Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops


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Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops

  1. 1. 8 0 0 -3 4 6 -9 1 4 0 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR GREENHOUSE CROPSAppropria te Technology Tra ns fer for Rura l Area s PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS GUIDE ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA’s Rural Business -- Cooperative Service.By Lane Greer and Steve DiverNCAT Agricultural SpecialistsAbstract: This publication covers IPM forgreenhouse crops, both vegetable and ornamental.Monitoring, sanitation, biological controls,biorational pesticides, insect growth regulators, anddisease control methods are discussed. Tablesinclude information on the newest biorationalpesticides and biological control organisms.General Greenhouse IPMInsects and diseases are a major challenge togreenhouse production. IPM is an importanttool in the management of these pests. Theprimary goal of IPM is to optimize pest controlin an economically and ecologically sound way.IPM involves the integration of cultural,physical, biological, and chemical practices togrow crops with minimal use of pesticides.Monitoring, sampling, and record keeping areused to determine when control options areneeded to keep pests below an economically A Guide to Insects and Related Pests of Floriculturaldamaging threshold. Pest management, not Crops in New England: For Commercial Growerseradication, is the goal of IPM. (1), a University of Massachusetts Cooperative Extension System publication, outlines the basic Index strategy on greenhouse IPM:General Greenhouse IPM // 1 IPM is a simple, practical, and, mostGreenhouse Insect and Mite Control // 2 important, flexible way to manage insects,Crop Scouting & Trapping // 2 mites, diseases, weeds and vertebrates.Sanitation // 3Biological Control // 3 Integrated pest management is adaptable toInsect Growth Regulators // 5Biorational Pesticides // 6 all greenhouse-grown crops and involvesGreenhouse Disease Control // 6 specific techniques to manage pests. TheseReferences // 10 techniques are:Resources // 12Biological Control Suppliers // 15 • Monitoring or scouting programAppendix I: Monitoring and Scouting Techniques // 19 - individual plant inspectionAppendix II: Beneficial Organisms // 22 - yellow, blue, and hot pink sticky cardsAppendix III: Biorational Pesticides // 29 - indicator plants ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 1
  2. 2. • Pest identification and life stages This publication deals with general greenhouse • Record keeping to identify trends and IPM principles. ATTRA has more information direction for your pest management on specific greenhouse pests. Request program Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Aphid Control, • Exclusion techniques to prevent pests Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control, or from entering the production area Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Thrips Control. - Insect screens to exclude aphids, ATTRA also has specific information on the whiteflies, and thrips from entering other greenhouse pests mentioned above. through doors and ventilating systems A selection of the better publications on • Cultural practices to prevent problems greenhouse IPM is listed in the Resources - soil testing section below. The publications from Applied - sanitation Bio-Nomics, The Green Spot, and California • Biological controls, living organisms Environmental Protection Agency are essential used to reduce the incidence of pest references that every IPM grower should have organisms on his or her bookshelf. • Insect growth regulators, insecticides that interfere with normal insect Crop Scouting and Trapping development or the molting process • Chemical controls To detect early infestations, a crop scouting - proper choice of pesticides program that includes both sticky trap cards - proper timing of pesticide application (usually yellow) and visual inspection is critical. - proper application procedure Scouting should be done once a week, and more often after an infestation is detected. RegularIt is important to understand the life cycle and scouting is also necessary to monitor the efficacybehavior of insect pests in order to develop an of control measures. A hand lens is a useful tooleffective control strategy. Knowledge about the to detect live pests as well as signs of pestweak link in a pest’s life cycle can help growers activity— e.g., frass (feces), cast skins,choose the most appropriate control strategy. honeydew, etc.There are several practices that will increase the Monitoring records can be kept on paper or in asuccess of an IPM program (2): computer. (Computers are usually better for producing graphs, which show trends more easily.) State and federal regulations will soon• Cover all soil floor surfaces with concrete, require that all greenhouses that apply black plastic or weed barrier. pesticides keep records on what was applied. If• Use resistant varieties of plants. plant injury symptoms appear, the grower can• Keep people and “pet plants” out of crop see quickly what chemicals or biocontrols have areas as much as possible. been used, and how the environment affected• Pasteurize growing medium. the crop (3). And, thorough records are• Keep doors closed. invaluable in negotiations with suppliers for compensation for problems traced to receipt ofGreenhouse Insect and Mite Control diseased stock (3).Major insect and mite pests of greenhouse crops At a minimum, records should include:include aphids, thrips, whiteflies, fungus gnats, • Minimum and maximum temperatures formealybugs, shore flies, spider mites, leafminers each dayand scales. In addition to damaging the crop, • Counts from sticky cards, changed weeklysome insects vector diseases like tomato spotted • Counts of pests on the plants, includingwilt virus. stage of growth (egg, immature, adult) ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 2
  3. 3. • Plant growth and development based on infested plants, or any infested growth. Ideally, measurements of selected, flagged plants the greenhouse should be thoroughly cleaned• Root health based on weekly check of and left empty for one week prior to beginning random plants the next crop. This enables removal of all pest• Growing medium pH and soluble salts of stages, and starves any remaining adults. random plants Closing up the greenhouse when it is empty in• Specific crop observation (height, leaf color, summer will increase the temperature and help bud development, etc.) eradicate pests.See Appendix I: Monitoring and Scouting Inside the greenhouse, a clean stock programTechniques for Greenhouse Plants for more should be in place. This includes temporaryspecific information. quarantine and inspection of all plants upon arrival from other greenhouses, and regularSticky Ribbons monitoring of stock plants used for propagation. If a separate section of the greenhouse can’t beSticky ribbons are long sticky insect strips that dedicated to this purpose, flag all incomingare hung throughout the greenhouse as a means plants. All new plant material should beof reducing insect populations of whiteflies, thoroughly inspected (with a 10X hand lens) forleafminers, aphids, fungus gnats, and thrips. the presence of pests to ensure that no infestedUnlike sticky traps that are used for monitoring, plants are introduced into the greenhouse.the primary purpose of sticky ribbons is to Workers in the greenhouse should avoidreduce the numbers of flying insect pests by wearing yellow clothing, since many pests aresimply catching them. attracted to this color and may hitch a ride on the fabric from one greenhouse to the next.Sanitation ScreeningSanitation is key for controlling pests ingreenhouses. The goal of sanitation is to Insect screens physically exclude the entry ofeliminate all possible sources of the pest. Weeds lightweight, airborne insects like aphids,inside and near the outside of the greenhouse whiteflies, and thrips from the greenhousecan harbor pests. Its best to pull the weeds through doors, cooling pads, and ventilationinside the greenhouse rather than spray them, units. Although the tiny pores of insect screenssince insects may survive the spray and migrate prevent entry of insects, they can also impedeonto crops. Bag all weeds and dispose of them the flow of air. Some specialists say the area theoutside the greenhouse. screen covers should be three times that of the area covered (doors, ventilation) to facilitate sufficient air intake. To accomplish this, screenIn addition, a 10–30 foot vegetation-free zone houses designed to enclose both the coolingaround the outside perimeter of the pads and greenhouse entranceway can begreenhouse—especially near vents and installed.opening—can provide a dramatic decrease inpests. A heavy-duty geotextile weed barrier (e.g.,DeWitt Sunbelt® Weed Barrier) covered with Biological Controlbark mulch or gravel can provide a pleasantvegetation-free zone, and eliminate the need for Biological control is the use of living organismsherbicides. to control crop pests. Biological control of greenhouse insect pests can be achievedPlant debris from previous crops can also be a through release of biocontrol agents likesource of both immature and adult pests. Clean predatory mites, pirate bugs, soil-dwellingup all debris from previous crops and dispose of mites, and parasitic insects. ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 3
  4. 4. Implementing a biological control program in a Suppliers of biocontrol agents can providegreenhouse is management intensive and technical assistance and help growers getrequires more knowledge on the part of the started in a biocontrol program. Whengrower than do traditional pest control requesting assistance or ordering beneficialsprograms. Proper species identification is very from a supplier, the grower should be able toimportant before a control program using provide information such as: what the pest is,predators or parasites is initiated. Release rate, how much square footage is affected, croptiming, placement, temperature, and pesticide rotations, fertility programs, and pesticides thatuse also influence the success or failure of have been used in the greenhouse.biological control efforts. Rigorous monitoringis necessary for proper timing of biocontrol The Canadian greenhouse vegetable industry—agent releases, as is a reliable supply of the which is about four times the size of the U.S.natural enemies. industry—is largely based on biological controls. In 1995, tomato growers in BritishKnowing the lifespan of the beneficials selected Columbia spent 50 cents per square meter peris important too, since fewer releases are season on biological control, primarily on therequired if sufficient numbers of parasites or parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa (5).predators are maintained. Some species ofbeneficials live only a few days and therefore There are several items to keep in mind whenmust be released biweekly. Other species live using biological controls (6):for several weeks; consequently, they are • No single pest control method is 100%released less frequently. effective. • This method often involves more work atThe level of control provided by a natural first than chemical control, and it mayenemy will also vary with crop species. It is require changes in production methods.therefore more difficult for bedding and other • Biologicals are often highly susceptible tocontainer-plant growers to implement pesticides. When choosing pesticides, selectbiocontrol, since they produce a wide variety of those with the shortest residual life and thecrops. highest specificity. • Since many biologicals work slowly, theyOne of the most important things to keep in are best used when pest numbers are fairlymind when using biologicals is that even low.residual insecticide can harm them. This • Most predators and parasites perform best athappened to a grower who tried to use Encarsia moderate temperatures (65–85°F) andformosa, a parasitic wasp, on his poinsettias (4). humidities (60–90%).The previous crop had been sprayed with a • If the greenhouse is allowed a dormantpesticide two months before applying the period (either very hot or very cold), thewasps, but all the wasps were killed by the beneficials will die.residual. • If the pest level is very high when beneficials are first introduced, theyBiologicals also allow more thorough coverage probably will not provide enough control.than spraying and a more efficient use of labor, • The effectiveness of the same beneficial maysince workers don’t have to wait for re-entry be different on different plants. Forinto the greenhouse (4). instance, beneficials are often less effective on hairy-leaved plants like tomatoes.Generally, the best time to release beneficials is • If all the plants leave the greenhouse, so willat the first sign of a pest infestation. Early the beneficials.morning and dusk are the optimum releasetimes. ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 4
  5. 5. • If all the pests are destroyed, the beneficials developing resistance. IGRs can work in one of will starve. several ways: 1) they can mimic juvenile• Some plants exude substances toxic to hormones, so that insects never enter the beneficials. reproductive stage of development; 2) they can interfere with the production of chitin, whichSee Appendix II: Beneficial Organisms for makes up the shell of most insects; or 3) theymore information on biological control agents. can interfere with the molting process.Insect Growth Regulators IGRs usually work through ingestion, so good spray coverage is essential. They generallyInsect growth regulators (IGRs) are another don’t affect non-target species—such asleast-toxic pesticide control option for pests. humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. ForIGRs typically kill insects by disrupting their most IGRs there are minimal re-entrydevelopment. They have a complex mode of restrictions. IGRs typically take several days toaction that precludes insects from rapidly have an effect on pest populations. Because Table 1. Selected Insect Growth Regulators Brand Name Supplier Active against Adept Uniroyal Chemicals fungus gnats Azatin Hydro-Gardens, Olympic whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, mealybugs, Horticultural Products fungus gnats, aphids, cabbage loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms Citation Novartis leafminers, fungus gnats, shore flies Confirm Rohm & Haas caterpillars Dimilin Uniroyal Chemicals beet armyworm, whiteflies, fungus gnats, shore flies Distance Valent whiteflies, fungus gnats, shore flies Enstar II Wellmark Intl. whiteflies, fungus gnats, aphids, soft and armored scales, mealybugs Insegar Novartis caterpillars, psyllids, scales Neemazad Thermo Trilogy whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, cabbage loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms Neemix Thermo Trilogy whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms, cabbage loopers Precision Novartis whiteflies, soft scales, fungus gnats, shore flies, leafminers Preclude Whitmore Micro-Gen whiteflies, thrips, scales, aphids Pyrigro Whitmore Micro-Gen whiteflies, fungus gnats, scale Trigard Novartis leafminers ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 5
  6. 6. IGRs do not affect mature insects, adult Spinosadbeneficials released into the greenhouse after anIGR application are not likely to be affected. Early in 1999, Conserve SC™ from DowUse of IGRs is generally prohibited by organic AgroSciences was registered for use oncertification organizations because the products greenhouse ornamentals. The active ingredientare synthetic. comes from the soil-inhabiting actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Conserve is effectiveIGRs can sometimes be used in conjunction with against many different species of caterpillars,biological control efforts and may provide leafminers, and thrips. Experiments performedgrowers with a “safety net” should beneficials at the Ohio State University showed thatfail to keep the pests below economically Conserve provided excellent control of Westerndamaging levels. Table 1 lists some well-known flower thrips (7).insect growth regulators. (See the Resourcessection for suppliers.) Hot Pepper Wax and Garlic ExtractBiorational Pesticides These products are actually insect repellents. Hot Pepper Wax™ contains paraffin (refined wax)The integration of biorational pesticides (also and capsaicin (the “hot” in hot peppers).known as least-toxic or biopesticides) in Another study at Ohio State showed that Hotgreenhouses is often necessary in addition to Pepper Wax did not control Western flowercultural and biological control measures. When thrips, but was effective against two-spottedthe use of a pesticide is necessary, materials spider mite (7). Products containing garlic alsoshould be selected that are least harmful to the work to repel insects.predators and parasites released into thegreenhouse. Insecticidal soap, horticultural oils, See Appendix III: Biorational Pesticides forand the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are information on products formulated for specificexamples of insecticides that can be safely pests.integrated into a biological control program.The advantages of biopesticides over Greenhouse Disease Controlconventional chemicals are their selectivity to atargeted pest, lower toxicity to beneficial insects The greenhouse climate is ideal for theand greenhouse workers, and shorter re-entry development of plant diseases. An integrationintervals (REI). of cultural practices, environmental control, biological control, and natural control productsEnhanced control with pesticides is achieved will be needed to prevent widespread outbreak.with thorough spray coverage. Wider plantspacing and removal of dead lower leaves Many fungicides are also toxic to beneficialimproves pesticide coverage and pest control. organisms, and should be avoided if possible. Alternative disease control techniques includeBeauveria bassiana the use of disease resistant varieties, disease-free seeds and plants, well-drained soil, airBotaniGard™ (from Mycotech) and Naturalis- circulation, weed eradication, humidity control,O™ (from SePro) are the two commercial sanitation, disease-suppressive composts,formulations of B. bassiana that are available for compost watery extracts, and microbialgreenhouse use. B. bassiana is a naturally antagonists.occurring fungus that attacks a wide range ofpests—including aphids, whiteflies, thrips and Disease control may be classified into twospider mites. B. bassiana has been found to be approaches: 1) those aimed at the rootcompatible with predators such as Encarsia spp., environment, and 2) those aimed at the aerialEretmocerus spp. and Chrysoperla spp. environment. ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 6
  7. 7. The Root Environment highly effective and environmentally safe. Equipment and fuel costs are expensive,Soil disinfection (i.e., sterilization) is an however, and treatment between crops is laborimportant part of soil-borne disease control and time consuming. These are the chiefwhen raising vegetables by the ground culture reasons many growers shifted to soilless mixes.method or when soil-based potting mixes areused. Soil-borne diseases include damping-off There are three methods of steaming in common(Pythium and Rhizoctonia), black root rot use today (8):(Thielaviopsis), and several other root rots andwilts caused by Fusarium and Phytophthera. 1) Tarping an area and piping in steam forPotting mixes based on compost, peat moss, 6–8 hours, heating and sterilizing the topvermiculite, perlite, and bark are typically 8 inches of soil;pathogen-free and do not require prior 2) Pumping steam into subsurface drainagesterilization. pipes, sterilizing the top 2 feet of soil; and,Sterilization involves heating the soil to 212°F 3) Negative pressure steaming, wherefor 30 minutes, a process that kills most pumps pull steam applied at the surfaceorganisms in the soil. Chemical changes also through pipes buried 2 feet deep and 10occur in the soil and may affect plant nutrient feet apart.uptake to the following crop. Pasteurizationinvolves heating the soil to only 160°F for 30 Solarizationminutes. While most harmful pathogens arekilled at this temperature, many beneficial soil Soil solarization is the process of tarping moistorganisms survive. Thus, pasteurization is the soils with clear polyethylene to trap solarpreferred method in organic programs. radiation and raise soil temperatures to levels lethal to most pathogens and weed seeds.Chemical biocides, electrical heat, steam heat, Solarization is most effective when applied forand soil solarization are the primary methods of at least 30 days in midsummer. Two layers ofsoil disinfection in greenhouse production. A polyethylene, separated by fillers (i.e., pvc pipesfifth method of disease suppression is biological or 2x 4s) spaced every few feet to create an aircontrol. Soil fumigants such as methyl bromide space, increases the efficiency of solarization.are, of course, restricted in organic production.Electrical heat treatment, which is done inside a Solarization in greenhouses is a proven meanssteel chamber surrounded by heating coils, is of soil sterilization, and is practiced worldwidelimited to treating about a cubic yard of soil at a in Japan, Israel, Greece, France, Italy, Belgium,time. Its primary use is in the pasteurization of Portugal, and Spain (9–11), in addition to thesmall batches of sand and soil for potting mixes. United States and Canada.Accordingly, steam pasteurization and soil Solarization can also be used to pasteurize sandsolarization are the two most viable options for or soil intended for potting media, or to treatsterilizing greenhouse soils or large volumes of used media (12). A simple technique developedsoil-based mixes. Biological control is in Florida (13) is to fill a black plastic trash bagcomplementary to these two methods. with media, which is then sealed in a transparent plastic bag. The double-wrappedSteaming media is placed in the open on asphalt or concrete and spread to a uniform depth of 3Steam was the primary method of soil inches.sterilization in the greenhouse industry prior tothe emergence of soil fumigants. Steam heat is ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 7
  8. 8. As long as the trashbag received one full day of The beneficial effect of crop rotation on plantsunshine from April through August, the health and yield is probably due to changes intemperatures reached or exceeded 113°F for soil microflora. These shifts result in increasingmore than 2 hours. This temperature, which numbers of beneficial microorganismswas monitored with a thermometer inserted (including nitrifying and other useful bacteria,into the media, was considered the minimum antagonists of pathogens, etc.), and intreatment period for plant-parasitic nematodes. decreasing numbers of noxious ones (pathogensThis method yields about 24 liters of media. and antagonists of beneficial microorganisms) (15).Biological control of pathogens in greenhousesoils and potting mixes is accomplished through In some greenhouses, a short-term break crop—natural control via cultural practices, and such as annual ryegrass, oats, buckwheat, orsecondly, through applied biocontrols. The rapeseed—may fit into the rotation and be usedintroduction of biocontrol agents, or to increase organic matter. Another option is toantagonists, is the next form of biological soil rely on organic amendments or green leafdisinfection. Biological fungicides are a manures brought in from off site. Amendmentspromising alternative to synthetic fungicides. such as fresh residues, composts, and manures result in soil improvement through aThere are several new biocontrols available for proliferation of microflora.suppressing root diseases (14). One product isRootShield™, a biofungicide that controls root Green leaf manures are field-grown cover cropsdiseases caused by Pythium, Rhizoctonia, that are chopped and harvested green, thenFusarium, and Sclerotinia. RootShield contains transported inside the greenhouse to bethe fungus Trichoderma harzianum and is sold incorporated into the soil. Many studies haveeither as granules or a drench. SoilGard 12G™ shown that crucifer residues from rapeseed andis another biofungicide that controls Pythium, oilseed radish cover crops produce toxic gasesFusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and that suppress soilborne pathogens.Thielaviopsis (when co-applied with sulfur). The Additionally, soil solarization, followingactive ingredient is the fungus Gliocladium incorporation of cruciferous residues, increasesvirens. SoilGard is sold as granules that can be the efficiency of soilborne pathogen control.incorporated into the soil mix. Another product The role of composts as a slow-release nutrientis MycoStop™, sold as a wettable powder. source in organic production is well established.MycoStop contains the actinomycete Recently, the role of composts as amendmentsStreptomyces griseoviridis and controls Fusarium, for the control of soilborne plant pathogens hasalthough it may control other root diseases. See increased interest in similar use in conventionalAppendix II: Biorational Pesticides for further agriculture. Much of the pioneering research oninformation. this topic has been conducted by Dr. Harry Hoitink (16–18) at Ohio State University.Deny™ (from Stine Seed) contains thebacterium Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia and In container production, diseasecontrols diseases caused by Rhizoctonia, -suppressive composts are commerciallyFusarium, and Pythium. It also provides some available in both peat and soil-basednematode control. Intercept™ (from Soil media. Dr. Frank Regulski, who isTechnologies) also uses B. cepacia to control President of BioComp, Inc., an Edenton,disease. N.C., company that developed a series of disease-suppressive mixes, said thatCultural practices that promote soil health suppressive properties come from ainclude crop rotation and use of tilled-in crop certain composting technique that yieldsresidues and green manures or organic antibiotic (antagonistic) and competitiveamendments brought in from off site. (saprophytic) responses (19). ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 8
  9. 9. Natural disease-suppressive potting mixes— limiting disease spread, biological and pesticidalbased on composts—are available through control, and, most important, when available,several commercial sources. These products resistant germplasm (21).may, however, contain starter fertilizers andwetting agents which would restrict their use in Environmental Controlorganic certification programs. Contact themanufacturers for clarification on these Temperature and humidity regulation—ingredients. Some companies will blend a functions of heating and cooling, ventilation,special batch that excludes restricted vapor pressure, and structure—are increasinglyingredients, therefore making them suitable for becoming computerized. Expert software thatorganic production. For more information on reduces disease-infective conditions whilethese companies, ask for ATTRA’s publication promoting crop growth is available throughDisease Suppressive Potting Mixes commercial vendors.<>. This publication also Agricultural engineers at the Ohio Agriculturaldiscusses how to inoculate potting mixes Research and Development Center (OARDC) inwith mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae colonize Wooster, Ohio, are knowledgeable aboutplant roots and protect them against computer environment controlled greenhousescertain pathogenic fungi, including and should be able to direct you to appropriatevarious Pythium and Fusarium species systems. Contact:(20). Ohio Agricultural Research andThe Aerial Environment Development Center 1680 Madison AvenueFoliar and stem diseases include gray mold Wooster, OH 44691-6900(Botrytis), powdery mildew (Erysiphe spp.), early 330-263-3700blight (Alternaria spp.), soft rot (Erwinia spp.),and several other fungal and viral diseases Foliar Productscaused by Xanthomonas, Fusarium, andPsuedomonas. Greenhouse growers have fewer alternative control products for diseases than for insects.Greenhouse climates are warm, humid, and Copper- and sulfur-based fungicides are thewind-free—an ideal environment for the only commercial fungicides acceptable indevelopment of many foliar and stem diseases. certified organic programs. Coppers exhibitFor the majority of pathogenic fungi and both fungicidal and bacterial control properties.bacteria, infection usually occurs when a film or Sulfurs are noted for control of mildews.drop of water on the plant surface persists. Alternative disease control strategies, althoughUnless temperature, humidity, and ventilation based more on growers experience and limitedare well regulated, this surface water can remain research, include compost watery extracts (seein the greenhouse until infection becomes ATTRA’s publication Compost Teas for Plantassured (21). Disease Control for more information), biodynamic herbal extracts (see ATTRA’sIntegrated disease management, therefore, is publication Biodynamic Farming and Compostbased on climate control for disease infection Preparation) and foliar feeding (see next page).and optimum crop yield and quality. Iteliminates inoculum through high standards of Biofungicides for foliar disease control are alsohygiene (sterilizing soil or using soilless media, available. AQ10™ contains the fungusobtaining disease-free planting material, Ampelomyces quisqualis and controls powderychlorine bleach rinses of footwear & equipment, mildew. Trichodex™ controls botrytis.vegetative-free floors, etc.), cultural practices for TopShield™ contains Trichoderma harzianum and ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 9
  10. 10. controls botrytis and powdery mildew. Remedy should be applied at the first sign ofTopShield should become commercially disease and repeated at one- or two-weekavailable in 1999. See Appendix III: Biorational intervals until the problem subsides. A six-Pesticides for further information. ounce bottle (enough to make 12 gallons of spray) is available for $15 from:Foliar Feeding Gardener’s Supply CompanyFoliar feeding is used by many organic growers 128 Intervale induce resistance to foliar disease. Seaweed Burlington, VT 05401and fish emulsion are the two products most 800-955-3370commonly applied. More sophisticated foliarprograms are being formulated in conjunction For more information on how to use bakingwith refractometers and radionics instruments. soda, ask for ATTRA’s publication Using BakingAlthough the mechanism for resistance is not Soda as a Fungicide.clear, modification of the leaf surface andenhanced plant nutrition is suspected. It has Related ATTRA Publications:been stated that foliar fertilization indirectlyprotects against plant pathogens by increasing Organic Potting Mixesnatural plant immunity through improvement Disease Suppressive Potting Mixesof the plants nutritional status (22). Integrated Pest Management Using Baking Soda as a FungicideEvidence is also strong that foliar feeding can Compost Teas for Plant Disease Controlhave a dramatic effect on the rhizosphere Biodynamic Farming and Compost Preparationmicroflora via changes in root exudates (15). Greenhouse IPM:Such changes in root exudates may lead to an Sustainable Aphid Controlincrease of antagonists and thus enhance Sustainable Thrips Controlbiological control of pathogens in the root Sustainable Whitefly Controlenvironment as well (15). Further informationon foliar feeding is available from ATTRA onrequest. References:Baking Soda 1) Gentile, A.G., and D.T. Scanlon; Revised by Tina Smith. 1992. A Guide to Insects andBaking soda has for many years been used in Related Pests of Floricultural Crops in NewEurope as a mild fungicide by rose growers and England: For Commercial Growers. Universityorganic gardeners. Recently, plant pathologists of Massachusetts Cooperative Extensionat Cornell University confirmed through System. 36 p.research that baking soda exhibits fungicidalactivity against powdery mildew and several 2) Kuack, David. 1995. Janet Bandy onother diseases on ornamentals (23). They implementing an effective IPM program. Greenhouse Management and Production.determined that a mixture of 0.5% baking soda April. p. 56–57.(about 5 level teaspoons per gallon of water)and 0.5% horticultural oil showed the greatest 3) Dutky, Ethel. 1995. Here’s how to cut youractivity. losses due to disease. GMPro. October. p. 63–65.A new product containing baking soda, calledRemedy™, is now available for use as a 4) Aylsworth, Jean. 1993. Biological controls catchpesticide. Remedy is effective against black on with growers. Greenhouse, powdery mildew, leaf spots, anthracnose, December. p. 77–78, 80–81.phoma, phytophthora, scab, and botrytis. ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 10
  11. 11. 5) Gillespie, D.R. 1995? Development of 14) Chase, A.R. 1998. New bactericides and integrated pest management and biological fungicides for disease control on ornamentals. control systems for the production of Greenhouse Product News. December. greenhouse crops. p. 22–24. 6 p. 15) Gindrat, D. 1979. Biological soil disinfection. p. 253–287. In: D. Mulder (ed.) Soil Disinfection.6) DeAngelis, J.D. 1991. Introduction to Biological Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., New York, Pest Control in Greenhouses. Oregon State NY. Univ. Extension Service, Corvallis, OR. 6 p. 16) Dr. Harry Hoitink7) Lindquist, Richard K. 1998. Evaluations of non- Department of Plant Pathology conventional pesticides for insect and mite Ohio Agricultural Research and control on greenhouse ornamental plants. Development Center Greenhouse Product News. July. p. 52–55. The Ohio State University 1680 Madison Avenue8) Klassen, Parry. 1993. Mulling over methyl Wooster, OH 44691-4096 bromide. Greenhouse Grower. August. p. 118 & 120. 17) Hoitink, Harry A., and Peter C. Fahy. 1986. Basis for the control of soilborne plant9) Mahrer, Yitzhak. 1991. Physical pathogens with composts. Annual Reviews of properties of solar heating of soils by Phytopathology. Vol. 24. p. 93–114. plastic mulching in the field and in glasshouses and simulation models. p. 18) Hoitink, H.A.J., Y. Inbar, and M.J. Boehm. 1991. 75, 81–86. In: Jaacov Katan James E. Status of compost-amended potting mixes DeVay (ed.) Soil Solarization. CRC naturally suppressive to soilborne diseases of Press, Boca Raton, FL. floricultural crops. Plant Disease. September. p. 869–873.10) Garibaldi, Angelo, and M. Lodovica Bullino. 1991. Soil solarization in 19) Roberts, Dan R. 1992. Insect-, Southern European countries, with disease-suppressive mixers help emphasis on soilborne disease control of growers minimize crop losses. protected crops. p. 227–235. In: Jaacov Greenhouse Manager. September. Katan and James E. DeVay (ed.) Soil p. 68, 70–71. Solarization. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 20) Anon. 1992. Mycori-Mix contains beneficial fungi, suppresses pythium.11) Horiuchi, Seizo. 1991. Soil solarization Greenhouse Manager. September. in Japan. p. 215, 218–223, 225. In: p. 68. Jaacov Katan and James E. DeVay (ed.) Soil Solarization. CRC Press, Boca 21) Jarvis, William R. 1992. Managing Raton, FL. Diseases in Greenhouse Crops. American Phytopathological Society, St.12) Gamliel, A. et al. No date. Solarization for the Paul, MN. p. 3, 5, & 220–221. Recycling of Container Media. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel. 22) Nowosielski, O. et al. 1988. A Unpublished manuscript. 8 p. biological basis for the efficiency of plant protecting foliar fertilizers in13) Giblin, R.M., and S.D. Verkade. 1987. vegetable production. Acta Solarization of small volumes of potting soil for Horticulture. Vol. 222. disinfection of plant-parasitic nematodes. p. p. 105–116. 174–176. In: Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. Vol. 100. 23) Anon. 1990. Baking soda can ward off fungus. Greenhouse Manager. June. p. 24. ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 11
  12. 12. Resources: Gill, Stanton and John Sanderson. 1998. Ball Identification Guide to Greenhouse Pests andBooks: Beneficials. Ball Publishing, Batavia, IL. 244 p. Available for $67 from Ball Publishing (see address above).Applied Bio-nomics, Ltd. (ed). 1993. BiologicalTechnical Manual. Applied Bio-nomics, Ltd., Sidney, Green, Thomas A. (ed.) 1998. 1998 IPM Almanac.B.C. 490 p. Gempler’s, Belleville, WI. 178 p. A comprehensive text on the biology and use of Excellent source of IPM info. Introduces the grower beneficial insects and mites for biological control in to IPM techniques. Provides comprehensive checklists greenhouses. The manual includes biology, life cycles, for specific crops and gives numerous resources. release instructions, pesticide compatibilities, and crop Available for $4.95 from: programs for greenhouse tomatoes, poinsettias, floricultural crops, and interior plantscapes. It has Gempler’s been in revision for several years and is unavailable for 100 Countryside Dr. purchase. However, you might be able to obtain a PO Box 270 copy through inter-library loan or at a used bookstore. Belleville, WI 53508 800-382-8473Casey, Christine (ed.) 1997. Integrated Pest 800-551-1128 faxManagement for Bedding Plants. IPM No. 407. http://www.gemplers.comCornell University Cooperative Extension, Ithaca,NY. 109 p. Hunter, Charles D. 1997. Suppliers of Beneficial Covers scouting methods, how to develop and evaluate Organisms in North America. PM 97-01. California a management strategy, case studies, key pests, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of diseases and disorders, and biological controls. Also Pesticide Regulation. Sacramento, CA. 32 p. contains sources of scouting supplies and scouting The booklet lists 143 commercial suppliers of more forms. Available for $12.75 from: than 130 beneficial organisms used for biological Media Services Resource Center control, including a special section on greenhouse Cornell University biological control. The booklet can be downloaded 7-8 Business & Technology Park from their website, or free, single copies can be Ithaca, NY 14850 obtained from: 607-255-2080 California Environmental Protection Agency 607-255-9946 fax Department of Pesticide Regulation Environmental Monitoring and PestCherim, Michael S. 1998. The Green Methods Management BranchManual: The Original Bio-Control Primer, 4th ed. Attn: Beneficial Organisms BookletGreen Spot Publishing, Nottingham, NH. 238 p. 1220 N. Street, Room 161 Excellent resource on biological controls. Also Sacramento, CA 95814-5624 includes information on cultural and mechanical pest 916-324-4100 management methods. Available for $9.95 from: The Green Spot, Ltd. /bensuppl.htm Publishing Division 93 Priest Rd. Hussey, N.W. and N. Scopes (ed). 1985. Biological Nottingham, NH 03290-6204 Pest Control: The Glasshouse Experience. Cornell 603-942-8925 University Press, Ithaca, NY. 240 p. This book is a comprehensive work that explains theDaughtrey, Margery and Christine Chase. 1992. The life cycles of both pests and biological control agents.Ball Field Guide to Diseases of Greenhouse All of the major and minor greenhouse pests areOrnamentals. Ball Publishing, Batavia, IL. 218 p. covered. This book is no longer in print, but you may Available for $67 from: be able to get it through inter-library loan or at a used Ball Publishing bookstore. 335 N. River St. PO Box 9 Batavia, IL 60510 630-208-9080 ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 12
  13. 13. Lindquist, Richard. 1998. Identification of Insects Powell, Charles C. and Richard K. Lindquist. 1997.and Related Pests of Horticultural Plants. Ohio Ball Pest and Disease Manual. 2nd edition. BallFlorists’ Assocation, Columbus, OH. 44 p. Publishing, Batavia, IL. 426 p. Illustrates the life cycle and crop damage of ten major Features specific information on plant pathology and pests. The 20-page Appendix: Insect Cocktail entomolgy in flower and foliage crops. Contains provides information on combining chemical and detailed diagnostic and corrective information. biological tools for use against pests. Available for $27 Additionally, the Index of Host Plants, Diseases and from: Pests is very helpful. Available for $63 from Ball Ohio Florists’ Association Publishing (see address above). 2130 Stella Court, Suite 200 Columbia, OH 43215 Steiner, Marilyn Y. and Don P. Elliot. 1987. Biological 614-487-1117 Pest Management for Interior Plantscapes, 2nd edition. Alberta Public Affairs Bureau, Edmonton, Alberta,Malais, M. and W.J. Ravensburg. 1992. Knowing Canada. 32 p.and Recognizing: The Biology of Glasshouse Pests An informative booklet on pest management inand Their Natural Enemies. Koppert B.V., Berkel en interior plantscapes. The authors detail life cycleRodenrijs, Netherlands. 109 p. information and provide cultural, biological and This book includes photographs, drawings, and life chemical control options for major greenhouse pests. cycle diagrams for both pests and beneficials of Copies can be ordered for about $15 from: greenhouse crops. In the U.S., it is available for $50 Pauline Coleman through: Alberta Research Council IPM Laboratories, Inc. Crop & Plant Management P.O. Box 300 Bag 4000 Locke, NY 13092-0300 Vegreville, AB 315-497-2063 Canada T9C 1T4 315-497-3129 Fax 780-632-8211Meister, Richard T. (ed.) 1999. Insect and Disease Greenhouse Grower magazine publishes IPM manualsControl Guide. Meister Publishing, Willoughby, OH. on the control of greenhouse whiteflies and thrips.602 p. The two publications, Win the War on Whiteflies, and Extensive annual listing of controls for insects and Get a Grip on Thrips, are an assortment of selected disease for greenhouse and field crops. Available for articles published in the magazine over the span of $54 from: several years. They are available for $12 each from Meister Publishing Company Meister Publishing Company (see address above). 37733 Euclid Ave. Willoughby, OH 44094-5992 Articles: 800-572-7740 Email: Greenhouse IPM in General: Grossman, Joel. 1996. Entomological Society ofJarvis, William. 1995. Managing Diseases in America’s 1995 meeting--part 3: Nicotiana sugarGreenhouse Crops. American Phytopathological esters vs. whiteflies. The IPM Practitioner. April.Press, St. Paul, Minnesota. 228 p. p. 14–15. This is the definitive text on managing diseases in greenhouses. Included are useful sections on Willmott, Jim. 1998. Reduce disease by managing biological control and integrated disease management. The style is more akin to an academic book rather the greenhouse environment. Northeast Greenhouse than a grower’s manual, yet little else has been IPM Notes. October. p. 1–2. published on this topic. It lists for about $85 + $5 s&h. Contact: Biological Control: APS Press 3340 Pilot Knob Road DeAngelis, J.D. 1991. Introduction to Biological Pest St. Paul, MN 55121-2097 Control in Greenhouses, EC 1376. Oregon State Univ. 612-454-7250 Extension Service, Corvallis, OR. ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 13
  14. 14. Gilkeson, Linda A. 1992. A pest-by-pest IPM primer. Periodicals:American Vegetable Grower. May. p. 46, 48. Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC) is a leader in theHoddle, M.S., R.G. van Driesche, J.P. Sanderson. field of integrated pest management. BIRC publishes1998. Biology and use of the whitefly parasitoid The IPM Practitioner and Common Sense Pest Quarterly.Encarsia formosa. Annual Review of Entomology. In addition, they publish a directory of IPM productsVol. 43. p. 645–669. and beneficial insects. BIRC also offers booklets and reprints on least-toxic controls for selected pests. ForKuack, David. 1995. Whats it take to be successful a copy of BIRCs catalog & list of services, contact:with biologicals? Greenhouse Management and Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC)Production. April. p. 22–26. P.O. Box 7414 Berkeley, CA 94707Lowe, Peter. 1993. How to get started with 510-524-2567biological control: Tips from a Danish grower. 510-524-1758 faxGreenhouse Manager. September. Email: birc@igc.apc.orgp. 92, 94, 96, 98, 100., Jim, et al. 1993. Chemical effects on Cornell and Rutgers Cooperative Extension publishgreenhouse biological control agents. GrowerTalks. Northeast Greenhouse IPM Notes, formerly titledAugust. p. 81–83, 85. Greenhouse IPM Update, a monthly newsletter designed to help growers incorporate IPM into theirWardlow, Leslie R. 1998. IPM in ornamentals: A operations throughout the growing season. Theguide to biocontrol. GrowerTalks. September. newsletter reports on new products, publications,p. 78, 80, 82. and current issues in greenhouse IPM, as well as providing the most up-to-date information on IGRs: individual pests and crops. The hard copy version costs $30 a year for growers and $25 for educators,Immaraju, John and Timothy Wood. 1992. Insect but the newsletter is free over the Internet. Contact:growth regulators widen the pest-control window. Northeast Greenhouse IPM NotesGrower Talks. November. p. 55, 57, 59. Cornell Cooperative Extension 246 Griffing Avenue Riverhead, NY 11901-3086 Biorational Pesticides: 516-727-7850, Michael. 1998. Making the most of /greenhouse-notes/biopesticides. Greenhouse Grower. July.p. 85–86, 88, 93–96. Connecticut Greenhouse Newsletter Contact: Richard J. McAvoyBrownbridge, Michael, Margaret Skinner, and Bruce University of ConnecticutL. Parker. 1998. Factors affecting the efficacy of Dept. of Plant Sciencefungal preparations in ornamental pest management. 1376 Storrs Rd.Ohio Florists’ Association Bulletin, No. 824. June. Storrs, CT 06269-4067p. 14–16. 860-486-0627 860-486-0682 faxMiller, Fredric and Susan Uetz. 1998. Evaluating $9/year for 6 issuesbiorational pesticides for controlling arthropod pestsand their phytotoxic effects on greenhouse crops. Midwest Biological Control NewsHortTechnology. April-June. p. 185–192. Dept. of Entomology University of Wisconsin Diseases: 1630 Linden Dr. Madison, WI 53706Menzies, J.G., and R.R. Belanger. 1996. Recent 608-262-9914advances in cultural management of diseases of crops. Canadian Journal of Plant /mbcn.htmlPathology. Vol. 18, No. 2. p. 186–193. $18/year for 12 issues ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 14
  15. 15. Growing for Market Web Sites:P.O. Box 3747Lawrence, KS 66046 University of Connecticut’s web site on IPM and785-748-0605 greenhouse IPM785-748-0609 fax $27/year for 12 issues IPM in the Northeast Region; web siteTrade Publications: maintained by Cornell UniversityGreenhouse Grower Publishing Company Commercial Biocontrol Products for Use Against37733 Euclid Ave. Soilborne Crop DiseasesWilloughby, OH 44094440-942-2000 Video:440-942-0662 Fax $29/year for 12 issues; Buyer’s Issue every summer Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouses. 27 has lists of pest control suppliers minutes. Shows the unique problems and opportunitiesGMPro (Greenhouse Management & Production) involved with managing pests in productionBranch-Smith Publishing greenhouses. Covers economic thresholds and how toPO Box 1868 apply an IPM program to coordinate physical,Fort Worth, TX 76101 biological, cultural, horticultural, and chemical800-434-6776 controls. Comes with a 72-page book on greenhouse817-882-4120 pest problems. Available for $95 from:817-882-4121 Fax San Luis Video Publishing PO Box 6715 12 issues/year; free to qualified greenhouse growers; Los Osos, CA 93412 $96/year for non-growers 805-528-8322 805-528-7227 faxGreenhouse Product NewsScranton Gillette Communications, Inc. Conference:380 E. Northwest Hwy.Des Plaines, IL 60016-2282 The Society of American Florists holds an annual Pest847-298-6622 Management Conference in February. This is usually847-390-0408 Fax a three-day event that focuses on pest management inEmail: ornamental crops. Annual conference proceedings are available for $17.95. For more information, $30/year for 12 issues contact: Society of American FloristsGrowerTalks 1601 Duke St.Ball Publising Co. Alexandria, VA 22314P.O. Box 9 800-336-4743335 N. River StreetBatavia, IL 60510-0009630-208-9080 Biological Control Suppliers630-208-9350 FaxEmail: or A-1 Unique Insect Control 5504 Sperry Dr. $25/year for 14 issues Citrus Heights, CA 95621 916-961-7945 916-967-7082 fax Email: ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 15
  16. 16. Abbott Laboratories Florikan ESA Corp.1401 Sheridan Rd. 1523 Edger PlaceDept. 44C, Bldg. A1 Sarasota, FL 34240N. Chicago, Ill 60064 800-322-8666800-323-9597 941-377-3633 fax847-937-3729 fax Email: buglady@aol.comARBICO Inc. E.C. Geiger, Inc.PO Box 4247 CRB Rt. 63, Box 285Tucson, AZ 85738 Harleysville, PA 19438800-SOS-BUGS 215-256-6511520-825-2038 fax 215-256-6110 faxEmail: Email: geigerintl@hortnet.com The Green Spot, Ltd.Beneficial Insectary 93 Priest Rd.14751 Oak Run Rd. Nottingham, NH 03290-6204Oak Run, CA 96069 603-942-8925800-477-3715 603-942-8932530-472-3523 fax 603-942-5027 voice mailEmail: Email: GrnSpt@internetMCI.com Harmony Farm SupplyBioLogic Co. 3244 Hwy. 116 No. FPO Box 177 Sebastopol, CA 95472Willow Hill, PA 17271 707-823-9125Email: 707-823-1734 fax717-349-2789/2922 Email: http://www.harmonyfarm.comBioWorks122 N. Genesee St. Hot Pepper Wax, Inc.Geneva, NY 14456 305 Third St.800-877-9443 Greenville, PA 16125315-781-1793 fax 888-667-3785 724-646-2302 faxCaltec Agri-Marketing Services Email: lindag@hotpepperwax.comPO Box 576155 http://www.hotpepperwax.comModesto, CA 95357209-575-1295 Hydro-Gardens, Inc.209-575-0366 fax PO Box 25845 Colorado Springs, CO 80932 719-495-2266Dow AgroSciences 719-531-0506 fax9330 Zionsville Rd. http://www.hydro-gardens.comIndianapolis, IN 46268-1054800-258-3033 IGENE Biotechnology, Inc.317-337-7374 fax 9110 Red Branch Rd. Columbia, MD 21045 410-997-2599Ecogen Inc. 410-730-0540 fax2005 Cabot Blvd. WPO Box 3023Langhorne, PA 17271-3023800-220-3326215-757-2956 fax ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 16
  17. 17. International Technology Services Inc. Novartis Crop Protection, Inc.PO Box 19227 PO Box 18300Boulder, CO 80308-2227 Greensboro, NC 27419-8300303-473-9141 800-334-9481303-473-9143 fax 336-632-2861 faxEmail: Laboratories Olympic Horticultural ProductsPO Box 300 PO Box 1885Locke, NY 13092-0099 Bradenton, FL 34206-1885315-497-2063 800-659-6745315-497-3129 Fax 888-647-4329 fax Email: olympic@hortnet.comKoppert Biological Systems Main St. SouthAnn Arbor, MI 48103 Plant Health Care313-998-5589 440 William Pitt Way313-998-5557 fax Pittsburg, PA 15238 800-421-9051M&R Durango, Inc. Box 886Bayfield, CO 81122 Praxis970-259-3521 2723 116th Ave.970-259-3857 fax Allegan, MI 49010 616-673-2793Mycogen Crop Protection 616-673-2793 fax5501 Oberlin Dr. Email: praxis@datawise.netSan Diego, CA 92121800-745-7476 Rincon-Vitova Insectaries, Inc.619-453-9089 fax PO Box 1555Email: Ventura, CA 93002 800-248-2847Mycotech Corp. 805-643-6267 faxPO Box 4109 Email: bugnet@west.netButte, MT 59702-4109800-383-4310 Rohm & Haas Co.406-782-9912 fax 100 Independence Mall WestEmail: Philadelphia, PA 19106 800-523-0762Natural Pest Controls 215-592-2797 fax8864 Little Creek Dr. http://www.rohmhaas.comOrangeville, CA 95662916-726-0855 SePRO Corp.916-726-0855 fax 11550 N. Meridian St., Suite 180Email: Carmel, IN 46032-4562 800-419-7779 317-580-8290 faxNature’s Control Email: rogers@sepro.comPO Box 35 http://www.sepro.comMedford, OR 97501800-698-6250 Sespe Creek Insectary541-899-9121 fax PO Box 176Email: Lindsay, CA 93247 209-562-6464 ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 17
  18. 18. Soil Technologies Corp. Uniroyal Chemicals 2103 185th St. Benson Rd. Fairfield, IA 52556 Middlebury, CT 06749 800-221-7645 800-243-2850 515-472-6189 fax 203-573-3394 fax Email: Wellmark International Stine Seed Co. 1000 Tower Lane, Suite 245 2225 Laredo Trail Bensonville, IL 60106 Adel, IA 50003 800-842-3135 800-362-2510 630-227-6065 fax 515-677-2716 Whitmore Micro-Gen 3568 Tree Court Ind. Blvd. Stoller Enterprises, Inc. St. Louis, MO 63122 8582 Katy Freeway, Suite 200 800-777-8570 Houston, TX 77024 800-539-5283 Wilbur-Ellis Co. 713-461-4467 fax 191 W. Shaw Ave., Suite 107 Fresno, CA 93704-2876 Thermo Trilogy Corp. 209-226-1934 9145 Guilford Rd., Ste. 175 209-226-7630 fax Columbia, MD 21046 800-847-5620 301-604-7015 fax By Lane Greer and Steve Diver NCAT Agricultural Specialists Troy Biosciences 2620 N. 37th Dr. Phoenix, AZ 85009 602-233-9047 March 1999 602-254-7989 faxTHE ATTRA PROJECT IS OPERATED BY THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY UNDER A GRANT FROMTHE RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. THESE ORGANIZATIONS DO NOTRECOMMEND OR ENDORSE PRODUCTS, COMPANIES, OR INDIVIDUALS. ATTRA IS LOCATED IN THE OZARK MOUNTAINSAT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS IN FAYETTEVILLE AT P.O. BOX 3657, FAYETTEVILLE, AR 72702. ATTRA STAFFMEMBERS PREFER TO RECEIVE REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION ABOUT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE VIA THE TOLL-FREENUMBER 800-346-9140. ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 18
  19. 19. Appendix I: Monitoring and Scouting Techniques for Greenhouse Plants * Plant Shore Fungus Leaf- Mealy- Broad Spider Soft Armored White- Cater- Aphids Bugs Flies Gnats Miners bugs Mites Mites Scales Scales Slugs Thrips flies pillarsMonitoring:Hot pink sticky cards at top of XplantYellow sticky cards at top of X X X X X X XpotHorizontal sticky trap at top of X X X XpotTrap/Indicator plants X X X XPlace piece of potato on media X XScouting:Inspect underside of leaf X X X X X X X XInspect upper surface for X Xstippling/small white spotsInspect leaves for mines Xwithin tissueInspect new growth or X X X Xterminal for feedingLightly blow into flowers and Xlook for movement ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 19
  20. 20. Plant Shore Fungus Leaf- Mealy- Broad Spider Soft Armored White- Cater- Aphids Bugs Flies Gnats Miners bugs Mites Mites Scales Scales Slugs Thrips flies pillarsTap flowers over white surface X X X& look for movementPress lower leaf on white card Xand look for spots on cardWhite or brown spots on XflowersDark area on buds that are just XopeningCheck for leaves on media for X Xfeeding & larvae beneathObserve for:Honeydew or sooty mold on X X X XleavesBrown callused-like spots on X Xstems/leavesWhite cottony mass on Xstems/leavesHoles in leaves X XSmall clear skeletonized spot X Xon leafCut edges of leaves X XFrass on leaves X ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 20
  21. 21. Plant Shore Fungus Leaf- Mealy- Broad Spider Soft Armored White- Cater- Aphids Bugs Flies Gnats Miners bugs Mites Mites Scales Scales Slugs Thrips flies pillarsSmall black spots on leaves X X(fecal drops)Chlorotic (yellow) spots on X X X X Xupper leaf surfaceWilting of new growth XCaste skins on leaf from Xmolting insectCurling of leaves X XDistortion of new growth X X X X XMain stems of plants X X X X XSlime trail on leaf XBuds fail to open or uneven Xopening of flowersWebbing on leaves or flowers XGnat-like insects flying among X Xplants* Source: Oetting, Ronald D. 1997. Table: Ornamentals - Greenhouse Plants. In: 1997 Insect Control Guide. Meister Publishing, Willoughby, OH. p. 354-355 ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 21
  22. 22. Appendix II: Beneficial Organisms*Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsAmblyseius degenerans or Intl. Technology aphidsIphiseius degenerans Services, IPM Labs.,(predatory mite) Green SpotAmblyseius fallacis or IPM Labs., Rincon- mites Release when pest levels are low. Prefer high humidity.Neoseiulus fallacis Vitova, Green Spot(predatory mite)Anagyrus pseudococci Praxis mealybugs(parasitic wasp)Aphidius colemani Florikan, IPM Labs., aphids Release.5-2/sq. yd.; humidity should be 70-85%, temp. 65-77°F.(parasitic wasp) Harmony Farm Release at first sign of pests and for 3 consecutive weeks Supply, Praxis, thereafter. Sensitive to pesticides. Rincon-Vitova, Green SpotAphidius matricariae Arbico, Hydro- aphids 500-3000/A. Can be used in greenhouses all year long.(parasitic wasp) Gardens, Green SpotAphidoletes aphidimyza Nature’s Control, aphids 1-3/10 sq.ft.; humidity should be 50-90%, temp. 60-80°F. Release(predator midge) Intl. Technology when aphids are first observed; release lower numers for Services, IPM Labora- preventive control; apply every two weeks. Active at night; tories, Hydro-Gardens, sensitive to daylength. Arbico, Praxis, Rincon- Vitova, Harmony Farm Supply, Green SpotAphytis melinus Arbico, Sespe Creek many scales 10,000-100,000/A; humidity should be 20-80%, temp. 65-95°F.(parasitic wasp) Insectary, Harmony, Hydro-Gardens, IPM Labs, Natural Pest Controls, Praxis, Green Spot ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 22
  23. 23. Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsChilocorus spp. Praxis scales(beetle)Chrysopa carnea Natural Pest Controls, aphids, caterpillars, 1 lacewing/5-30 aphids; 1000 eggs/200 sq. ft. Apply every 1-3(predator) Beneficial Insectary, mealybugs, scales, weeks as needed. May arrive as eggs, immatures, or adults. Caltec, Arbico, A-1 spider mites, thrips, Unique Insect Control, whiteflies Praxis, Rincon-Vitova, Hydro-GardensChrysoperla rufilabris Arbico, Beneficial see above(predator) Insectary, IPM Labs., A-1 Unique Insect Control, Nature’s Control, Praxis, Rincon-VitovaChrysoperla spp. M&R Durango, see above(predator) Florikan, Green SpotCoccophagus lycimnia Praxis scale(parasitic wasp)Coleomegilla imaculata Arbico aphids, caterpillars, 1/sq. ft.; shipped as larvae and eggs.(pink ladybird beetle) mites, scales, thrips, whitefliesCryptolaemus montrouzieri Arbico, Caltec, Intl. aphids, mealybugs, 2-5/infested plant; humidity should be 70-80%, temp. 70-80°F.(predator beetle) Technology Services, soft scales Larvae are cannibalistic; repeat as necessary for control; do not IPM Laboratories, wear white while distributing. Natural Pest Controls, Nature’s Control, Florikan, Harmony Farm Supply, Hydro- Gardens, Praxis, Rincon- Vitova, Green Spot ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 23
  24. 24. Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsDacnusa siberica Arbico, Intl. Techno- leafminers 500-1000/A; humidity should be 50-90%; temp. 60-85°F. Apply(parasite) logy Services, Natural at first appearance of pests. Pest Controls, Praxis, Koppert, Green SpotDeraeocoris brevis Green Spot aphids, whiteflies,(predator) thripsDelphastus pusillus Arbico, IPM Labora- greenhouse whitefly, 2000/3000 sq. ft.; temperature should be 60-85°F. Will feed on(predatory beetle) tories, Nature’s sweetpotato whitefly spider mites if no whiteflies are available. Should be used along Control, Harmony Farm with Encarsia formosa and traps. Supply, Hydro-Gardens, Rincon-Vitova, Praxis, Green SpotDiaretiella rapae Arbico, Praxis aphids Release rates vary.(parasite)Diglyphus isaea Arbico, Harmony leafminers Temps. should be 75-90% and humidity around 80%.(parasite) Farm Supply, Natural Pest Controls, Praxis, Intl. Technology Serv., Green SpotEncarsia formosa Arbico, Nature’s greenhouse whitefly, Release 1/sq. ft. weekly for 3 weeks when pest numbers are(parasitic wasp) Control, IPM Labora- sweetpotato whitefly, low. Release 2-4/sq. ft. when pest numbers are high. Tories, Intl. Technology silverleaf whitefly Apply when pests are first observed. Should be used Services, Florikan, in conjunction with traps. May be used along with Harmony Farm Supply, other beneficials. E. formosa is very susceptible to Hydro-Gardens, Natural chemicals. Temps. should be at least 64°F. Re-apply Pest Controls, A-1 Unique every two weeks. Insect Control, Praxis, Rincon-Vitova, Green SpotEncarsia luteola or E. deserti Hydro-Gardens whiteflies ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 24
  25. 25. Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsEretmocerus californicus or Beneficial Insectary, greenhouse whitefly, Capable of handling hot, dry temperatures. Introduce E. eremicus Hydro-Gardens, IPM silverleaf whitefly, when whiteflies are first observed. May be used in(parasitic wasp) Labs., Arbico, Praxis, sweetpotato whitefly combination with other beneficials such as green Green Spot lacewings. Eretmocerus is more tolerant of pesticides than Encarsia formosa.Euseius spp. Praxis scale, mites(predatory mite)Harmonia axyridis Green Spot scale, whiteflies, Temps. should be 70-85°F; humidity around 70%.(Asian lady beetle) mealybugs, aphidsHeterorhabditis bacteriophora M&R Durango, fungus gnats, crown Application rate varies; 1 million/3000 sq. ft. is suggested.(beneficial nematode) Aribco, BioLogic, borers, thrips, cut- Nematodes need a moist environment to survive and move Hydro-Gardens, worms, grubs, Jap. through soil. Apply in evening directly into growing medium. Harmony Farm Supply, beetles, black Plant Health Care, vine weevil Green SpotHippodamia convergens A-1 Unique Insect aphids, mites, Release at dusk near an immediate food source. Spray plants(lady beetle) (predator) Control, Arbico, whiteflies with water prior to release. Caltec, IPM Labora- tories, Natural Pest Controls, Nature’s Control, Harmony Farm Supply, Hydro-Gardens, Praxis, Green SpotHypoaspis miles Nature’s Control, fungus gnats, mites, Use 5000/200 sq. ft. Live and breed in the top ½” of soil.(predatory mite) Arbico, Harmony springtails Farm Supply, IPM Labs.Hypoaspis miles Florikan, Harmony thrips 100-300/sq. meter(predator) Farm Supply, Green Spot ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 25
  26. 26. Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsIphiseius degenerans or Intl. Technology aphids Amblyseius degenerans Services, IPM Labs., (predatory mite) Green SpotLeptomastida enormis Praxis mealybug(parasitic wasp)Leptomastix dactylopii Praxis, Arbico, IPM mealybug Labs.Lindorus lophanthae or Harmony Farm armored scales 1-2/sq. ft. Release as soon as scales are detected.Rhizobius lophanthae Supply, Arbico, Temps. should be 59-77°F, humidity 20-90%.(black lady beetle) Green SpotLysiphlebus testaceipes Praxis aphids(parasitic wasp)Mesoseiulus longipes or Arbico, Nature’s spider mites Introduce at first sign of pests. Can tolerate hot, dry conditionsPhytoseiulus longipes Control, Harmony (humidity 40%, temp. 70-90°F). Tolerates extremes of temp. and(predator) Farm Supply humidity better than other mite predators.Metaphycus helvolus Arbico, IPM Labs., scale Temps. should be 73-87°F; RH 50%. Do not overwinter in(parasite) Harmony Farm cold climates. They are attracted to lights and sticky traps. Supply, Natural Pest Controls, Praxis, Sespe Creek Insectary, Green SpotNeoseiulus spp. or Amblyseius spp. (predatory mites)N. barkeri IPM Laboratories, broad mites, thrips 10-30/plant per week. ArbicoN. californicus Arbico, Beneficial spider mites Can tolerate hot conditions (humidity 60% min.; temp. 70-90°F). Insectary, Caltec, IPM Introduce at first sign of spider mites. Can survive absence of Labs., Nature’s Control, prey longer than other predator mites. Harmony Farm Supply, Hydro-Gardens, Rincon- Vitova ATTRA // Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops Page 26