choosing to produce a raw material, New Zealand Lavender Growers Association rather than purchasing it. www.lavender.org.nz3. Foster, Steven. 1992. Herbal Renaissance. Soap Maker’s Links (Magnolia Hill Soap) [Rev. edition of Herbal Bounty, 1984.] Gibbs- www.magnoliahillsoap.com/links.htm Smith, Salt Lake City, UT. p. 113–116. Sequim annual Celebrate Lavender Festival4. Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Devel- www.lavenderfestival.com opment. 1998. Essential oils industry. 15 p. Curtis Beus, Washington State University Coop. Ext. www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/ Lavender Production and Marketing. all/agdex164/$file/188_830-1.pdf?OpenElement www.smallfarms.wsu.edu/crops/lavender.html5. Lavabre, Marcel. 1990. Aromatherapy Work- Fifty States of Lavandula book. Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT. p. Online list of lavender farms in all states (except AK, NV, RI, SD, 16–37. WI, so far) being compiled by Susan L. Harrington.6. Seidel, Robert. 1998. Steam distillation of Lavender@LabyrinthHill.com herbs. p. 3-15. In: Berzins, Snell, and Richter Doug Green, 26p. e-book, $6.95 (ed.). Transcripts: Richters Third Commercial www.simplegiftsfarm.com/growinglavender.html Herb Growing Conference, October 24, 1998. Richters, Goodwood, Ontario, Canada. Horizon Herbs www.chatlink.com/~herbseed/7. Ben H. Alkire West Lafayette, IN Richters Herb alkire@benzalco.com www.richters.com Resume: www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/people/ Q&A has large amount of material on lavender. BensResume.html Lavender By Rona Barrett8. Abstracted from: Alkire, Ben. 2000. Re: www.lavenderbyrona.com Growing plants for oils. E-mail. July 25. 4p. North Carolina State University Horticultural Science9. Lehmann, Tracy Hobson. 2002. Hill Coun- www.ces.ncsu.edu/fletcher/staff/jmdavis try growers open their fields to the public. San This Web site produced by a doctoral student in North Antonio Express-News. [archive] June 15. p. Carolina offers an excellent overview of lavender, 1E ff. 4 p. including its history.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 11
  12. 12. Purple Haze Lavender Farm McNaughton, Virginia. 2000. Lavender: The Grower’sMike Reichner Guide. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 180 p.180 Bell Bottom Road Sturdivant, Lee, and Tim Blakley. 1999. MedicinalSequim, WA 98382 Herbs in Garden, Field, and Marketplace. San Juan888-852-6560 (orders) Naturals, Friday Harbor, WA. p. 210–211.360-582-3088 (office) Tucker, A.O., and Thomas DeBaggio. 2000. The BigSue Mattie Book of Herbs. Interweave Press, Loveland, CO. p.Stoney Hollow Herbal Treasures 314–338.Ontario, CanadaStoneyhollow1@sympatico.ca Tucker, A.O., and K.J.W. Hensen. 1985. The cultivarswww.stoneyhollowherbaltreasures.com of lavender and lavandin (Labiatae). Baileya. Vol. 22, A Canadian grower offers an electronic copy of her article No. 4. p. 168–77. “Locally Grown Organic Lavender with the Essence of Tucker, A.O. 1985. Lavender, spike, and lavandin. Provence” to anyone contacting her through the Web site. The Herbarist. No. 51. p. 44–50. Tucker, A.O., and T. DeBaggio. 1984. ‘Irene Doyle’Further Reading lavender. HortScience. Vol. 19, No. 4. p. 595.Calvo, Maria Carmen, and J. Segura. 1989. In vitropropagation of lavender [Lavandula latifolia]. Hort- Tucker, A.O., and B.M. Lawrence. 1987. BotanicalScience. Vol. 24, No. 2. p. 375-376. nomenclature of commercial sources of essential oils, concretes, and absolutes. p. 183–220. In: L.E. CrakerCharles, Denys J., and James E. Simon. 1989. Essen-tial oils as natural products and large and small scale and J.E. Simon (ed.). Herbs, Spices and Medicinalextraction methods. p. 109–112. In: Simon, Kestner, Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture andand Buehrle. Herbs ‘89 Proceedings, International Pharmacology. Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ.Herb Growers and Marketers Association. Purdue Verlet, N. 1988. History, production and marketingResearch Foundation, West Lafayette, IN. p. 109-112. of lavender in France. p. 146–54. In: J.E. Simon andClute, Mitchell. 2002. Sourcing real oils for aroma- L.Z. Clavio (ed.). Proceedings: Third National Herbtherapy. New Hope Natural Media. 3 p. Growing Conference. Purdue Research Foundation,http://exchange.healthwell.com West Lafayette, IN.DeBaggio, T. 1989. Hardy lavenders. The Herb Com-panion. April–May. p. 10-15.Foster, Steven. 1992. Herbal Renaissance [rev. editionof Herbal Bounty, 1983]. Gibbs-Smith Publishers, SaltLake City, UT. p. 113-116.Hartung, Tammi. 2000. Growing 101 Herbs ThatHeal. Storey Books, Pownal, VT. 250 p. Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment FarmsKowalchik, Claire, and William H. Hylton (ed.). 1987 By Katherine L. AdamRodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Rodale NCAT Agriculture SpecialistPress, Emmaus, PA. p. 460-467. © 2006 NCAT This book is best found through your local or university Paul Driscoll, Editor library’s interlibrary loan system. Tiffany Nitschke, ProductionLavabre, Marcel. 1990. Aromatherapy Workbook. This publication is available on the Web at:Healing Arts Publishing, Burlington, VT. 164 p. www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/lavender.html orLawrence, Brian M. 1993. A planning scheme to eval- www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/lavender.pdfuate new aromatic plants for the flavor and fragrance IP243industries. p. 620–627. In: Janick and Simon (ed.). Slot 68Second National Symposium on New Crops. John Version 091506Wiley & Sons, New York.Page 12 ATTRA

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