Landscaping and Horticulture for Lauren Schwartz’s Memorial Greenhouse

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Landscaping and Horticulture for Lauren Schwartz’s Memorial Greenhouse

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  • 1. Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture forLauren Schwartz’s Memorial Greenhouse: Semester Report Mike Aronov Ini Li Kevin Luke Eugene Yao Jason Eckstein Team Leader: Ini Li Team Advisor: Emily Persson Submission Date: December 11, 2006
  • 2. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Table of ContentsSECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................... 3SECTION 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION................................................................................... 4DESCRIPTION OF GATEWAY COURSE AND SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAM .............................. 4DESCRIPTION OF TEAM’S ORGANIZATION ................................................................................... 4DESCRIPTION OF COMMUNITY PARTNER ..................................................................................... 5DESCRIPTION OF PRESENTED PROBLEM ...................................................................................... 6FORMAL PROBLEM STATEMENT ................................................................................................... 7NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION OF FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND CONSTRAINTS.................... 8DESCRIPTION OF EVOLUTION OF DESIGN .................................................................................... 9DEFINING THE PROBLEM.................................................................................................................. 9FORMULATING SOLUTIONS .............................................................................................................. 9DEVELOPING MODELS/PROTOTYPES ............................................................................................. 10IMPLEMENTING, TESTING, MODIFYING, AND PRESENTING THE FINAL DESIGN ............................ 10SECTION 3: TRANSITION PLAN AND PROJECT DOCUMENTATION........................ 12CONNECTION TO PRIOR WORK AND EXPANSION OF SOLUTION ............................................... 12DOCUMENTATION FOR DUPLICATION OF PROCESS ................................................................... 12DOCUMENTATION FOR USE AND MAINTENANCE OF SOLUTION ............................................... 13PICTURES, DIAGRAMS, TECHNICAL DRAWINGS, ETC… ................................................................ 14SECTION 4: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................. 15SECTION 5: APPENDICES....................................................................................................... 16APPENDIX A: PRODUCT DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS ..................................................................... 16APPENDIX B: GANTT CHART ....................................................................................................... 20APPENDIX C: TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS (MAYA)................................................................. 21APPENDIX DA: BUDGET INFORMATION AND LIST OF MATERIALS ........................................... 23APPENDIX DB: ALPHABETIZED LIST OF ALL PLANTS ............................................................... 25APPENDIX DC: PLANT DESCRIPTIONS FOR HIGHLY RECOMMENDED PLANTS ....................... 26APPENDIX DD: NOTES ON OTHER PLANTS ................................................................................. 30APPENDIX E: PHOTOGRAPHS ILLUSTRATING THE TEAM EXPERIENCE ................................... 35APPENDIX FA: IDEAS FOR HORTICULTURE ACTIVITIES FOR STUDENTS ................................. 36APPENDIX FB: PLANTING DETAILS FOR SOME VEGETABLES ................................................... 39APPENDIX FC: DETAILS FOR STARTING AN AVACADO TREE .................................................... 40APPENDIX FD: GUIDELINES FOR CARE OF PLANTS ................................................................... 42APPENDIX FG: SEASONAL ACTIVITIES ....................................................................................... 53APPENDIX G: REFERENCES CONSULTED FOR PROJECT............................................................ 54APPENDIX H: COPY OF POWERPOINT SLIDES............................................................................ 55 -2-
  • 3. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Section 1: Executive SummaryAs students in the Fu Foundation of Engineering and Applied Science at ColumbiaUniversity, we participate in service learning projects through the Gateway Lab course.Our team worked among seven other teams all devoted to different aspects of designing agreenhouse for the community partner PS79M, a public school for physically andmentally handicapped students in Harlem. The parents of Lauren Schwartz, a formerstudent of PS79M, have provided funding to build the greenhouse that will commemoratetheir daughter and provide the students of the school with the same opportunities thatLauren enjoyed during her life. Unlike most of the other students at the school, Laurenhad regular therapy, both at the Rusk institute and at her own home; however, themajority of the parents of the PS79M students neither have the time nor the money toprovide this for their children. In school, therapy is only available twice a week, which isadequate but nowhere near ideal. Our task, therefore, is to improve the students’ qualityof life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy and buildsprevocational skills that will be invaluable to the students upon graduation. Our groupprovides in this report computer models of plants, cost estimates, activities lists, andpurchasing schedules. We have collaborated with the school’s therapists, the parents ofLauren Schwartz, members of the Rusk Institute, and the other teams to produce acomprehensive list of plants and activities that meets the physical, therapeutic, andeducational needs of every student and is easy to implement and maintain for the school.The greenhouse must be an active and usable educational and therapeutic environment,so we chose potted plants, which are robust in their ability to survive and the variety ofactivities that they provide. One main aspect of the design is our use of pots rather thanplant beds to allow students to bring the plant of their choice to a central table to work onactivities in groups ranging from transplanting and pruning to drying leaves. That way,the greenhouse can also foster a social environment. The main varieties of potted plantswe have recommended are common houseplants and flowers that have attractive andvaried foliage, have health benefits such as filtering the air, and have the ability to thriveunder the care of the children and provide rewarding gardening experiences which aretherapeutic in their own right. Such plants include Begonias, Dracaenas, ChineseEvergreens, Norfolk Island pines, and Snapdragons. We will also provide a potted herbgarden with some vegetables for more varies activities involving sensory stimulation thatcater to students with more limited abilities to physically handle plants. For the aestheticsof the greenhouse, we recommend the use of hanging plants, which can also be used forhydroponic growth activities for students who cannot work with soil. Ficus trees can beplaced in large pots on ground level to provide natural barriers to different areas of thegreenhouse. Such trees are easy to maintain and can be moved when necessary. Thisdesign is extremely realistic and can meet the needs of the students and the school whileproviding a model from which other schools attempting similar projects can draw. -3-
  • 4. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Section 2: Project DescriptionDescription of Gateway Course and Service-Learning ProgramThe Gateway Lab course was created by Professor McGourty to teach first year studentsthe value of being an engineer, while providing members of the community with servicesthat they would otherwise be unable to afford. Before the creation of this course,engineering students had to wait until their junior or senior years to receive real designexperience characteristic of the engineering profession. Gateway not only provideslessons on engineering, the design process, Maya, and MALAB, but also providesstudents with a real project to work on. Each semester, a new set of students tackle thecommunity project that is given to them. Sometimes, they are handed a partiallycompleted project or a completely new project. The projects are always aimed at helpingcommunity partners of Columbia University and, as a result, the students receivefeedback and must work hard to meet the needs of the clients. The course provides arealistic experience because the clients really rely on the work of the students and thefinal design must meet the client’s needs well. The Gateway Lab class section 3 in thefall of 2006 was given a project started over the summer. This class was given the task ofcompleting a therapeutic greenhouse for the school PS79M. The Gateway course hasprovided these students with design lessons and the necessary background knowledge tocomplete the task for the client.Description of Team’s OrganizationThe class was broken down into teams that covered separate parts of the greenhouse.Certain major tasks for the greenhouse were given to more than one team. For example,the Interior Design team has their own license to provide a design, but they must maketheir own design fit with the water irrigation team’s. Our team was assigned the task ofcomplete the design for the Interior and Exterior Landscaping, and Horticulture.Once our group was assigned, we divided the team roles. Ini volunteered for the role ofprimary facilitator. She understands the time, effort, and commitment it takes for this roleand has agreed to provide it. She sends e-mails after every meeting to remind the groupof the objectives and what needs to be prepared for meetings, in addition to setting thedeadlines for work to be submitted to her for revision. She has set doable standards, andmakes sure every team member does his or her job, and she has been a key personensuring that all the work our team submits is revised and complete.Eugene has agreed to take on the role of secondary facilitator. His previous experiencesin leadership provide him the skills to help Ini keep the group focused on the task at hand.He understands that his job is to help Ini with her responsibilities, keep the group focusedat meetings, and help set the agenda for meetings. -4-
  • 5. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Kevin was chosen as conflict manager because of his natural tendency to listen and thinkcarefully before acting. The team felt that these skills were essential to a conflict managerbecause in the event of conflict, rash action can exacerbate rather than ameliorate thesituation. However, by listening carefully, a conflict manager can discover the true rootof the conflict, and then act carefully to eliminate the foundation of the conflict, ratherthan merely cover up a conflict.Mike agreed to take on the role of being the group’s process observer. His role is to sitback at times and watch how each individual interacts with each other. Since he has toobserve the member’s interactions, he also acts as the group scribe. By jotting down whateach individual says, he can also focus on his or her behavior. In addition to watchingindividuals, he also has to watch the group as a whole to make sure all members stayprofessional and efficient.Jason volunteered for the position of time keeper. He plans on making sure the groupdoes not stay in meetings for longer than an hour and thirty minutes. The group has setthis amount of time as a limit because the group has decided that passed that time we willno longer be efficient. If our time working with the group in one sitting exceeds this, eachindividual’s willingness to stay on task will be greatly decreased, and it will be moredifficult for the group as a whole to work together efficiently and cooperatively. TheTime Keeper will work with the Secondary Facilitator, in addition to the ProcessObserver, to keep the group on task and to make sure the group is using the timeefficiently.Description of Community PartnerPS 79 is a separate public facility for students with mental and physical disabilities. Theyprovide all the therapy they can afford to give. The students here are watched during theday and taught certain basic skills. The school continues to teach the children until theyare 21 years of age. According to the assistant principal of the school, the students aresplit up into two types of disabilities: those who can function normally physically, but aredisabled cognitively, and those who have severe physical impairments that require theuse of a wheelchair.After their daughter passed way, the parents of Lauren Schwartz proposed the idea tobuild the greenhouse. Lauren Schwartz attended daily physical therapy at the RuskInstitute. Her parents saw firsthand the positive influences horticulture therapy had onhandicapped children. The Rusk Institute, part of New York University, is “the largestuniversity-affiliated center devoted entirely to inpatient/outpatient care, research andtraining in rehabilitative medicine.” The therapists there use horticulture as part of theirphysical therapy. After Lauren passed away, her parents wished to create a memorial forher in the form of a greenhouse. They wished for the students at Lauren’s school tobenefit from horticulture therapy as she did. -5-
  • 6. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006There was a team who worked on our project in the summer although they wereresponsible for interior design as well which has been delegated to a separate team thisterm. These students were high school students who attended a shortened version of theGateway Lab course. They completed preliminary research and had just moved on toproduct design. They provided recommendations that were based primarily on thetherapeutic nature of plants but not on the functional needs of the greenhouse. They alsodid not provide written explanations for how they arrived at their conclusions or why theychose the particular plants they did. As a result, many of the recommendations in theirreport are not plausible to implement or easy to understand.Description of Presented ProblemOur preliminary understanding of the problem stemmed from research we conducted inpreparation for speaking to the school and parents of Lauren Schwartz. Around the end ofthe 18th century, therapeutic horticulture treatment was started. Dr. Benjamin Rush,professor at the Institute of Medicine and Clinical Practice in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,announced in 1798 that field labor on a farm helped people with mental illnesses. Fromthere on, various forms of horticulture sprang up. No major strides were made inhorticulture therapy as a treatment until 1879; Friends Hospital installed the firstgreenhouse solely for therapeutic purposes. However, the biggest growth of interest andresearch began during WWII when injured soldiers were given horticulture treatment.Since horticulture therapy can improve the quality of the life for the students at PS 79M,it is important to understand its benefits and how it works. Unfortunately there is nodefinite answer as to why horticulture therapy works. There is the theory that it soothesstudents in a relaxing environment because any environment surrounded by plants isguaranteed to be less stimulating than our modern environment. In other words, standingin the middle of a park causes far less visual and auditory stress than standing in themiddle of the city. Another theory is that since we evolved with plants we have anunlearned habit of relieving the stress in our body around them. In any case, either theory(although there are many more than just 2, the point is the same) allows for any kind ofplant to be used in horticulture therapy.In light of this brief information to horticulture therapy, we can understand better how thegreenhouse should function. The students of PS 79 are mentally and physicallyhandicapped. The amount of stress this places on the student is unimaginable. We hope,based on research that students who work with the plants will have less stress. In orderfor the greenhouse to be effective, outside distractions will need to be minimized. Sounds,smells, even sight needs to be shut out. The greenhouse should act as a shelter for peace.The plants selected will give the students the feeling that they have accomplishedsomething and at the same time give their minds a peaceful activity on which to dwell.After the first community partner meeting, we gained a clearer understanding of ourclient’s problem and began formulating possible solutions. We found that the basicpurpose of the greenhouse is to provide a therapeutic space, which the students wouldenter during a particular class period. The students, however, should be active -6-
  • 7. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006participants in the operation of the greenhouse, which means that the plants must be ableto be cultivated by the students. Our understanding of the problem had changed from thesummer team idea of focusing primarily on plants that would provide sensory therapy toa focus on usable and durable plants. Due to the nature of the disabilities of the students,however, the plants and therapeutic activities need have to be varied. According to theassistant principal of the school, the students are split up into two types of disabilities:those who can function normally physically, but are disabled cognitively, and those whohave severe physical impairments that require the use of a wheelchair. One of the largestproblems that would arise from this stark contrast of disabilities is need to cater to all ofthe different kinds of students in one class period without alienating some of them.Though one student could, for instance, maintain a more complex and fragile plant,another student could only be able to handle a very sturdy and robust plant. For the morephysically advanced student, dealing with more robust plants could be rather dull orunchallenging. It would be difficult to challenge those with a larger range of motorabilities and to also allow those with impaired motor abilities to do the same or similaractivities. Another problem that our Horticulture team realized needed to be consideredafter the client meeting was the wide variety of allergies the students may have. Becauseof their physical condition, the students are more prone to such environmental factors,and having a certain type of plant in the greenhouse that they are allergic to could bedevastating to the condition of their health.We gained further insight into the problem by speaking to the Rusk institute to gaininsight into how they organize plants in their greenhouse and conducted activities. Welearned that the problem also involved building a social environment and prevocationalskills such as working in groups and following sets of instructions. Rusk solved thisproblem by keeping plants in pots that can be easily transported to central work areas.That way, students can pick the plants they want to handle and easily move them to anarea with other people. After speaking to the parents of Lauren Schwartz, we saw thatthey approved of our main design decisions. Taking into account these new areas of theproblem that involved having functional plants and a setup that allowed students to worktogether easily, we developed the final problem statement, which can be found below.Formal Problem StatementThe parents of Lauren Schwartz have provided funding for the school PS79M to build agreenhouse that will commemorate their daughter and provide the students of the schoolwith the same opportunities that she had. Lauren, unlike most of the other students at theschool, had regular therapy, both at the Rusk institute and at her own home; however, themajority of the parents of the PS79M students have neither the time nor the money toprovide this to their children. In school, therapy is only available twice a week, which isadequate but nowhere near ideal. Our task, therefore, is to improve the students’ qualityof life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy and buildsprevocational skills that will be invaluable to the students upon graduation. Theparticular problem our group must tackle is to choose which plants we want to place inthe greenhouse in order to address the wide range of specific disabilities of the students, -7-
  • 8. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006while providing a social, therapeutic, and educational environment.Our solution must provide a list of plants, which are easy to maintain by the students andfaculty. In addition, these plants must also be used in activities that bring students with awide range of physical and mental disabilities together in a social environment. Theseactivities can also be group-oriented. These activities must also develop prevocationalskills so the students can be more viable candidates for the job market upon graduation.Plants must therefore be robust enough to withstand daily handling by the students andgrow successfully to give the students a rewarding experience. We must also providesome plants that provide olfactory, tactile, and/or visual stimulation for students whohave limited to no ability to actively cultivate plants due to physical handicaps.Narrative Description of Functional Requirements and ConstraintsThe Product Design Specifications begins with establishing the needs that our designmust fulfill, including daily therapy; a social environment; and a place to developprevocational skills. Plants must not only be varied enough to allow participation fromstudents with vastly different physical and mental abilities, but the activities must alsobring those students together and cultivate teamwork as well as the ability to work ingroups. These needs provide a base criterion on which later requirements can be judged.Most of the PDS outlines the functional requirements of the plants and activities using thefollowing criteria: Functional Performance, Safety, Quality, Manufacturing, Timing,Economic, Ergonomic, Ecological, Aesthetic, and Life Cycle. The functionalperformance of the plants must include year-round therapeutic activity that may alsobuild gardening skills, which can be used by students upon graduation. The plants mustbe distributed to allow all students to participate in those activities and robust enough toprovide an easily maintainable population that survives in static room temperatureenvironment. Plants with varying life cycles such as blooming and planting cycles willprovide a dynamic year-round calendar of student activity. Since students haveunpredictable allergies that change from year to year, plants cannot be commonly allergicor poisonous. Even though there is no set cost limit to the project, in order to make thedesign easily maintainable for the school and accessible to others who may wish toduplicate the design, our choice of plants will be common, low maintenance, low cost,houseplants, which are visually attractive and meet the functional needs of the students.Large pots with Ficus trees on ground level can provide aesthetics that are easilymaintained and mobile.The last section of the PDS deals with Corporate Constraints. We know that the schoolwould like to start construction in the summer of 2007, so we need to provide a designwith plants that can be acquired in large quantities by then and fully grown. We feel thatbuilding a relationship with a supplier is very important for the PS79M, so we will makeseveral recommendations and suggest that one is chosen and used throughout the year.An alternative solution could be to use one supplier for each period of purchasing. Thissolution could be desirable if there is particular advantage to purchasing seasonal plants -8-
  • 9. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006from one supplier at a particular time. We must make sure that our design conforms toall ADA and public school requirements. We do not feel that any of our ideas warrantconsideration for a patent since one of the strengths of our design is the use ofconventional and realistic ideas based on the given the high level of development andsuccess in the world of greenhouses and horticulture therapy.Description of Evolution of DesignDefining the ProblemPS 79 is primarily for students of handicapped nature. They provide all the therapy theycan afford to give. The students here are watched during the day and taught some basicskills. The school takes the children up to when they are 21 of age. According to theassistant principal of the school, the students are split up into two types of disabilities:those who can function normally physically, but are disabled cognitively, and those whohave severe physical impairments that require the use of a wheelchair.The parents of Lauren Schwartz have decided to fund the building of a greenhouse for thestudents at PS79M. Their vision of the greenhouse is not only to commemorate theirdaughter, but also to provide the students of PS79M, the school she attended, with thesame opportunities that she had. Lauren, unlike most of the other students at the school,had regular therapy, both at the Rusk institute and at her own home. However, themajority of the parents of the PS79M students have neither the time nor the money toprovide this to their children. In school, therapy is only available twice a week, which isadequate but nowhere near ideal. The goal, therefore, is to improve the students’ qualityof life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy throughhorticulture and aesthetics. The particular problem our group must tackle is to choosewhich plants we want to place in the greenhouse in order to address the wide range ofspecific disabilities of the students, while providing a social and therapeutic environment.Horticulture offers a great way for the kids to receive the therapy they need. The students,however, are so varied in the types and severity of the disabilities they have, that one ofthe largest problems we must address is the need to cater to all of the different kinds ofstudents in an inclusive way. Another issue that our team considered was the widevariety of allergies the students may have. Because of their physical condition, thestudents are more prone to such environmental factors, and having a certain type of plantin the greenhouse that they are allergic to could be devastating to the condition of theirhealth. Our solution must actively address and attempt to solve these problems.Formulating SolutionsInitially, our team analyzed the work of the summer horticultural team. The summerteam’s solution was to maximize the therapeutic properties of each plant by groupingthem into the following therapy categories: visual, olfactory, tactile, and taste. In the -9-
  • 10. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006greenhouse, the summer team planned to group plants of the same therapeutic property inthe same area in order to create several sensory stimulation stations. These stationswould consist of plant beds, where students could work with the plants. Our teaminitially felt that the summer team had a very good plan, and our early efforts focused onexpanding this plan and working out the intricate details.However, our team began to doubt the effectiveness of the summer team’s plan when oneour team members, while researching disability therapy, discovered that disabled studentsreceived much more therapy from working together in a group than from actual sensorystimulation. Our doubts were verified when we met with therapists from The RuskInstitute of Rehabilitation Medicine. The therapists strongly emphasized the importanceof learning how to work in groups, since this would be an essential life lesson that thestudents would take with them after leaving the school. On the contrary, when our teammentioned purely aesthetic plants, the Rusk therapists felt that hardy plants that thestudents could directly work with would better replace such plants.These findings drastically changed our plans. Our team completely abandoned the ideaof therapeutic stations and plant beds. Instead, we decided a central work area would bethe most functional plan. With a central workstation, several students would be groupedtogether. Since they would not always be able to directly ask a teacher or aid across thetable, students would be forced to ask each other for help, developing group workabilities in the process. In addition, instead of placing plants in plant beds, our teamdecided to place most functional plants in pots. This would allow students to choose aplant to work on, and then bring the plant to the central work area. Finally, in terms ofplant selection, we decided to choose robust plants that would be able to handle a varietyof conditions, including minor mistreatment. Our finalized plan allowed students to gainthe most therapy by developing group work abilities through interaction with otherstudents. Aesthetic concerns could be met with hardy hanging plants and large pots onground level with Ficus trees which are again easy to maintain and visually pleasing.Developing Models/PrototypesWe learned from our Maya instructor, Jose, how to incorporate plants into Maya. Wecollaborated our design with the interior design team and created a preliminary 3-Dimensional design of what the final greenhouse will look like. The distribution of theplants is not extremely important because the plants are in pots and not plant beds, soeach individual plant is mobile and can be placed in any arrangement.Implementing, Testing, Modifying, and Presenting the Final DesignWe realized throughout the semester that in order to implement our design, the schoolwould need more information than just details on buying and maintaining plants. Initially,we felt that the school would only need a list of plants and materials to order and asupplier in order to implement our design. However, as our research became more -10-
  • 11. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006detailed, we realized that the problem was much more complex. Providing a plant listwas not a very simple task. In order to develop a methodology for choosing plants, weneeded to choose plant attributes that would be most beneficial for the client. This wasrather difficult because there were several plant attributes that tended to the clients’ needs,such as light, soil, durability, and sensory therapeutic value. Therefore, our team neededto develop a method to prioritize these qualities. Ultimately, we realized that it was moreimportant for the greenhouse to be an active, usable place with plants that could besuccessfully cultivated by the students than a traditionally therapeutic space withexpensive, exotic plants that could not be actively used by the students. Althoughproviding a plant list was difficult, we realized that we could not simply produce aplant/material list and a vendor for the client. In order for the client to select among theplants from the plant list, we would need to provide recommendations for each plant.This involved much more detailed research and analysis. Finally, our team realized thatthe school would need an idea of what to do with the plants they have, so we decided toinclude a list of plant activities.Although we did not need to test our design, we did need to modify it greatly. Adescription of the evolution of our modifications is in the Formulating Solutions part ofthis report. In terms of presenting our design, we changed our presentation format for thefinal presentation. During the midterm presentation, we went into excessive detail of theproblem and the restrictions on our solution. This took a large portion of the midtermpresentation, which left only a little time to present our solution. However, for the finalpresentation, we decided to define the problem statement and our restrictions, and thenuse most of the time to explain our solution. In this part of the presentation, we woulddiscuss our plant list, activities list, and a quick cost analysis. In addition, we decided toenhance our presentation by including a few live samples of recommended plants and ademonstration of a recommended activity. Our final presentation would give the clientthe most applicable information of our detailed design. -11-
  • 12. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Section 3: Transition Plan and Project DocumentationConnection to Prior Work and Expansion of SolutionOur work was linked to the work of the summer team, who were the first group tocontribute to this project. They seemed to focus on a large variety of plants, with severalgroups for stimulation of each of the senses. A list of specific plants was also included,each with a brief description. While this was informative, a major flaw of the summergroup is that their choices were not explained; though it was logical to provide sensorystimulation, our team soon realized that this was not necessarily the most critical issue.And while the list of plants was well compiled, it completely failed to address anyproblems that could arise from the students being disabled, such as allergies, and whileoversensitivity and under sensitivity were mentioned, the plant choices did not reflect anunderstanding and taking into account of these disabilities. Also, the summer team’swork did not offer any explanations as to why particular plants were chosen: all that wasgiven were various categories that explained which of the five senses the plant wasgeared towards.Future teams should focus on plant activities that would benefit students and moreinvestigation into plant vendors. While places like Rusk institute use large plant vendorswith huge varieties like Angel plants, this may not necessarily be the best solution for theschool’s greenhouse. Our team has recommended Angel plants, but we also discoveredthat smaller plant vendors, and perhaps even farmer’s markets, offer enough variety andexpertise to be acceptable. The school may find these local, small vendors moreconvenient to restock their supply of plants.Documentation for Duplication of ProcessOur team gained much insight from speaking to experts who deal with similar problemsand horticulture on a daily basis, so duplicating and continuing our process would requirecontinued communication with those people. At this point in the design phase, it isimportant to consider activities for the students above the plant types. After talking toRusk institute as well as independent therapists, we discovered that students withdisabilities such as those in PS 79 would gain more from group activities with generic,hardy plants, rather that focusing on various types of sensory stimulations that can begained from certain plant types. Also, we urge any continuing teams to look more intodifferent plant vendors. As stated in the upper section, the Rusk institute use large plantvendors, but this may not necessarily be the best solution for the greenhouse. We foundthe BBC gardening website particularly useful in filtering types of plants based oncharacteristics such as hardiness, light value, aesthetics, and soil pH. That site could beused to check on plant suggestions from smaller vendors if they do not have the sameplants that we have recommended in the appendices. -12-
  • 13. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Documentation for Use and Maintenance of SolutionTo maintain the greenhouse, some basic knowledge of gardening is needed beyondsimply watering the plants. Soil must be prepared. The indoor soils can be made from 1/3top soil, 1/3 sand, 1/3 leaf compost. Do not use outdoors soil unless it has beenpasteurized. Also, avoid the prepackaged potting soils that can be bought. If buyingprepackaged soil is a must, then check the ingredients. Use peat moss, perlite, vermiculite,or sand to make the soil more suitable. Peat moss gives the soil more organic content,keeping the soil loose around the roots and also keeps the moisture in the soil. Perlitemakes the soil more porous letting the air get in and breath, keeping the soil fresh.Vermiculite also retains moisture. Sand lets the water circulate freely.There are also some synthetic mixes that are available now in stores. They offeradvantages such as uniformity, lightness, no weeks or organisms, easy to buy, and simpleto store. However the disadvantages are the plants become top heavy sometimes since thesoil is so light, a regular fertilizing program must be held since the soil is not natural.These problems can be solved with a few simple solutions: weighing down the soil withwater and using an all purpose and slow releasing fertilizers.Water is very precious to the plants. The plants use the water to absorb the nutrients. Justenough water will create a solution with the nutrients so the plant can take up its “veins”and store the food. Too much water will push the oxygen out of the plant. See AppendixFd for basic guidelines to watering.Fertilizers are needed to supplement the nutrients that the plant needs. It containselements such as nitrogen that renew the soil. Fertilizers come in either organic or non-organic states. When it is cold, inorganic fertilizers must be used because organicfertilizers require a temperature over 60 degrees F. General organic fertilizers are animalmanures or wood ashes.Light is the most important factor in the growing process and the one that is least likely tobe controlled. Light is the source for growth. It provides energy for the photosynthesisthat takes place in the plant. There are three categories of plants, ones that require longerdaylight, shorter daylights, and those that are indifferent. See appendix for guidelines.Another factor is the temperature. Like the light, plants can be grouped into threecategories: Warm, Temperate and Cool; however, almost every plant we haverecommended will thrive under the temperate conditions of the greenhouse. Warm is 80-85, temperate is 65-70, and cool is 55-60. See Appendix Fd for temperature guidelines.For further information on the care of the plants, see Appendix Fd. The recommendedplant arrangement in the Greenhouse can be found in Maya sketches throughout thereport and in Appendix C. Many of those details are only relevant for trees since pots canbe easily moved. Information regarding how often plants should be watered and whenthey need soil replacement can be found in Appendix Fd. Activities can be found in -13-
  • 14. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Fa. Weeds should immediately be removed if noticed, although this is unlikelybecause the plants are grown in pots. It may also be necessary to cut branches of any treesif they grow out too far, as well as trim any hanging plants if they grow down too low.For additional instruction on particular plants, contact a preferred Vendor such as AngelPlants. All information pertaining to how many plants should be purchased can also befound in Appendix D along with materials list and cost estimations based onrecommendations.Pictures, Diagrams, Technical Drawings, etc…All necessary pictures, diagrams, and technical drawings can be found in Appendix C. -14-
  • 15. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Section 4: Conclusions and RecommendationsThe greenhouse must be an active and usable educational and therapeutic environment,so we chose potted plants, which are robust in their ability to survive and the variety ofactivities that they provide. One main aspect of the design is our use of pots rather thanplant beds to allow students to bring the plant of their choice to a central table to work onactivities in groups ranging from transplanting and pruning to drying leaves. That way,the greenhouse can also foster a social environment. The main varieties of potted plantswe have recommended are Begonias, Dracaenas, Chinese Evergreens, and Norfolk Islandpines. These plants are common houseplants that have attractive, varied foliage, havehealth benefits such as filtering the air, and will thrive under the care of the children andprovide rewarding gardening experiences which are therapeutic in their own right.We will also provide a potted herb and vegetable garden as well as several varieties offlowers for aesthetics and activities involving sensory stimulation that cater to studentswith more limited abilities to physically handle plants. Appendix F contains a list ofvarious activities and the plants they involve ranging from drying leaves to seasonaldecorations that we recommend for the school. The flowers we have chosen are fairlylow maintenance and low cost, but still aesthetically pleasing and can provide visual andaroma therapy. Some of the varieties are Snapdragons, Peonies, and Marigolds. Werecommend the use of Pothos and spider plants to hang in pots above the storage andwork areas for aesthetic decoration but also because they can be used in hydroponicgrowth activities for students who cannot work with soil. We also recommend the useFicus trees in large pots placed on ground level to provide natural barriers to differentareas of the greenhouse as opposed to having expensive permanent hedges. Such treesare easy to maintain and can be moved when necessary.Our estimated total cost ranges from $3233.48 for a barebones solution to $7746.82 for adream solution.. It is derived from the interior design specifications for counter space,and our recommendations for supplies and tools. We have assumed room forapproximately 250 total plants with a total plant cost ranging from $2650.00 to $6280.00.The wide range in these costs is due to the large difference in price between sizes ofplants and some differences among materials costs. The estimated recommended cost is$5346.35. Our recommended vendor is Angel Plants on long island due to their vastsupply and convenience. Their inventory can be found in Appendix Fe. Many of theplants we have chosen do not require soil replacement or fertilizer on a regular basis, sothe costs we have provided are for the initial purchase. Replacement costs will depend onprice of each bag of soil and the annual plants that the school will need to replace, butthey must be ordered based on the needs of the school as they see throughout the year.Due to the simple and conventional nature of our design, PS79 can easily follow ourrecommendations and provide an environment that meets their needs and the needs of thestudents while providing a model from which other schools attempting similar projectscan draw. -15-
  • 16. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Section 5: AppendicesAppendix A: Product Design SpecificationsProduct TitleHorticulture and interior landscaping for PS 79M greenhousePurposeTo provide a therapeutic, aesthetic, and educational environment with plants that can becultivated by the students at PS 79M.Special Features • Potting benches that will be wheelchair accessible. • Activities for students with limited or no ability to use their hands.Need for Product • Many parents cannot afford to provide daily therapy for their children, so the greenhouse would provide free supplementary therapy. • Having the opportunity to work in a new environment with plants on a daily basis will reduce stress and provide a more pleasant school environment. • Many students rely on school to provide their only social interaction with other students. The greenhouse will aid in developing that social environment by allowing students to work in groups. • Many of the students will have difficulty obtaining employment after graduation; through group projects in the greenhouse, students will develop the ability to work in groups, follow a specific set of instructions, and produce a final product • All of these prevocational skills will make the students more viable job candidates. • Some students will benefit specifically by gaining horticulture skills in the greenhouse which may be immediately used in the gardening industry upon graduationFunctional Performance • The greenhouse will be the location of daily classes throughout the year, so at all times of the year plants must be available for cultivation and other handling. • Plant distribution must be limited to the space designated by the interior design team and be organized in such a way as to allow all of the students present during a given class period to be occupied. From their numbers we estimate approximately 300 potted plants and three to five large pots for trees. • Plants will be used frequently and possibly handled roughly, so plants must be robust enough to withstand abuse. • The plants chosen must provide therapy through sensory stimulation and hands-on activity.Safety • No poisonous or commonly allergic plants can be present given that students will be handling the plants daily and may attempt to ingest them. • Plants should be labeled properly if they have dangerous thorns or needles. -16-
  • 17. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Quality • We will provide plant descriptions to the safety and signage team so that they can provide educational material and fulfill an important requirement for the greenhouse. • Plants must be resistant to disease to minimize maintenance difficulties for the school. • There must be a base population of plants that germinate easily and require minimal maintenance to prevent deterioration of the greenhouse environment during times when the school may not be able to provide proper maintenance. The reasons for this situation could be insufficient funding or a learning period when the students are still developing proper maintenance skills.Manufacturing • Reliable suppliers must be chosen so that the school can replenish their supply of plants and soil as needed. • If the school builds a relationship with a particular supplier, they may be able to have discounts in future purchases. • Angel Plants, Rusk Institute’s current supplier, is a possible supplier for PS 79M, since it has experience with therapeutic plants and is based in Long Island.Timing • Due to the time and space requirements of the greenhouse, most of the plants cannot start as seeds but rather as seedlings. • The school must balance future purchases of seeds and bulbs vs. seedlings to meet the financial needs of the school, the functional needs of the school, and the therapeutic needs of the students. • We will provide a calendar of seasonal plant activities which is linked with a purchasing schedule with the appropriate types and quantity of plants to purchase.Economic • Fertilizer can be bought, developed from compost, or a combination of the two. Although compost would save fertilizer cost, there will be greater initial costs for the compost method • Because the greenhouse is meant for long-term use, compost is recommended because it would save money in the future and would provide an additional activity for the students. • High quality gloves and pots could be bought at a higher cost, but they will need a storage place and must be replaced if lost. Disposable gloves and cheap pots would cost much less, but they would need to be replaced yearly. • Disposable gloves are recommended because they will not need to be stored or cleaned. More durable pots are recommended because they will be used constantly for planting, so they must be able to withstand several uses. • Choosing plants that require multiple soil pH levels would necessitate the purchase of three different types of soil by the school. That cost could be avoided if all of the plants can grow in neutral soil. -17-
  • 18. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 • Plants themselves should be as low cost as possible while still providing the functional needs of the greenhouse so that the design is more accessible to others and the students learn more practical skills involving common houseplants. • Estimated Total Cost Range: $3233.48 - $7746.82 • Recommended Cost of Plants: $4460Ergonomic • The plants must serve the wide range of physical and mental abilities of the students and provide therapeutic aesthetics and sensory stimulation. • Some students have developed tactile skills and will be able to cultivate plants in pots and on ground level, whereas other students are confined to wheel chairs and may only be able to touch and smell the plants in a specific position. We must have plants that can be grown in pots and on ground level with varying degrees of robustness to allow students with varying degrees of physical ability to have experience nurturing the plants. • The greenhouse must also contain plants that serve the needs of students who have limited or no ability to cultivate the plants such as flowers or herbs with therapeutic aromas and textures. • Bulbs and seeds must be purchased at the appropriate seasonal time, so students can plant them and see them successfully grow. • A population of plants must be available for transplanting and arranging at all times, so merely having a supply of seeds will be inadequate. • Since the students have allergies that change with the population of the student body, no commonly allergic plants will be placed in the greenhouse. • Since some students may be allergic to soil, plants must be available which can be propagated and grown hydroponically. • Some activities must reflect those that occur in the gardening and landscaping industry so that when the students graduate, they can apply the skills they have learned immediately in the work environment. • No plants can be poisonous because students will be working with them constantly.Ecological • Plants should all be able to survive at room temperature and the humidity of the greenhouse that is decided by the ventilation team. The temperature will not vary with seasons because the Greenhouse must always be a comfortable environment for the students. • In addition to survival, plants must be chosen which bloom and live through normal lifecycles at that static temperature and humidity.Aesthetic • The school has requested that aesthetic plants be placed on the security fence so it is less conspicuous. We will meet that need with varieties of Ivy which can be found in Appendix Dc. -18-
  • 19. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 • We will use varieties of Ficus tree in large pots on the ground to provide aesthetic barriers between different parts of the greenhouse as partitioned by the interior design and accessibility team • A variety of robust hanging plants will be recommended to provide the students with an atmosphere surrounded by plants, which can also be taken down by faculty and used in transplanting and hydroponic activities. • Other aesthetic plants such as highly ornamental flowers which require high levels of maintenance and are expensive are not recommended since it violates the primary practical and economic needs of the school. It also would make the design inaccessible to future schools that would like to use this design as a model for their own. • Most of the general potted plants will have foliage that is attractive enough to provide a strikingly different environment than that to which the students are accustomed.Life Cycle • There should be a mixture of plants that grow year round and those that require seasonal planting. That will allow for a plant population that provides a static environment that can be maintained with low costs and another population which changes seasonally to provide changing aesthetics and activities for the students. • The plants must have staggered blooming/cultivation schedules to provide seasonally varying activities for the students. • A compost heap may be desirable to recycle plants which die seasonally. This would decrease maintenance costs of both dead plants and newly growing plants. • We will refrain from placing plants outside except robust ones that may grow on the security fence due to the inconvenience associated with maintenance and the inability of plants to survive year round in the NYC climateCorporate Constraints • The project timeline has a completion goal within 2007, so any plants chosen would have to be available in large enough quantities by that time. • Since the greenhouse must be functional by that time, it must contain some full grown plants and not just seedlings or seeds. • The school should choose one supplier and build a reliable relationship with them even for convenience even if other suppliers may temporarily have better prices.Social, Political, and Legal Considerations o All of our designs must comply with the ADA regulations o All of our designs must comply with public school regulations -19-
  • 20. Appendix B: Gantt Chart Project Schedule for Greenhouse-Horticulture & Exterior and Interior Landscaping Work Duration September October November DecemberProject Schedule for Greenhouse 90 hrs 61 DaysInitiating (Week 1) 2 hrs 6 days Preliminary Project Initiation (Week 1) 2 hrs 6 days Determine Team Roles 0.5 hrs 6 days Determine Future Meetings 0.5 hrs 6 days Determine Set Meeting Place 0.5 hrs 6 days Obtain Contact Information from members 0.5 hrs 6 daysPlanning/Background Information (Week 2-5) 24 hrs 17 days Basic Project Understanding (Week 2-3) 8.5 hrs 6 days Research Previous Greenhouses 2 hrs 6 days Research Indoor and Outdoor Plants 2 hrs 6 days Determine Size of Land and Greenhouse 1 hr 6 days Design Potential Exterior Landscaping 3 hrs 6 days Consider Previous Designs by summer Gateway group .5 hrs 6 days Define Project in-depth (Week 3-5) 15.5 hrs 11 days Meet with clients (teachers and students of school) 3 hrs 11 days Narrow Down Possibilities of Types of Plants 3 hrs 11 days Consider Types of Nutrients and Soils Required 3 hrs 11 days Decide on Potential Exterior Landscaping 3 hrs 11 days Collaborate with Other Groups on Interior Landscaping Design 3.5 hrs 11 daysProject Initiation (Week 4-6) 27 hrs 11 days Define Parameters/Specifications for Interior and Exterior Landscape 4 hrs 11 days Decide Upon Types of Plants for Interior and Exterior 4 hrs 11 days Determine Fertilizers and Nutrients Needed 4 hrs 11 days Determine Other Supplies Needed for Plants 4 hrs 11 days Determine Possible Venders 5 hrs 11 days Preliminary Cost Analysis 2 hrs 11 days Preliminary Design for Landscaping 4 hrs 11 daysClient Presentation/Design Check (Week 6) 3 hrs 1 dayIn-Depth Project Design (Week 6-9) 17 hrs 16 days Refine Design Post-Client Presentation 5 hrs 14 days 3-D Modeling of Landscapes 4 hrs 14 days Final Analysis of Plants 3 hrs 14 days Final Analysis of Materials Used for Interior and Exterior Landscaping 5 hrs 14 daysFinalizing Design (Week 9-11) 14 hrs 16 days Finalization of 3-D Models 5 hrs 5 days Prototype Construction 5 hrs 5 days Final Cost Report 4 hrs 5 daysFinal Presentation of Design to Client 3 hrs 1 day
  • 21. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix C: Technical Specifications (Maya) -21-
  • 22. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -22-
  • 23. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Da: Budget Information and List of MaterialsTools were found at http://www.hardwareworld.com/Landscaping--Garden-cIRUC14.aspxPlant price approximations were determined from Angel Plants, Inc. costsITEM ESTIMATED UNIT COST ESTIMATED TOTAL REQUIREMENT/ QUANTITY COST RECOMMENDED/ DREAM SOLUTIONTransplanter 20 $1.88 - $4.52 $37.60 - $90.40 RequiredCultivator 20 $1.88 - $4.77 $37.60 - $95.40 RequiredTrowel 20 $1.93 - $4.77 $38.60 - $95.40 RecommendedBulb Planter 20 $3.57 - $11.21 $71.40 - $224.20 WishGloves 40 $2.77 (includes S, M, and L $110.80 Required (can vary sizes) (quantity depends on how greatly) often disposed)Plant Food 8 (40 lb) $10 for 5 lb $80 Required(Miracle-Gro)Pots (Planters) 16 6’’: $1.02 $16.32 Required 12 8’’: $1.65 - $1.77 $19.80 - $21.24 (plants will most likely 8 10’’: $2.61 - $2.70 $20.88 - $21.60 arrive in pots) 4 12’’: $3.66 - $12.56 $14.64 - $50.24Hanging Pots 8 10’’: $1.18 - $1.26 $9.44 - $10.08 Required(Planters) 4 12’’: $2.60 - $2.71 $10.40 - $10.84 (plants will most likely arrive in pots)Pruners 20 $5 - $10 $100 - $200 RecommendedWatering Can 10 $4.64 - $5.03 $46.40 - $50.30 Depends on watering methodPotting Soil 10 $4.10 (16 qt) $41.00 Required (can vary greatly)Compost System1 1 $125 - $349 $125 - $349 WishLarge Standing 5-7 $30 - $40 $150 - $280 RecommendedPlants (part of interior design)Major Working 150 $10 - $30 $1500 - $4500 RequiredPlants (depends on average sizes (students will take care for ordered) these plants)Other Plants 100 $10 - $15 $1000 - $1500 Recommended (students will have planned horticulture activities with these plants)OVERALL $3233.48 - $7746.82TOTAL RANGEBAREBONES Plants: $2650ESTIMATE Total: $3233.48RECOMMEND Plants: $4460ED Total: $5346.35DREAM Plants: $6280ESTIMATE Total: $7746 -23-
  • 24. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 20061 Several compost systems can be found at this website:http://www.gardeners.com/on/demandware.store/Sites-Gardeners-Site/default/ViewSimpleSearch2-Start -24-
  • 25. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Db: Alphabetized List of All PlantsAmerican Wisteria Globe amaranth Red Edged DracaenaBaby’ breath Globe thistle Sagebrush/WormwoodBasil Goldenrod SalviaBayberry Grape hyacinth SnapdragonBittersweet Heather Spider PlantBlue Wild Indigo Honesty StaticeCanna Hydrangea StrawflowerChinese Evergreen Larkspur SumacChinese Lanterns Lettuce Swan river daisyChives Lilac Sweet PeaChrysanthemum Magnolia TeaselCockscomb Marigold ThymeCornflower Marjoram/Oregano Trailing lobeliaCurly Mint Night-scented stock Vine LilacDocks/Sorrels Pansies ViolasDusty miller Peony Wax BegoniaFairy fan-flower Pomegranate Weeping FigFerns Pothos YarrowGladiolus Queen Anne’s Lace Zinnia -25-
  • 26. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Dc: Plant Descriptions for Highly Recommended PlantsPOTTED PLANTS Dracaena Genus: Dracaena, Species: marginata (commonly known as Madagascar Dragon Tree or Red Edged Dracaena) Easy to grow, can be in sun or shade, attractive foliage, true of most dracaenas, this is just one particular species. Tolerant to dry soil and irregular watering Chinese Evergreen Genus: Aglaonema (Chinese Evergreen can be a common name) Flowering tropical plants, about 20 species, easy to grow, wide range of light, resistant to disease and neglect, variety of leaf types between species, prefer partial shade, moist soil. Can filter the air. Wax Begonia Genus: Begonia, Species: semperflorens (Commonly known as Wax Begonia) Adaptable and forgiving plants, they combine a neat, compact habit, attractive flowers and foliage, and trouble-free cultural requirements. They can yield a long season of blooms while growing in partial shade. -26-
  • 27. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Norfolk Island Pine Genus: Araucaria, Species: heterophylla (Commonly known as Norfolk Island Pine) Norfolk Island Pine enjoy humid environments. With age, and lack of humidity, the needles along the trunk will fall off. Dead, lower branches, are a sign that the plant has been dehydrated. The dry needles will not come back. These plants do best with consistency stay on a watering schedule. Over watering results in sporadic bright yellow needle clusters that come off very easily, and dont come back.HANGING PLANTS Pothos Genus: Epipremnum Species: aureum (commonly known as Pothos) Very effective at removing indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde, xylene, and benzene. Studies show that when stimulated with music it gives of a sweet scent similar to Chocolate and Vanilla. Medium indoor light, grows hydroponically (activities can be done with taking cuttings and placing them in water for students who can’t work with soil). Can tolerate much abuse. Spider Plant Genus: Chlorophytum Species: comosum (commonly known as Spider Plant) Effective at removing toxins, can be grown hydroponically (same activities as Pothos), can thrive in almost any condition. -27-
  • 28. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006LARGE PLANTS (for separating greenhouse areas) Weeping Fig Genus: Ficus Species: benjamina (Weeping Fig or Benjamin’s Fig) Tolerance to poor growing conditions, grows best under bright light but can tolerate shade, only requires enough watering to prevent drying out, warning: drops many leaves when relocated as it adapts to new light intensity. Effectively removes indoor air toxins according to NASAVINES FOR FENCEAmerican Wisteria This plant is terrific because of its beautiful blossoms, and easy pruning. However, this plant may be mildly aggressive and strangle nearby trees. Dormant pruning is the best way to maintain this plant, for it controls the plant without sacrificing color. The person in charge of pruning this plant may want to ask t he plant vendor specific directions for how to prune it.Purple Hardenbergia For a hardy, evergreen, twining, woody- stemmed climber, the client may want to purchase the purple hardenbergia. It has dark green leathery leaves and produces a mass of dark purple pea flowers. -28-
  • 29. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Carolina Yellow Jasmine This plant is a nice, fast growing evergreen vine with fragrant flowers that bloom throughout late winter and early spring. Caution! All parts of this plant are poisonous. -29-
  • 30. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Dd: Notes on Other PlantsPlant recommendations were mostly based on hardiness and ease of their maintenance, sothat all of the plants would be able most likely to survive in any poor conditions or underany potential mistreatment.Note: general categories of plants such as docks/sorrels and grasses are not detailed here. PLANT NAME NOTES RECOMMENDATION LEVELAmerican Wisteria Propagation: seeds, cuttings, Medium(Wisteria frutescens) layering; seeds planted late Spring, (propagates easily, very cuttings taken in early Summer hardy, but may take long NOTE: can take up to 20 years to time to flower) flower from seedBaby’ breath Propagation: seeds, cuttings, root Medium(Gypsophila) division before growth starts; (special water preference) divided March to AprilBasil Propagation: seeds, cuttings; Medium(Ocimum basilicum) seeds planted March to May (special light/soil preference, but propagates easily)Bayberry Propagation: seeds, cuttings; High(Myrica) seeds planted late Spring/early (propagates easily, very Summer, cuttings taken July/August hardy)Bittersweet Propagation: seeds, cuttings, High(Celastrus scandens) layering; seeds planted February, (propagates easily, very cuttings taken in December, layering hardy) in AugustBlue Wild Indigo Propagation: seeds, division; Low(Baptisia australis) seeds planted late Winter/early (special light/soil Spring, divided in Spring preference)Canna Propagation: seeds, dividing Low(Canna) rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs; (special light/soil seeds planted early Spring, divided preference) in SpringChinese Evergreen Propagation: seeds, cuttings; Low(Aglaonema) Warning: causes severe pain in the (although it is hardy and mouth if ingested easily propagated, it can cause oral pain)Chinese Lanterns Propagation: seeds, cuttings; High(Abutilon x seeds planted Spring, cuttings taken (blooms repeatedlyhybridum) early Spring throughout the year) -30-
  • 31. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 NOTE: Physalis alkekengi is also known as Chinese Lantern, but is very toxicChives Propagation: seeds, dividing Medium(Allium rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs; (special light preference)schoenoprasum) seeds planted April to MayChrysanthemum Propagation: dividing rootball, Medium(Chrysanthemum) rhizomes, tubers, corms or bulbs (special light preference, Warning: can cause severe skin skin irritation) irritationCockscomb Propagation: seeds; Low(Celosia argentea seeds planted early to mid Spring (special light/soilvar. cristata) preference, only seed propagation)Cornflower Propagation: seeds; Low(Centaurea cyanus) seeds planted Spring (special light/soil preference, only seed propagation)Curly Mint Propagation: seeds, dividing High(Mentha spicata var. rootball; seeds planted Spring, (very hardy, propagatescrispa) divided anytime (preferably Spring easily, nice aroma) or Autumn)Dusty miller Propagation: seeds, cuttings, Medium(Artemisia division; cuttings in late Spring, (special light preference,ludoviciana) division in Spring or Fall but drought resistant)Fairy fan-flower Propagation: seeds, cuttings; Low(Scaevola aemula) long blooming period (not very hardy, rather tender)Globe amaranth Propagation: seeds Low(Gomphrena (special light preference,globosa) difficult to propagate)Globe thistle Propagation: seeds, cuttings, root Medium(Echinops) division; seeds planted early Spring, (propagates easily, cuttings taken in Winter, division in drought resistant, but Fall special soil preference)Grape hyacinth Propagation: seeds, division; High(Muscari seeds planted late Spring/early Fall, (although special lightarmeniacum) divided in early Fall preference, propagates easily, colorful, and beneficial)Heather Propagation: seeds, cuttings, Medium(Calluna vulgaris) layering, division; cuttings taken (fragrant, propagates late Summer/Fall, layering in Fall, easily, but special light -31-
  • 32. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 divided in Spring preference)Honesty Propagation: seeds; seeds planted High(Lunaria annua) May to June (hardy, self-propagates, Note: after first sowing, plant self- bright colored, fragrant, sows freely but beware of allergies) Warning: pollen may trigger allergiesHydrangea Propagation: seeds, cuttings, Low(Hydrangea layering (special light/soilmacrophylla) preferenceLarkspur Propagation: dividing rootball, Low(Delphinium elatum) cuttings, air layering (poisonous if ingested) Warning: All parts of plant are poisonous if ingestedLettuce Propagation: seeds High(Lactuca sativa) (can be eaten)Lilac Propagation: cuttings High(Buddleja davidii) (beautiful and also fragrant)Magnolia Propagation: cuttings Low(Magnolia Warning: poisonous if ingested, (poison and skin irritation)grandiflora) skin irritationMarigold Propagation: seed High(Calendula Note: self-sows (hardy, self-sows)officinalis)Marjoram Propagation: seeds Medium(Origanum vulgare) (easy to care for, drought resistant)Night-scented stock Propagation: seed Medium(Matthiola (hardy, fragrant)longipetala)Pansies Propagation: cuttings, seed Low(Viola x (special soil/waterwittrockiana) preference)Peony Propagation: dividing rootball Low(Paeonia lactiflora) (special soil preference)Pomegranate Propagation: seed, cuttings, High(Punica granatum) layering (Drought-resistant, edible)Queen Anne’s Lace Propagation: seed Low(Daucus carota) Warning: poisonous if ingested, (potentially toxic) skin irritationSagebrush Propagation: seed High(Artemisia Warning: trigger pollen allergies (drought-resistant) -32-
  • 33. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006campestris subsp.Caudate)Salvia Propagation: cuttings Medium(Salvia elegans) Warning: N/A (soil preference, fragrant)Snapdragon Propagation: Seeds High(Antirrhinum majus) (very hardy, colorful)Statice Propagation: seeds; seeds planted High(Limonium March to April (Easy to grow, hardy,platyphyllum) attractive oval leaves that can be dried)Strawflower Propagation: cuttings; Medium(Helichrysum cuttings taken from March to May (sasy to grow, silverpetiolare) foliage, but somewhat tender and special light preference)Sumach Propagation: seedlings or fully Low(Rhus typhina) grown trees (special light preference, difficult to maintain, mostly grown outdoors)Swan river daisy Propagation: seeds; Medium(Brachyscome seeds planted March to April (hardy, colorful, butiberidifolia) special light preference and difficult to propagate)Sweet Pea Propagation: seeds; Low(Lathyrus odoratus) seeds planted September to May (hardy, easy to grow, but Warning: can produce a strong aroma may provoke perfume aroma, peas are poisonous allergic reactions, and if ingested toxic)Teasel Propagation: seeds; Medium(Dipsacus fullonum) seeds planted April to May (hardy, easy to grow, visually interesting, but require a year before flowering, biennials)Thyme Propagation: cuttings; Medium(Thymus) cuttings taken May-June (woody aromatic perennial and hardy, but special light preference)Trailing lobelia Propagation: seeds; High(Lobelia) seeds planted March to April (hardy, very colorful) Warning: pollen may trigger allergiesVine Lilac Propagation: seeds, cuttings; Low(Hardenbergia) cuttings taken August to October (special water/light -33-
  • 34. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 preference)Viola Propagation: cuttings; High(Viola) cuttings only July-August (interesting black petals, hardy, easy to grow)Yarrow Propagation: seeds (common), High(Achillea seedlings (Hardy, Perenial flower,millefolium) easy to grow, does not spread uncontrollably, attractive foliage)Zinnia Propagation: seeds (common), Medium(Zinnia) seedlings (colorful flower, grows in any soil, but somewhat fragile and special light preference) -34-
  • 35. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix E: Photographs Illustrating the Team Experience -35-
  • 36. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Fa: Ideas for Horticulture Activities for Students o Hydorponics o Take cuttings from Pothos, Spider plant, Ficus trees, etc… and place them in water for growth o Place them in water and eventually transplant. o Make bark, stump, and leaf rubbings. o Place a mushroom top on a piece of paper to make spore prints, and then spray with acrylic. o Make compost in a large plastic bag. o Add starter soil, compost material, one cup of agricultural lime, and one cup of water. o Have children train ivy around stakes. o Start with three ivy plants in a pot. o Arrange the stakes in the shape of a teepee. o During the winter, make winter scenes on sheets of white Styrofoam. o Evergreen branches for trees (can use Norfolk Island Pines), and spray with artificial snow. o Floral prints o Use construction paper, velvet, satin, or burlap for the background. Pressed flowers are mounted and glued on one at a time. The picture can be covered with clear plastic or glass. o Placemats and bookmarkers o Arrange pressed plant material on a piece of plastic Contac paper. Apply another piece of plastic over the arrangement. The margins can be cut with pinking shears. o Growing herbs o Transplant o Use various herbs for tea: one teaspoon of dried leaves or flowers is used for one cup of tea. If fresh herbs are used, double the amount, and steep in boiling water for ten to fifteen minutes. o Making potpourri o A potpourri is a small compost of exquisite ingredients such as flower petals, oils, spices, gums, barks, and leaves. It is used to refresh and scent the air. o Start to collect the ingredients during the summer and throughout the fall. The flowers should be selected for their color and fragrance. o Rose petals are commonly used because they retain some of their fragrance. o The petals of carnations, geraniums, heliotrope, honeysuckle, lavender, lilac, and spice pinks can also be sued. o Separate the petals and place them with salt, orrisroot or gum benzoin, various spices, and brown sugar. -36-
  • 37. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 o Layers of the ingredients are placed in a jar, and these are aged for three to six weeks. o The mixtures should be mixed twice a week. Once blended, the mixtures will last for years. o The following are potpourri recipes.General Mixture Mint Potpourri o 1 gallon dried flower petals o 2 cups dried lavender o 1 box plain salt o 1 cup dried mint leaves o 1 tablespoon allspice (peppermint, spearmint, o 1 ounce oil of bergamot orangemint) o ½ ounce orrisroot powder o ½ cup dried thyme o Small box of ground cinnamon o ¼ cup rosemary o 1 box bay leaves o A few drops of lavender, thyme, and bergamot oil o Dried red geranium petals, blue bachelor’s buttons, and delphiniums o Plant seeds in the form of a child’s initials. o The following plants grow quickly. The growth can be measured day to day. The following are quick to germinate and grow fast: castor beans, sunflowers, morning glory, pumpkins, gourds, zinnias, marigolds, cosmos, radishes, wax beans, green beans, and beets. o A whistle or horn can be made from a sqush leaf stem. The hollow leaf stem or petiole becomes solid where it joins the leaf blade. Cut the leaf stem from the vine and cut it again through the solid part near the leaf. Make a slit in the stalk about ½ inch up from the solid part. Put the end with the slit in your mouth and blow.Drying plants and flowers: Red: cockscomb, peony, pomegranate, roses, strawflowers, sumac, zinnia Pink: delphinium, gladiolus, globe amaranth, larkspur, peony, snapdragon, statice Yellow: acaia, chrysanthemum, goldenrod, marigold, strawflower, yarrow, zinnia Blue: cornflower, delphinium, globe thistle, hydrangea, larkspur, slavia Green: ferns, foliage, grasses, hydrangea, seed pods Orange: bittersweet, Chinese lanterns, marigolds, strawflower, Zinnia Violet: gladiolus, heather, lilac, statice, stock Gray: Artemisia, bayberry, dusty miller Brown: canna, cones, dock, seed pods Tan: grasses, leaves, seed pods, wood roses Black: baptisia pods, magnolia leaves, teasel White: baby’ breath, honesty, peony, Queen Anne’s Lace, statice, strawflower.Small compact drying method -37-
  • 38. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 1. Collect the plants on a bright, sunny day before they reach full maturity, but not after their color deigns to deteriorate. 2. Remove all unnecessary leaves. The shaping of the plants can also be done at this time. The bottom of the flower original stem can be removed and replaced with florist’s wire inserted through the bottom of the floral head. 3. Tie the plants in a small bunch and suspend them upside down. This keeps the stems straight and the flower heads upright. 4. Hang the plants in a dry, warm location with good ventilation. Do not cover or enclose them in a closet. Do not expose them to direct sun.It takes about 8-10 days for the majority of plants to dry, but it depends on humidity.Note: this information was taken directly from Horticulture for the disabled anddisadvantaged. Citation information can be found in the bibliography -38-
  • 39. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Fb: Planting Details for Some Vegetables QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.Note: this information was taken directly from Horticulture for the disabled anddisadvantaged. Citation information can be found in the bibliography -39-
  • 40. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Fc: Details for Starting an Avacado Tree 1. Cut into your avocado carefully, 5. Set your avocado pit (with so as not to injure the pit located inserted toothpicks) on the top in the fruits center. Carefully rim of the container. The remove the pit, and set it aside. toothpicks should sit on the rim Use the avocado meat to create of the container, while keeping the tasty dip/topping known as the pit only half-submerged in guacamole. the water. 2. Gently wash the avocado pit, removing all avocado flesh from the pit. 6. Set the avocado-topped container in temperate, undisturbed place-- near a window or other well-lit 3. Holding the pit "narrow" area--to begin the rooting and (pointed) side up, stick four growth process. toothpicks into the middle 7. Change the water every 1-2 days section of the pit at even to ensure that contaminants (i.e. intervals, to a depth of about 5 mold, bacteria, fermentation, mm. etc.) do not hinder the avocado sprouting process. Ensure that the base of the avocado always remains moist and submerged in water. 8. Remember: Wait patiently. The avocado takes several weeks to begin to root. Over the next 2-3 weeks, the avocados brown outer layer will begin to dry out and 4. In a small, slender container wrinkle, eventually sloughing (preferably glass), add water off. Soon after, the pit should until it reaches the very top rim. begin to split open at the top and Your containers opening should bottom. After 3-4 weeks, a tap be wide enough to easily root should begin to emerge at accommodate the full width of the base of the pit. the avocado, but not too much 9. Continue to water the plant wider. accordingly, being careful not to -40-
  • 41. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 disturb or injure the tap root. pack the soil, adding more soil as Continue to allow the avocado needed. Once the soil is pit time to establish its roots. prepared, dig a narrow hole deep Soon, the avocado will sprout at enough to accommodate your the top, releasing an unfolding avocados roots and pit. leaf-bud that will open and begin 12. Carefully bury the avocado pit in to grow a shoot bearing leaves. the soil such that the top-half of pit shows above the surface of the soil. Pack the soil lightly around the pit. 13. Water your plant daily or enough to keep the soil moist. Avoid over-watering to the point that the soil becomes muddy. If the leaves turn brown at the tips, the tree needs more water. If the leaves turn yellow, the tree is 10. When the roots are substantial getting too much water and needs and the stem top has had a to be permitted to dry out for a chance to re-grow leaves (after at day or two. least one pruning), your baby 14. Continue to tend to your avocado avocado tree is ready to be plant regularly, and in a few planted in soil. Remove the years you will have an attractive sprouted pit from the water and low-maintenance tree. Your container, and gently remove family and friends will be each of the toothpicks. impressed to know that from an 11. Use a 20-25 cm terra cotta pot avocado pit, salvaged from your filled with enriched soil to 2 cm guacamole recipe, you have below the top. A 50/50 blend of cultivated and grown your very topsoil and coir (coconut fibre) own avocado tree. works best. Smooth and slightlyNote: This information was takendirectly from<http://www.wikihow.com/Plant-an-Avocado-Tree> citation information inbibliography -41-
  • 42. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Fd: Guidelines for Care of PlantsWatering Guidelines: 1. Overwatering causes root injury and death of plants. Learn to water when the plant needs it. Feel the soil. More plants die of overwatering than from any other factor. 2. A cool environment requires less water than a hot, dry one. 3. When a plant is growing new leaves or producing flowers, it needs more water. 4. Plants with heavy, thorny, or waxy leaves need less water than the thin-leaved varieties. Water cacti once every 2-4 weeks in the summer, and once every 2 month in the winter. 5. Wet the soil until the excess water drains off. 6. Water less with plastic pots, more with clay pots. 7. Small pots dry out faster, as do hanging plants. 8. If the plant is rootbound, it will need more water than when just starting to fill the pot with roots. 9. Newly transplanted seedlings or repotted plants need less water until the roots get established, but do not let the seedlings dry out. 10. Water “sick” plants sparingly. The roots are weak and they are likely to rot. 11. Water with tepid water; cold water can shock and cause leaf damage. 12. Water from the tap may contain chlorine and it should stand overnight before being used. Avoid water that is softened with chemicals. Use rain water or cover the surface of the soil with charcoal to strain out some of the chemical impurities. 13. Rain water or soft water is ideal for watering. It is slightly acid, and it favors the growth of soil bacteria which break down organic matter in the soil. 14. Hard or alkaline water contains salts of calcium and magnesium, in addition to chlorides and sulfates. High concentrations of salts may injure the plant’s roots and leaves. 15. Dry heat indoors during winter means more frequent watering. With indoor plants, a lack of humidity is detrimental due to excessive evaporation. Increase the humidity by placing a layer of damp pebbles in trays under the pots or by spraying the plants with a fine mist everyday. Do not mist plants such as cacti or succulents, or those with fuzzy leaves.Lighting Guidelines 1. Vegetable plants grow better in full sunlight than in the shade, and some need more sun than others. 2. Some indoor plants can stand direct sunlight, but most prefer a relatively strong, filtered, or diffused light. 3. A plant that lives with insufficient light might look well for months, but it is actually suffering. The amount of light that a plant needs is more than most people think. 4. Artificial lighting may be used alone or in combination with natural light. -42-
  • 43. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 5. Use the shadow test to determine the amount of light. Hold a piece of paper up to the light and note the shadow it makes. A sharp shadow means that you have bright or good light, whereas a barely visible shadow means dim light. 6. A full sun requirement means that the plant will need sun for at least half of the day. Indirect or partial sun means that the sun should be filtered through a curtain. Bright light means no direct sun, but the room should be bright and well lighted. Shade-loving plants should be kept in a well-shaded area with no direct sun at all. 7. When plants are not getting enough light, the lower leaves die, and the new leaves are small. When plants get too much light, they wilt, fade, or burn. 8. Rotate plants so that taverage date for the first killing frost in the fall. he leaves get an even distribution of light.Temperature Guidelines 1. Temperatures that are comfortable for people are also satisfactory for most indoor plants. 2. Most plants prefer to bge 10 or 15 degrees cooler at night. 3. Keep plants away from drafts, air conditioners, and radiators. 4. All plants benefit from proper temperature and a gentle circulation of air. 5. Most plants do not like sudden changes in temperature.Note: this information was taken directly from Horticulture for the disabled anddisadvantaged. Citation information can be found in the bibliography -43-
  • 44. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Fe: Inventory List from Angel Plants -44-
  • 45. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -45-
  • 46. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -46-
  • 47. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -47-
  • 48. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -48-
  • 49. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -49-
  • 50. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -50-
  • 51. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -51-
  • 52. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 -52-
  • 53. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix Fg: Seasonal ActivitiesTable I. Availability of typical greenhouse cropsMonth Crop producedJanuary spring bulbs, azalea, primula, cineraria, calceolaria, cyclamenFebruary roses, spring bulbs, oxalis, cineraria, calceolaria, primula, cyclamen, azalea, liliesMarch hydrangea, kalanchoe, cineraria, calceolaria, primula, cyclamen, azalea, lilies, bedding plantsApril spring bulbs, azalea, lilies, gloxinia, heimalis begonia, bedding plants, flowering baskets hydrangea, azalea, kalanchoe, lilies, gloxinia, potted roses, late flowering bulbs, geranium, newMay guinea impatiens, bedding plants, flowering basketsJune gloxinia, heimalis, begonia, foliage, hibiscus, gerbera, potted bedding plantsJuly gerbera, gloxinia, streptocarpus, heimalis begoniaAugust hibiscus, azalea, heimalis begonia, foliage plants, field chrysanthemumSeptember foliage plants, gloxinia, azalea, hibiscus, ornamental pepper, field chrysanthemumOctober hibiscus, foliage, flowering cabbage, flowering kale, cyclamenNovember poinsettia, cyclamen, Christmas cactusDecember poinsettia, Christmas cactus, cyclamen, heimalis begoniaTable II. Seasonal plant material produced for specific holidaysOccasion/season Preferred type* Plant materialValentines Day cut anything red, cut roses, potted tulips, azalea, cyclamenEaster potted spring bulbs, Easter lily, hydrangea, chrysanthemum, azaleaSecretarys Day both cineraria, spring bulbs, potted chrysanthemum, primula roses, hydrangea, spring bulbs, azalea, potted chrysanthemum,Mothers Day both gloxinia, African violet, early bedding plants, fuchsiaMemorial Day potted geraniumSeptember potted foliage plantsThanksgiving cut chrysanthemumChristmas potted poinsettia, cyclamen, Christmas cactus* The holidays are denoted as either cut or potted based on whether cut flowers or potted plants are theprimary products sold.Note: This information came directly fromhttp://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/ghprodct.htm. Citation information canbe found in the bibliography -53-
  • 54. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix G: References Consulted for ProjectBBC-Gardening. BBC. 10 December 2006. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening>Begeman, John “Create your own backyard garden” Arid-Southwestern Gardening Information. 1 December, 2006. <http://ag.arizona.edu/gardening/news/articles/1.3.html>“Gardening Australia” ABC. 19 October, 2006. <http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s1460240.htm>“How to plant an Avocado tree” wikiHow 4 December 2006. 13 October 2006 <http://www.wikihow.com/Plant-an-Avocado-Tree>Olszowy, Damon R. Ph.D. Horticulture for the disabled and disadvantaged Springfield, Illinois: Thomas Books, 1978.Summer Winds. “Antigonon leptopus” 10 October, 2006 <http://www.summerwindsaz.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=plants.plantDetail&plan t_id=1646>West Virginia University “Greenhouse Production” West Virginia University. 25 October,2006. <http://www.wvu.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/ghprodct.htm>Windows to my World. “Carolina Jasmine” 20 October, 2006. <http://www.sd1new.net/GardenPages/carolina-jasmine.htm> -54-
  • 55. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Appendix H: Copy of PowerPoint Slides Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Primary Facilitator: Ini Li Secondary Facilitator: Eugene Yao Conflict Manager: Kevin Luke Process Observer: Mike Aronov Time Keeper: Jason Eckstein v Problem Statement to improve the students’ quality of life within the school by creating an environment that provides therapy and builds prevocational skills to choose which plants we want to place in the greenhouse in order to address the wide range of specific disabilities of the students, while providing a social, therapeutic, and educational environment I -55-
  • 56. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Summary of Presentation Functional Requirements Provide a list of plants Preliminary Maya design of plants inside greenhouse Instructions on care for plants Horticulture-related activities for students Summaries of potential costs IDesign SpecificationsNeed for Product Provides Therapeutic/Social Environment Build Prevocational SkillsPerformance Requirements Year Round, 100% Student Participation Sensory Stimulation Aesthetic Plants Hands on Activities Robust PlantsService Environment Room Temperature & Comfortable Humidity Static Conditions Throughout Year J -56-
  • 57. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Main Design: Plant Distribution J Main Design: Potted Plants Carolina Yellow Dracaena Marginata Jasmine Norfolk Island Pine Easy VegetablesPotted Herbs: Mint, and Fruit: Lettuce,Basil Thyme, etc… Radishes, Grapes J -57-
  • 58. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006 Main Design: Trees & Flowers Pansies Benjamin Fig Ficus Ficus Rubber Tree Dahlia JMain Design: Hanging Plants PothosSpider Plant J -58-
  • 59. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Maintenance Use the correct type of soil Water according to guidelines Apply fertilizer as needed for nutrients Make sure light is appropriate for each plant Prune plants to avoid overgrowth EActivities Students can make flower bookmarks from dried leaves and potpourri to bring home Activities may reflect the season or holiday Herb and Vegetable Gardens can be grown in pots and used for aromatherapy and cooking E -59-
  • 60. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Activities Cntd. Avocado pit growing Place pothos and spider plant cuttings in water Flower dryingCost Analysis Barebones Estimate: Plants: $2650 Total: $3233.48 Dream Estimate: Plants: $6280 Total: $7746 K -60-
  • 61. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Cost Analysis (cont’d) Recommended Estimate Plants: $4460.00 Tools: $886.00 Total: $5346.35 Tools: shovel, fertilizer, replacing annuals KConclusion Three categories of plants: potted for activities, trees for section separation and atmosphere, and hanging plants for aesthetics and some activities Activities that cater to all students Estimated Cost Basic: $3233.48 Recommended: $5346.35 Dream: $7746 M -61-
  • 62. Mike Aronov, Ini Li, Kevin Luke, Eugene Yao, Jason Eckstein Team 6: Interior & Exterior Landscaping and Horticulture Advisor: Emily Persson Final Design Report December 11, 2006Future Work Hydroponics Aquatic Plants Look further into additional vendors and activities M -62-