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Greening our City: Improved Health and Sustainability, Economic Stability in Crisis Times

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Greening our City: Improved Health and Sustainability, Economic Stability in Crisis Times

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  • 1. 2010 Greening Newtown‐The Results of USF’s  Environmental Science  and Policy Capstone Seminar Authors: Jennifer Ascani Leslie Babiak Todd Bogner Alana BrasierRebekah Brightbill Melissa BrogleMelanie Decesare Sara Giunta Justin Heller Garrett Hyzer Katrina Johnson Jason Kendall Christopher Klug Anna Leech Corey Leonard Scott Moore Lin Ozan Adrien Roth Edited and Compiled by Robert Brinkmann Matthew Torrence University of South Florida  12/1/2010  1
  • 2. Table of ContentsIntroductionRobert Brinkmann……………………………………………………………………………page 1A Sustainable Urban Environment: the use of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ inNewtown, SarasotaJennifer Ascani…………………………………………….…………………………………page 3Green Roof Gardens for Enhancing Sustainable Development in NewtownLeslie Babiak………………………………………………………………………..………page 17What a Greenway Park could mean socially and environmentally to a diverse populationwithin SarasotaTodd L. Bogner………………………………………………………………………….…page 36A Green Infrastructure Network to Sustainably Redevelop Newtown, SarasotaAlana Brasier………………………………………………………………………………page 52Minority Business Creation in Newtown: Equalizing the Reach of GreenRebekah G. Brightbill……………………………………………………………….……page 68Waste Reduction, Litter Prevention, and Litter Control in NewtownMelissa R. Brogle…………………………………………………………………………page 87Newtown Residential Bus Stop InventoryChristopher Cochran……………………………………………………………………page 100A Citizen’s Initiative for Sustainable Urban Living through Expanded Recycling andConservation in the Home and CommunityMelanie M. DeCesare……………………………………………………………………page 117Brownfields to Created Wetlands: A Project Initiative for Newtown, SarasotaSara Giunta……………………………………………………………..…………………page 135Benefits of Improved Street Lighting Using Energy Efficient LED TechnologyJustin Heller………………………………………………………………………………page 152Sarasota’s Food Desert:A Case for Providing Newtown’s Residents Access to HealthyFoodsGarrett Hyzer……………………………………………………………………………page 168Sustainable Redevelopment within the Newtown Community of Sarasota, Florida:Green StreetsKatrina Johnson…………………………………………………………………………page 183
  • 3. Promoting Sustainable Redevelopment in Newtown with Urban ForestryJason Kendall…………………………………………………………………………page 199The Potential Effects of Rising Sea Levels on Sarasota and Newtown, and the Lessonslearned from Hurricane Katrina.Christopher Klug………………………………………………………………………page 213Bicycle Infrastructure in NewtownAnna Leech……………………………………………………………………………page 227Assessing the Potential Benefits of Florida Friendly Municipal Landscaping in Newtown,SarasotaCorey Leonard…………………………………………….…………………………page 243Noise Pollution and Environmental JusticeScott A. Moore…………………………………………………………………………page 258The Benefits of On-Site Power Generation for NewtownLin Allen Ozan…………………………………………………………………………page 272A Natural History of Newtown, Sarasota, Florida: Including Geology, Hydrology and SoilsAdrien Roth……………………………………………………………………………page 288The Feasibility of Public Wi-Fi in Newtown, Sarasota: Investigating Community andEconomic Development through Public Wireless Internet AccessMatt Torrence…………………………………………………………………………page 307
  • 4. IntroductionRobert Brinkmann, Ph.D.Professor of GeographyMonths ago, I had my first encounter with Newtown. I drove from USF in Tampa to visit myfriend and colleague, Ms. Lorna Alston. She just started her new position as the GeneralManager of the North Sarasota Redevelopment Division and I was anxious to see how she likedher new position. I was familiar with her impressive work in East Tampa and I knew she wasgoing to make a big difference in the community and in the lives of its citizens. As I drove intoNewtown’s main street, I was struck by its small-town charm. In many ways, the structure ofNewtown is similar to that espoused by those who seek a “New Urbanism” in American cities.New Urbanists recommend developments with small downtowns within walking distance ofhomes and places of work, and with access to public transportation and parks. Indeed, Newtownhas many things in place that make it a highly desirable place to live. It has a distinctneighborhood feel, parks, and easy access to transportation. Yet, there are also problems ofunderemployment, crime, environment, and economic development. Around the United States,there are many Newtowns. Many people are working to improve these communities and thereare many success stories. I have no doubt that North Sarasota will be among the success stories. To many, Sarasota is considered one of the greenest cities in the United States. It wasone of the first in Florida to embrace many of the key elements of the modern sustainabilitymovement. Thus, it makes sense to think about Newtown and the North Sarasota region withinthe context of environmental sustainability. How can this part of Sarasota become a bigger partof Sarasota’s national and international reputation as an urban ecotopia? Each time I teach my graduate seminar called Capstone Seminar in EnvironmentalScience and Policy, I try to give my students opportunities to work within a community onexamining sustainability issues. To me and my students, environmental sustainability includesnot just the environment, but also social and economic issues. Thus, I challenge my students tolook at all aspects within a community to evaluate how to make improvements and to developplans and ideas that are practical and that can assist others in making their communities a betterplace. In the past, my classes have done similar projects in Clearwater and Tampa. I am thrilledthat I was given permission to work with Sarasota in examining the North Sarasota 1
  • 5. Redevelopment area. I am grateful for the assistance of many who gave of their time to assiststudents in their efforts. Within this document are reports from 20 students. This is the largest group I have everhad in this course. The students include individuals working on masters degrees in Geography,Planning, or Environmental Science and Policy. In addition, some of the students are completinga Graduate Certificate Program in Environmental Management. The student projects varyconsiderably from green job training to green roof development. The nature of the reports veryas well in that some are very applied programs with concrete suggestions, while others are moretheoretical in nature. Regardless of the content, each student brings a unique perspective to theunderstanding of the North Sarasota area. 2
  • 6. A Sustainable Urban Environment: the use of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ inNewtown, SarasotaJennifer AscaniAbstract Urban Environments are commonly depicted by their man-made infrastructures -skyscrapers, parking garages, roads, sidewalks, restaurants, and apartments. Often times, naturallandscapes must be altered to accommodate a proposed structure. This can be done through anumber of means: dredging, filling, clearing and flattening. Native vegetation and naturalenvironments are more often than not altered, if not completely demolished, in the process ofurban expansion. While destruction of these natural environments is harmful to inhabitants ofthese ecosystems, lack of green spaces in new urban environments can be just as harmful to itsnew residents. The implementation of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ is a proposed effectivestrategy to halt, replenish, and even prevent the loss of natural ecosystems in Florida’s urbanenvironments. In urban neighborhoods, such as Newtown, Sarasota, implementation of nativevegetation in residential yards yields a plethora of benefits to the neighborhoods’ wildlife as wellas its residents.OutlineThe following outline highlights the main sections of this technical report:I. Newtown Sarasota A. History of the Newtown Community B. New Beginnings for Newtown C. Goals & Objectives of Newtown Community Redevelopment AreaII. Current Conditions A. Newtown Boundaries B. Focus on Residential Yards 1. Newtown Gospel Church 2. City of Sarasota Housing Authority 3. Residential House 1 3
  • 7. 4. Residential House 2 5. Residential House 3III. Proposed Conditions A. “Curb Appeal” B. Smart Landscaping C. Be an Environmental Advocate D. Your Residence Could Look Like ThisIV. About The Florida-Friendly Landscaping Program™V. Nine Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™VI. Education & Introduction of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ into the Newtown CommunityVII. Benefits of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ for the Newtown Community A. Becoming a Sustainable Community B. Environmental Benefits C. Environmental Benefits D. Residential Benefits E. Communal BenefitsVIII. ConclusionNewtown, SarasotaHistory of the Newtown Community: The town of Sarasota, originally platted in 1883, was founded in 1902 (History of theNewtown Community, 2008). In 1904, the Florida West Shore Railway was constructed in theregion that is now considered Newtown, thus bringing the rail service to Sarasota. Newtown isconsidered the second historic African-American core district of Sarasota. The first AfricanAmerican core district, originally called Overtown and more recently known as the RosemaryDistrict, boomed at the turn of the century and into the 20’s, demanding further growth north. Charles Thompson, a well-known circus manager, led the development of Newtown in1914. Thompson’s motivation for development stemmed from his desire to better the quality oflife for Sarasota’s African-American community. Around the same time, Sarasota’s Downtownwas expanding, thus thrusting the African-American population northward. By 1960, Newtownwas home to approximately 7,000 people, or about 6% of Sarasota County’s population. 4
  • 8. In the 1960’s, Newtown’s commercial community prospered. The community boastedmany restaurants, grocery stores, service stations, a drug store, repair shops, beauty parlors,barbershops, and a doctor and dentist’s office (City of Sarasota, 2008). Sadly, decades ofdecreased investment and financial flight, along with creation of government subsidized housingand social services, have resulted in residential properties in disrepair alongside flourishingsingle-family homes. Additionally, many multifamily houses in the community have notreceived continued care, thus resulting in extensive community decomposition.New Beginnings for Newtown: The city of Sarasota held a community-wide meeting with Newtown residents onFebruary 11, 2010, requesting ideas on how to improve the quality of life of the Newtowncommunity, particularly within the areas of Economic Development, Law Enforcement,Neighborhoods, Social Services, and Youth Services (New Beginnings for Newtown, 2008). Theintended outcome of this meeting was to discover ideas and solutions that would assist, as wellas equip, the residents of Newtown to bring about positive change within their community. OnFebruary 23, 2010, the city of Sarasota held another community-wide meeting with Newtownresidents, where they presented the proposed changes and adopted a grass-roots effort to achievethese changes. The meeting attendees then broke into focus groups based on their area of interestand developed action plans to accomplish their goals.Goals & Objectives of Newtown Community Redevelopment Area: The lists of assets and issues generated at the public meeting have been developed into alist of goals and objectives that provide the guidelines for redevelopment in the NewtownCommunity, referred to as the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020 (NewtownComprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2010 Goals and Objectives, 2010). For the purpose of thistechnical report, the focus will be on the establishment of functional, aesthetically pleasingcommunity development. The following is a list of objectives from Newtown ComprehensiveRedevelopment Plan 2020 in which the research of this technical paper will aid in achieving:1. Administration (Redevelopment Administration and Policy): Goal III: Prevent the occurrence of slum and blight. Objective 2: Eliminate conditions that decrease property 5
  • 9. values and reduce the tax base.2. Economic Development: Goal II: Re-establish old neighborhoods through redevelopment and revitalization of the housing stock. Establish a safe, functional, and aesthetically pleasing community environment. Objective 4: Work with the City to clean up vacant, unattended properties.4. Land Use: Goal 1: Establish Land use pattern that reflects the redevelopment area as a community of diversified interests and activities while promoting compatibility and harmonious land-use relationships. Objective 4: Protect and enhance existing residential neighborhoods.8. Urban Design/Parks: Goal I: Establish Parks, recreation, open space, and beautification efforts to create an identifiable character for the redevelopment area, one which will reflect a pleasant, appealing atmosphere for working, shopping, touring, and residing in the district. Objective 3: Prepare landscaping, streetscaping and lighting plans for public to strengthen the historic character of the redevelopment area and encourage the use of these features when negotiating private sector development plans. Objective 8: Utilize a variety of beautification techniques to provide comfortable, pleasing, and healthful work, leisure, residential, and shopping environments. Objective 9: Develop urban site design, landscape design, and architectural design guidelines for new and redevelopment projects.Current ConditionsNewtown Boundaries According to the Geographic Boundary Map of Newtown (pg. 2 of Front Porch FloridaCommunities Newtown, 2007), the Newtown neighborhood boundaries are as follows: OldBradenton Road to the west, US Hwy 301/North Washington Boulevard to the east, MyrtleStreet to the north and 17th Street to the south. 6
  • 10. Focus on Residential Yards On October 30, 2010, photographs were taken of five random residential sites to illustrate current conditions of residential yards in Newtown. As the photographer was alone, observations cited in this paper are based on the photographer’s observations of the yards during a less than five-minute drive-by and observed from the photographs. Table 1.1Name Location Site NameNewtown Gospel Church 1815 Gillespie Avenue Site 1City of Sarasota Housing Corner of 24th Street and Site 2Authority Dixie AvenueResidential House 1 2831 Maple Avenue Site 3Residential House 2 2830 Goodrich Avenue Site 4Residential House 3 2728 Goodrich Avenue Site 5 Newtown Gospel Church According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 1 is zoned as RMF2: Residential, Multi-Family (9 units/acre) with (land) use code 7100: Institutional- Churches. The Land Area of the parcel is 47,564 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 329,900.00 (Appendix A). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 is composed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie and Myakka fine sands (Appendix B). The current vegetation is mostly sparse, exposing many areas of soil. There are a fair number of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. The established deciduous and coniferous trees are located at the rear of the church (west) and provide shade for the building (Appendix C). There is a concrete sidewalk that perimeters the front of the site and an unpaved parking area is located to the right of the building (Appendix D). City of Sarasota Housing Authority According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 2 is zoned as G: Governmental Use with (land) use code 0390: Residential Multi-Family - 100 or more units. The Land Area of the 7
  • 11. parcel is 586,811 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 2,059,000.00(Appendix E). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 iscomposed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie andMyakka fine sands (Appendix F). The current vegetation is mostly turf grass. There are a fairnumber of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. Theestablished deciduous and coniferous trees are located to the west and south of the HousingComplex and providing shade for few buildings (Appendix G). There are concrete sidewalks thatperimeter each neighborhood block. Additionally, there are no paved or unpaved parking areasas all parking is street parking (Appendix H).Residential House 1 According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 3 is zoned as RSF4: Residential,Single Family (5.5 units/acre) with (land) use code 0100: Residential - Single Family. The LandArea of the parcel is 5,000 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 39,100.00(Appendix I). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 iscomposed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie andMyakka fine sands (Appendix J). The current vegetation is overgrown and unmanaged. There area fair number of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. Theestablished deciduous and coniferous trees are located at the rear of the residence (west) andprovide shade for the building (Appendix K). There is a concrete sidewalk that perimeters thefront of the site. Additionally, there are no paved or unpaved parking areas as parking for thisresidence is street parking (Appendix L).Residential House 2 According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 4 is zoned as RSF4: Residential,Single Family (5.5 units/acre) with (land) use code 0100: Residential - Single Family. The LandArea of the parcel is 5,000 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 49,800.00 8
  • 12. (Appendix M). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 iscomposed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 45.4% EauGallie andMyakka fine sands and 54.6% Holopaw fine sand, depressional (Appendix N). The currentvegetation is mostly turf grass. There are a fair number of established deciduous and coniferoustrees as well as a few palms on site. The established deciduous and coniferous trees are located atthe rear of the residence (east) and provide shade for the building (Appendix O). There is aconcrete sidewalk that perimeters the front of the site as well as a concrete driveway.Additionally, there is a chain-link fence that perimeters the property (Appendix P).Residential House 3 According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 5 is zoned as RMF2: Residential,Multi-Family (9 units/acre) with (land) use code 0820: Multi-Family/less than 10 units/Duplex.The Land Area of the parcel is 5,000 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $64,500.00 (Appendix Q). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 iscomposed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie andMyakka fine sands (Appendix R). The current vegetation is mostly turf grass. There are a fairnumber of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. Theestablished deciduous and coniferous trees are located at the rear of the residence (east) andprovide shade for the building (Appendix S). There is a concrete sidewalk that perimeters thefront of the site as well as a concrete driveway to the south (Appendix T).Proposed Conditions“Curb Appeal” One strategy used to raise aesthetic value of a residence is to improve “curb appeal.”Shows such as HGTV’s Curb Appeal take a less than aesthetically pleasing residential yard andtransform it via new landscaping into an eye-catching, property with the potential to sell quickly. 9
  • 13. As many of the objectives of the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020 include anaesthetically pleasing sector, creating “curb appeal” has been a supported strategy for achievingthis.Smart Landscaping While creating an aesthetically pleasing residential yard increases property value as wellas meets objectives of the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020, when executedin a particular fashion this creation can also be environmentally sustainable. One of the 9Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ (FFL) is “Right Plant, Right Place.” Unlikenutrient rich soil found in the north, central Florida boasts mostly xeric (dry) conditions(Appendix U). While many people want a lush, green lawn, they don’t realize that the soilconditions of Florida do no support that type of vegetation. Homeowners end up pumpingexcessive amounts of water and fertilizer into their lawns, believing if they add enough they willbe rewarded with a lush, green lawn. Conversely, lawns that go unattended and unmanaged are abreeding ground for exotics species. The majority of people are unaware that excessive watering depletes Florida’s aquifer.While the aquifer does get replenished through rain, if the state experiences a drought, residentiallawns suffer. This is not aesthetically pleasing, nor does it support a favorable ecosystem forwildlife. FFL offers a sustainable solution to this all too common problem. Choosing nativeplants capable of thriving in xeric conditions by adapting to periods of little to no water can keepresidents’ lawns looking beautiful, while reducing irrigation demands and associated costs(McKinney, 2008). Introducing rain barrels (Appendix V) as an alternative means of watering,through the capture and re-use of rainwater, can also help to transform lawns into sustainableecosystems (Bucklin, 1993). Native vegetation also attracts and supports wildlife that would notbe found in turf grass (Doody et al, 2010). Wildlife displaced by urbanization can thrive in aresidential lawn of native vegetation allowing residents to live in harmony with nature (Chen,2009).Be An Environmental Advocate In addition to residents misusing water to keep their lawns lush and green, over 10
  • 14. fertilization is another environmental issue (Manning, 2008). Urban environments usually havehigh amounts of impermeable surfaces such as sidewalks, driveways, and roads where waterdoes not filter through but runs across the surface. Natural rain, as well as sprinkler systems andself-watering that comes in contact with fertilized lawns, carries the fertilizer down storm drainsand into wetlands, lakes, and ponds. While large amounts of fertilizer may be beneficial toplants, excessive nutrient loads have the opposite effect in water bodies (Erickson et al, 1999).Excessive amounts of nutrients feed algae blooms, making lake and pond management extremelydifficult. Utilizing native plants that require little to no fertilizer will aid in reducing urban run-off as well as keep water bodies more biologically and aesthetically pleasing.Your Residence Could Look Like This Go to http://www.floridayards.org/interactive/index.php to use Florida-FriendlyInteractive Yard. This online interactive tool will give you step-by-step directions to transform acommon turf yard into one dominated by FFL plants. The site is a copyrighted production ofFusionspark Media, Inc. so no part of the production can be copied and reproduced. Additionallyfound on the site is a Florida-Friendly Plant Database that can be utilized in FFL transformation.Black (2003) compiled a list of Florida’s native plants that he believes has the greatest potentiallandscape use. These plants are equally practical and attractive when utilized in rural and urbanenvironments.About The Florida-Friendly Landscaping Program™: The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ (FFL) Program is an extension of the University ofFlorida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Environmental HorticultureDepartment. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) primarily funds theFFL program and as of 2009, has required that UF/IFAS use the term “Florida-FriendlyLandscaping” in all of its research, publications, and associated materials to match the languagethat is used in Florida’s state legislation (citation*). FloridaYards.org is a project of the FloridaSprings Initiative of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and ispresented by UF/IFAS. The FFL program was created to include Florida Yards &Neighborhoods (FYN) program and the Florida-Friendly Best Management Practices for 11
  • 15. Protection of Water Resources by the Green Industries (GIBMPs). The FYN program and theGIBMP program both promote the 9 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principles, which applyequally to homeowner and industry sanctions.Nine Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: The University of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) createdThe Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Handbook that highlights nine principles that will aidresidents in reaching their goal of a Florida-Friendly Yard. The nine principles are as follows: 1. Right Plant, Right Place 2. Water Efficiently 3. Fertilize Appropriately 4. Mulch 5. Attract Wildlife 6. Manage Yard Pests Responsibly 7. Recycle Yard Waste 8. Reduce Stormwater Runoff 9. Protect the WaterfrontEducation & Introduction of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ into the NewtownCommunity While knowledge can be a powerful tool, many times it can go to waste if it is not sharedand therefore does not have the opportunity to impact others. The following section highlightsstrategies to effectively educate and expose the Newtown community to the sustainablelandscape approach of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™:  Display of Informative Posters at high traffic community areas such as community centers/schools /libraries/grocery stores. Colorful, eye-catching posters are visual tools that can attract the attention of passers-by and encourage them to learn more.  Creation of a website link to Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program (http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/) and Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ 12
  • 16. (http://www.floridayards.org/) from Newtown’s website. A simple link that connects Newtown’s residents to the “How-To” of FFL (Naveh, 2007).  Presentations at schools/community centers of the Nine Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ (FFL) Principles. Children are sometimes the environment’s best advocates. FFL is an active, outdoor activity that many children would enjoy doing with a parent or guardian.  “Model FFL Yard” in the community. Many times a Model, able to be seen, touched, and observed can be a highly effective tool in motivating others to apply the same Model principles to their properties. Pick a parcel that is in a high community traffic area to maximize learning potential.  Creation of a Gardening Club that abides by the Nine FFL Principles. Creation of a Gardening Club to uphold FFL Principles as well as build community camaraderie can be offered through the community center.  Handouts/brochures: Creation and distribution of handouts/brochures of FFL is a non- spoken way of getting word out into the community. Handouts can supplement posters and presentations and can always be made available at the community center.Benefits of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ for the Newtown Community:Becoming a Sustainable Community FFL has environmental, communal as well as economic benefits. In a community such asNewtown that is striving to become a more sustainable town, FFL is a simple strategy thatsupports the big picture idea of sustainable living. While it does not solve every environmentaland economic issue, it is a small step that nearly every resident can take and will contributetoward the realization of Newtown’s goals in becoming a sustainable community (Kuo, 2003).Environmental Benefits As mentioned in previous paragraphs, environmental benefits of FFL include a reductionin watering amounts and costs, minimizing urban run-off, and recruitment of native (plant andanimal) species. Additionally, installing FFL trees increases CO2 uptake, which is quite plentifulin urban environments (Manning, 2008). Tress, if planted in particular locations, can shaderesidences, which in turn reduces the need to run air conditioning thus saving money andresources. 13
  • 17. Residential Benefits Increasing green spaces in urban environments increases the quality of life of residents(Kuo, 2003). Residents who utilize FFL in their yards will most likely spend more time outside,enjoying the work of tending to their yards. This could lead to communal bonding and, asmentioned before, the creation of a Gardening Club. Native plants can be purchased from localnurseries, thus supporting sustainable business practices in Newtown. Enjoyment of suchgardening activities may also lead to an interest of a career pursuit in landscape architecture;landscape ecology, botany, and many related fields, as well as small business opportunities.Communal Benefits Lastly, general aesthetics of the community of Newtown would improve drastically ifresidents took part in the FFL program. The community as a whole would enjoy a newly foundedcohesion through their unity of practicing the 9 Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™.While aesthetics is beneficial to the community, it meets many objectives from NewtownComprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020 (Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2010Goals and Objectives, 2010). FFL would increase property value as well. Very few people areinterested in living in areas that are not aesthetically pleasing, with overgrown lawns andmismanaged vegetation. An entire community implementing FFL would only increase outsider’sinterests in joining the community and willingness to pay the extra dollar to have a low-maintenance, aesthetically pleasing lawn.Conclusion Newtown is faced with a tremendous opportunity to transform a neglected neighborhoodto a sustainable, model community for the entire city of Sarasota. Small changes that residentscan accomplish on their own that will aid in helping their community become more sustainablewhile giving residents a sense of pride of ownership of their community. The implementation ofFFL as an effective strategy to halt, replenish, and even prevent the loss of natural ecosystems inFlorida’s urban environments will in turn create a sustainable ecosystem for wildlife as well asfor residents. Most importantly, FFL is an opportunity for the citizens of Newtown to come 14
  • 18. together and collectively make a positive difference within their community as well as the planet.Works Cited:Black, RJ. (2003). Native Florida Plants for Home Landscapes. Retrieved from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep011.Bucklin, R. (1993). Cisterns To Collect Non-Potable Water For Domestic Use. Retrieved from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae029.Chen X, Wu J (2009) Sustainable landscape architecture: implications of the Chinese philosophy of “unity of man with nature” and beyond.” Landscape Ecol. 24: 1015- 1026.City of Sarasota. (2010). Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2010. Goals and Objectives. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA_G&O.pdf#page=1.City of Sarasota. (2008). New Beginnings for Newtown. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/newbeginnings.html.City of Sarasota. (2008). History of the Newtown Community. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/history.html.Doody, B., Sullivan, J., Meurk, C., Stewart, G., Perkins, H. (2010). Urban realities: the contribution of residential gardens to the conservation of urban forest remnants. Biodiversity and Conservation 19:1385-1400.Erickson, J., Volin, J., Cisar, J., Snyder, G. (1999). A Facility for Documenting the Effect of Urban Landscape Type on Fertilizer Nitrogen Runoff. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 112: 266-269.Florida Department of Community Affairs. (2007). Front Porch Florida Communities Newtown. Retrieved from: www.dca.state.fl.us.Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program | UF Dept of Environmental Horticulture. (2010).These nine principles will help you reach the goal of a Florida-Friendly Yard. Retrieved from: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/homeowners/nine_principles.htm.Fushionspark Media Inc., (n.d.) Florida-Friendly Interactive Yards. Retrieved from: http://www.floridayards.org/interactive/index.php.Google Earth. Imagery Date December 15, 2008. Retrieved from: www.googleearth.com. 15
  • 19. Haynes, J., Hunsberger, A., McLaughlin, J., Vasquez, L. (2001) Drought-Tolerant, Low- Maintenance Plants for Southern “Florida Yards” and “Florida Landscapes.” Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 114:192-194.Kuo, F. (2003). The Role of Arboriculture in a Healthy Social Ecology. Journal of Arboriculture 29:148-155.Manning, W. (2008). Plants in urban ecosystems: Essential role of urban forests in urban metabolism and succession toward sustainability. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 15:362-370.McKinney, ML. (2008). Effects of urbanization on species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosyst. 11:161–176.Naveh, Z. (2007). Landscape ecology and sustainability. Landscape Ecol. 22:1437–1440. 16
  • 20. GREEN ROOF GARDENS FOR ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIN NEWTOWNPrepared by Leslie Babiak“Is it not against all logic when the upper surface of a whole town remainsunused and reserved exclusively for a dialogue between the tiles and the stars.” Le CorbusierEXECUTIVE SUMMARY An increased public awareness of the importance of maintaining ecological systems in anexpanding built environment has led to the development and application of technologies thatallow us to live more lightly on the planet, strengthen our connections between people, andcreate more sustainable communities. The concept of sustainability and sustainable developmenthas evolved over time to incorporate various meanings; however, sustainability is usuallyassociated with living within the earth’s means through the alteration of individual and collectivehuman behavior in ways that improve the quality of life while preserving environmentalpotential for the future. The natural environmental elements of a community are essential, notonly for human survival, but also for emotional and psychological health; thus, finding ways tobuild a stronger connection between community residents and natural landscapes enhancescommunity sustainability. Green roofs, layered systems in which a vegetated area becomes part of the roof, offer thepotential to provide a greater array of benefits to the built and natural environment, than anyother sustainable building technology. The sustainable development of a community can befurther enhanced by using green roofs as a viable solution for growing healthy food locally. Thelong distance production and transport of fresh foods, typically 1500 miles from field to table,arrives with environmental and social costs attached. Growing food locally on a green roof can 17
  • 21. contribute to a community’s food security network, improve the nutrition of local residents,provide job skills training and other educational opportunities, and create opportunities forrevenue. Underutilized rooftop space can be transformed into a new avenue for culturalexpression and citizen involvement; hence, strengthening community ties. Though prevalent throughout many parts of the world, green roof technology has onlyrecently received recognition in the United States and Canada. Public education of the value ofgreen roofs and the ways in which they reduce environmental impacts and provide social,ecological, and economic benefits will help increase widespread awareness, remove institutionalbarriers, and strengthen the likelihood that local policy-making and incentives supporting greenroof installations will become more of a reality. A green roof growing fruits and vegetables inNewtown would serve not only as a learning tool but would be a promising stride toward settinga community standard for sustainable development. This paper begins by offering an overview of the benefits of a green roof and of growingfood closer to home. Secondly, an account of green roof garden design considerations and anillustrative case for successful green roof food production will be presented. This will befollowed by a depiction of how this innovative approach in taking advantage of unused roofspace can impact Newtown’s redevelopment in a sustainable way.WHAT IS A GREEN ROOF? While the modern day green roof originated in Germany over one hundred yearsago, green roofs have existed for thousands of years in many different parts of the world.Although recently introduced within the past decade in the United States and Canada, robustgrowth in installation efforts and progress in policy-making are indicative of a strong likelihoodthat green roofs will become widespread throughout North America in the near future. Installed 18
  • 22. on top of the existing roofing membrane, the green roof system components are typically layeredas follows: waterproof membrane protection layer, insulation or separation layer, root barrier,drainage layer, filter fabric aeration layer, growing medium (often referred to as substrate), andvegetation (figure 1). Modern green roof technology incorporates patented soil blends that arecustomarily composed of a mix of organic and inorganic ingredients including perlite, compost,peat moss, small stones, and expanded clay or shale.FIGURE 1: SECTIONAL VIEW OF LAYERED GREEN ROOF COMPONENTSpractitiionerresources.org/document64941 Extensive green roofs, categorized as having a substrate depth of 2 to 6 inches andusually not accessible to the public, are less expensive to install as the building load rarelyrequires modification. Having a substrate depth of six inches or greater, intensive green roofsare usually more costly to construct and maintain, are designed to accommodate a wide range of 19
  • 23. plant and tree species, and may even contain public park-like areas. The goals of the green roofproject and its intended usage will determine the type of green roof constructed. As thecultivation of food crops necessitates soil depths of 6-18 inches, an intensive green roof systemengineered for adequate weight bearing capacity would be the type of green roof required for thisproject (Weiler & Scholz-Barth, 2009; Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008).WHY SHOULD WE PLANT GREEN ROOFS? Although green roofs are not a panacea for the problems brought about by urban andsuburban development, green roofs provide a greater range of benefits than any other greenbuilding technology (Cantor, 2008). The proven environmental benefits from green roofsinclude: the capture and filtration of rainwater resulting in a decreased quantity of water enteringstorm drains and flowing into rivers and other water bodies, reduction of the urban-heat-islandeffect by cooling and cleaning the air, provision of natural habitat, and reclamation of greenspace previously lost to development. Benefits to the built environment, due to the insulatingeffects of the green roof system, include doubling the life span of the roof membrane andimproving the thermal performance of buildings, thereby reducing energy consumption andlowering heating and cooling costs. Provision of space for local food production and other uses,potential sources of revenue, therapeutic and recreational outlets in caring for plants, and thestrengthening of community ties in working together toward a common good are some of thecultural benefits that can be derived from green roofs. On the other hand, the drawbacks of green roofs pertain to the comparatively high initialcosts and the necessary prerequisites for satisfying the additional weight load to the building(Oberndorfer et al., 2007). When a roof surface is transformed into useful space, the buildingbecomes economically and functionally more efficient; however, the important point to consider 20
  • 24. accrue over the life of the roof, will outweigh the upfront capital costs. Even though intensivegreen roofs are typically more expensive to construct and maintain, the environmental and socialbenefits will be far more substantial than those of extensive, or shallow, green roofs. In a cost-benefit analysis, it is important for full life-cycle costs, including the extended lifespan of theroofing membrane resulting from the protection provided by the green roof, to be considered.For example, a gravel-covered roof usually requires replacement after 25 years, in comparison toa green roof membrane which should not require repairs for 40-50 years (Ngan, 2004).GROWING FOOD CLOSER TO HOME Urban or peri-urban agriculture, the production of fruits and vegetables within city orsuburban areas to provide the local population with access to high quality food, is an emergingindustry in the United States, where the ingredients for an average meal travel for roughly 14days and up to 1500 miles from farm to table (Pirog, 2003). This long-distance transport ofproduce increases the cost of the food, contributes to energy consumption and pollution, and isassociated with a decline in the food’s nutritional value (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008). Roofsurfaces offer a viable opportunity for growing healthy food in urban and suburban areas wheregarden space may be restricted, soil may be contaminated, or access to inexpensive, high qualityfresh foods is often limited. In contrast to growing food in containers placed atop the roof, agreen roof design is an integrated system which allows the growing medium, or soil, to cover therooftop. Due to the greater surface area of greenery and its integration with the green roofcomponents, the green roof yields more environmental, structural, and food security benefitsthan those obtained through growing food in containers (Garnham, 2002). The green roof garden would afford Newtown the opportunity to reap the social,economic, and environmental benefits derived from gardening, in combination with those 21
  • 25. provided by green roof technology. It has been conservatively estimated that if 6% of Toronto’sroofs were greened, jobs for 1,350 people per year would be created. If 10% of these green roofswere covered with food producing crops, the city could reap 10.4 million pounds of produce—with a market value of 4 to 5.5 million dollars per year (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008).DESIGNING THE GREEN ROOF GARDEN There are many interactive factors that need to be taken into account when designing agreen roof for food production; hence, an outline of the considerations and constraints regardingdesign, safety, and maintenance is in order. When considering the suitability of an existingbuilding, evaluation of the roof’s load bearing capacity, or weight load of the people, crops, andequipment that the roof is capable of supporting, will be the most important consideration(Snodgrass & Snodgrass, 2006). In consulting with a structural engineer, the type of green roof,depth of soil, total surface area, and intended use will be dictated by the structural support andload bearing capacity of the roof. The engineer will analyze the type of roofing construction(concrete, steel, wood) and roofing framework, identify obstacles such as roof vents and ducts,chimneys, electrical equipment and drains, as well as document potential solutions to designingaround them, and verify the real load capacity of the roof. The water saturated weight of thegreen roof system, including vegetation, must be calculated as permanent load to the roof(Weiler & Scholz-Barth, 2009). Although the building standards that determine minimum load-bearing capacity will varyacross the United States, the typical loadings of intensive green roofs range from 300-1000kg/m2 (61-205 lb/ft2) or more (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008). The live load specifications for aroof will include water, wind and safety factors required for the building’s performance as wellas human traffic and anything transient in nature such as furniture or maintenance equipment. 22
  • 26. Dead load includes the weight of the roof itself and any permanent structural elements includingroofing layers, heating and cooling mechanical equipment, and projected wind and rain loads. The American Standard Testing Methods, (ASTM), a non-profit technical society thatdevelops and publishes standards for materials, has published several standards for green roofsystems, specifically related to the determination of roof loads for the weight of the green roofsystem and guidance in the selection, installation, and maintenance of plants for green roofs(Getter & Rowe, 2006; Weiler & Scholz-Barth, 2009; Dvorak & Volder, 2010). For furtherdetail, these standards are featured in Appendix A. Final analysis should include a surveydesignating the feasible locations for the green roof or a proposed framework for reinforcement.Engineered reinforcements will result in added costs, possibly negating the viability of the site;hence, undergoing a structural analysis at the beginning of the project is highly recommended. In addition to the engineered survey, an analysis of the roof’s daily exposure to the naturalelements-- - sun, wind, and rain-- will be necessary and can be conducted by a landscapearchitect or designer. Maximizing yields from food-producing plants mandates eight to ten hoursof sunlight each day. Although roofs are elevated and the sun exposure on the roof is generallymore ample than the sunlight at ground level, a study of daily sunlight exposure on the roof willprove useful in designing the layout of the garden to correspond with specific needs. Forexample, in areas that are exposed to a stronger amount of sunlight than is desirable for someplants, such as certain varieties of herbs, varying degrees of shade can be created by installingarchitectural features such as an arbor or small storage building, or by adding living features suchas a grouping of tall plants. Allocating certain plants to areas of the roof that are shaded byneighboring buildings may be another viable option. When wind intensity proves to be stronger 23
  • 27. on the rooftop than at ground level, wind breakers can be designed to protect plants from thethreat of wind damage. Water is another fundamental need for plants and installing a rainwater collectionsystem, such as rerouting rooftop gutters to a cistern, (or holding tank), to store the water untilneeded, is a vital component to the green roof. Sarasota County’s Low Impact Development(LID) Manual of strategies for enhancing the local environment, protecting public health, andimproving community livability is currently moving towards finalization (L. Ammeson, personalcommunication, Sept. 14, 2010). The green roof designer should refer to the LID Manual:Chapter 3.4: Green Roof Storm Water Treatment Systems, as it offers preliminary details forrequirements and guidelines for the installation of green roofs and for cisterns enabling thestorage and reuse of captured rainwater (LID, 2009). As overhead watering on a rooftop canquickly evaporate or be misdirected by wind, an irrigation system utilizing plastic drip linesshould be installed with connections running to the cistern to allow for supplemental irrigation ina more sustainable fashion. Plans should include provision for an additional water source at theroof for backup irrigation and in case of fire (LID, 2009). Roof access and safety are other important considerations which will need to beaddressed. Stairs or a working elevator will be necessary to transport people and materials to thegreen roof garden. In instances where the parapet does not meet local building codes for publicaccess, safety features such as railings or a wall should be included (LID, 2009). An attractivesafety wall can be created by installing chain link fencing, which can then be transformed into awall of greenery in offering additional growing space for climbing or trailing plants needingvertical support. If within budgetary means, enclosed storage for equipment will provide 24
  • 28. protection from the outside elements and the convenience of having gardening tools close athand; and, a designated area for compost production will prove worthwhile. A wide selection of proprietary green roof systems, also known as vegetated roofassemblies, are currently available for the design professional to choose from. The basiccomponents of these systems support the basic requirements of a green roof: optimal waterretention, drainage of excess water, and provisions for growing medium and airflow (Weiler &Scholz-Barth, 2009). The site chosen by Newtown for the green roof, the amount of capitalavailable, and the community’s desired outcomes for the garden are some of the main factors thatwhich will determine the specific requirements for the design, function and maintenance of theagricultural green roof. Successful realization of the project will require the integration andcollaboration of professionals from varied disciplines, as well as owners and stakeholders whoare willing to shoulder higher short-term costs to achieve long-term gains. As there are manyfactors influencing total costs, details regarding an approximation of costs involved withinstalling an intensive green roof on an existing building can be found in Appendix B, Table 1.SUCCESS IN GREEN ROOF FOOD PRODUCTION The production of an array of marketable fruits and vegetables atop roofs and balconies iscommon in other countries including Thailand, China, Japan, Australia, India, Russia, Columbia,and Haiti (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008; Joe, M. 2010). As urban agriculture continues to evolveinto a full-fledged commercial industry, successful projects in North America are showing thatrooftop agriculture combined with green roof systems is a viable method for producing foodlocally. The designs, activities, and outcomes of these projects vary and examining each projectwould be beyond the scope of this paper. The case featured here illustrates some of the ways inwhich a community can benefit from an agricultural green roof, and many of these ideas could 25
  • 29. be implemented by Newtown. A model for utilizing the benefits of a green roof in combination with providing freshproduce to the local community, Eagle Street Rooftop Farm is a 6000 square foot green rooforganic vegetable farm located on a warehouse rooftop. The lightweight growing medium, amanufactured soil for green roof applications, is 5 to 9 inches in depth and consists of a blend ofcompost, rock particulates and shale. The medium can retain over 1.5” of rain, providing amarked reduction in storm water runoff. Sixteen north-to-south beds measuring a maximum offour feet in width are divided down the middle by a single aisle and all aisles are filled withmulched bark. Constructed in 2009, the cost was lower than most green roof installations,(approx. $10 per square foot), due to the existing structural details of the building and the use of 1recycled materials, including used rafters for edging. In its first season, Eagle Street yielded over 30 different kinds of produce, with the mostsuccessful plants being tomatoes, micro-greens, onions, garlic, and herbs, while production persquare foot yielded highest on tomatoes, kale and chard. At market, mixed salad greens yieldedthe best overall price per foot planted. Eagle Farm sells its harvest through its own CommunitySupported Agriculture (CSA) program in which members provide the farm with seed money bypaying a lump sum for a weekly supply of the season’s produce. In exchange, members enjoyfresh local produce and the benefits from a direct relationship with a trusted source. Produce isalso sold at community based local markets and to several local restaurants. Brooklyn residents also enjoy the benefits of Eagle Street’s commitment to communityoutreach and environmental education. During the 2009 growing season, Eagle Street conducted_________________1.http:www.rooftopfarms.org/Eagle_Street_Rooftop_Farm_Fact_Sheet_2010.pdfrooftop workshops to over 30 different schools and groups who had the opportunity to learn 26
  • 30. about their food’s journey from the soil to the kitchen. On Sundays, volunteers—from beginnerto green thumb—are invited to participate in exchange for learning how to maintain the greenroof farm. Due to Florida’s mild weather and extended growing season, a green roof inNewtown can provide a sustainable environment for year-round cultivation. Varieties of beans,cabbages, endive, kale, lettuces, collard and mustard greens, spinach, peppers, squash, tomatoes,and herbs, as well as broccoli, cauliflower, celery, cucumbers, onions, radishes, strawberries, andsmall melons can be harvested at different times throughout the year (Stephens et al., 2009).IMPLICATIONS FOR NEWTOWN The demand for fresh produce is apparent in Newtown, as residents participate inimpromptu sales of fresh fruit and vegetables out of the backs of trucks that park near busyintersections lacking traffic safety and easy access. An outdoor market in Newtown featuringlocally harvested produce would aid in keeping local dollars within the community whileproviding safe and reliable access to healthy food and opportunities for strengthening social ties.The green roof garden would be an important step in helping Newtown to overcome thechallenge of forging stronger connections amongst Newtown residents and between thoseresidents and the natural environment. Considered a leader in the state, Sarasota is known for its commitment to educate localcitizens and other jurisdictions on sustainable technologies and green building policy (Ranwater& Martin, 2008). An edible green roof demonstration project located in Newtown offers theopportunity for Sarasota to extend its education and outreach to green roof applications. The cityof Sarasota is a vibrant tourist magnet and the green roof has the potential to attract not onlylocal interest but attention from national and international visitors as well. Opening the greenroof to guests and conducting guided tours of this roof top food production system would be a 27
  • 31. significant force toward the positioning of Newtown as a destination. Designated as one of Florida’s Enterprise Zones, Newtown, also referred to as NorthCounty, has been targeted for economic renewal. Available tax credits for real estate property,business equipment, and building materials, as well as other business assistance benefits can beutilized by locating the green roof in this Enterprise Zone. At the same time, the food producinggreen roof would help revitalize the Newtown Community by reducing unemployment throughnew and diverse job opportunities, and expanding the economic base through the attraction ofoutside businesses and the formation of partnerships between property owners and private andpublic sectors. If the decision is made to pursue large-scale marketing of the harvested produce,the Entrepreneur Center (slated for establishment in 2011), a part of Newtown’s BusinessIncubator Program, may be a valuable source of assistance and support during start-up. An investigation was conducted to determine potential sites for a green roof within theEnterprise Zone boundaries. Search criteria were limited to commercial or institutional buildingswith flat to low pitched roofs and poured concrete load bearing frames. Roofs constructed withmetal or shingles over wood were eliminated, as well as any buildings having a roof footprint ofless than 1500 square feet. After mapping the sixteen candidate roofs, the average productivityper unit of area per month was calculated in order to obtain an annual estimated food yield foreach candidate roof (figure 2). Estimated average yields ranged from 2400 to over 58,000pounds of fresh produce. Atop the Fairmont Hotel in Vancouver, a 2100 square foot green roofgarden has been thriving since 1991. Supplying the hotel’s restaurant with honey and sixty 2varieties of herbs, vegetables, and fruits, it saves the hotel nearly $30,000 per year in food costs.____________2.http.www.fairmont.com/NR/rdonlyes/WFC_Herb_Garden_Dec01_pdfIt is important to note that further structural analyses by qualified professionals is necessary to 28
  • 32. confirm the suitability of the candidate roofs identified within Newtown’s Enterprise Zone.Figure2: POTENTIAL SITES FOR GREEN ROOF GARDENS IN NEWTOWN’S ENTERPISE ZONE WITH ESTIMATED ANNUAL FOOD YIELD (Leslie Babiak) Building upon Newtown’s sense of place, through the linkage of the neighborhood to thenatural landscape, a food-producing green roof in the community would serve as a model ofsustainability at the neighborhood scale. This green roof offers the potential for contributing tothe fulfillment of the following goals and objectives, as set forth in Newtown’s Comprehensive 29
  • 33. 3Redevelopment Plan-2020. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:  Make Newtown a destination  Expand the economic base by creating new and diverse employment opportunities  Encourage the development of regionally competitive businesses to help retain Newtown consumer dollars in the community LAND USE:  Promote and locate land use activities of regional importance within the redevelopment area to attract visitors and capture additional market opportunities URBAN DESIGN/PARKS:  Establish parks, recreation, open space and beautification efforts to create an identifiable character for the redevelopment area An edible garden green roof in Newtown would serve as an example of how acommunity can play a proactive role in enhancing its sustainability. Beyond food production,this project would provide the Newtown Community the potential for job skills training andlocal employment while increasing green space and promoting city pride. Additionally, theutilization of the untapped resource of rooftop space of multi-family, commercial, warehouse,and institutional buildings through the leasing of this unused space for agricultural productioncapabilities is a concept that is rapidly gaining attention in North America and would affordNewtown with a novel opportunity for income generation. This project presents unique learning opportunities that foster community empowerment.Seniors, youth and the under-employed can work side by side and learn from one another whileovercoming social barriers and building understanding and respect. A program that teachesyouth how to grow, harvest, and cook vegetables helps young people to learn that fruits____________3.http.www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA_G&O.pdf#page=3 (pp11-19)and vegetables don’t simply come from the store, but require the effort of people workingtogether in ways that respect and care for the environment. The rooftop garden can also serve as 30
  • 34. a place to host educational workshops and social events, thus promoting neighborhood cohesion.CONCLUSION Greening efforts, such as street tree planting, brownfield redevelopment, and constructinggreen roofs enhance a region’s natural resources and quality of life. Communities that highlightand restore their natural environments will be places where people will want to live, work, andplay. While green roofs hold promise for addressing a myriad of problems that have resultedfrom development, a green roof boasting a bountiful harvest of fresh fruit and vegetables reflectsthe harmonious efforts of a community and holds promise for building a stronger connectionbetween community residents and the natural landscape. This paper has illustrated how green roof gardens would reflect the efforts of thecommunity in taking control of food security and social ills while providing food, jobs,environmental enhancement, education, beautification, inspiration, and hope. The benefits anddesign considerations of green roofs and the advantages of growing food close to home havebeen depicted through a spotlight on how the implementation of a green roof for local foodproduction affords the opportunity to enhance economic, environmental, and socialsustainability. A green roof featuring an edible garden in Newtown would be a powerful agentfor change in introducing an innovative environmental feature for the community to enjoy,profit, and learn from while providing a learning landscape for a vast audience.Works Cited American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Book of International Standards. (2007). vol.4.12 Armstrong, Donna. (2000). A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health promotion and community development. Health and 31
  • 35. Place, (6) 319-327.Berghage, R., Beattie, D., Jarrett, A., Thuring, C., & Razaei, F. (2009). Green roofs for stormwater runoff control. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCantor, S. L. (2008). Green roofs in sustainable landscape design. New York, NY: W.W.NortonDvorak, B. & Volder, A. (2010) Green roof vegetation for North American ecoregions: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 96 (4), 197-213.Dunnett, N. & Kingsbury, N. Planting Green Roofs and Living Walls. (2008). Portland, OR. Timber PressEagle Street Rooftop Farm. (2010) Farm Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http:www.rooftopfarms.org/Eagle_Street_Rooftop_Farm_Fact_Sheet_2010.pdfFairmont (2001). How does our garden grow? Retrieved from http. www.fairmont.com/NR/rdonlyes/WFC_HerbGarden_Dec01.pdfGarnham, Luke. (2002) Green roofs and the promise of urban agriculture. The Green Roof Infrastructure Monitor 4(2), 17-19.Getter, K. & Rowe, D.B. (2006) The role of extensive green roofs in sustainable development. HortScience, 41 (5), 1276-1285.Joe, M. (2010). Urban Farming: Veggies with a view. Retrieved from http://www.cnngo.com/Tokyo/eat/urban-farming-veggies-view-958246.Le Corbusier, (1946). Towards a new architecture. London, UK: Architectural PressNewtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan-2020. Retrieved from http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA_G&O.pdf#page=3.Ngan, G. (2004). Green roof policies: Tools for encouraging sustainable design. Retrieved from http://www.lacf.ca/system/files/Policy%20report.pdfOberndorfer, E., Lundholm, J., Bass, B., Coffman, R.R., Doshi, H., Dunnett, N., Gaffin, S., Kohler, M., Liu, K.K., & Rowe, B. (2007). Green roofs as urban ecosystems: Ecological structures, functions, and services. BioScience, 57 (10), 823-833.Peck, S. & Kuhn,M. (2001). Design guidelines for green roofs. Retrieved from http://www.cmhc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/loader.cfm?url=/getfile 32
  • 36. Pirog, R. (2003). Checking the food odometer. Iowa State University: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/pubs/staff/files/food_travel1072103.pdf Ranwater, B. & Martin, C. (2008). Florida counties pushing ahead. In American Institute of Architects Report, Local leaders in sustainability: Green counties (pp.36-37) Wash, DC: AIA Sarasota County (2009).Greenroof stormwater treatment systems. In: Sarasota county preliminary LID manual (chapter 3.4). Retrieved from http://www.scgov.net/Environmental/Services/Water/SurfaceWater/documents LIDManual_Changes_Aug_Sep09.pdf. Snodgrass, E.C. & Snodgrass, L.L. (2006). Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide. Portland, OR. Timber Press Stevens, J.M, Brown, S.P., Treadwell, D., Webb, S., Gevens, A., Dunn, R.A., Kidder, G., Short, D.,& Simone, G.W. (2009). Florida vegetable gardening guide.(pub#SP103) University of Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.edis.ufl.edu/vh021. Wegscheid, C. (2009) Living with a green roof. Construction Specifier (14)1; 18-35 Weiler, S.K. & Scholz-Barth, K. (2009) Green roof systems: A guide to the planning, design, and construction of landscapes over structure. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley &Sons Wheeler, S. (2004) Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities. New York, NY: Routledge.APPENDIX ANational Green Roof Standards, as published in the Annual Book of ASTM International Standards, (2007), Volume 04.12. E2396 ,2005,      Standard Testing Method for Saturated Water Permeability of Granular Drainage Media [Falling‐Head Method] for Green Roof Systems  33
  • 37. E2397, 2005,      Standard Practice for Determination of Dead Loads and Live Loads Associated with Green Roof Systems  E2398, 2005,      Standard Test Method for Water Capture and Media Retention of Geocomposite Drain Layers for Green Roof Systems  E2399, 2005,      Standard Test Method for Maximum Media Density for Dead Load Analysis* of Green Roof Systems E2400, 2006,     Standard Guide for Selection, Installation, and Maintenance of Plants for Green Roof Systems *Method E2399 includes tests to measure moisture retention potential and saturated water permeability of media.  ASTM E2397 ‐ 05 Standard Practice for Determination of Dead Loads and Live Loads associated with Green Roof Systems1.2 The procedure addresses the loads associated with green roof systems. Components that are typically encountered in green roof systems include: membranes, non‐absorptive plastic sheet components, metallic layers, fabrics, geocomposite drain layers, synthetic reinforcing layers, cover/recover boards, insulation materials, growth media, granular drainage media, and plant materials. 1.3 This procedure also addresses the weight of the green roof system under two conditions: (1) weight under drained conditions after new water additions by rainfall or irrigation have ceased (this includes the weight of retained water and captured water), and (2) weight when rainfall or irrigation is actively occurring and the drainage layer is completely filled with water. The first condition is considered the dead load of the green roof system. The difference in weight between the first and second conditions, approximated by the weight of transient water in the drainage layer, is considered a live load. ASTM E2399 ‐ 05 Standard Test Method for Maximum Media Density for Dead Load Analysis of Green Roof Systems: This is a standardized procedure for predicting the system weight of a green roof system. The density of mixed media materials will vary depending on the degree to which they are subjected to compaction and the length of time that the material is allowed to hydrate and subsequently drain. Most green roof media materials have a large capacity to absorb and retain moisture. Furthermore, moisture will drain gradually from the media following a hydration cycle. The maximum media density measured in this procedure approaches the density at the theoretical saturation point. The value of this test method to the green roof designer is that it provides an objective measure of maximum probable media density (under drained conditions) for estimating structural loads. It also provides a method for estimating the lower limit for the water permeability of the in‐place media. This latter value is important when considering drainage conditions in green roofs. Finally, the maximum media water retention has been shown to be a useful indicator of the moisture retention properties of green roof media.  1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the maximum media density for purposes of estimating the maximum dead load for green roof assemblies. The method also provides a measure of the moisture content and the water permeability measured at the maximum media density.   34
  • 38. 1.2 This procedure is suitable for green roof media that contain no more than 30% organic material as measured using the loss on ignition procedure Test Methods F 1647, Method A. 1.3 The maximum media density and associated moisture content measured in this procedure applies to drained conditions near the saturation point. 1.4 The test method is intended to emulate vertical percolation rates for water in green roofs.  ASTM E2400 ‐ 06 Standard Guide for Selection, Installation, and Maintenance of Plants for Green Roof Systems: This guide addresses performance characteristics for green roof systems with respect to the planting. A rooftop is an extreme environment with strong and variable wind patterns and little or no protection from the sun’s intense heat and ultraviolet radiation. Selection of plant material can be crucial for success of the green roof system.  5.1.1 This guide provides general guidance only. It is important to consult with a professional horticulturist, green roof consultant, or work with similar professionals that are knowledgeable, experienced, and acquainted with green roof technology and plants. (Determining these performance characteristics of green roof systems provides information to facilitate the assessment of engineering aspects of the facility. Such aspects may include structural design requirements, mechanical engineering and thermal design requirements, and fire and life safety requirements) This guide covers the considerations for the selection, installation, and maintenance of plants for green roof systems. 1.2 This guide is applicable to both extensive and intensive green roof systems APPENDIX BTable 1: Costs Associated with Installing an Intensive Green Roof on an Existing BuildingComponent Cost Notes & Variables 5 - 10% of total roofing project The number and type of consultantsDesign & Specifications cost depends on project size & complexity requiredProject Administration & Site Review 2.5 - 5% of total roofing project cost. The number and type of consultants required depends on project size & complexity Cost factors include type of newRe-roofing with root-repelling ($10.00 - $15.00 per ft2) roofing system to be installed, easemembrane of roof, nature of flashing requiredGreen Roof System (curbing, ($15.00 - $30.00 per ft2) Cost factors include type & depth ofdrainage layer, filter cloth, growing growing medium, type & height ofmedium, decking and walkways) curbing, decking type, & project sizePlants ($5.00 - $200.00 per ft2) Cost is completely dependent on the type and size of plant chosen, since virtually any type of plant suitable to local climate can be accommodatedIrrigation System Cost factors include type of system ($2.00 0 $4.00 per ft2) used & size of project 35
  • 39. Cost factors include type of fencing,Guardrail/Fencing ($20.00-$40.00 per ft.) attachment to roof, size of project/length requiredInstallation/Labor ($8.00 - $18.00 per ft2) Cost factors include equipment rental to move materials to and on roof, size of project, complexity of design, & planting techniques usedAnnual Maintenance ($1.25 - $2.00 per ft2) Cost factors include size of project, irrigation system, and size and type of plants usedAdapted from Peck & Kuhn.(2001). Design guidelines for green roofs (p.16) 36
  • 40. What a Greenway Park could mean socially and environmentally to a diverse population within Sarasota Todd L. BognerAbstract Dividing Newtown and Ringling Art College in Sarasota is Whitaker Bayou. The bayouis currently used as a way to rid both populations of excess surface water complicating theecology for Sarasota Bay. There is a proposal to build a Greenway Park on the Newtown side ofthe bayou. This paper discusses the ecological history of the watershed in which Whitaker bayoulies and management approaches to the watershed. Next, I will discuss what a greenway is andwhat a greenway park is. Finally, I will describe what this park can achieve through amultifunctional design for the environment as well as for the residents of Newtown and thesurrounding areas.Sarasota Bay Watershed Sarasota Bay, in central western Florida lies between Anna Maria Island to the north andVenice to the south. It is comprised of 52 square miles of open water and a watershed ofapproximately 150 square miles called the Sarasota Bay watershed, which is split betweenSarasota and Manatee counties. The main source of freshwater to Sarasota Bay is PhillippiCreek, which accounts for 38% (57 square miles) of the watershed (SWFWMD, 2002). Othermajor tributaries include South Creek, Bowles Creek, and Whitaker Bayou. Whitaker Bayouaccounts for only 5% (8 square miles) of the Sarasota Bay watershed, however along with 37
  • 41. Hudson Bayou and Cedar Hammock Creek, Whitaker Bayou has one of the highest levels ofcontaminant discharge into Sarasota Bay (EPA, 2007). Whitaker Bayou was chosen for this paper because it is the smallest of the majorcontributing sources of surface water to Sarasota Bay, has one of the highest sources ofcontaminants discharged into Sarasota Bay, and is a proposed site to build a greenway park inNewtown. This paper will examine the Sarasota Bay watershed, what a greenway park is, andwhat the social and ecological affects of a greenway park in Newtown could mean. Sarasota Bay was created about 5,000 years ago due to sea level rise and fall resulting inthe formation of barrier islands which frame the westernmost part of the bay. People have livedin the Sarasota Bay area as far back as around 10,000 B.C. (Sarasota Bay SWIM Plan, 2002).The landscape was much different then than it is now mostly due to human influences shortlyafter Florida gained statehood in 1845. One hundred and fifty years ago the Sarasota Baywatershed had pockets of isolated wetlands, which played an important role in its hydrology andbiodiversity (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). Early American Settlers found living in the Sarasota Bay watershed to be uninhabitablefor most of the year due to the high mosquito populations. In order to combat the mosquitopopulations, a Mosquito Control District was established in the early 1900’s. This organizationinterconnected many of the isolated wetlands by ditches, severely altering the hydrology of thewatershed (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). The assault on Sarasota Bay’s wetlands did not stop with the mosquitoes. DrainageDistricts were created in the 1920’s under the Land Reclamation Act of 1913 to drain wetlands tobe used for agriculture (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). The draining wouldcontinue until the early 1960’s under the pretenses that it was for the alleviation of flooding. It is 38
  • 42. estimated that there are some 800 miles of ditches in Sarasota County originating from this time.At the present time about half are now on privately owned lands (Sarasota CountyComprehensive Plan, 2006). With the rise in population came the need for development, and with it came the filling inof wetlands for houses, roads, and other impervious surfaces (Sarasota County ComprehensivePlan, 2006). Prior to development, during extreme rain events, water would sheet flow andcollect in the isolated wetlands. With the alterations in the natural hydrology, water from stormevents would cause flooding if not directed elsewhere. The solution to directing water away from harming people and economic loss, was todirect it to the largest body of water as fast as possible. That body of water for the Sarasota Baywatershed was Sarasota Bay (and subsequently the Gulf of Mexico) via various bayous, creeks,and other tributaries. With redirected water comes the added hydrologic load of municipalwastewater and runoff from agriculture, residential, and commercial irrigation. Also, anycontaminants on roads have a direct path to Sarasota Bay.Management and Politics In 1987 Sarasota Bay became an Estuary of National Significance by the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency. The Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program (SBNEP),formed in 1989 to be the acting body which would care for the interests of Sarasota Bay and itsnatural resources (SWFWMD, 2002). In 1995 SBNEP issued a document called the“Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan” (CCMP). The Florida Legislature createdthe Surface Water Improvement and Management (SWIM) Act of 1987. This act gave the watermanagement districts the ability to “protect the ecological, aesthetic, recreational, and economic 39
  • 43. value of the state’s surface waters…”, and stated that pollution sources can come from non-pointas well as point sources (SWFWMD, 2002 pg.3). The Sarasota Bay SWIM plan was created in1997 and focused on projects outlined in the CCMP, such as improvements in sediment andwater quality, habitat losses, and recreational uses (SWFWMD, 2002). The projects on theSWIM plan are prioritized by the SBNEP. The Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to identify waters which are “impaired”.Impaired waters are listed as “fair” or “poor” in the Florida Department of EnvironmentalProtection (FDEP) report. Through the CWA and the 1999 Florida Watershed Restoration Act,the FDEP sets Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL’s) of nutrients, bacteria, chemicals,sediments, or other pollutants that are causing the impairment through the Watershed ApproachInitiative. The most notable efforts to improve surface water quality came with the 1972 FederalWater Pollution Control Act Amendments (FWPCAA), which gave the EPA deadlines to grantpermits to water pollution sources, make wastewater guidelines, require water pollution sourcesto have water pollution control technology, and eliminate pollution discharges to make thenation’s waterways fishable and usable for recreational purposes (Switzer, 2004). It has been found that although the FWPCAA gave the government Command-and-Control governance over point source pollution, it did little to nothing for a more pressingconcern: non-point source pollution. Non-point source pollution includes agricultural runoff,urban runoff, and stormwater runoff and is the leading cause of impairment in the nation’swaterways. Pollution from these sources include: increased nitrogen, phosphates, heavy metals,sediments, and animal wastes. Non-point pollution not only affects surface-water, but caninfiltrate to ground water sources as well, contaminating drinking water. Unfortunately, non-point sources are the hardest to identify, and even more difficult to regulate. 40
  • 44. Wetland restoration as a priority project Wetlands in the Sarasota Bay watershed include both inland freshwater ecosystems, aswell as coastal freshwater and saltwater ecosystems. Mitsch et.al describes wetlands as “thekidneys of the landscape”. The reason for this designation is because they receive waste fromupstream water sources, and cleanse it for sources downstream, shorelines, and for groundwaterrecharge (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). Wetlands also serve as reservoirs to hold water for flood protection in times of heavyrains and storm events. Biodiversity is often more varied in wetlands than they are in theiradjacent ecosystems and provide a habitat which is conducive for a wide variety of flora andfauna. With the destruction of wetlands for agricultural and urban uses comes a decline in waterquality downstream, increased chances of flooding, and a loss of biodiversity. For these reasons,the SBNEP lists wetland habitat restoration projects as a priority throughout the Sarasota Baywatershed. Other priority projects by the SBNEP include projects such as determining waterquality, identifying toxic loads, determining nitrogen loading, updating the pollutant loadingmodel, integrated water resource evaluation, and the evaluation and implementation ofstormwater retrofit (SWFWMD, 2002).Whitaker Bayou Like most coastal bayous and creeks in Florida, the creeks and bayous of Sarasota Baywere historically tidal extensions of the estuaries with most of the freshwater influxes comingfrom storm events and heavy rains. Whitaker Bayou is one such source for Sarasota Bay. 41
  • 45. Kathryn L. Meaux, classifies Whitaker Bayou as a “Tidal Creek” and quotes Holland et al., assaying “tidal creeks are sentinels that provide early warning of the degree to which landdevelopment affects coastal environmental quality” (Meaux). Tidal creeks link upland wetlandswith coastal estuaries. In October, 2010 while kayaking Whitaker Bayou, I observed stormwater drains andother surface water runoff culverts draining unfiltered, directly into Whitaker Bayou. Some ofthe human artifacts observed were an innumerable amount of plastic bottles, bicycles, cans,various articles of clothing, every imaginable type of fast food container, and shopping carts,which Ann Riley describes as an “indicator organism” of the urban creek in her 1998 article,“What is Restoration” (Riley, 1998). This waste comes from both sides of the river. Ironically, the two sides could not be moredifferent from each other. On the eastern bank is Newtown; on the western bank is the RinglingCollege of Art and Design. Newtown is a city within a city in Sarasota. It is the poorest area ofSarasota with over 30 percent unemployment and 40 percent transient residents. Ringling on theother hand, is a leading private not-for-profit art institute. Even with this stark dichotomy ofcultures, each side’s trash and pollutants end up in Whitaker Bayou. Meaux’s data shows that Whitaker Bayou is the most impacted of the tidal creeks whichextend into Sarasota Bay, one of the poorest in water and sediment quality, and the least inhabitat richness (Meaux). The bayou itself, excluding the poor water quality, poor clarity, andlack of aquatic life, is a beautiful meandering waterway through an otherwise urbanneighborhood. According to Rutherford Platt, there does not need to be a strict dichotomy betweennature and city. An urban watershed (often first and second order streams under the Strahler 42
  • 46. classification system) should serve the same functions as any upstream tributary. The variousparts of a watershed provide ecological services as well as recreational purposes such as fishingand canoeing (Platt, 2006). Negative impacts of urbanization will increase as the populationgrows unless measures are taken to control pollutants and bad management practices (Platt,2006).Greenways In its natural state, Whitaker Bayou would serve as a “greenway”. Although there is noabsolute definition of a greenway, Jack Ahern defines greenways as, “… networks of land containing linear elements that are planned, designed, and managed for multiple purposes including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic, or other purposes compatible with the concept of sustainable land use” (Ahern, 1995 pg 134). A greenway by design is linear allowing biotic communities to migrate. Many greenwaysare situated along riparian corridors. These greenways act as a buffer to mitigate runoff fromagriculture and stormwater for the health of water bodies downstream (Ahern, 1995). Past management techniques for stormwater management and flood control have been todesign catchment ponds. These catchment ponds only serve as “islands”. Without linearinterconnections, the biodiversity and breeding populations are isolated (McGuckin and Brown,1995). Restored wetlands should not only take into consideration flood control, and groundwaterrecharge, but the biotic community as well. This should be done through planning their 43
  • 47. interconnectivity thoughtfully to be a greenway, and not an isolated island. Robert Searns describes three generations of greenways. Originally greenways linkedpoints of destination in an aesthetically pleasing way. Next, they took the traveler out of the city,not for the purpose of transportation, but for the journey itself. Now, we are in what he describesas the third generation. This is where attitudes change from what people want to do with theenvironment for their own pleasures, to environmental stewardship (Searns, 1995). In this phase of greenway development greenways are built not just for the humanpsyche, but for the betterment of the environment, taking into consideration other species, habitatconservation, health of the environment, and functioning environmental services (Searns, 1995).Environmental services are things the environment provides which would be costly for us to domechanically, if it could be done at all. Examples of environmental services are waterpurification and flood control. According to the Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, protection and restoration ofnatural systems is an important part of Sarasota’s watershed management program (SarasotaCounty Comprehensive Plan, 2006). The amendment known as the “2050 plan,” includesResource Management Areas (RMA’s), which are areas designed to protect contiguousgreenways on waterways with ecological benefits (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006).Greenway Parks A “greenway park” is a linear park which uses open spaces, often along a ripariancorridor, to create an aesthetically pleasing environment which allows for biodiversity, andenvironmental services. This type of park is also built with the human residents in mind as wellas the environment. 44
  • 48. Many people who live in urban areas do not experience green open spaces on a regularbasis. Studies have shown that green open spaces are beneficial to an individual’s quality of lifeby reducing stress as well as other benefits for mental health and well being (Hartig et al., 1991;Conway, 2000). Along with reducing stress in individuals comes a reduction of violence andaggression in society. A greenway park, with its open green spaces, can also provide both socialand economic benefits for the entire community in which it lies. It has long been established that green open spaces and parks are important for socialgatherings, which in turn build social bonds. However, many factors must be considered in theplanning of any park, especially an urban greenway park as urban environments typically haveethnically and culturally diverse populations. Research conducted by Paul H. Gobster at Chicago’s Lincoln Park showed that people ofCaucasian origin are more likely to travel farther than minority groups, often travel alone or as acouple, and are more likely to participate in individual sports than minority groups surveyed.Minority groups would tend to use the park more for social activities, would come in largergroups, and participate in group sports. People of Latin American origin had the greatest amountof age-diversity and were the largest in terms of group sizes. People of African origin also usedthe park for social gatherings such as picnics; however they preferred more open, maintainedlandscapes than Caucasians (Gobster, 2002). Studies such as theses are important not for the reason of stereotyping, but to understandthat people use parks in different ways, and have varying perceptions on how a park shouldfunction and be designed. Not all people will see or use a park in the same manner. Gobster considered four different “visions of nature” while studying Chicago’s LincolnPark. These four visions are: as a designed landscape, for habitat, for recreation, and finally 45
  • 49. restorative to pre-European development (Gobster, 2001). In designing a greenway park,planners may each have their own view of what that park should be, and how it should function,from the view of the participant.Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park There is a proposal to build a greenway park on the Newtown side of Whitaker Bayou. Aproject such as this could mean very different things to various stakeholders. Carefulconsideration should be taken to include all parties such as those living in Newtown, RinglingCollege of Art, as well as those who live downstream in Sarasota Bay. The design of the parkitself should incorporate many different activities and services for people as well as theenvironment. A greenway park should be multifunctional in that it provides habitat as outlined by theSBNEP, protects ecological benefits as stated in the Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, andfunctions for the well being of the people who live in the area. It should embody parts of each“vision of nature” in that people can see their individual vision within the design of the park. It is impossible to restore an urban park to pre-European development, but aspects of thepark can give the user the feeling of “wilderness”. There should be transitional places betweenthe city and the park, designed by a landscape architect, as well as incorporating new designaspects of the park for added ecological services. In designing a park with different visions, abroad range of recreational activities can be enjoyed.Boundary Parks and Green Magnets Solecki and Welch hypothesize that parks that lay between two adjacent communities and 46
  • 50. differ in socioeconomic status can act as a barrier in which case the park may not be used byeither side and may fall into disrepair (Solecki and Welch, 1995). This type of park is considereda boundary park. The Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park, which is planned to be along WhitakerBayou on the Newtown side just north of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Park, could beconsidered a boundary park. If a boundary park does become a barrier between neighborhoods,Solecki and Welch call this a “green wall”. Gobster states that there are examples of boundaryparks which run counter to this. These boundary parks act as “green magnets” because theyincorporate opportunities for ethnically and socially diverse groups to interact within the park(Gobster, 1998). Activities which draw residents from both sides of Whitaker Bayou wouldallow the new greenway park to act as a green magnet. This type of management starts withdesign. When designing the park it is important to include residents from both sides in the designprocess to share their visions and ideas. The Sarasota Comprehensive Plan states that the natural systems restoration has theintention to restore the natural systems water budget to “predevelopment” (Sarasota CountyComprehensive Plan, 2006). In order to achieve a longer residence time, and thus restore thewater budget to predevelopment, constructed wetlands can be made as part of the greenway parkdesign whereby stormwater would enter the constructed wetland prior to entering a waterwaysuch as Whitaker Bayou. Plants planted in the constructed wetlands would be of varieties whichcan take out harmful pollutants and nutrients before entering the waterway. In addition to takingout pollutants, the constructed wetland also has the benefit of being a sediment basin, loweringthe amounts of sediments which are deposited into the bayou. Infiltration is the first step instopping pollutants from reaching the waterway, and is the first process which takes out harmfulmetals. Devices which allow water to infiltrate quicker, called infiltration strips, can be 47
  • 51. incorporated in the greenway park design either before or after the constructed wetland. Thedesign of a constructed wetland can be changed as the needs change, and the infiltration stripscan be removed and replaced when they become impacted. This is much more economical thanremoving the same pollutants once dispersed in the waterway. Through smart design, both in the greenway park, as well as cooperation in private parks(such as Ringling), and other public parks along the bayou to build like designed parks,improvements can be made to adhere to the objectives of the CWA, the SBNEP, and SWFWMD.Partnerships Government regulation has been mainly command and control and has worked well forspecific point sources of pollution, but that same regulation can be expensive, laborious, andinefficient when dealing with non-point sources of pollution. This is where partnerships canemerge to deal with problems beyond local regulations using local knowledge, innovation, andproblem solving solutions which are mutually beneficial to a wide range of stakeholders (Lubellet al, 2002). Partnerships offer solutions which are outside of regulation. They allow environmental,social, and economic interests to be addressed by all parties affected. Partnerships emerge whenthe benefits of a project exceed its transaction costs (Lubell et al, 2002). Benefits of a greenwaypark along Whitaker Bayou, which also has restored wetlands and an intermediary system for thecollection and remediation of stormwater, include social and economic benefits as well as theenvironmental benefits. In the design of such projects as a Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park, local residents ofNewtown should be involved as well as residents downstream and Ringling College. In some 48
  • 52. cases, it has been discovered, local residents are more aware of environmental concerns withintheir neighborhood than urban planners (Smith, 1976).Conclusion Watershed partnerships are an important part of ecosystem management. Through thesepartnerships, many voices can be heard, and many goals can be achieved. Collaborativemanagement allows citizens, government, and private companies to work together on projectswhich are mutually beneficial to all parties. In the case of the proposed Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park there are social, economic,and environmental benefits which affect a wide range of stakeholders. Smart planning on the partof the SBNEP and a watershed partnership can ensure that the park is built in a way in which allof these benefits are served. A park without ecological service benefits is just a park. A properlyplanned greenway park can accomplish goals which have been set forth by the SBNEP,SWFWMD, and the EPA as well as to serve as a mitigation bank for future development inSarasota County. A properly managed park must first start with a properly managed design. Itmust be a design which incorporates the neighborhoods who the designers hope to attract. Thisstarts with listening to the visions of the citizens and allowing them to be a part of the overalldesign process. Science can show the health of Whitaker Bayou is in decline due to excessivenutrient and pollution loading. Observation shows that storm sewers and poor surface waterretention practices have lead to these problems. However, it is people who are going to decidewhether to take the data and observations described in this paper to make a difference in thiscommunity. 49
  • 53. Works CitedAhern, Jack (1995). Greenways as a Planning Strategy. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33 pp.131-155Conway, H., 2000. Parks and people: the social functions. In: Woudstra, J., Fieldhouse, K.(Eds.), The Regeneration of Public Parks.Chiesur, Anna A., (2004). The Role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City. Landscape andUrban Planning, Volume 68, Issue 1 pp. 129-138Environmental Protection Agency (2007). http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/nepccr/index.htmlSite accessed September 20, 2010Gobster, Paul H. (1998). Urban Parks as Green Walls of Green Magnets? Interracial relations inneighborhood boundary parks. Landscape and Urban Planning, 41 pp. 43-55Gobster, Paul H. (2001). Visions of Nature: Conflict and Compatibility in Urban ParkRestoration. Landscape and Urban Planning, 56 pp. 35-51Gobster, Paul H. (2002). Managing Urban Parks for a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Clientele.Leisure Sciences, Volume 24 pp. 143–159Gobster, Paul H., & Westphal, Lynne M. (2004). The Human Dimensions of Urban Greenways:Planning for Recreation and Related Experiences. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68 147-165Hartig, T., Mang, M. and Evans, G., 1991. Restorative effects of natural environmentsexperiences. Environ. Behav. 23, pp. 3–26. Full Text via CrossRefLubell, Mark, Schneider Mark, Scholz John T., & Mihriye, Mete (2002). Watershed Partnershipsand the Emergence of Collective Action Institutions. American Journal of Political Science,Volume 46, No. 1, pp. 148-163McGuckin, Christopher P., & Brown, Robert D. (1995). A Landscape Ecological Model forWildlife Enhancement of Stormwater Management Practices in Urban Greenways. Landscapeand Urban Planning, 33 pp. 227-246Meax, Katherine . Powerpoint presentation. www.chnep.org/Events/Summit08/presentations/Meaux.ppt. Site accessed October 15, 2010 50
  • 54. Mitch, William J., Gosselink, James G. Wetlands (3rd e.d.) 2000Platt, Rutherford H. (2006). Urban Watershed Management: Sustainability, One Stream at aTime. Environment, Volume 48 No. 4 pp. 26-42Riley, Ann L. (1998) What is Restoration? Restoring Streams in CitiesRosenbaum, Walter A. (2005). Environmental Politics and Policy (6th ed). Washington, D.C.,CQ PressSearns, Robert M. (1995). The Evolution of Greenways as an Adaptive Urban Landscape Form.Landscape and Urban Planning, 33 pp. 65-80Smith, Geoffrey C. (1976). Responses of Residents and Policy-Makers to Urban EnvironmentalHazards. Area, Volume 8, No. 4, pp. 279-283Solecki, W.D., Welch, J.M., 1995. Urban parks: green spaces or green walls?. Landscape andUrban Planning 32, 93±106.SWFWMD. 2002. Sarasota Bay Surface Water Improvement Management (SWIM) Plan.Southwest Florida Water Management District. SWIM Section, Resource ManagementDepartment. Tampa, FL.http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/documents/plans/sarasota_bay_2002.pdf. Site accessed October2, 2010Switzer , Jacqueline Vaughn. (2004). Environmental Politics: Domestic and Global Dimensions(4th ed). Belmont, CA, Thompson/WadsworthTourbier, J. Toby. (1994). Open Space through Stormwater Management: Helping to structuregrowth on the urban fringe. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49(1) pp. 14-21 51
  • 55. A Green Infrastructure Network to Sustainably Redevelop Newtown, SarasotaAlana BrasierIntroduction For over a century, planners, doctors, scientists, and other academics and governmentofficials have understood the importance of green, open spaces in urban areas for the health ofpeople, the environment, and the economy. Famed landscape architects and planners, such asEbenezer Howard and Frederick Law Olmstead, promoted the inclusion of natural areas withincities for the health of the environment and its inhabitants (Spirn, 1984). In the past severaldecades, there has been a growing awareness of the need to live in harmony with nature insteadof attempting to control and shape it how we see fit. In doing so, we will receive countlessbenefits in return. Incorporating green, open spaces and trails within urban areas encompassesthe three “E’s” of sustainability: environment, economics, and social equity (Campbell, 1996).Integrated networks of parks and greenway trails provide even greater results than parks inisolation and greenways that lead to nowhere. Creating an interconnected green infrastructure (GI) network of greenways and parkspace within the community of Newtown in Sarasota could help redevelop, reinvigorate, andreconnect the community. A GI network is defined as “an interconnected network of green spacethat conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to humanpopulations” (Benedict and McMahon, 2002, 5). A GI network is comprised of “hubs” and“links.” Hubs serve as the anchors of the network and are destination points for people andwildlife, while links connect the hubs and tie together the whole GI network. In the case ofNewtown, community park areas will serve as the hubs. The links are the linear areas that join 52
  • 56. together the hubs and allow the GI network to function (Benedict and McMahon, 2002). Thesetypically come in the form of greenways. Greenways are defined as “networks of land that areplanned, designed, and managed for multiple purposes including ecological, recreational,cultural, aesthetic, or other purposes compatible with the concept of sustainable land use,”(Ahern, 2003, p. 35). Newtown has several opportunities to create greenways that link its parks,or “hubs.” A green infrastructure network in Newtown could promote economic development,environmental sustainability, and community engagement. Newtown would reap numerousbenefits from a green infrastructure network. A GI network will preserve green, open spaces,provide additional recreation areas, draw new businesses, increase property values, give residentsalternative transportation options, and involve residents in the planning process to foster a senseof pride and ownership of the parks and greenways system within their community (Benedict andMcMahon, 2003).Newtown, Sarasota The community of Newtown is a 1.5 square mile neighborhood located within Sarasota,Florida. It is in the midst of redeveloping from an economically struggling community to athriving, integrated, and desirable place to live. Newtown is designated as both an EnterpriseZone and a Community Redevelopment Area. An Enterprise Zone is a state designated area thatreceives certain incentives to promote economic development, such as returning tax moneygenerated with the area back to this area instead of elsewhere (City of Sarasota, EnterpriseZone). A Community Redevelopment Area (CRA) is designated as such because it meets criteriato be considered “blighted.” The purpose of a CRA is similar to that of an Enterprise Zone in 53
  • 57. that it creates and promotes incentives to draw private investors to the area to facilitate economicdevelopment (City of Sarasota, Newtown Redevelopment Area). The community of Newtown is working diligently towards redeveloping theircommunity. The Newtown Redevelopment Office was created in 2002 with a focus onadministration, economic development, housing, infrastructure, community health, safety andwelfare, urban design and parks, transportation, and land use (Newtown Redevelopment Office,2009). In a series of community meetings, Newtown residents agreed upon five key areas asnecessary for bringing positive change to the community: economic development, lawenforcement, neighborhoods, community health action team (CHAT), and youth services (Cityof Sarasota – Newtown, New Beginnings). In a section of the Newtown CRA Volume IIIRedevelopment Plan, it is stated that, “it is the City’s goal to provide a high quality,environmentally sensitive system of parks and open spaces for its residents” (City of Sarasota –Newtown, 2002, p. 27). The needs and desires of community residents and leaders can beaddressed by the creation of a green infrastructure network and would support the environmental,economic, and social issues occurring in Newtown.Green Infrastructure Networks Green infrastructure networks take a different approach to open space conservation andplanning than typical methods, in that they work with development instead of in isolation from oropposed to development (Benedict and McMahon, 2002). Designating green, open spaces andtrails as green infrastructure gives them the important connotation that they deserve. Referring tothese areas as green spaces represents them as nice to have, but not essential, while the termgreen infrastructure represents these areas as vital to the efficient functioning of our 54
  • 58. communities, just like the importance of grey infrastructure such as roads, utilities, and sewers.Using this terminology also implies that these features need to be maintained and protectedinstead of viewing them as self-sustaining, as the term green spaces may imply (Benedict andMcMahon, 2003). In the 1990’s, Florida created the Florida Greenways Program, with the help of theConservation Fund of Washington, D.C. and 1000 Friends of Florida. The program was createdto conserve critical components of Florida’s ecosystems, restore and maintain connectivityamong diverse ecosystems, facilitate these diverse ecosystems to function as an integratedsystem, and to maintain the evolutionary potential of these ecosystems to adapt to futureenvironmental change (Hoctor et al., 2003). While at the statewide level, a green infrastructurenetwork has been identified; it is up to the communities of Florida that municipal andcommunity-level green infrastructure networks are implemented.Proposed Green Infrastructure Project This paper proposes that Newtown consider developing a green infrastructure networkthat creates an integrated system of parks and greenways within their community. Implementingmore parks, recreational, and open space connected through greenways will bring numerousbenefits to the community. Newtown already has a great base of park space with eleven parks orrecreational areas within or near Newtown. A network of greenways and additional park spacewould link these areas together and further enhance the natural areas within the community. 55
  • 59. A greenway project is currently under development that would occur along WhitakerBayou. The greenway will be an eight-acre linear park stretching from Martin Luther King, Jr.Park north to 49th Street. Sarasota Bay Estuary Program, a program created in June of 1989 toprotect the health of Sarasota Bay, is leading the greenway project (Sarasota Bay EstuaryProgram, online). The greenway project seeks to improve the water quality of Whitaker Bayou,wildlife habitats, stormwater management, recreation opportunities, and community appreciationand engagement with the Bayou (Sarasota Bay Estuary Program, online). Whitaker Bayou wasadded to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s list of contaminated waters forexceeding allowable amounts of fecal matter, too low dissolved oxygen, and mercury in fish(Sword, February 10, 2010). The greenway will be created in conjunction with a blueway, whichis a boating and kayaking trail along the bayou. The greenway will connect with the Dr. MartinLuther King Jr. Park, creating one linkage of a park and greenway within the community. 56
  • 60. Two rail lines run through the community and represent additional opportunities forgreenways. The rail lines stretch from the north to the south and pass on or near severalcommunity assets, such as existing park space, Booker High School, and the R.L. TaylorCommunity Center. Each of these potential or developing greenways run north and south,creating a need for greenway trails running in the east to west directions. Already existing bikelanes within the community could act as supportive or feeder routes to the parks and greenways. Many communities have converted rail lines into multi-use trails or greenways as part ofa nationwide trend called Rails-to-Trails. The utilization of rails-to-trails programs is not a newconcept to Sarasota. The Legacy Trail south of Newtown refurbished unused rail lines to create amulti-use trail. Opened in March of 2008, the trail connects with several trailheads and parks,offers rest areas, and recreational space (Sarasota County, The Legacy Trail). The City ofSarasota Parks and Connectivity Master Plan discusses the inclusion of greenways and trailswithin the city, and specifically recommends purchasing former railroad corridors to create arails-to-trails network within the city. It describes two types of greenways and trails to be used inSarasota: multi-use recreational trails (MURTs) that parallel a road, and rails-to-trails greenways(City of Sarasota, Parks and Connectivity Master Plan, 2002). Additional parks and open spaces could be placed on vacant land parcels within thecommunity. One opportunity for creating a new park area is the Marion Anderson Brownfieldlocated to the east of one of the rail lines. This area has been discussed as a site for many varyinguses, such as a Super Wal-Mart. However, the community should also consider using part of theBrownfield for a beautiful park connected to the green infrastructure network. The park could becreated in conjunction with other economic development endeavors. Turning an area that wasonce contaminated and an eye sore to the community into a beautiful area to be cherished could 57
  • 61. bring a sense of justification to the residents of Newtown and further connect them with nature.It is important for the community to choose the placement of new park areas, because they knowbetter than anyone where these areas would be most beneficial to the community.Benefits of a Green Infrastructure Network There is ample evidence of the numerous benefits that can occur in a community fromincorporating green space and greenways. The many benefits span the categories ofenvironmental sustainability, economic development, and community engagement. Developingthis system of parks and greenways could help to address a number of the current challengeslisted on the redevelopment agency’s website.Environmental Sustainability Green infrastructure networks provide many opportunities for improved environmentalsustainability. A GI network will preserve and promote the environmental character and health ofNewtown. The GI network will preserve open space and recreational areas within Newtown aswell as create new nature spaces by converting vacant and unused property into green areas. GI networks preserve and create natural areas, which is considered an important aspect ofSmart Growth management. Additionally, greenways can define growth boundaries and protectcommunities from encroaching development, which is one of the current challenges listed by theNewtown Redevelopment Office (Randolph, 2004; City of Sarasota – Newtown, NewtownCommunity Redevelopment Area Plan Volume 1). Converting vacant land into green spaces will also help to provide cleaner air and water,while greenways will connect fragmented ecosystems for better flow of resources and species 58
  • 62. (Benedict and McMahon, 2003; Thorne, 1993). More greenery and trees help to reduce pollutionin the air and water (Spirn, 1984). These areas also help to reduce flooding and facilitatestormwater management by absorbing a large amount of the water, which on impervious surfaceswould flow into the community’s water system. This can help to reduce costs to the community(Schilling and Logan, 2008). Greenways will provide the community alternative modes of transportation, besidesvehicles and public transportation. “The Rails-to-Trails Conservancy estimates that one-third ofweekday trail users are commuting in major urban areas with trail systems, such as Washington,D.C., Seattle, and Tampa” (Benedict & McMahon, 2003, p.3). By making other forms oftransportation more visible to the community and removing more vehicles from the streets, it ispossible that drivers will reduce their speeds and be more aware of pedestrians and bicyclists,which is one of the current challenges listed in the Newtown CRA Plan (City of Sarasota –Newtown, Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan Volume 1).Economic Development The creation of parks and greenways aids in the economic development of thecommunities in which they are implemented. These areas attract people for their intrinsicaesthetic and natural qualities. Because people are naturally drawn to these areas, it is moredesirable to live in close proximity. A 2001 study done by the National Association of Realtors(NAR) found that 57 percent of voters would prefer a home closer to parks and open space than ahome that was not (Lewis, 2003, p.4). Linked to this is the trend of homes nearer parks andgreenways retaining more value than those further away. Many studies have shown thatproperties closer to park space and greenways are more valuable than those further away. One 59
  • 63. study of Pennypack Park in Philadelphia showed that property values increased from $1,000 peracre at 2,500 feet from the park to $11,500 per acre at 40 feet from the park (Walker, 2004, 1).Parks and greenways also can attract new or relocating businesses to take advantage of thepopularity of these areas (Hellmund and Smith, 2006). These new businesses within thecommunity can help generate municipal revenue from taxes that can be put back into thecommunity (Lewis, 2003). These benefits can help to address the goals of the Newtown Redevelopment Office andcommunity residents and several of the current challenges as listed in the Newtown CRA Plan(City of Sarasota – Newtown, Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan Volume 1).However, it is important to ensure that these economic benefits do not begin to exclude membersof the community because increased property values mean they can no longer afford to live nearthese green spaces.Community Engagement A green infrastructure network will bring a number of social benefits to the community ofNewtown. Increased parks and greenway areas in the community will provide moreopportunities for gathering places where Newtown residents can form stronger social bonds anda stronger neighborhood (University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, 2003). Involving thecommunity in the planning, development, and implementation of parks and greenways willensure that these spaces reflect the needs and desires of the community, which will allow for agreater chance of acceptance by Newtown residents. Also, through the participation process, thecommunity can learn of the benefits of a network of open, green spaces and how this networkreflects community goals (Randolph, 2004). Additionally, participation in the creation of the GI 60
  • 64. network will instill a sense of pride and ownership of these facilities in residents. Bringingpeople together through the creation of a GI network can bring “more effective and responsivemanagement, stronger social ties and collaboration, and the cultivation of civic interaction anddemocratic participation” (Hellmund and Smith, 2006, 19). A GI network will also facilitate greater contact with nature for Newtown residents.Connecting with nature provides a range of health benefits including lower blood pressure andcholesterol levels, enhanced survival after a heart attack, faster recovery from surgery, reducedminor-medical disorders, and lower self-reported stress levels (Frumkin and Eysenbach, 2003).Increasing opportunities for recreation in Newtown can also lead to improved fitness andreduced obesity. Study after study shows that physical activity reduces a number of physicalailments including diabetes, heart disease, and obesity (Frumkin and Eysenbach, 2003). Morerecreational areas in the community will additionally benefit youth in Newtown and give them awider array of activities, which is one of the current challenges listed by the NewtownRedevelopment Office (City of Sarasota – Newtown, Newtown Community RedevelopmentArea Plan Volume 1). A green infrastructure network in Newtown can also lead to a safer neighborhood andreduced crime. As stated earlier, open spaces and greenways can help a community form strongsocial ties. When the community is connected with one another, they feel more empowered toprotect and help each other. Turning vacant or unused land into landscaped parks or greenwayscan help prevent crime, if planned and designed properly, with appropriate lighting and visibilityto the surrounding neighbors. Studies have shown that urban residents living near green spacesendure fewer quality-of-life crimes and feel safer (University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign,2003). 61
  • 65. Implementing a Green Infrastructure Network Implementing a green infrastructure network will require the commitment of thecommunity and its leaders in seeing this project through. Luckily for Newtown, it has a widebase of support from the Newtown Redevelopment Office and the City of Sarasota. The City ofSarasota Parks and Connectivity Master Plan demonstrates that green infrastructure is supportedand already a work in progress. A green infrastructure network plan could include the following steps. Preparation is thefirst of three steps to a green infrastructure network. This is done by assessing and evaluatingexisting conditions within the community. This includes identifying possible sources of funding,identifying any legal barriers, evaluate current demographic and economic trends, and inventoryand map parks, trails, and vacant land and note underserved areas. One source of funding to consider is the Recreational Trails Program, a federally fundedcompetitive grant program. The grant provides a maximum of $250,000 for the creation,renovation, or maintenance of recreational trails, trailheads, and trailside facilities. It requiresawards to be matched with local funds. Applications are sent through the Florida Department ofEnvironmental Protection, who then provides a recommended priority list to the FederalHighway Administration (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2010). The second step is the plan and design phase. In this phase, planners should involve allmembers of the community for a collaborative process. Steps include developing designsolutions to social, economic, and environmental factors in the community, and identifygreenway routes and areas for parks (Schilling and Logan, 2008). What can also be done duringthis step is to gather information on the community’s opinion of existing parks. Questions to beasked should include: who uses the park, how do people use the park, why residents do or do not 62
  • 66. use a park, and what features residents wish to have in a park (Walker, 2004). This should bedone to ensure that parks and greenways are designed and built to the needs of the residents whowill be using the facilities, not the planners and urban designers who will only be creating thefacilities. The third step in the green infrastructure implementation process is action, which is thefinal stage in which creation of the green infrastructure network. This final phase includesacquiring necessary land and identifying potential partners, whether from the local government,federal government, private sector, civic associations, or universities (Schilling and Logan,2008). As outlined in the previous section, it is important to involve the community throughoutthe entire planning, design, implementation, and management process. Doing so will instill asense of ownership and pride in the final product of the green infrastructure network.Educational or artistic elements displaying the rich culture of Newtown should be included alongthe greenway trails and in the parks to further connect Newtown residents to nature and theircommunity. The planning of the GI network will need to be flexible in order to address thevarying needs of diverse stakeholders involved in the project (Schilling and Logan, 2008). TheGI network does not need to be created all at once, but can be created in stages that willeventually lead to a completely connected green infrastructure network. However, greeninfrastructure networks must be created for the long term in order for them to bring the mostbenefits. Because of this, GI networks need to be included in long-range planning andmanagement documents (Benedict and McMahon, 2003). 63
  • 67. Implementation Steps Step 1: Preparation  Assess and evaluate current conditions in community  Identify sources of funding  Identify legal barriers  Evaluate current demographic and economic trends in community  Inventory and map existing parks and trails, and vacant land  Note underserved areas Step 2: Plan and Design  Involve community  Develop design solutions to social, economic and environmental factors  Identify greenway routes and park areas  Gather community opinion on existing park system Step 3: Action  Acquire necessary land  Identify possible partners  Implement GI networkConclusion This paper has defined green infrastructure, described the multiple benefits it canproduce, and the methods to implement these networks. Newtown would greatly benefit fromcreating an interconnected system of parks and greenways. A GI network fits with the goals ofthe Newtown Redevelopment Office and the needs and desires of Newtown residents,particularly the economic development, community health, safety and welfare, urban design andparks, and transportation goals. Including the residents of Newtown in the planning andimplementation of the GI network will aid in its acceptance by the community. Providing theresidents a sense of ownership of these spaces will help to preserve the GI network and instill asense of pride in their community. The health of the local environment, economy, andcommunity will all be improved with the creation of a green infrastructure network in Newtown. 64
  • 68. ReferencesAhern, Jack. (2003). “Greenways in the USA: theory, trends and prospects.” In Rob Jongman and Gloria Pungetti (Eds.), Ecological Networks and Greenways: Concept, Design, and Implementation (pp. 34-53). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Baker, Chris, Mahe, Richard, and Wiseman, Kaeley. (2009). “New Ways to Look at Old Spaces: A vision for green infrastructure networks.” Department of City Planning, University of Manitoba. Proposal for the 2009 TD Friends of the Environment Foundation Go Green Challenge.Benedict, Mark and McMahon, Edward. (2003). “How to use parks for Green Infrastructure.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/greeninfrastructure.htmBenedict, Mark and McMahon, Edward. (2002). “Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century. The Conservation Fund: Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse Monograph Series.Campbell, Scott. (1996). “Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities?: Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development.” Journal of the American Planning Association, 62: 3, 296 — 312City of Sarasota – Newtown. Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan: Volume 1. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown%20CRA%20Plan%20Volume%20I.pdfCity of Sarasota – Newtown. (2002) Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan Through 2020: Volume 3 Background Data. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown%20Vol%20III.pdfCity of Sarasota. (2002). Parks and Connectivity Master Plan. Accessed on October 12, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/nds/Neighborhoods%20Redev%20Spec%20Projects_files/P arks%20%2B%20Connectivity%20Master%20Plan.pdfCity of Sarasota – Newtown (online). Enterprise Zone. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/ez.htmlCity of Sarasota – Newtown (online). Newtown Redevelopment Area. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/CRA.htmlCity of Sarasota – Newtown (online). New Beginnings for Newtown. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/Newtown/newbeginnings.html 65
  • 69. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Greenways and Trails. (2010). The Recreational Trails Program. Accessed on November 16, 2010 from: Http://www.dep.state.fl.us/gwt/grants/Frumkin, Howard and Eysenbach, Mary E. (2003). “How cities use parks to improve public health.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/pdf/physicalactivity.pdfHellmund, Paul and Smith, Daniel Somers. (2006). Designing Greenways: Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People. Island Press: Washington, D.C.Hoctor, Thomas S., Margaret H. Carr, Paul D. Zwick, and David S. Maehr. (2003). “The Florida Statewide Greenways Project: its realization and political context.” In Rob Jongman and Gloria Pungetti (Eds.), Ecological Networks and Greenways: Concept, Design, Implementation (pp. 222-250). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.Lewis, Megan (2003). How to use city parks for economic development.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/pdf/economicdevelopment.pdfNewtown Redevelopment Office (September 2009). Quarterly Newsletter, volume 1: issue 1Randolph, John. (2004). Environmental Land Use Planning and Management. Island Press: Washington, D.C.Sarasota Bay Estuary Program. Accessed on November 7 from: http://www.sarasotabay.org/aboutsbep.htmlSarasota County (online). The Legacy Trail. Accessed on October 29, 2010 from: http://www.scgov.net/LegacyTrail/default.aspSchilling, Joseph and Logan, Jonathan. (2008). “Greening the Rust Belt: A green infrastructure model for right sizing America’s shrinking cities.” Journal of the American Planning Association, 74: 4, 451-466.Spirn, Anne Whiston. (1984). The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design. BasicBooks.Sword, Doug. “Waterway blacklist updated.” Herald-Tribune, February 10, 2010. http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20100210/ARTICLE/2101040/2066/NEWS?Title= Waterway-blacklist-updatedThorne, James F. (1993). “Landscape ecology: a foundation for greenway design.” In Daniel S. Smith and Paul Cawood Hellmund (Eds.), Ecology of Greenways (pp. 23-42). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 66
  • 70. University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign. (2003). “How cities use parks to create safer neighborhoods.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/pdf/saferneighborhoods.pdfU.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (online). Sustainable Housing and Communities. Accessed on November 9, 2010 from: http://portal.hud.gov/portal/page/portal/HUD/program_offices/sustainable_housing_com munitiesWalker, Chris. (2004). “The public value of urban parks.” Beyond Recreation: A Broader View of Parks. The Urban Institute and The Wallace Foundation. 67
  • 71. Minority Business Creation in Newtown: Equalizing the Reach of GreenBy Rebekah G. BrightbillIntroduction This project will look at ways for the Newtown community to grow income and wealththrough opportunities that are available in green construction industries. This is appropriate inthe context of current trends in the environmental and microenterprise industries, and theconstruction microenterprise development possibilities that exist in Newtown. Newtown has ahistory of creative entrepreneurial thinking. The growth and development of a sustainableeconomy in Newtown has been identified in the master plan goals of the Newtown CommunityRedevelopment Agency, and the CRA has done a great deal of work to establish entrepreneurialdevelopment programming. With the growth of green jobs and green industry nationally andlocally, an absence of training in green industry can exclude the residents of Newtown fromthese high growth industries that have demonstrated great potential for both employment andbusiness growth. Sustainable, green thinking was integrated into virtually every facet of Americanconsciousness as authors such as Leopold, 1949; McKibben, 1989; and WCED, 1987 elevatedthe importance of taking care of the earth in order to sustain it for continuing generations. Overtime, the term urban sustainability has grown to encompass environmental, economic, and socialdimensions of the concept (Campbell, 1996; Curwell and Cooper, 1998; Cummings, 2002;While, Jonas, and Gibbs, 2004; Hopwood, Mellor, and O’Brien, 2005; and Roseland and Soots,2007). Beginning in the 1990s, academics and practitioners began to extend this earth care ethicto low income communities, as they explored the relationship of sustainability to economic andsocial equity—the earth must be preserved for future generations, but the current generations 68
  • 72. must have an economic livelihood to maintain as well (United Nations, 1992a). True sustainabledevelopment achieves the three goals of environmental protection, economic justice, and socialequity (Campbell, 1996). A pure market-based approach to community revitalization has failedto develop the economic infrastructure and resources of low-income urban communities. Moreappropriate strategies connect low-income community members to business and jobopportunities in local markets. Rather than relying on market forces to bring economic benefitsto low income communities, these resources should actively be brought to these neighborhoods(Cummings, 2002). The growth of green industry also brought a growth of economic profit potential andinnovative ways to do business while sustaining the environment (Roarty, 1997; Schaper, 2002;Walley and Taylor, 2002; Beveridge and Guy, 2005). Sarasota has not been exempt from thegrowth of green industry or the growth of green consciousness. Sarasota identifies itself as agreen city through the measures it has taken to comply with the U.S. Mayors Climate ProtectionAgreement signed by Mayor LouAnn Palmer in 2007. The Green Business Partnership(GBP), in conjunction with Sarasota County Government, maintains comprehensive informationon green businesses in the county, and established benchmarks for businesses to help make theirbehavior “green.” As the first local Florida government to obtain LEED certification, SarasotaCounty established “Sustainability and Energy Independence and Community Building” as oneof its four legislative priorities in 2009 (Sarasota County, 2009). Sarasota County was selectedby the Florida State Legislature as one of two communities in the state to create an EnergyEconomic Zone, which will create special economic incentives for businesses in green energyindustries (White, 2010). According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), green jobs are positions in 69
  • 73. “businesses that produce goods and provide services that benefit the environment or conservenatural resources. These goods and services are sold to customers, and include research anddevelopment, installation, and maintenance services (BLS, 2010). Thus, any job or business thatreduces the use of natural resources, and promotes long-term sustainability of these resources, isconsidered a green job or industry. Microenterprise development has been a standard tool in the economic developer’stoolkit for U.S. low-income urban neighborhoods since the mid-1980s. The target formicroenterprise development is not large-scale corporations, but rather individuals who operatevery small scale businesses and seek to expand them in order to increase their income andwealth. A microenterprise is defined as a business with five or fewer employees (Servon, 2006).Minority microenterprise development is also a tool for job creation because minority firms aremore likely to employ other minorities and develop other minority firms (Grown and Bates,1991; Bates, 2002). Thus, business growth can also be seen as an engine for both business andjob generation for other minority and low income individuals. Green entrepreneurship provides a vast niche market potential for entrepreneurs. Greenentrepreneurs can serve as trendsetters for the business community by providing examples ofeconomically profitable, sustainable business to others in the community (Schaper, 2002).Research has shown green building practices are demonstrated to have positive environmental,economic, and social impact on both businesses and individuals (United States Green BuildingCouncil, 2006). Green industry and low income microentreprise have seldom been packaged together,however. Blending a proven strategy for poverty alleviation and wealth creation with aninnovative, niche market development strategy provides low income entrepreneurs with 70
  • 74. opportunities to become economically sustainable and distinguish themselves in the market,while providing an ecologically sustainable future for Newtown. The following sections willprovide detailed discussion about sound microentreprise practice for low income and minoritypopulations, small business development programs in the construction industry, the green trendsin Sarasota that Newtown contractors can benefit from, and an implementation plan for thesesuggestions.Microenterprise Development Economic development researchers often identify small business development as animportant means of income generation and wealth-building in low-income communities. Smallbusiness development programs nation-wide have made significant progress in building theeconomic capacity of low income neighborhoods through microenterprise development. Withthe specific economic development goals identified in the Newtown plan, the growth of greenindustry in Sarasota, and community interest in the growth of construction businesses, greencontractor development is a good microenterprise niche to pursue. Low income and minorityentrepreneurs are most successful when they participate in business development programmingthat covers a wide range of topics. The success of construction entrepreneurs is dependent uponconstruction industry specific trainings that build upon trainings in business basics.Microenterprise Development for Low Income Entrepreneurs In low income, urban communities where there has not always been investment ineconomic assets by outside capital, microenterprise development is a good way to affirm thebusiness contributions of low-income individuals in their communities. It views new andexisting entrepreneurs as having skills, interests, and experience, by valuing and supporting theirbusiness ideas by providing them with credit and training that will make their business 71
  • 75. successful. Microenterprise programs can choose to either be credit led, training led, or, group-lending oriented (a more common model in international contexts) (Edgcomb, Klein, and Clark,1996). This is crucial for communities like Newtown that need economic and social capitaldevelopment to facilitate economic growth. Microenterprise development can be a good poverty alleviation strategy when low-income entrepreneurs are equipped with sufficient resources. Low-income entrepreneurs aremore likely to succeed when they have the skills, resources, support networks, and sufficientcapitalization (both human and financial) in the first two years of business. Low incomeentrepreneurs are also more successful when they provide services for the mainstream economy,and do not provide personal services or small-scale retailing (Servon and Bates, 1998). Nelson(2004) noted that networking should be a crucial element of entrepreneurial training. Ifbusinesses are pursuing opportunities to integrate into mainstream markets, the social capitalbuilt through networking reduces their isolation from these markets. It is important to note thatthe absence of any of these success factors does not mean that a business will fail. Rather, itpoints to the need for good training and technical assistance programs that equip entrepreneursfor the full range of skills necessary for successful business ownership. This also points to theimportance of developing the construction trades so that entrepreneurs have good, consistentopportunities to serve mainstream markets that will have a greater capacity to increase theirincomes over time. Microentreprenurs generally identify capital as their primary felt need, and identifytraining and technical assistance as secondary felt needs. Low-income entrepreneurs lack accessto all of these things: knowledge, networks, support, and capital. Thus, core microentreprisecurriculum should provide training in the areas of business skills, economic literacy, and 72
  • 76. personal effectiveness. Training is defined as assistance to groups of entrepreneurs, whereastechnical assistance is defined as one-on-one assistance tailored to an individual. A well-rounded program will deliver information to entrepreneurs through both mechanisms. Trainingand technical assistance should be provided during the initial start-up or expansion phase, butmicroenterprise programs should make these services available beyond the initial trainings.Successful microenterprise support requires ongoing technical assistance to the entrepreneurbeyond the completion of trainings (Association for Enterprise Opportunity, 2000). In fact,Edgecomb and Malm (2002) identify business consulting, coaching, and mentoring as critical toassisting low income entrepreneurs achieve success. The custom, personal approach of aprogram with strong coaching and mentoring can help new microentrepreneurs navigate thechallenging first phases of their business start-up or expansion.Microenterprise Development for Minority Entrepreneurs Although each individual business owner has the autonomy and freedom to determinewhich business is appropriate for their individual skills, interests, and talents, it is important topromote a wide variety of small businesses in order to promote the maximum economic growthof the community. According to Suggs (1995), for meaningful economic growth to take place inAfrican-American communities, business growth should move beyond professional services,which do not generate income on the scale that other business sectors do. The development ofbusinesses in the construction trades is a good mechanism to overcome this barrier to income andwealth generation described by Suggs. All small scale construction firms have challenges being competitive with larger, moreexperienced firms, but these issues are even more acute for minority construction firms. Barriersto market entry for minority firms include lack of firm experience, lack of relationships with 73
  • 77. prime contractors, lack of scale, and capitalization (Suggs, 1990). Overall, larger, older firms aremore likely to receive government contracts than small firms, and the race of the firm was foundto be irrelevant when firm size was compared in the analysis. The declining barriers to minorityfirm development and procurement have facilitated their capacity to procure governmentcontracts, which has spurred the attainment of additional contracts, as well as the growth anddevelopment of additional minority firms (Bates, 2002). One significant barrier, however, is lack of access to capital that can aid companygrowth. Black-owned firms are less likely to receive loans than White-owned firms.Furthermore, Black-owned construction firms receive smaller start-up loan amounts than White-owned construction firms when they do receive loans. This study associates the smaller start-upcapital rates of Black-owned firms with the higher failure rates of Black-owned firms. This isimportant because Black-owned firms employ largely minority employees from an employment-challenged segment, and they demonstrate reach into markets untapped by Black-ownedbusinesses. The study recommends that the barriers to Black-owned business start-up andexpansion be addressed by the development of strategies to provide capital to these businesses(Grown and Bates, 1991). Research indicates indicate that the supportive services provided by small businesstraining and technical assistance, construction specific training, mentoring, access to capital, andaccess to government markets are all crucial to the development of businesses and the increase ofwealth in African-American communities. A program that provides these services toconstruction businesses could be a key part of Newtown’s economic development strategy.Green Construction The national economic downturn has hurt the construction industry, but it has not hurt 74
  • 78. green builders. The National Association of Minority Contractors, in fact, cited a 20 percentincrease in the green building sector, where the construction industry overall saw a 40 percentdownturn in 2009 (NAMC, 2010). The Bureau of Labor Statistics research shows that of allgreen industry sectors, construction is the strongest sector of the national market, with the largestnumber of establishments and a 38.1 percent market share (BLS, 2009). There is no comprehensive data on the status of green construction in Florida—theAgency for Workforce Innovation (AWI) recently began a survey of Florida green businesses in2010 to assess the reach of green industries in the state (AWI, 2009). A 2008 AWI fact sheetidentified 17 different subfields of the construction industry that have opportunities forinvolvement in green, or energy efficient, building and retrofitting. Ten of these industries—electrician, plumber, HVAC systems, insulation installation, hazardous materials removal, toname a few—have been identified by the Department of Labor as high growth industries (Whiteand Walsh, 2008). Furthermore, they identify the need for apprenticeship programs andgovernmental participation in training skilled workers to prevent shortages in these industries.These subfields of green industry show great growth potential for Newtown businesses in theconstruction trades. The U.S. Green Building Council has developed a rating system of green buildingtechniques in residential, commercial, and neighborhood development. The LEED buildingsystem sets ratings and benchmarks in the areas of energy savings, water efficiency, CO2emissions reductions, improved indoor environmental quality, and reduced environmentalfootprint, through green building design, construction, and operations management solutions(USGBC, 2010). LEED certification can either be given to a project for its use of greentechnology, or to an individual for their understanding of green technologies. The requirements 75
  • 79. to become LEED certified as an individual are extensive, and require either project experienceon LEED certified projects, work experience in sustainable industry, or completion of 30 hoursof education in the chosen LEED specialty area (GBCI, 2010; USGBC, 2010a). Another alternative to LEED certification is the Green Advantage ® certification.Available for both commercial and residential projects, the Green Advantage® certification isgeared towards project managers, superintendents, field workers, and foremen. The certificationprovides proof that recipients have knowledge of current green building principles, materials,and techniques (Green Advantage, 2010). Because of the complexity involved in achievingLEED certification, NAMC recommends that small-scale, start-up minority contractors pursuethe Green Advantage® certification, rather than LEED certification, which NAMC identifies asmore appropriate for architects, engineers, planners, and executive level builders because of thecollegiate level of difficulty of the preparation and exams (NAMC, 2010). The GreenAdvantage® certification is also nationally recognized, and it can bring additional LEED creditsto a project when members of the project team have the certification (Green Advantage, 2010).Because most of the construction firms in Newtown are small scale firms, this GreenAdvantage® certification would be a good for these entrepreneurs to consider.Examples of Low Income, Minority, and Construction Enterprise Training Programs Across the board, successful microenterprise and minority construction training programscontain similar modules which have been proven to result in the development of thrivingbusinesses. The Newtown CRA already provides a number of useful entrepreneurial supports.From the 12-week CEO Business Training, technical assistance and referral system; to theplanned expansion of the one-on-one technical assistance, workshops, and mentoring; to theplanned development of the business incubator in 2011, a good foundation is in place to assist 76
  • 80. construction entrepreneurs in achieving success. There are several programs that provide goodexamples of construction specific training that include all the elements of sound entrepreneurialtraining programs, which Newtown can look to as a model to expand on existing programming.Turner Construction Since 1969, Turner Construction has been providing an 8-week construction trainingcourse to minority and woman owned construction firms in thirty cities. The course covers riskmanagement, construction estimating, safety, and effective management. Firms who completethe trainings have a strong record of success either working with Turner or on other majorcontracts, or creating partnerships with each other. Turner also created a K-12 youth mentoringand exposure program designed to introduce K-12 students to the construction trades. They alsohave a four year internship and scholarship program to provide experience and funding to highschool seniors majoring in civil, electrical, occupational, or mechanical engineering; constructionmanagement; and architecture fields (Turner Construction Company, 2010). Although theTurner construction training program does not have a component that addresses green building,the elements of the training program have been very successful in preparing entrepreneurs forlarge scale construction jobs. A total of 40,000 contracts valued at $14 billion have beenawarded to woman and minority owned construction businesses working with Turner, who havebeen trained through the program (Turner Construction Company, 2010). This is significantbecause the success of this program indicates that linking minority contractors to trainingopportunities and real bid opportunities results in business growth and contract procurement, asother research also indicates.St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center (BAC) The St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center (BAC) has a partnership based model of 77
  • 81. entrepreneur training that delivers training and support services through workshops and one-on-one technical assistance. BAC workshops address the needs of a variety of entrepreneurs, andtopics include marketing and advertising, business plan development, pricing, bonding, legalstructure, and doing business within the city, just to name a few. The BAC also providesentrepreneurs with the necessary link to capital through a revolving loan fund that serves theTampa Bay are exclusively. Specifically targeted to businesses under 25 employees with salesvolumes under $3 and $5 million per year (depending on the industry), their Small BusinessEnterprise (SBE) Program certifies businesses for contracting and procurement opportunities inconstruction, good and services, and professional services and supplies. Benefits to SBE’sinclude project specific assistance, sheltered market benefits (such as set-asides for participantsin the program), discounts such as bond waivers, payment assistance, expedited payments forcity projects, training and financial assistance, workshops, and reduced plan fees (St. PetersburgBusiness Assistance Center, 2010).National Association of Minority Contractors – South Florida Chapter The South Florida Chapter of the National Association for Minority Contractors(NAMCSFC) is a business network of minority contractors that serves as a training andadvocacy organization, both facilitating training and business development opportunities, andlobbying for opportunities for minority contractors to bid. Trainings include classes on worker’scomp insurance and bonding, workshops on the development of construction contracts by locallawyers, and workshops on construction management. The chapter also facilitates access toconstruction specific CPA’s to prepare the financials for construction firms. The chapter hasalso facilitated access financing through local partnerships (K. Crockett, PersonalCommunication. November 3, 2010). 78
  • 82. NYC School Construction Authority The New York City Department of Education School Construction Authority (SCA)established a Business Development Division with a comprehensive minority constructionbusiness development program. This program assists minority and woman constructionentrepreneurs with the practical aspects of the construction trades, contracting with the NewYork School Construction Authority, and the practical matters of business ownership andoperations, while connecting them to real construction bid opportunities. Support areas includeContract Compliance; Minority Business Certification / Recertification; Minority BusinessOutreach; Minority Business Development & Training; and High School and College InternshipPrograms. These business development divisions help interested contractors meet therequirements of the SCA (who is required to hire certain percentages of minority contractors).They also play an active role in recruiting potential candidates for business development, providetechnical assistance, facilitate loans through a partner bank, provide assistance with procuringbonding from a partner bonding company upon completion of requirements, and provideconstruction specific business training. The Mentor Program of the NY SCA is designed toassist contractors who are small scale and need assistance increasing their capacity forparticipation in large scale government contracts. Participants in the mentoring program receiveexperience on SCA projects; technical assistance and training; general business, marketing andbusiness development assistance; fast track payments for projects; and access to working capitaland bonding (as participants in other programs do as well). The SCA also provides high schooland college internships in construction, engineering and architecture (NYC DOE, 2010).Newtown Green Construction Entrepreneur Development Plan The proposed program model for Newtown/North Sarasota green construction 79
  • 83. entrepreneur training is multi-phased. Not all entrepreneurs will need to participate in everyphase of the training, but mastery of each of these elements will contribute to their success as agreen entrepreneur. If an entrepreneur does not already show a core competency or mastery ofone of the areas, it would be valuable for them to receive training or technical assistance in thatarea. The use of business coaches is vital in assessing the needs of each entrepreneur andassisting them with the development of each business area. To provide easy accessibility toinformation, an ideal location for this training and technical assistance would be the Robert L.Taylor Community Complex, the SCTI Newtown location, the Newtown Redevelopment Office,or the proposed business incubator. Newtown Green Construction Entrepreneur Development PlanTraining Purpose ProviderCredit Education Poor or non-existent credit leaves - First Bank employees are trained in entrepreneurs unprepared for mainstream FDIC Money smart curriculum and capital markets. The goal of microenterprise provide financial and credit education development programming is to integrate free of charge. business owners into traditional credit Barbara Kreuser markets, and this is an important first step. (941) 345-1435 barbara.kreuser@fbol.com - CredAbility is a local affiliate of a national organization, providing financial and credit education. Sandee Rains (941) 256-8132 sandra.rains@cccsinc.orgSmall Business The construction industry is as much about -Continued use of the CEO Program.Development business acumen as it is about knowing the trade. -Manasota SCORE provides mentoring and workshops. www.score-suncoast.org (941) 955-1029 -State College of Florida SBDC provides business workshops on many topics. Carolyn Griffin (941) 408-1413 griffic2@scf.eduConstruction Specific The approach for construction training will -Sarasota County Technical InstituteTraining and/or vary depending on the skill and business (SCTI) has a construction 80
  • 84. Certification stage of the entrepreneur. apprenticeship program. www.scti.eduConstruction Business Some contractors may know their field, butDevelopment Training not have the appropriate licenses necessary to -Manatee County Technical Institute expand their business. (SCTI) has a number of programs in the architecture and construction Other contractors may have a trade specific fields. training (such as masonry), but they may be www.manateetechnicalinstitute.org well served by the acquisition of a general contractor’s license. -State College of Florida has a B.A. in Energy Technology Management. Or, they may know their trade but not know www.scf.edu the nuances of it as prime contractor, experienced subcontractor, or project - Seminar on working with local manager would. government by City and County purchasing departments. There are specific business practices related to the construction trades that could be taught -Seminar on City and County code in a class format. requirements by the City and County building departments. Many contractors desiring to increase their scale need assistance with pricing large jobs, -Pursue relationships with local negotiating contracts. construction firms and industry trade associations who can can provide trainings. The Sarasota Chamber of Commerce may be a good resource for this. www.sarasotachamber.comContractor Mentoring Small scale contractors seeking to navigate -Pursue relationships with large localProgram the new arena of government and large scale construction firms or industry trade projects could be paired with an experienced associations that can provide mentors contractor can help them to understand and/or project experience to small nuances of the industry. firms. The Sarasota Chamber of Commerce may be a good resource for this. www.sarasotachamber.comMinority Contractor If a contract has racial set-asides, this -State College of Florida SBDCCertification certification can facilitate selection, and provides workshops on women and show that the business owner has been minority contractor certification and proactive in branding and operations by has staff available to assist with it on pursuing designations that make the business a one-on-one basis. distinctive. Carolyn Griffin (941) 408-1413 griffic2@scf.eduBonding and Insurance In order to submit a bid on the large projects - The bonding and insurance amounts that most small contractors seek to procure, required by large projects can be cost they need to have adequate bonding and prohibitive. Facilitating a matched insurance. savings program, a contract mobilization loan, or promoting relationships with bonding companies could help contractors secure these important items.Green Building Training Contractors seeking to gain a competitive - LEED certification is offeredand Certification edge on a niche market can pursue a number through the Green Building of opportunities for training and certification Certification Institute (GBCI). Local in this growing industry. USGBC chapters, such as the Florida 81
  • 85. Gulf Coast USGBC and their local branch, the Myakka River Green Building Council could provide general information and workshops. www.sustainabletampabay.org (727) 372-3814 -LEED certification courses are also offered through State College of Florida. www.scf.edu/ccd -Green Advantage® Certification www.greenadvantage.org - State College of Florida – B.A. in Energy Technology Management or non-credit green building continuing education courses through the Corporate and Community Development Department. www.scf.edu www.scf.edu/ccdIntroduction to Capital The capital needed to acquire additional - Develop relationships with banks equipment for expansion to facilitate contract who will accept referrals of credit expansion often serves as a barrier to small ready clients. firms. -Participate in a revolving loan fund.Youth Environmental and Entrepreneurship Programs It is also recommended to create youth exposure programs for green industries; thescience, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) fields; and entrepreneurship. There aremultiple levels of involvement in sustainability through green technology. It is important toprovide youth with a general awareness of environmental issues as part of their career planning,in order to keep them ahead of their peers by exposing them to advanced careers in the STEMfields, as well as entrepreneur training at an early age. Potential Green Industry Youth Exposure Program PartnersProvider Training Provided ContactState College of Florida -Workshops on green innovations Dr. Idelia Phillips and jobs of the future. Director of Career & Technical Education -Flexible and customized training 7131 Professional Pkwy East available. Requires external Sarasota, FL 34240 82
  • 86. funding to implement. (941) 363-7230 phillii@scf.eduNewtown Front Porch -Use the framework of the 1782 Dr. M.L. King, Jr. WayRevitalization Council existing YELDA program to Sarasota, FL 34234 introduce youth to green (941) 954-4137 x3223 technology/industries. -Use the framework of the YELDA program to develop a youth entrepreneurship exposure program.The economic and environmental benefits to the community from investments in youthprogramming will accrue over a longer time period because educational development is a long-term commitment, particularly in career pathways associated with high-level green industry andgreen technology. The benefits this brings to the community, however, will promote long-termeconomic and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, the youth of the community are likelyto invest the knowledge, products, and skills of their entrepreneurial and environmentalinnovations back into the Newtown community.Conclusion Although microenterprise development and construction trades training have both beenused to promote economic growth in Newtown, green industry has not been used yet as aneconomic development tool. Through the expansion of existing microenterprise developmentprogramming targeted to Newtown construction businesses, green industry has great potential toincrease the income and wealth of Newtown residents in this expanding niche market. Greenwill reach both Newtown industries, and Newtown pockets, helping the community to achievethe triple bottom line of environmental, economic, and social sustainability. 83
  • 87. ReferencesAgency for Workforce Innovation. (2008). Want to Go Green? A Sample of Jobs in a Green Economy. Tallahassee, FL: Agency for Workforce InnovationAgency for Workforce Innovation (AWI). (2009). Florida Begins Green Jobs Survey. Tallahassee, FL: Agency for Workforce InnovationAssociation for Enterprise Opportunity. (2000). Fostering Entrepreneurship Through Training and Technical Assistance. Arlington, VA: Association for Enterprise OpportunityBates, T. (2002). Minority Business Access to Mainstream Markets. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23:1, 41-56Beveridge, R. and Guy, S. (2005). The rise of the eco-preneur and the messy world of environmental innovation. Local Environment, 10: 6, 665-676Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). (2009). Overview of the BLS Green Jobs Initiative. Retrieved from www.bls.gov/greenCampbell, S. (1996). Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62:3, 296-312Cummings, S. (2002). Community Economic Development as Progressive Politics: Towards a Grassroots Movement for Economic Justice. Stanford Law Review, 54:3, 399-493Curwell, W. and Cooper, I. (1998). The implications of urban sustainability. Building Research & Information, 26: 1, 17-28Edgcomb, E., Klein, J. and Clark, P. (1996). The Practice of Microenterprise in the U.S: Strategies, Costs, and Effectiveness. Washington, DC: The Aspen InstituteEdgecomb, E., and Malm, E. (2002). Keeping It Personalized: Consulting, Coaching and Mentoring for Microentrepreneurs. FIELD Best Practice Guide Volume 4. Washington, DC: The Aspen InstituteGreen Building Certification Institute. (2010). LEED Professional Credentials. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/professional-credentials/credentials.aspx#Grown, C. and Bates, T. (1991). Commercial Bank Lending Practices and the Development of Black-Owned Construction Companies. Center for Economic Studies, CES 91-9 84
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  • 89. Suggs, R. (1990). Rethinking Minority Business Development Strategies. Harvard Civil Rights Liberties Law Review, 25, 101-145Suggs, R. (1995). Bringing Small Business Development to Urban Neighborhoods. Harvard Civil Rights Civil Liberties Law Review, 30, 487-506Turner Construction Company. (2010). In The Community. Retrieved from www.turnerconstruction.comUnited States Green Building Council. (2006). The LEED ® Green Building System from New Construction and Major Renovation, Version 2.2. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 273-278), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: RoutledgeUnited States Green Building Council. (2010). What LEED Is. Retrieved from http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1988United States Green Building Council. (2010a). Prescriptive Path for LEED APs Without Specialty. Retrieved from http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=2209Walley, E., and Taylor, D. (2002). Opportunists, Champions, Mavericks…? [Special Issue on Environmental Entrepreneurship]. Greener Management Institute, 38, 31-43While, A., Jonas, A, and Gibbs, D. (2004). The Environment and the Entrepreneurial City: Searching for the Urban Sustainability Fix’ in Manchester and Leeds. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28: 3, 549-69White, D. (2010). Board hitting brakes on green development zone. Herald Tribune. Retrieved from www.heraldtribune.comWhite, S. and Walsh, J. (2008). Greener Pathways: Jobs and Workforce Development in the Clean Energy Economy. Madison, WI: Center on Wisconsin StrategyWorld Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). (1987). Our Common Future. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 59-63), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: RoutledgeUnited Nations. (1992a). The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 72-76), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: Routledge 86
  • 90. Waste Reduction, Litter Prevention, and Litter Control In NewtownMelissa R Brogle Introduction Sustainable development (SD) is a term often used in the field of environmental science,and now more frequently in everyday lives, but what does it really mean? The BrundtlandReport, published in 1987, defines SD as “development that meets the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (UnitedNations, 1987, Sect 3). When worded this way the concept of SD becomes much moreapproachable and easier to understand. But how do we meet the needs of our generation and stillensure that our children and grandchildren can have enough resources without harming theglobal environment? One possible path is adopting the land ethic outlined by Aldo Leopold; tostep back from our position of land conqueror and embrace land and humans as part of a largercommunity. Treat the land with respect, and “preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of thebiotic community.” (Leopold, 2009, p. 23). If the global population began to live by this landethic, sustainability may very well be a positive side effect of sorts. Instead of adopting the landethic, humankind could simply strive to live by the classic phrase reduce, reuse, recycle (thethree R’s). Reduce our consumption, reuse what we can, and recycle what we can’t reuse. Inreality, both the land ethic and the three R’s should be employed in tandem by the globalcommunity to help achieve global SD. Global sustainability can start with local sustainability, but how can a large goal likeglobal SD be achieved at the local level? Moving from the industrial revolution era, whereconsumption and waste was rampant, to a sustainable society, requires changes at the global,country, state, county, regional, and city and town levels. By reducing, reusing, and recycling, acommunity can begin to work towards global and local urban sustainable development. First,reducing consumption by changing buying habits, and simply buying less would help to reduceraw material usage. Second, reducing packaging of consumer goods can have a direct impact onraw material usage and waste management costs (Dewees, 1998, p. 457). Third, implementingeducational sources to promote reusing and recycling at global and local levels to achievesustainability (Miller, 1991). Sustainable waste management at the local level is a crucial part of global and local urban 87
  • 91. sustainable development. Effective waste management can not only reduce raw material usage,but also reduce litter. Litter, which is essentially misplaced solid waste, can have detrimentaleffects on the surrounding social, economic, and natural environment, including creatingunsightly streets and neighborhoods, promoting crime, and harming wildlife and ecosystems. Litter can create the illusion that the community does not care about their neighborhoods,and that can indirectly encourage crime (Hope, 1995, p. 37). In addition, litter is simplyunattractive, and can lead to a lack of pride in the community, which can have a negative effecton other community features such as the appearance of commercial and residential properties(Chavis, 1990, p. 61). Litter can also effect the natural environment by clogging waterways,releasing potentially harmful chemicals into the environment, being ingested by wildlife, andmany more negative effects (Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1995).To combat the effects of litter, a community, such as Newtown, needs to have access to recyclingprograms, public (covered) trash cans, public ashtrays, educational programs, effectiveenforcement of littering laws, and most importantly, the citizens must take pride in theircommunity and the surrounding natural environment in order to foster community stewardship.Implementing, and maintaining, proper solid waste management, litter control, and litterprevention in an urban community can be difficult and time consuming. It requires thecooperation of city and state officials, and most importantly community residents. However,proper solid waste management, and litter control and prevention can be done, with the positiveoutcome of local, and ultimately global, sustainability, a healthier natural environment, and amore cohesive local community.Background on Waste and the Effects of Litter and Other Waste:A Brief History of Waste and Litter  Excessive waste and litter are two very impactful side effects of our throw away society.According to the EPA, in 2008 the average American produced four and a half pounds of trashper day (that’s over 16,000 pounds per person per year), with about one and a half pounds of thatbeing diverted for recycling and composting. The amount of waste produced per person hasincreased almost 70% since 1960, from 2.68 pounds per person to the current 4.5 pounds perperson per day. Over 30 percent of discarded waste is containers and packaging, a waste type 88
  • 92. that could be easily reduced and/or recycled. Recycling has also increased, from 10 percent to33 percent from 1980 to 2008. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2009) While this increase inrecycling is very important, it is equally important to realize how the increase in waste generatedper person can effect the natural and social environments and the economy. Waste, or trash, does not just disappear with the garbage collection truck. Waste needs tobe hauled away to an incinerator or landfill where it is either burned to create energy (releasingsome toxic chemicals and green house gases in the process), or buried in a landfill. This processof hauling and disposing of solid waste is a costly activity that state and local governments, andindividuals, pay for as part of a solid waste management plan. Some estimates show that theaverage American household spends over $100/ton of disposed waste, which equates to almost$100 per person per year. The cost of disposal comes in the form of taxes and fees, such as localsewage and waste fees charged to residents, fees to bring waste to the dump or landfill directly,and other local and state fees. However, this cost that is paid by each household is not the truecost of waste disposal. There is a gap between what residents pay and what it actually costs todispose of waste. This gap between what is charged to residents and what it actually costs tomanage solid waste is therefore paid, sometimes, by the state, but more often by localgovernments. (Zero Waste) Two ways to reduce the costs and effects of waste at the source is to reduce packaging ofproducts and reduce consumption in general. While these activities may seem too large for evengovernments to tackle, each individual can make a difference in contributing to the reduction inconsumption. Buying products that are made from recycled materials, and have recycled andrecyclable packaging is one way to reduce waste. In addition, buying products that haveminimal packaging also helps to reduce waste. These steps help create and maintain a market forrecycled and recyclable products and packaging, and for products that have minimal packaging(Dewees, 1998, 465-469). In addition, using reusable to-go containers and reusable shoppingbags are great ways to reduce package-type waste. Aside from packaging reduction andrecycling, consumers can directly effect waste and litter amounts by refraining from purchasingexcess or frivolous products. The purchasing of unneeded products produces a large amount ofunnecessary waste. Reducing consumption is the most direct route to reducing waste, but it alsosaves money and time (Spindler, 1989). Saving money and time is something that everyindividual can appreciate, Newtown residents included. 89
  • 93.  Effects of Litter and Excessive Waste  Litter is a direct effect of the consumption of products and goods and the production ofwaste from those products and goods. Litter is generated by motorists, pedestrians, anduncovered trucks. Litter prevention and control is a crucial part of an effective solid wastemanagement plan because litter has environmental, economic, and social effects on global, state,and local communities like Newtown. Visible litter gives the illusion that it’s okay to litter, andwill therefore lead to more littering, creating an endless cycle of increasing visible litter. Environmental effects of litter include dangers to wildlife, ecosystem disruption, waterpollution and waterway obstruction/blockage, and soil pollution. Litter poses dangers to wildlifethrough injury and ingestion. Small litter items such as plastic pieces, cigarette butts, and plasticbags can be ingested by many animals from small birds to sea turtles, causing airwayobstruction, difficulty feeding, intestinal blockage, poisoning, and even death. Large litter itemssuch as tires, pizza boxes, and coolers can disrupt natural animal behaviors such as burrowing,and increase the potential for physical injury to animals. Large and small items can also disruptthe natural ecosystem processes by interrupting plant growth or becoming breeding grounds forbacteria and parasites, which negatively impact the ecosystem, and could also pose a publichealth hazard for humans. Litter can also lead to water pollution and clogged waterways andstorm drains. Moreover, chemicals from plastics, cigarettes, or cleaning product packages canleach into the waterways and soils. Furthermore, the solid waste can get caught in storm drainsand narrow parts of rivers and streams, causing a disruption of the natural water flow, disruptingthe ecosystem, and sometimes causing flooding. Overall, litter has the potential to greatlyimpact the natural environment, which will ultimately lead to impacts on wildlife and humans.(Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1995) In addition to environmental effects, litter also has social and economic effects oncommunities of all sizes. Litter is unsightly, and as a result can decrease community pride andcommunity cohesiveness, raise concern about crime and public safety, negatively impactbusiness, and cost local economies money to clean up litter. If a neighborhood has an abundanceof visible litter, residents are less likely to take pride in their community, and as a result are lesslikely to participate in community based activities. This lack of pride and participation can lead 90
  • 94. to a decline in the general cohesiveness and strength of the neighborhood (Clarke, 1995).Community and neighborhood cohesiveness is something Newtown residents have expressedconcern about and would like to improve upon. It has been shown that neighborhoodcohesiveness and strength directly impacts residents’ feeling of belongings and safety(Shonholtz, 1987). Additionally, decreased community pride and cohesiveness can breed anenvironment that tolerates crime. If residents are unlikely to work toward a cohesiveneighborhood, there becomes more opportunity for crime, and not just the obvious crime of litterbegets more litter. Crimes such as car theft, muggings, breaking and entering, drug dealing, andin some cases more violent crimes such as rape and murder, tend to increase with a decrease inneighborhood cohesiveness (Shonholtz, 1987). Litter also impacts social dynamics of neighborhoods, which has indirect and directeffects on the community economy. Visible litter can indirectly influence the community’seconomy by discouraging residents to shop within their own community (Clarke, 1995). Litterdirectly impacts Florida’s economy by decreasing tourism. In Florida, tourism is a substantialportion of the state’s economy, with approximately 600 million visitors traveling to Florida eachyear. According to the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (1998),tourists find litter to be the “least acceptable form of interference with individuals’ recreationexperience.” (Pg 18) Tourists that travel to Florida for wilderness focused vacations were evenless tolerant of litter, and many that were interviewed by the Center said they might choose to gosomewhere else on their next vacation because of litter in Florida. While Newtown may not be atourist destination in and of itself, Sarasota does benefit from tourism, and as a result Newtownindirectly benefits from tourism. Thus, litter can directly impact tourism, indirectly impactingthe Florida economy, which could potentially lead to job loss, even in Newtown. What about the direct cost of cleaning up litter? In 1993, roadside litter maintenance costthe United States over $131 million, and that number has likely increased over time (FloridaCenter for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1998). The collection and disposal of litternecessitates the use of road maintenance employees, diverting them from other important roadmaintenance activities. State transportation agencies spend approximately 3% of their roadmaintenance budgets on roadside litter (Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous WasteManagement, 1998). This is money and manpower that could be used for other roadmaintenance and transportation activities, such as filling potholes, fixing street signs and lights, 91
  • 95. and other crucial transportation related repairs. In Newtown, effective litter control andprevention could free up road crews to actually maintain the roads in the community.Maintaining roads can lead to an increase in the overall appearance of Newtown, which may alsolead to increased community pride and likelihood of residents to shop within the community.Best Practices for Newtown to Implement Litter Prevention and Control, and WasteReduction: Newtown is an urban community with a large number of children and teenagers, but alsosome residents that have been in the community for most of their lives. The community consistsof largely residential buildings, but also has a number of businesses, an elementary school, highschool, college, and public library; and while there are neighborhood streets, the community isbordered by the very busy state road 301. Because the community is so diverse with regards toage groups, development types, and lengths of residence, the approach to litter prevention andcontrol, and waste reduction, needs to also be diverse. To approach the problem of litter andwaste, and to improve the community of Newtown, there needs to be involvement from the cityof Sarasota, local law enforcement and environmental organizations, and most importantly,Newtown residents themselves.Help from the City of Sarasota  The city of Sarasota can help Newtown with litter prevention and control and wastereduction by installing more public covered trash cans, increasing access to public recyclingbins, installing public ashtrays, and increasing participation in curbside recycling. According toThe Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (2002), increased access topublic trashcans, recycling bins, and ashtrays, decreases visible litter, particularly in residentialareas. The city of Sarasota, which is a green city, should include Newtown in their greenpractices, and a great way to start is to provide Newtown with more trashcans, recycling bins,and ashtrays. The most economical way to start would be to install more of these threereceptacles (or if existing receptacles are in place, installing covers on all receptacles) in verypublic locations. Public locations include the library, schools, parks, the community center, busstops, and areas with a high concentration of businesses. If and when the installation of these 92
  • 96. receptacles in public locations is seen to have a positive impact on litter amounts, the city couldmove forward with more receptacles in other areas of Newtown such as parking lots, apartmentcomplexes, neighborhood streets, etc. In addition to public receptacles for waste, the city can also help to increase participationin curbside recycling. Newtown, as part of the City of Sarasota, has garbage and recyclingcurbside pickup once per week, on either Monday or Thursday. There are blue and green binsfor recycling, and detailed instructions on the city website as to what items are recyclable, aswell as a detailed map so residents and businesses can see what day they have pickup. Inaddition, the city website also has information on how a resident can request recycling bins andbegin recycling at home. The recycling goal of Sarasota is 75% by 2020 (the same as Florida’sstate wide goal), and as of January 2010, Floridians only recycled 28% of their waste (City ofSarasota, 2010). The city of Sarasota, as part of Newtown’s redevelopment, should ensure thateach household in Newtown has both recycling bins and is aware of the recycling schedule andrules, and the environmental and economic benefits of recycling. By increasing curbsiderecycling participation, Newtown can help reduce their overall waste, reduce energyconsumption, help control litter by ensuring recyclables get recycled, and become a moresustainable community. Participating in curbside recycling also has the benefit of educating thechildren of the community, which ensures Newtown will continue on a path to sustainability.Help from Local Law Enforcement and Environmental Organizations  Local law enforcement can help prevent and control litter by enforcing Florida’s litterlaw. If law enforcement officers witness littering (including cigarette butts thrown bypedestrians and/or motorists) they have the authority to give out citations starting at $50. Inaddition to the fine, the court may require the litterer to perform community service, and mayalso add three points to the offender’s license if the litter is thrown from a vehicle (Departmentof Environmental Protection, 2002). The involvement of local law enforcement is important fortwo main reasons. One, Newtown is bordered by state road 301, which means that manyvehicles drive through Newtown, and most of those motorists are not residents. Therefore,increasing community pride and local participation in waste and litter reduction will not preventtransient individuals from throwing litter from their car (especially cigarette butts)-that is where 93
  • 97. law enforcement comes in. Two, when local law enforcement enforces litter laws, it willincrease the presence of law enforcement in the community and therefore has the potential todecrease other crimes, such as theft that was discussed earlier, that take place in Newtown. Local environmental organizations, such as Keep Sarasota County Beautiful (KSCB), canalso help Newtown prevent and control litter in two ways. One is to help the communityorganize cleanups, which will be discussed in the next section. The second way thatorganizations like KSCB can help, is to facilitate the adopt-a-highway program, and help toinstall road signs warning motorists about litter penalties. If there is a presence of volunteers onroads such as 301, then motorists may be less likely to throw litter from their car in the Newtowncommunity. Also, road signs with litter penalties, even though it may be minimal, do have animpact on the amount of roadside litter found in communities (Miller, 1991). The community,working with local environmental organizations and local law enforcement, can have these signinstalled on 301 and surrounding roads to help create awareness about litter penalties, and showmotorists that there is a law enforcement presence in the community.Residents of Newtown Helping Themselves  Perhaps the most crucial group, the group that can have the most impact, involved inlitter prevention and control is Newtown residents themselves. The city of Sarasota, lawenforcement officers, and environmental organizations cannot reduce waste, or prevent andcontrol litter without the participation of Newtown residents. The three greatest ways thatresidents can reduce litter and waste are reducing consumption and buying reusable items,volunteer community cleanups, and public education. Reducing consumption and buying reusable items will help to reduce the waste generatedin Newtown, reduce litter, and help residents save money. Buying non-essential items directlycontributes to unnecessary waste, which will harm the environment in a myriad of ways, evenaside from litter. Moreover, buying non-essential items means less money available toindividuals and families to use on essential items and activities. This is perhaps the mostimportant aspect of reduced consumption to the residents of Newtown. Residents haveexpressed a concern about unemployment. With proper planning, and reduced buying, residentscan be better prepared for unexpected events such as sudden job loss. In addition to reducing 94
  • 98. consumption, individuals can make the decision to buy reusable items such as grocery bags, foodcontainers, to-go type coffee/beverage cups, etc. These items help to reduce packaging, whichwill reduce waste and litter. In addition, personal choices such as carrying portable ashtrays andsigning up for paperless bills/statements (meaning getting bills and statements electronically) canadd up to make a substantial impact on waste reduction. Volunteer community cleanups help to remove existing litter from the community, as isevident by the amount of litter that has been removed in past cleanups. From March to May of2010, the Great American Cleanup mobilized almost 4 million volunteers nationwide that helpedto remove 76 million pounds of litter from the environment (Keep America Beautiful, 2010).Volunteer cleanups also help to increase community involvement, something that Newtownresidents are interested in improving. Community involvement increases communitycohesiveness and community pride as discussed previously, which also has the benefit offostering a safer and stronger community (socially, economically, and environmentally). Thecommunity strength that builds with community involvement is something that can be sharedwithin and between generations. The lack of concern of the younger generations is alsosomething Newtown residents have expressed concern about, and improving the strength andcohesiveness of the community across all generations can be done through community activitiessuch as cleanups. This will ensure that Newtown becomes, and continues to be, a strong,sustainable community, in all aspects of community life (social, economic, and environmental). Public education is also an important step that Newtown residents can take to helpprevent and control litter. Litter education can be done, in part, by cleanup leaders giving a shortinformation session about the impacts of litter prior to cleanups. In addition, schoolteachers cancreate lesson plans that educate students about the impacts of litter, and how best to prevent andcontrol litter. Children often bring home what they have learned, which will pass the knowledgeonto the parents and caregivers, increasing the community awareness and knowledge of litter. Inaddition, schoolteachers and community leaders can establish an educational campaign on thebenefits of product reuse and community donations. This would reduce overall waste and saveresidents money, as discussed previously. Additionally, donations would help other residents inneed and foster community strength. Finally, community leaders can educate business ownersand residents on the impacts litter has on the economy. By educating the workers and thebusiness owners about litter’s negative impacts on their business, the business owners and 95
  • 99. employees may take it upon themselves to keep their business area clean (by sweeping parkinglots, sidewalks, and entry ways, and by requesting receptacles from the city for outside of theirbusiness). According to the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (1998),public education is the single most effective way to reduce litter, and should be a major part ofany litter reduction campaign.Costs and Benefits of Implementation: Best practices for Newtown to prevent and control litter, and reduce waste, have costsrelated to implementation. The city of Sarasota will be the main bearer of the monetary costs,and Newtown residents will be the main bearer of the time costs. Installing trash, recyclable, andcigarette receptacles, as well as increasing curbside recycling participation will all have amonetary cost to the city. Installing street signs and enforcing litter laws will also have amonetary cost to the city and a time cost to law enforcement officers. However, the benefits ofreceptacles, increased recycling, street signs, and enforced litter laws may out-weigh the costs.Having access to public receptacles decreases litter. Decreased litter will decreaseenvironmental degradation, and make for stronger natural ecosystems. In addition, reducinglitter can increase community cohesiveness, decrease negative impacts on the economy, anddecrease the cost of collecting roadside litter for local and state governments. Moreover,increasing curbside recycling participation decreases the overall waste of the community, whichsaves energy and landfill space, and decreases overall costs of extracting raw materials forproducts and packaging (such as making plastics from raw materials). Additionally, enforcinglitter laws has the benefit of, over time, preventing litter through the additional police presenceand potentially preventing other crimes because of a noticeable law enforcement presence. Connecting with local organizations will have an indirect cost to the city and statebecause many non-profit organizations such as KSCB receive government grants to help withtheir costs. However, the primary cost associated with Newtown residents connecting with localenvironmental organizations, is time spent during public education and cleanup events. This istime donated by community volunteers, which has no monetary costs, but is the simple act ofindividuals taking the time to lend a hand. Public education can be done as part of cleanupprojects, and part of lesson plans in schools. Therefore, cleanups and education are done mainlythrough community volunteers donating time, and the cost of time spent during education and 96
  • 100. cleanups is much less than the benefits to the community. These benefits include a healthierenvironment, stronger economy, stronger and safer community, and an overall increase incommunity pride that can be shared between and among generations. In addition, becauseSarasota and Newtown are working together for redevelopment in Newtown, there is thepossibility of Sarasota providing grants for Newtown community beautification. Beautificationincludes such things as planting trees, painting buildings, renovating old structures, installingbenches and paths in parks, and more. However, this beautification money may also be spent oncleaning up litter before any other beautification activities like planting trees can take place. But,if the community takes litter control seriously and tackles the problem on their own, they wouldhave more money for beautification, making their community an even better place to live. An easy to read table has been provided in Appendix A to quickly reference suggestedactivities, primary responsible parties, their costs and benefits, and in some cases, possibletimelines for implementation.Important Contacts: For community redevelopment to be successful, there needs to be a concerted effort frommany different groups of people. The city, law enforcement, department of transportation,Department of Parks and Recreation, local organizations, community educators, and mostimportantly community residents, need to work together toward a stronger, more sustainablecommunity. Therefore, it is important for the community to have contact information of keygovernment offices, organizations, and individuals that can help with redevelopment. AppendixB contains a table of important contact information for the community of Newtown to help themwith their redevelopment.Conclusion: The impacts of litter and solid waste are far-reaching and can be detrimental to residents,businesses, and the environment. However, litter and solid waste can be managed by bringingtogether residents, business owners, environmental organizations, law enforcement, and localand state governments. While this management has costs, it also has far-reaching benefits thatgenerally out way the costs of litter prevention and control and waste reduction. Litterprevention and control, and waste reduction, will benefit residents and business owners, in the 97
  • 101. form of environmental and social benefits, and economic growth and health. Moreover, if littercontrol is maintained, and ultimately litter is prevented, the benefits will also be seen by futureNewtown generations, making the community stronger, prouder, and more sustainable. References:Chavis, D.M., Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of Community in the Urban Environment: A Catalyst for Participation and Community Development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18 (1): 55-81.City of Sarasota. Solid waste and recycling. Updated November 7th, 2010. Retrieved November 7th 2010 from http://www.sarasotagov.com/SGC/YGC/SolidWaste- Recycling.htm.Clarke, Ronald. (1995). Situational crime prevention. Crime and Justice, 19: 91-150. Retrieved September 21st, 2010 from JSTOR database from USF Libraries.Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Law Enforcement. Environmental Crimes: A Handbook to State Environmental Crime for Patrol Officers, Investigators, and Regulatory Specialist. Florida: Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2002.Dewees, Donald, & Hare, Michael. (1998). Economic analysis of packaging waste reduction. Canadian Public Policy, 24 (4): 453-470. Retrieved September 21st, 2010 from JSTOR database from USF Libraries website.Environmental Protection Agency. Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, and disposal in the United States: Facts and figures for 2008 (Fact Sheet). Updated November 23rd, 2009. Retrieved November 7th, 2010 from: http://www.epa.gov/wastes/nonhaz/municipal/msw99.htmFlorida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. (1995). The Florida litter study: 1994. Gainesville, FL. Produced for the Florida Dept of Environmental Protection.Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. (1998). The Florida litter study: 1998. Gainesville, FL. Produced for the Florida Dept of Environmental Protection.Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. (2002). The Florida litter study: 2002. Gainesville, FL. Produced for the Florida Dept of Environmental Protection.Hope, Tim. (1995). Community crime prevention. Crime and Justice, 19: 21-89. 98
  • 102. Retrieved September 19th, 2010 from JSTOR database from USF Libraries website.Keep America Beautiful. Great American Cleanup Results. Updated 2010. Retrieved November 1st, 2010 from http://www.kab.org/site/PageServer?pagename=GAC_2010Results.Leopold, Aldo. (2009). Land Ethic. In Wheeler, S.M., & Beatley, T (Editors), The sustainable urban development reader (pp 24-32). New York: Routledge.Miller, W.L., Townsend, T.G. Creating Public Education and Information Programs for Recycling: A Manual and Guide. Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, State University System of Florida, 1991.Shonholtz, Raymond. (1987). The Citizens Role in Justice: Building a Primary Justice and Prevention System at the Neighborhood Level. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 94, 42-53. Retrieved September 16th, 2010 from JSTOR database on USF Libraries website.Spindler, Charles J. The Effects of Commercial Products Packaging on the Management of Solid Waste in Florida. Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1989.United Nations. (1987). Report of the world commission on environment and development: Our common future. Part I, Section 3. http://www.un-documents.net/ocf- ov.htm#I.3Zero Waste. Economics of Waste. Retrieved November 7th, 2010 from http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/EconomicsOfWaste.htm 99
  • 103. Newtown Residential Bus Stop InventoryChristopher CochranIntroduction The “broken window theory” was first introduced in 1982 by Dr. James Q. Wilson andGeorge Keiling. This theory suggests that “…signs of disorderly and petty criminal behaviortrigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread.(Keizer, et al. 2008). The broken window theory has been widely debated since its inception andsocial scientists have conflicting views on the validity of the theory. Despite this conflictingview, the resounding success of New York City’s “Quality of Life” campaign has given asignificant boost to the legitimacy of the theory. The Quality of Life campaign took an extremely aggressive approach to cleaning upcrime throughout New York City. The campaign focused on addressing all signs of disorder. Ifgraffiti was present, it was identified and painted over, no matter if it needed to be done everyday. If litter was present, it was constantly picked up. Homeless people were forced to takeadvantage of shelter amenities and taken off the streets at night. If a building had a brokenwindow, that window was fixed. No matter what the case, disorder was aggressively addressedand the result was a resounding decrease in crime in one of the world’s most crime prone cities. Recent studies have shown that violent crime, while on the decline in the United States,remains a major fear in the eyes of the public. “It holds the elderly hostage in their own homes,prevents people from using public transportation, forces merchants to close their shops early,discourages investment, thereby increasing the cost of living, working, or operating a business”(Loukaitou-Sideris, 1999). The following study takes this above concept and addresses theconcerns of safety and accessibility in regards to public transit in the immediate vicinity of the 100
  • 104. Newtown neighborhood. In taking a broken window approach to addressing bus stop safety and accessibility, thefollowing study aims to present the Administrators of the Newtown Redevelopment Plan with acomprehensive overview of the conditions of bus stop amenities and their surroundings withinthe residential neighborhood of Newtown. The study aims to identify attributes that may beassociated with increased crime activity, decreased safety, and poor accessibility.Transit Crime The role of environmental attributes in transit related crime has been a relatively well-studied topic. It can be argued that the broken window theory fits well with the idea that thebuilt environmental lends itself to contributing factors associated with accessibility and transitcrime. Loukaitou-Sideris’s 1999 study analyzed 10 high-crime bus stops within the Los Angelespublic transit system and identified distinguishing factor that contributed to the associatedcriminal activity. It was found that 70% of the “high-crime” bus stops were not visible from thesurrounding stops, lacked adequate lighting, were adjacent to empty lots and vacant buildings,near alleyways, and were not near any police substations (Loukaitou-Sideris, 1999). In comparing these contributing factors with the “broken window theory,” empty lots,dilapidated buildings, poor lighting, and lack of authority are consistent with factors that wouldcontribute to ongoing crime. Identifying and addressing these issues in turn can be acontributing factor to decreasing or preventing both safety and accessibility concerns ofneighborhood riders.Newtown Redevelopment Plan The neighborhood of Newtown, located in Sarasota, Florida consists of a historicallylow-income minority neighborhood. Low-income levels and devastating unemployment have 101
  • 105. contributed to the need for the $11.4 million redevelopment plan. The Newtown RedevelopmentPlan has eight primary categories: • Administration • Economic Development • Housing • Land Use • Transportation • Community Health, Safety & Welfare • Infrastructure • Urban Design/Parks The goals and objectives within each category are challenging, yet reasonable. One ofthe biggest challenges of the redevelopment plan revolves around the allocation of funds inmeeting the expectations of the planners and residents of the neighborhood. The following study is focused on developing a practical approach for administrators toallocate transportation dollars designated for the Newtown Redevelopment Plan. The overallgoal of the Transportation effort is to, “Create a safe, efficient traffic circulation system, one inwhich provides sufficient access by all modes of transportation between activity centers withinthe redevelopment area and the balance of the community” (Newtown ComprehensiveRedevelopment). In meeting the expectations of the transportation goals and objectives, the goalis to develop a comprehensive bus stop inventory within the residential areas of the NewtownRedevelopment Plan boundary. In developing the bus stop inventory for Newtown, an existing hybrid of the Easter SealsProject Action Bus Stop Checklist was used to collect the Bus Stop Inventory data. At theCenter for Transportation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida (USF), the CitrusConnection of Polk County used a similar hybrid that was successful in providing an economic,demographic and GIS analysis of their bus stop inventory. Two visits were made over a three-week period to collect data on-site. 102
  • 106. A Microsoft Access database was developed to collect, maintain, and analyze the 32residential area bus stops. Attributes of five different categories were collected and analyzed: • Location • Amenities • Land Use • Infrastructure • Safety and Security Features Within each of these categories, domain attributes were collected that primarily focusedon safety and accessibility of each bus stop. Factors such as street lighting, the presence ofshelters and benches, sidewalk conditions, landing area conditions, wheelchair accessibility (curbcuts, etc.), and in-road features were considered. GPS Data was collected in conjunction with site inventory data. Having GPS locationsallows the data to have a linked geographic component that can be easily mapped to assist invisualizing problem areas. The maps show areas with poor sidewalk conditions, far side busstops, wheelchair inaccessibility, lack of street lighting, poor conditioned benches, recommendedshelter locations, and recommended route locations. The above attributes mapped were chosen as primary problem issues best addressed byavailable funding sources. In all, the access database, accompanying spreadsheets and maps canbe valuable in identifying problem stops and addressing how to best allocate funds in improvingridership, accessibility, and safety within the Newtown area.FindingsOverview Map (figure 1) 103
  • 107. Wheelchair Accessibility: • 26 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had uneven/grass landings that pose potential hazards to wheelchair bound riders. • 6 of the 32 bus stops inventoried has concrete landing areas, however, 4 of the 6 concrete landings were uneven and/or had cracked sidewalks that pose potential hazards to wheelchair bound riders. • 13 of the 32 bus stop inventoried had obstacles located in the landing area that have the potential to limit the mobility of a wheelchair: o Heavy un-mowed grass and deep sand (StopID 3) o Residential mailbox in the landing area (StopID 7 and StopID 25) o Stop sign in the immediate vicinity of the landing area (StopID 10) o Broken underground utility cover at the immediate landing pad area (StopID 12) o Stop sign potentially in the way (StopID 15) o Bench placed on sidewalk (StopID 30)  Reduces the width of the sidewalk from 4’ across to 2’ across.  This has the potential to force a wheelchair bound rider to the uneven grass surface to get to the other side of the bench. o Sidewalk edge is exposed in a 6” drop off between the grass right of way and the sidewalk edge. This is right at the bus stop and runs parallel to the sidewalk for roughly 10’. (StopID 24) o Tree(StopID 26) o Utility Pole (StopID 28) o Fire hydrant (StopID 29) o Residential mailbox bank that is no longer used with exposed rusted nails at the bus stop site. (StopID 32) o 5 of the 32 bus stops inventoried did not have any accessible ramp to the landing pad  StopID 10  StopID 11 104
  • 108.  StopID 13  StopID 14  StopID 16 (figure 2) • 6 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had “Poor” or “Hazardous” sidewalk conditions at or approaching the bus stop site that have the potential to limit wheelchair mobility to and from the bus stop area: o Score of 2: In poor shape though not hazardous – very, some root uplifting, cracks, breaks. o Score of 1: Hazardous – large breaks, cracks, root uplifting, someone could get hurt from the normal use or use of a wheelchair would be difficult.  StopID 18 (Score of 2)  StopID 8 (Score of 2)  StopID 12 (Score of 1)  StopID 22 (Score of 2)  StopID 24 (Score of 2)  StopID 25 (Score of 2) (figure 3) • Sidewalk widths at all bus stops are adequate for wheelchair accessibilityLighting • 9 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had adequate street lighting within 10 feet of the bus stop o StopID 5 o StopID 18 o StopID 9 o StopID 10 o StopID 11 o StopID 16 o StopID 23 o StopID 28 o StopID 32 105
  • 109. • 1 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had street lighting within 15 feet of the bus stop o StopID 19 • 22 of the 32 bus stops inventoried did not have any lighting at the bus stop site (figure 4)Shelter • 1 of the 32 stops had a shelter at the bus stop site o StopID 21Benches • 5 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had benches at the bus stop site o StopID 19 o StopID 21 o StopID 23 o StopID 29 o StopID 30 • 4 of the 5 benches had potentially hazardous conditions associated with them o StopID 19  Broken pieces, bolts exposed o StopID 23  Loose slats o StopID 29  Broken pieces, loose bolts, loose slats o StopID 30  Missing slats, broken pieces, loose bolts • 2 of the 5 benches had “poor” or “hazardous” conditions associated with them: 106
  • 110. o Score of 2: In poor shape though not hazardous o Score of 1: Hazardous – broken, someone could get hurt from normal use.  StopID 19 (Score of 2)  StopID 30 (Score of 1) (figure 5)Miscellaneous Observations and Recommendations • All bus stops inventoried had adequate signage with no visibility issues. • Only 10 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had additional route/schedule information posted along with the bus stop signage. • At the Whittaker Bayou Park (Cocoanut/MLK intersection) it is recommended that the board considering petitioning for a full shelter with trash receptacles and benches to attract more riders to the area. o Appropriate lighting is needed • Observed a lack of any bus stops along the Central Avenue corridor around the existing and new low-cost housing lots. o This area should have a high accessibility to public transit as low-income areas trend higher ridership. (figure 6)Safety Considerations • 26 of the 32 bus stops inventoried do not have crosswalk access to the bus stop site o StopID 9 is at a school and there is no crosswalk at that site  Should consider allocating resources to put one in place at all school and high ridership intersections. • 2 of the 32 bus stops inventoried have “far side” intersection stop sites 107
  • 111. o There are disadvantages and advantages to both  Safety concern issue  Stopping on the far side of the intersections increases the possibility of a rear-end accident  Exposes the exiting rider to danger if they cross in front of the bus o Limited site to oncoming traffic o Drops passenger passed the intersection crosswalk  Most advantages are associated with traffic flow o In these residential areas, high traffic volume would not out weight any immediate rider safety benefit (figure 7) 108
  • 112. Figure 1. 109
  • 113. Figure 2. 110
  • 114. Figure 3. 111
  • 115. Figure4. 112
  • 116. Figure5. 113
  • 117. Figure6. 114
  • 118. Figure7. 115
  • 119. ReferencesKeizer, Kees, Lindenberg, Siegwart, and Steg, Linda. (2008). “The Spreading of Disorder.” Science, Accessed on November 19, 2010 from: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/322/5908/1681.full.Loukaitou-sideris, Anastasia. (1999). “Hot Spots of Bus Stop Crime: The Importance of Environmental Attributes.” Journal of American Planning Association, 65: 4, 395 – 411.Easter Seals Project Action. 2010. “Quick Bus Stop Checklist.” Accessed October, 5, 2010 from http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit.Paul, Brian. (2010). “How ‘Transit-Oriented Development’ Will Put More New Yorkers in Cars.” Transportation, Accessed November 15, 2010 from: http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/transportation/20100421/16/3247Newtown Community Redevelopment Website. (2008). Accessed from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/CRA.htmlPreston, J., & Raje, F. (2007). Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusion☆. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(3), 151-160.European Conference of Ministers of Transport, (1991). TRANSPORT FOR PEOPLE WITHHolzer, H. J., Quigley, J. M., & Raphael, S. (2003). Public transit and the spatial distribution of minority employment: Evidence from a natural experiment. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22(3), 415-441.Pfeiffer, D. (1990). Public Transit Access for Disabled Persons in the United States. Disability & Society, 5(2), 153-166. 116
  • 120. A Citizen’s Initiative for Sustainable Urban Living through Expanded Recycling andConservation in the Home and CommunityMelanie M. DeCesare Sustainability can be described as social equity, economy, and environment. At theinternational and national level, it can be observed that access to all three components ofsustainability may be contingent on socio-economic status and political influence. Since socialequity is often limited in low-income housing and with the working poor, the impacts ofeconomy and environment can be seen at their greatest in these areas. Such groups are oftensilently suffering from not having their voices heard by the local government. In return, thissubjects them to the further depletion of living conditions. From this depletion of living conditions, a sense of community must arise. A group thatcomes together may have greater influence on their surroundings. The voice of many can holdtremendous power and with this magnitude, the community has the ability to improve theiropportunities for equality. However, this must start at the community level. Only at this scale,will economy improve in a given area. Such an example is the Newtown area of Sarasota. The community of Newtown recognizes that there is a need to improve the quality of life of itscitizens. Community improvements may be possible through the use of community programs.When looking at housing, pride of ownership exists; this is a good indictor that the people ofNewtown also have a sense of community pride and will want to improve their neighborhoodaccordingly. Community programs may be able to assist areas like in Newtown in implementinga way to improve and clean up local neighborhoods. It is proposed that Newtown can expand itsrecycling programs to implement water recycling, education and the use of home -growingprograms. Furthermore, a community composting project may also reduce the strain on locallandfills and feed local community gardens. Newtown will have the ability to further reduce 117
  • 121. waste, engage in conservation measures and become self subsidized in growing the best localproduce available to them. The implementation of the expanded recycling program shall providea foundation for a community initiative to reduce each family’s carbon footprint by reducingrates of consumption. The proposed plan of implementation will improve the well being of theenvironment, while producing long, happy, meaningful lives. Innovative solutions can challengemainstream thinking but its ending result forms partnerships with people and puts the planet first(The Happy Planet Index, May, 2010). Recycling programs are both beneficial for the environment and may develop educationalopportunities that could lead to economically sustainable behaviors. Through expansion effortsof current municipal recycling programs to include community specific initiatives, residents canassist in improving environmental conditions and develop behaviors that will contribute toimplementing cost saving behaviors. The expansion of current recycling programs to includewater conservation measures, deepening home growing programs, and establishing a municipalcomposting program will provide a three pronged approach to sustainability, providingenvironmentally based benefits which are rewarded with financial incentives. Present grantmoney will be utilized to establish infrastructure for new recycling initiatives and for a citizeneducational campaign that can assist residents in understanding the economic rewards andsupporting such community programming. Water conservation measures include a multi-faceted approach. Flushing toilets accounts fortwenty six percent of all indoor water use (Pasco County Utility Board, 2010.) Pasco Countycurrently administers a toilet rebate program, which is administered though an outside contractor.Applicants are reimbursed one hundred dollars for the first high flow toilet and eighty for asecond high flow toilet which is replaced with proof of purchase of 1.6 gallon ultra low flow 118
  • 122. toilets. The toilets are inspected and removed by the contractor where they are moved to afacility in Spring Hill, Florida for ceramic recycling. Pinellas County also once administered ahigh flow toilet replacement program on a county wide basis, which has ended. The programprovided a rebate of up to $100 for replacement of a high flow toilet with an ultra low flow toilet.The program was cooperatively funded by Pinellas County and the Pinellas-Anclote River BasinBoard of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Sarasota County also discontinuedits low flow toilet rebate program. Newtown Community Development initiatives could re-implement this program specifically for its residents within Sarasota. With the installation of lowflow toilets, thirteen percent of a resident’s bill could be reduced. For a family that utilizes 8,000gallons of water each month at a rate of $8.62 for water and sewer, this represents a water billsavings of $8.97 per month (scgov.net, 2010). Approximately forty percent of water used in summer is used outdoors which is when mostareas face water shortages and endure water restrictions (Garden Rainwater Saver, November, 2,2010). This water shortage period is when plants and trees require water the most. Aspopulations grow, water shortages occur. Saving rain water saves money and helps theenvironment. The more rainwater is used, the less the need to use chlorinated or other chemicallytreated tap water, making healthier vegetation as well. Using more rainwater also means that lessthat will go into storm water drains, where it is mixed with oil and other toxic residues fromstreets and parking lots. Rain barrels are covered barrels that have a whole or screen top tocollect rainwater from gutter downspouts and other run off areas and from precipitation directly.Although commercial rain barrels are available at most home supply retailers, they are easy tomake and can be fashioned to be very presentable in a residential landscape. At the bottom theyhave a spigot to release the water for use in lawn maintenance and for other non-potable water 119
  • 123. usage. Some states currently offer incentives for water collecting. Detailed instructions areincluded in Appendix A. If interested in implementing this project, the Southwest Florida WaterManagement District recommends checking the Yellow Pages under listings for drums, barrelsand containers (http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us, 2010). Plastic food- grade containers are mostadequate for local rain barrel builders and readily available. The city of Sarasota does not requirepermits for rain barrels (http://www.scgov.net, 2010). Drywell systems are another source of relieving strain on the sewer system. They enablewater to be returned naturally to the environment without being processed through municipalseptic systems. In rainy seasons, drywell systems are capable of collecting runoff water fromimpervious surfaces such as patios and roofs and returning them to sub surface ground layers fornatural distribution back into the environment. Florida’s sand grained subsurface provides ampleabsorption for dry well systems, where soil percolation takes place. Drywells expedite theprocess of transferring water back to the subsurface terrain. Most buildings are engineered sothat water naturally drains away from the contour of our homes. Having a plan in place tonaturally avert the excess water away from the public storm drain systems remedies the need forlarge scale water processing in the wet season which bypasses processing standards and results inelevated toxins in the Tampa Bay watershed. Installation of dry well systems is relatively easyand inexpensive. The system consists of a buried pipe and a filtration unit, such as a trash barrelswith holes in it. It is never emptied as it drains itself. The trash barrel is filled with rocks, gravelor crushed stone so that is does not rise from the ground, nor does it crush under the pressure ofthe earthen overlay. A trench must be dug from the location where water will be moved from to the location of thewell itself. This trench must be about eighteen inches deep so that it can accommodate a 120
  • 124. perforated pipeline. The drain pipe should slope downward as it leaves the starting location untilit reaches the containing unit. This creates a steady flowing drain which uses gravity as itsconductor. By surrounding the containing unit with landscape fabric, one will avoid soil fromfilling the containers drains and clogging it. The drain pipe should be inserted into one of theholes in the trash barrel. Appendix B demonstrates a diagram of all components and processes. For Newtown residents that would like to integrate the use of rain barrels and dry well drains,integration is possible. To utilize both programs, locations which have rain barrels that surpassthe usage patterns of the rain collected in the barrel, the barrel can be placed on a drainage pan.The pan collects the overflow from the rain barrel and contains a drain, which is connected intothe drain pipe. When this happens the overflow from the rain barrel is added to the excess waterbeing re-deposited into the ground, also bypassing the public storm water drainage system. Thissystem becomes a multi-faceted approach to optimization of water reclamation and the directground deposit of water which is not needed (Onthehouse.com/wp20000508. November, 6,2010). In unison, these three innovations can significantly decrease dependence on Florida’s aquifer,especially draw down in the dry season and in growing seasons in Florida. Grass roots efforts onthe part of citizens become a measurable and noteworthy savings on water usage, whileproviding measurable differences to water and septic bills. In addition to water conservation, composting is another way in which citizens can reducetheir impact on the environment. Composting has occurred since vegetation first existed on theearth. As leaves and fruit fall from trees and die, they enrich the soil through the process ofnatural decomposition. Humans have been composting for decades, as well. Agriculturalcommunities have used composting as a way to enrich their gardens for years. Now, a much 121
  • 125. larger movement for composting in urban areas has begun. Composting has taken on its ownpopularity as a new way to go “green”. City dwellers are becoming more aware of the benefits ofcompost in their gardens and they are realizing that it is best to recycle natural products back tothe earth. Municipalities have had a major influence in this movement with programs to dispose ofrecyclable waste. Until recent years, this generally has included only yard wastes. Theseprograms vary in operational format but all the same goal of recycling natural material for theearths benefit. In many cases, after the material has been composted, the city sells the compostback to citizens who wish to purchase it for their yards or gardens. In this way, city compostingprograms provide two services: they allow city dwellers to compost their organic waste, and theyalso make compost material available for sale at reasonable prices. A municipal composting program may seem simple or complex. The inclusion of foodproducts can be a large project to manage, but has proven successful in several cities,administered in a variety of ways. First, the citizens of the municipality must be educated aboutwhat types of products can be collected and how they are to be contained. Citizen outreachcampaigns are necessary to broaden the understanding of the benefits of participating. Second,the city must decide how they wish collect the waste. Some municipalities use bulk collection,where leaves and waste are piled in the street or yard and trucks come collect the debris.Another way to collect the waste is through drop off sites where citizens can take their waste to acentral collection area (Sullivan and Goldstein, July 2009). After trucks have picked up theorganic waste, the material must be transported to a central composting site to be processed andcomposted. Several months later, the waste thrown out will be available again for resale to 122
  • 126. citizens as premium compost. Compost can be used in many ways, enriching crop yield. Twenty four percent of the United States solid waste is made up of yard trimmings and foodscraps (US Environmental Protection Agency, November 08, 2010). With the ability to convertall this waste into premium compost and return it to the earth, these programs are hugelybeneficial. Several options for the implementation of composting efforts can be explored forNewtown. The complexity and level of involvement from the citizen, community, andmunicipality vary greatly. Backyard composting programs are the most basic and involve the least amount of municipalinvolvement. These programs are implemented by using citizens who participate on a voluntarybasis. These programs however, are greatly beneficially to the municipality and costs associatedwith trash collection. For this reason, it is in the best interest of local government to providesubsidies to local composters. The national average for governments which cost share withcitizens is $12 per ton for backyard composting. The trash collection savings is $23 per ton and$32 for disposal. The net gain for governments which have backyard composting programs isabout $43-$44 per ton (Sherman-Huntoon, 2005). For citizens, they are able to have more fertileyards. Yards which use compost are known to withstand droughts and freezes more readily, asthe root system is stronger and it assists in maintaining soil from erosion. Sherman-Huntoon, 2005, states in most communities which implement compost programs,there is generally one paid person who is responsible for the program efforts. This personimplements its inception and maintains the program. This person, however, can provide otherfunctions in his/her municipal employment. In order to establish such a program, the mostproductive efforts were to subsidize bin distribution or provide them at cost, establish variable 123
  • 127. refuse fees for those that decided to participate (in communities who charge for trash collection),train volunteers and establish outreach programs, implement school composting programs, hostworkshops and demonstration days, distribute booklets and literature, print inserts for utility billsand purchase newspaper advertisements. A second approach to establishing a composting program is from a community administeredapproach. In New York City, for example, The Ecology Center’s community compostingprogram has been in effect since 1990 where it originally existed at the community garden.Overtime, the demand grew and an additional location at Union Square Green Market was addedfor kitchen scrap drop off, accommodating drops offs five days per week, including bothweekend days. The materials are collected and transported to the East River Park in-vesselcomposting system, where it is processed and returned to the marketplace to be sold in aboutthree months time. An in-vessel system is comprised of 16 one cubic yard containers. For this reason, brownfieldsites become a viable location for in-vessel facilities as it freestanding of the natural earth. “Thefirst step of this process begins by layering nitrogen rich food waste with a carbon source in theform of high-grade sawdust, another waste-product, collected from various local wood shops,into the ‘in-vessel’ composting system. Once a container is filled the lid is sealed, and thedecomposition process begins. The containers are designed to facilitate an aerobicdecomposition process, by allowing air to pass through vents on the bottom and the top of thebins. During a retention time of 10 -15 days, the materials in the bins are reduced by one fifth oftheir original volume and reach temperatures of 150 degrees Fahrenheit, to ensure pathogendestruction.” (NYC Compost Project in Manhattan, 2010). At that time, the compost is moved to 124
  • 128. windrows for curing where red wriggler worms are able to digest microorganism during thecooling process. When complete, the compost is screened to remove any large rocks and sticks(NYC Compost Project in Manhattan, 2010). Municipal compost programs have been implemented in some areas as an extension of therecycling program. Citizens are provided with a durable compost container. Organic householdscraps and yard waste can be combined in this container and intermittently it is picked up. Inareas such as Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, composted soil is even returned to the citizensat a later time (community composting.ca, 2010). Twenty miles south of Philadelphia, Wilmington, Delaware is home to Wilmington OrganicsRecycling Center. This is perhaps the most successful composting programs in the United Statesand is not municipally owned. Ideally located, the composting facility is adjacent to the Port ofWilmington which receives shiploads of fresh produce on a daily basis. It opened in May of2009, after the local landfill ban yard trimmings at the facility. At its inception in December2009, the facility was accepting 300 tons of waste each day. By Earth Day 2010, the facility wasfully operational. As of June, the amount had grown to 550 tons per day but maximum capacityis 700 tons per day (Sullivan and Goldstein, 2010). Southbridge is a neighborhood which borders the facility. Southbridge is a predominantlyminority neighborhood that has been prone to living near the local landfill, traffic and noise for 125
  • 129. many years. The municipal composting complex was built with extreme community supportincluding the surrounding neighbors, which include Southbridge, as the result of educating theneighbours about its need, use, and benefits. With the support of the community, the 27 acreformer brownfield site was designated as the future home of the composting facility. Acommunity benefits agreement which provided jobs for the surrounding residents also assistedthe facility in obtaining expedited permitting to move forward. The initial pledge was that atleast twenty percent of all jobs would be given to the local community. As of June 2010, thefigure was sixty percent (Sullivan and Goldstein, 2010). The composting facility is set up to quickly move the intake process forward. The truckscome into the facility for a weighing in process. Then the materials move to the tipping area,windrowing area, screening area and to the outtake yard. The weigh-in process takes place in a18,000 square foot building which is kept under negative pressure to mitigate odor. Trainedworkers determine the loads need for carbon and nitrogen exposure depending on the load’smoisture content. Materials are also fed into a slow speed shredder where it moves to a pickingstation where workers remove non-organic contaminates. Any leachate and excess waters aresent to a sanitary sewer which feeds an aerated retention pond (Sullivan and Goldstein, 2010). Wilmington Organic Recycling Center contains sixty-four 200 foot long windrows. Eachwindrow is large enough to contain one days recycling from the municipality as the waste startsits eight week windrowing process. Fifty-six are covered and the remaining eight are open for thefinal stage of the composting process. After windrowing has taken place, the compost isscreened. Retail sales only accounts for one percent of the compost sold. Most compost istrucked out for bulk usage. Because composting facilities are able to operate on previous brownfields, Newtown has the 126
  • 130. space and location to house a composting facility. The Marion Anderson Brownfield, located atthe edge of town with natural isolation barriers from housing, could meet this composting need.Citizens should be informed and outreach programs exist to rally local citizens to support suchmeasures in an effort to decrease waste and restore jobs. Local composting programs also provide the tools needed for local citizens to engage ingrowing programs at the residential, community and commercial levels. In addition to thebenefits of growing, a longitudinal St. Louis study of impacts of community gardens indicatedthat evidence supported the presence of positive economic indicators. In areas where communitygardens existed, home values increased, as did owner occupancy rates (Broadway, 2009). Citiesincluding Milwaukee, Detroit and Seattle actively promote the process of rebuilding linksbetween local food production and consumption by promoting urban agriculture and farmersmarkets (Broadway, 2009). Farmers markets are a great resource to educate consumers and toallow citizens who want locally grown food but can not grow their own to acquire localvegetation. By using local resources, as a community, we eliminate natural resource importsfrom other areas which cause pollution acquired during transit. Additionally, the freshest produceis highest in nutrients as some nutrients diminish with age in the transit process. Even in places where soils are less poor, gardens are possible. In Syracuse, New York, agroup of Somali immigrants had wanted to grow some community gardens. The soil was poorfrom years of industrial use that had rendered the soils useless from lead and arsenic problems inmuch of the area. With the assistance of Filtrexx Gardens Sacks, compost from the OnengadaCounty Resource Recovery Agency, and the seedlings fm local nurseries a surface garden wasestablished. Local university experts were sceptical of the gardens ability to survive. Insubsequent visits, they were amazed at the success. The garden also acted as a community 127
  • 131. builder. Speculation by university experts about the community’s low interest level was also unfounded (Sullivan 2010). Opportunities to broaden the scope of community gardens and residential gardens should further be explored. Use of current technologies enables Newtown residents the ability to reduce their carbon footprint by growing locally instead of buying imported vegetation. As the result, each resident can expect to subsidize their grocery bill accordingly. With creativity and vision, options are available to the residents of Newtown to protect the urban environment, restore nature and prosper economically as the result of self supportive measures which save money and the potential job creation of some of the programs suggested to become involved in working as a community for a sustainable Newtown community. Appendix A - : Automatic Rainwater Collection System : - Courtesy of http://www.gardenwatersaver.com/9.html How to Make RainbarrelsThere are three methods described here for MAKING RAINBARRELS. These instructions are all designed for totallyenclosed rainbarrel systems thus avoiding mosquito problems. 1. OPEN TOP CONTAINERS WITH LIDS This is the most simple type for those who have access to open top barrels. Trash cans can be used; however, for the back pressure to occur completely, the top should be sealed with duct tape. Instructions: 1. Drill a 1” hole near the bottom of the container 2. Attach “Spigot for open top container" 3. Drill a 3/4" hole in the top for the diverter hose to fit in 128
  • 132. 2. PLASTIC BARREL PLACED HORIZONTALLYThis is just as easy and takes only 10 minutes to make.Instructions: 1. Drill a 1/2 to max 3/4” hole in the center of the bung that is threaded. This will leave a small collar which will act as a washer. 2. Attach "Spigot for Barrels (Horizontal)" 3. Drill a 3/4” hole on the side of the barrel that is opposite to the drilled bung. Have a look at menu item How to make Rain Barrels to get a better understanding plus ideas for horizontal barrels3. PLASTIC BARRELS USED VERTICALLYThe third way while a bit more complicated is probably the most favorable in that recycled closed top barrels whichare the most common and readily available are used in the vertical position. Here are the steps in Picture form: STEP 1 STEP 2 Drill a 15/16” hole near the bottom Heat the area (To soften the plastic) or file about 1/64th " of a 1 inch drill bit STEP 3 STEP 4 129
  • 133. Spigot for Barrel (vertical) Tighten hard (if no washer used) STEP 6 STEP 5 Drill 3/4” hole (in Threaded Bung) Attach hose to Garden Watersaver Diverter unit HINTS1. For drilling for the spigot - file 1/64" off the blade drill bit ( a little off each side ) and do not use a washer and tighten the Spigot hard. If it will not tighten hard then use the washer ( and if necessry teflon tape )2. If the plan is to link barrels then do not file the 1” blade bit until you drill the holes for the Connector kit. as it needs a full 1 “ hole3. Do not use barrels that contained chemicals and do not drink the rainwater without purifying. Barrels that contained food products or soap type products are available in most cities. Go to http://www.google.com and write in plastic barrels and your city 130
  • 134. Appendix B 131
  • 135. BibliographyAgyeman, Julian. Sustainable Communities and the Challenge of Environmental Justice. NewYork, NY: New York University Press, 2005.Ageyman, J., Bullard, R., Evans, B. Just Sustainabilities: Development in and Unequal World.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.Boschmann, Eric. “Metropolitan Area Job Accessibility and the Working Poor: Exploring LocalSpatial Variations of Geographic Context.” Urban Geography May 16-June 30 2010. 498-522Broadway, Michael. “Growing Urban Agriculture in North American Towns: The example ofMilwaukee.” Focus on Geography. Winter 2009. 23-30.“Building Your Own Dry Well System.” Onthehouse.com/wp20000508. November, 6, 2010.Web. www.onethhouse.com/wp20000508Bullard, Robert. Growing Smarter: Achieving Livable Communities, Environmental Justice. AndRegional Equity. Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 2007.Bullard, Robert. “People-of-Color Environmentalism.” Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, andEnvironmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview. 1990.Bullard, Robert. The Black Metropolis in the Twenty-first Century: Race, Power and Politics ofPlace. Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.Bullard, R., Johnson, S., Torres, A. Sprawl City: Race, Politics and Planning in Atlanta.Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000.Camacho, David. Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles: Race, Class and the 132
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  • 137. Perlman, J. and O’meara Sheehan, M. “Fighting Poverty and Environmental Injustice in Cities.”State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future. Worldwatch Institute, 2007.Phillips, I., Opatrny, M,. Bennett, S. and Ordner D. “Homeownership Impact on Habitat forHumanity Partner Families.” Social Development. March 2009, 48-65.Price, Tom. “Corporate Social Responsibility: Is Good Citizenship Good For Bottom Line?”CQ Researcher. August 3, 2007. 649-672.Roseland, M. and Soots, L. “Stregnthening Our Local Economy.” State of the World 2007: OurUrban Future. Worldwatch Institute, 2007.Rypkema, Donovan. “The Rest of the Sustainability Story.” Planning May/June 2010, 56.Sherman-Huntoon. Community Backyard Composting Programs . North Carolina ExtensionService. Raleigh: North Carolina. 2005.Small, M., Harding, D., and Lamont, M. “Reconsidering Culture and Poverty.” The Annals ofthe American Academy of Political and Social Science May 2010. 6-27Sullivan, Dan. “Compost-Based Growing System Sprouts Innovation.” BioCycle July 2010.Sullivan, D. and Goldstein, N. “Urban Facility Delivers Food Waste Composting Capacity.”Biocycle. June 2010. 16-20.Vale, B. and R. “Principles of Green Architecture.” Green Architecture. Boston, MA: LittleBrown, 1991.Wenz, Philip S. “How Green Is Their Valley?” Planning. February 2009. 32-35 134
  • 138. Brownfields to Created Wetlands: A Project Initiative for Newtown, SarasotaSara GiuntaIntroduction As the world’s population continues to expand, researchers, governmental leaders andcommunities are looking for solutions to help sustain growing populations. Within the past fewdecades urban sprawl has been directly responsible for the increase in cost-of-living expenses,traffic congestion, as well as a decrease in quality of life (Fan et al., 2005). Zovanyi (2004)suggests that controlling urban growth within specified boundaries may lower the cost ofproviding public amenities, while at the same time conserving rural lands and protectingenvironmentally-fragile areas, such as wetlands, from urban sprawl. More and more greenspaceis being converted to feed and house the growing population. As a result, fragile environments,including wetlands, are being destroyed in the process. In addition, contaminated areas such asbrownfields are being used to house lower-income families. These residents are being evictedout of their current communities so that developers may revitalize these areas to be moreappealing to middle-class families. Fan et al. (2005) lists several factors which may be ofconcern to communities if urban sprawl continues to increase; these include: environmentalimpacts, loss of farmland, loss of open space, traffic problems, urban decline, loss ofcommunities and loss of historic site. Recently, researchers have identified a phenomenon called sustainable development,which can be used to alleviate some of these environmental problems and community concerns.Dorsey (2003) identifies sustainable development as the symbiotic relationship among people,the environment and natural resources. As society desperately seeks to find resolutions for amore sustainable future, such solutions will need to address the demands of the present without 135
  • 139. compromising the needs of the future (Dorsey, 2003). For example, solutions to the growingproblem of environmental degradation need to be sustainable for all future generations.Sustainable development provides guidance on how a growing society will be able to efficientlyutilize and manage their natural resources (Dorsey, 2003). In the late 1960s and early 1970s,when the sustainability movement began to take off, little emphasis was placed on growthmanagement (Zovanyi, 2004). Scholars of the sustainable development movement hypothesizethat a sustainable community needs to balance social equity, economic prosperity andenvironmental integrity (Zovanyi, 2004) so that future generations can be less dependent on theenvironment. Finally, Dorsey (2003) suggests that the current interest and investment inbrownfields that have occurred during the past few decades may be strongly correlated to theidea of sustainable development.Wetlands The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), one of the leading stateagencies responsible for protecting Florida’s wetlands, defines wetlands as “those areas that areinundated or saturated by surface water or ground water at a frequency and a duration sufficientto support, and under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typicallyadapted for life in saturated soils” (Gilbert et al., 1995, pgs 1-2). The wetland boundary lineoften lies within an ecotone, which is an area where two or more communities overlap oneanother (Gilbert et al., 1995). Kivaisi et al. (2001) further defines wetlands as transitional areasbetween land and water that can be distinguished by wet soils, plants that are adapted to wet soilsand a water table depth that maintains these characteristics. Wetlands support a rich diversity ofwildlife and fisheries by serving as nesting areas for migratory birds and spawning grounds forfish and shellfish (Kivaisi et al., 2001). Wetland ecosystems make up only 6% of the global land 136
  • 140. area and are considered the most threatened of all environmental resources (Turner et al, 1991). According to Mitsch and Gosselink (2000), wetlands are considered the “kidneys of alandscape”, in that they function as downstream receivers of both water and waste from naturaland anthropogenic sources. Wetlands are beneficial in that they serve as sources, sinks, andtransformers of a great number of chemical, biological and genetic materials (Mitsch andGosselink, 2000). Wetlands have been known to provide the following functions: floodprotection, wildlife habitats, nutrient recycling, and storage (Turner et al., 1991), as well ascleansing polluted waters, protecting shorelines and helping to recharge groundwater aquifers(Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). Wetlands are categorized into three groups: salt/freshwater swamps, marshes and bogs;each group is based on the dominance of particular vegetative plant species (Kivaisi et al., 2001).Wetland classification aids environmental scientists in understanding the relationship betweenthe different types of wetlands, including their soil characteristics, which are dependent on theaccumulation of organic matter (Richardson and Vepraskas, 2001). The dominant plants typesfound in wetlands include woody plants and trees found in swamps, soft-stemmed plants foundin marshes and mosses and acid-loving plants found in bogs (Kivaisi, et al., 2001). A fourth typeof wetland class not usually included with the other three groups, are the estuarine wetlands.Mangroves are the dominant plant species found in these systems, which are located alongtropical and subtropical shorelines and occupy areas dominated by salt, brackish and freshwatertidal marshes (Richardson and Vepraskas, 2001).Wetland RegulationsWetlands began to suffer from degradation and pollution as a result from population expansionand industry growth. Urban sprawl and development is suspected as one of the leading causes of 137
  • 141. habitat degradation and species endangerment in the United States (Fan et al., 2005). Turner etal. (1991) noted that wetlands became exploited due to their open accessibility and lack ofregulatory enforcement. Prior to the mid-1970s, destruction and drainage of wetlands was anacceptable practice and was often encouraged by governmental policies (Mitsch and Gosselink,2000). Until the middle of the 20th century, governmental programs enticed landowners to drainwetlands in order to create more land suitable for farming and agriculture (Mitsch and Gosselink,2000). As a result certain methodologies such as dredging and filling, used to develop suitableland, severely degraded many of the fragile ecosystems (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). The lackof appreciation and knowledge of the value and sustainability of these ecosystems hassignificantly contributed to permanent wetland loss (Turner, 1991). As communities and neighborhoods began to express interest in the environment aroundthem, people started to realize the importance that wetlands have on the environment. As aresult, environmental laws were enacted in order to eliminate harmful activities that destroynatural resources and wetlands (Tiner, 1999). Wetlands are regulated by three levels ofgovernment, including local, state, and federal and various environmental professionals. Theseagencies and organizations strive to preserve the production of natural resources and improve theaesthetics of the fragile ecosystem (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). The U.S. federal governmentprotects wetlands under two laws: the Rivers and Harbors Act and the Clean Water Act (Tiner,1999). The Rivers and Harbor Act focuses on protecting navigable waters and involves thedisposal of dredged material and removal of potential hazards to navigations, while the CleanWater Act regulates the deposition of fill in waters of the state (Tiner, 1999). Environmentalagencies, including the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), SouthwestFlorida Water Management District (SWFWMD) and the Environmental Protection Commission 138
  • 142. (EPC), use the Clean Water Act as guidelines to regulate and enforce activities occurring inwetlands areas.Created Wetlands The creation and/or restoration of wetlands are usually part of the mitigation processrequired as a result of wetland loss by land development (shopping centers, highways, suburbandevelopment, etc) (Mitsch et al., 1998). Mitigation is the process in which a wetland is createdin order to offset the impacts caused to the original wetland. The success of a created wetland isoften determined when the newly created wetland fully replaces the function of the destroyedwetland (Mitsch et al., 1996). However, not all wetland creation or restoration projects areconsidered successful. Natural environmental impacts, such as fluctuating hydrology, wash-outs,scouring, planting failure and the infiltration of other animal and plant species, can decreasebiodiversity and exhaust water quality function (Mitsch et al., 1996). Mitsch et al. (1998) offersseveral suggestions for the successful creation of a wetland. These include (1) multiple-seedingto increase the chance of vegetative growth, (2) multiple-transplanting to create an evendistribution of plant germination, (3) establishing open systems to allow the natural environmentto influence wetland design and (4) initiate proper training of wetland restorationists to createfunctional wetland systems. In addition, wetland mitigation projects should be given at least 15years to determine if the new ecosystem is successful (Mitsch et al., 1996). Because thesesystems are fragile, a sufficient amount of time is needed to achieve full wetland characteristics(wetland plant dominance, soil characteristics, etc) in order to classify the project as a success.Brownfields Siikamaki et al. (2008) defines brownfields as properties that at one time housedabandoned or used industrial facilities, where current expansion and redevelopment efforts have 139
  • 143. been hampered by fear of potential contamination. Furthermore, the Virginia Natural ResourceInstitute defines brownfield sites as underused or abandoned industrial/commercial propertywhere future development is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination(Virginia Natural Resource Institute website). Brownfield sites are often situated within urbanresidential communities or other areas of high ecological value, such as rivers and streams(Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007). Some of these abandoned facilities may be over 100 yearsold and therefore, years of harmful chemicals, materials, and debris may have penetrated thebrownfield site (Siikamaki et al., 2008). Examples of existing brownfield sites may include oldand/or closed factories, railyards, landfills, dry cleaners and housing projects (Virginia NaturalResource Institute website). Strategies to redevelop brownfield sites have been devised in recent years and focuses onthe sustainability, quality and functionality of the site, with respect towards the historic,socioeconomic and cultural features (Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007). In 1993, the Clinton-Gore administration established the Brownfield Initiative which strived to clean up abandonedlightly contaminated sites and restore them to community use standards (Dorsey, 2003). In2002, the Bush administration passed the Small Business Liability Act, which authorized up to$250 million per year to support brownfield redevelopment efforts and clarified the process bywhich new purchasers and users of brownfield properties can reduce their liability (Siikamaki etal., 2008). In addition, the law provided liability protection for prospective buyers, neighboringproperty owners and innocent landowners (Dorsey, 2003). Brownfield sites are attractive topeople interested in the economic viability of older urban areas. Once brownfields are madeproductive again, they can create jobs, create tax revenues and attract economic activity backinto these developed areas (Dorsey, 2003). Appendix B, from the Florida Department of 140
  • 144. Environmental Protection’s website, illustrates some of the incentives that may be availablewhen a community cleans up a brownfield site. The Virginia Natural Resource Institute lists avariety of future uses for redeveloped brownfield sites including public parks, hospitals, newbusinesses, and even wetland creation (Virginia Natural Resource Institute website).Brownfield Redevelopment Brownfield redevelopment projects can drastically improve urban neighborhoods. In the1990s, interest in brownfield redevelopment dramatically increased as many older urban areascontinued to deteriorate and suburban sprawl consumed more and more land (O’Reilly andBrink, 2006). Hopfensperger et al. (2006) suggests that gathering historical and currentinformation about a brownfield site may be important in determining appropriate restorationgoals and in identifying what information could still be needed. In addition, knowing the hazardand exposure potential of a brownfield may also be important in planning redevelopment efforts.The hazard potential indicates the toxicity and the amount of contaminant present, while theexposure potential calculates the contaminant’s location, physical property and duration ofexposure (O’Reilly and Brink, 2006). This information is especially important if a particularbrownfield site is being developed into new housing projects or other community facilities. Brownfield redevelopment can have many benefits including, revitalization ofcontaminated areas, promotion of “smart growth” development, reduction of developmentpressure on greenfields, reduction of risk to public health and economic growth (Wedding andCrawford-Brown, 2007). However, Siikamaki et al. (2008) identifies four obstacles inconverting brownfields into urban development projects; these include high costs and lack offunding for conversions, remediation issues, land acquisition problems and redevelopment andlong-term maintenance issues. Overall, brownfield redevelopment projects improve public 141
  • 145. health and the natural environment. Site cleanups can reduce exposure to hazardous substancesand can heighten economic activity by creating jobs, increasing incomes, and improving sales ofoff-site properties (Siikamaki et al., 2008). Brownfield redevelopment involves large-scaleefforts to revitalize new business and continued community development (Dorsey, 2003).Efforts must be directed at clearly defining the types of redevelopments that can occur at aparticular site, which may include housing, community centers or other facilities (Wedding andCrawford-Brown, 2007). Choosing an appropriate redevelopment project will vary with eachbrownfield site. As opposed to treating brownfield sites as problematic areas, some cities and communities have recognized that there are advantages to redeveloping these abandoned sites (Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007).RestorationThe desire for successful habitat restoration is rapidly growing. Environmental scientists andurban planners need to figure how to successfully restore an ecosystem, rather than rely on maps,surveys or other computer technology, which predict vegetative growth or other indicators ofecosystem development (Miller, 2007). Every restoration project will be different and notnecessarily follow the “textbook” criteria of how to restore a wetland ecosystem. Restorationprojects often focus on cleaning up contaminated lands, replanting native vegetation andrestoring streams, wetlands or other surface waters (Riley, 1998). The goal of ecologicalrestoration, for example, is to model the structure, function and diversity of the originalecosystem (Riley, 1998). Unfortunately, restoration projects may face many problems. In theUnited States, urban development is the leading cause of species endangerment, followed by thedissemination of invasive species, such as Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) (Czech,2005). As a result of urbanization, habitats are often agitated, allowing invasive species to take 142
  • 146. over and shade out native vegetation (Czech, 2005). Therefore, biodiversity is often at a loss asfocus is usually emphasized on economic growth, resulting in urbanization (Czech, 2005). In order to address these issues ecologists need to address what is historical andindigenous to the site being restored (Riley, 1998). In addition developing effective monitoringtools for evaluating the restoration project is important in achieving success (Hopfensperger,2006). Hopfensperger et al. (2006) further points out that establishing public support forrestoration projects, as well as building strong relationships between government and non-government agencies, is important for a successful collaboration effort.Proposed project solution As part of Newtown’s revitalization/redevelopment initiative this project proposes tocreate a wetland ecosystem from the community’s existing brownfield sites. Newtown has atleast two brownfield sites, one being located in the heart of city called the Marion AndersonPlace brownfield site, consisting of approximately 18 acres. The proposed project foresees anaesthetic landscape where Newtown can enjoy the sights and sounds of a natural ecosystemrather than the pollution and hustle of a busy city. If one could draw a comparison that the sitewould potentially be similar to Central Park in New York City or Golden Gate Park in SanFrancisco. The Marion Anderson Place Urbaculture site was designated as a brownfield on April 19,2004. The site is located at 2046 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way in Sarasota. The FloridaDepartment of Environmental Protection currently oversees the remediation and cleanup of thesite as a result of Phase I and II Environmental Contamination Testing results. Althoughinformation regarding the contaminants and pollutants located on the site could not be obtained,additional information regarding current regulations and future rehabilitation of the site can be 143
  • 147. found in Appendix A. Understanding the historical and cultural significance of a project site will be importantin successfully restoring the Marion Anderson brownfield site. Loures and Panagopoulos (2007)point out that appreciating the landscape ecology as well as the relationships between people andplaces is important. They also explain that developers and urban planners must realize that suchrestoration projects are about landscape creation and not a quick fix to an existing problem. The wetland creation project should incorporate several factors, which include:  Performance: the created ecosystem should function well  Adaptability: the ecosystem should be long-lasting and be able to adapt to a new environment  Surrounding: the ecosystem should be able to successfully function with the surrounding environment  Aesthetics: the ecosystem should be a place for communities to enjoy and  Sustainability: the ecosystem should have minimal environmental impacts and be economically efficient (Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007). Mitsch and Gosselink (2000) offer several tips on how to successfully create and restorewetlands. These include designing the system for minimal maintenance, utilizing naturalenergies (e.g. potential energy of streams) to “feed” the system, designing the system with theideal hydrologic conditions and ecological landscape needed to support vegetative life, anddesigning the system to fulfill multiple goals. These goals do not necessarily have to beenvironmental goals, but may also include community redevelopment goals as well. Whendesigning a wetland creation project, developers need to pay close attention to the hydrology andelevation of a system (Hopfensperger, 2006). These two factors are important in wetlandcreation success as both control surface water flow in a ecosystem. Frequent data collection andmonitoring is important in comparing pre-restoration to post-restoration vegetation growth andsoil characteristics; this information can help environmental scientists access the function of thenewly created ecosystem (Hopfensperger, 2006). Newtown may be able to initiate a middle orhigh school program where students can actively monitor the ecosystem. The benefits could be 144
  • 148. twofold: educating and encouraging students to take care of the environment around them andensuring the continued success of the created wetland.Case StudiesA former gas station in Kansas City was redeveloped into an open space area, which paid tributeto the history of the neighborhood and a local professional baseball player (Northeast MidwestInstitute website). City, state and federal grants as well as community involvement were able totransform the brownfield site into an enjoyable area. Discussions began in 1999 to begin theredevelopment process. Initially, a new gas station was to be built, but the community did notfeel comfortable with this idea and voiced their concerns at a community meeting (NortheastMidwest Institute website). The City negotiated with the property owner and was able to acquirethe site. The community pleaded with the City to use the site that would greatly reflect thehistory of the neighborhood. After obtaining approval, work began to clean up the formerbrownfield site. Today, the site has landscaping designed like a baseball diamond to honor theirhometown baseball hero, as well as beautiful planters, murals and a children’s play area(Northeast Midwest Institute). Chevy Place, located in downtown Rochester, was a former 2.2 acre Chevroletautomobile dealership and service garage. The site was one of the largest dealerships inRochester from 1930 until 1990 (Northeast Midwest Institute website). The dealership served asa service and repair garage, as well as a gas station. Approximately $10.6 million was investedto redevelop the site for residential housing, including 77 townhomes and apartments (NortheastMidwest Institute website). The redevelopment project took five years to complete, as theproject had to overcome many challenges, including fluctuating development plans, historic 145
  • 149. preservation restrictions, street reconstruction and funding issues (Northeast Midwest Institutewebsite). Today, in addition to the housing, Chevy Place features an Art Deco showroom and24-hr coffee shop. The location of Chevy Place is ideal in that it is located in the city’s theatredistrict. Additional private development has been initiated due to the Chevy Placeredevelopment project (Northeast Midwest Research Institute). In a research study by Siikamaki et al (2008), results showed that even when projectedcleanup costs are accounted for in a prospective conversion project, local officials, particularlythose less familiar with redeveloping contaminated land, appear leery of taking on higher risksassociated with a contaminated property. As a lower-income community, Newtown may be ableto apply for funding or other means of financial assistance to help pay for clean up costsassociated in creating wetlands. Furthermore, the study also showed that greenspace conversionprojects (ex. recreational facilities) are more likely to be developed and gain community supportthan nature parks without developed facilities for recreation (Siikamaki et al., 2008). In thefuture, Newtown may be able to construct a visitor center that will be able to educate peopleabout the importance of wetlands and how they can help protect them. O’Reilly et al. (2006)points out that the redevelopment of brownfields decreases further environmental degradationsince contamination already exists. It is also derived that ignoring these sites ensures thecontaminants will exist for decades to come and cause more problems down the road. Westphal et al (2005) illustrates a brownfield redevelopment project plan in the Calumetregion located between Northwest Indiana and Northeast Illinois. The plan highlights theimportance of ecological and economic growth by redeveloping abandoned brownfield sites(Westphal et al., 2005). This particular brownfield site in the Calumet region was redesignedusing input from over 160 organizations and individuals with experience in plant vegetation, 146
  • 150. sediment testing, toxin exposure and community development (Westphal et al., 2005).Developers and planners outlined what was known about the site as well as what was not knownand tried to fill the gap in between (Westphal et al., 2005). In redeveloping a brownfield site, itis important to include people with specialties in wetland hydrology, ornithology, planning andrecreation (Westphal et al., 2005) as all of these specialty areas are important in designing awetland.Community Involvement The citizens of Newtown can be very active in creating their wetland ecosystem. Witheducational assistance from environmental scientists and arborists, Newtown can help preparethe land, plant wetland vegetation and maintain and monitor the system to ensure itssuccessfulness. Once the wetland develops into a fully functional ecosystem, Newtown may beable to provide recreational and educational activities within the wetland. For example, awalking tour through parts of the wetland which features wetland plants would be interesting andeducational for people of all ages. Furthermore, conducting eco-tours through the use of kayaks,canoes, etc would also be fun as well as educational. The following case studies are examples ofcommunity involvement and can show the people of Newtown the importance of being involvedin their neighborhood. Research studies in Atlanta and Philadelphia by Elmendorf et al. (2005) explored theinter-ethnic differences in the use of, preference for, and attitudes about metropolitan parks. Thestudy used several factors such as differences between whites and blacks in their frequency ofpark visitation, the extent to which they viewed parks as beneficial to their communities, thetypes of activities (solitary or group), their preference in park landscapes and facilities and theirexpressed willingness to participate in park maintenance (Elmendorf et al., 2005). Research 147
  • 151. showed that the black population in both Atlanta and Philadelphia were more likely to planttrees, clean up trash, help prevent crime and work with others to improve the quality of theirparks than their white counterparts (Elmendorf, 2005). Volunteerism is a critical element incommunity development and stability in many black neighborhoods (Elmendorf, 2005).Furthermore, results of study by Sugiyama et al. (2008) indicate the quality of and access to,open, green spaces in a neighborhood promoted outdoor activities, such as walking, hiking,biking, etc. Findings suggest that improvements in the quality of and access to neighborhoodnatural spaces could contribute to the increase in the amount of outdoor activity for all people ina given population, regardless of race, age or gender (Sugiyama, 2008). This may suggest thatthe citizens of Newtown may greatly benefit from wetland creation as it could encouragecommunity social interaction.Conclusion Newtown holds great promise in developing a wetland from a brownfield site toincrease community development. Collaboration with local, state and federal agencies willenable Newtown to utilize existing brownfield sites and create a sustainable and productivewetland. One can envision that this restoration project will open the doors for many futurecommunity projects to help revitalize the neighborhood. Brownfield redevelopment can helprevitalize communities such as Newtown by preserving greenspace (or in this case, creating it)and preventing urban sprawl. In addition, the potential for job growth and better housingconditions can be enormous. Success starts first with gaining the interest of neighborhoods towelcome a restoration project and be involved in implementing it. The citizens of Newtown willalso need to be active in helping to participate in the creation project(s). Although one realizesthat not every person living in Newtown may be a wetland ecologist, citizens may be able to 148
  • 152. assist in designing, planting, monitoring, and maintenance of the wetland ecosystem. Involvingthe residents of Newtown in cleaning up brownfields can inform them about the hazardouschemicals that may be in their community and can provide them with the opportunity of beingactively involved in making important decisions in their own community.ReferencesCzech, B. (2005). Urbanization as a Threat to Biodiversity: Trophic Theory, Economic Geography and implications for conservation land acquisition. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 8-13Dorsey, J. W. (2003). Brownfields and Greenfields: The Intersection of Sustainable Development and Environmental Stewardship. Environmental Practice, 5(1), 69- 76.Elmendorf, W. F., Willits, F. K., Sasidharan, V., and Godbey, G. (2005). Urban Park and Forest Participation and Landscape Preference: A Comparison Between Blacks and Whites in Philadelphia and Atlanta, U.S. Journal of Arboriculture, 31(6), 318-326.Fan, D. P.; Bengston, D. N.; Potts, R. S.; Goetz, E. G. 2005. The rise and fall of concern about urban sprawl in the United States: an updated analysis. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 1-7.Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (2004). Brownfield Designation for Marion Anderson Place Urbaculture Site-2046 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Way. Tampa, FL.Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (2008). Florida Brownfields Redevelopment Program-Transferring Communities. Accessed on November 10, 2010 from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/quick_topics/publications/wc/brownfields/bp/one_page_ handout2008.pdfGibert, K. M., Tobe, J. D., Cantrell, R. W., Sweeley, M. E., Cooper, J. R. (1995). The Florida Wetlands Delineation Manual: Tallahassee: Florida Department of Environmental Protection.Hopfensperger, K. N., Engelhardt, K. A. and Seagle, S. W. (2006). The Use of Case Studies in Establishing Feasibility for Wetland Restoration. Restoration Ecology, 14(4), 578-586.Loures L., Panagopoulos T. Sustainable reclamation of industrial areas in urban landscapes. In: 149
  • 153. Kungolas, A, Brebbia, C.A. and Beriatos, E. (eds) Sustainable Development and Planning III, WIT Press, 2007, pp. 791-800.Kivalsi, A. K. (2001). The Potential for Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Developing Countries: A Review. Ecological Engineering, 16(4), 545-560.Miller, J. R. and Hobbs, R. J. (2007). Habitat Restoration—Do We Know What We’re Doing? Restoration Ecology, 15(3), 382-390.Mitsch, W. J. and Gosselink, J. G. (2000). Wetlands, 3rd edition: New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Mitsch, W. J. and Wilson, R. F. (1996). Improving the Success of Wetland Creation and Restoration with Know-how, Time and Self Design. Ecological Applications, 6(1), 77- 83.Mitsch, W. J., Wu, X., Nairn, R. W., Weihe, P. E., Wang, N., Deal, R. and Boucher, C. E. (1998). Creating and Restoring Wetlands. Bioscience, 48(12), 1019-1027; 1029-1030.Northeast Midwest Institute. From Rags to Riches: Innovations in Petroleum Brownfields. Accessed on November 28, 2010 from http://www.occ.state.ok.us/divisions/og/newweb/brownfields/rags%20to%20riches%20p etroleum%20brownfields.pdfO’ Reilly, M. and Brink, R. (2006). Initial Risk-Based Screening of Potential Brownfield Development Sites. Soil and Sediment Contamination : An International Journal, 15(5), 463-470.Richardson, J.L. and Vepraskas, M. J. (2001). Wetlands Soils: Genesis, Hydrology, Landscapes and Classification. London: Lewis Publishers.Riley, Ann L. (1998). What is Restoration from Restoring Streams in Cities, Wheeler, S. M. and Beatley, T (ed.). New York: Routledge.Siikamäki, J. and Wernstedt, K. (2008). Turning Brownfields into Greenspaces: Examining Incentives and Barriers to Revitalization. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 33(3), 559-593.Sugiyama, T. and Thompson, C.W. (2008). Associations Between Characteristics of Neighborhood Open Space and Older Peoples Walking. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 7(1), 41-51.Virginia Natural Resources Institute. Superfund and Brownfield Reclaimation: Revitalizing and Reusing Contaminated Lands. Accessed on November 10, 2010 from http://www.virginia.edu/ien/new/vnrli/docs/superfund%202006.pdf 150
  • 154. Turner, K. (1991). Economics and Wetland Management. Environmental Economics, 20(2), 59- 63.Tiner, R.W. (1999). Wetland Indicators: A Guide to Wetland Identification, Deliniation, Classification and Mapping: London: Lewis Publishers.Wedding, G. C. and Crawford-Brown, D. (2007). Measuring Site- level Success in Brownfield Redevelopments: A Focus on Sustainability and Green Building. Journal of Environmental Management, 85(2), 483-495.Westphal, L. M.; Levengood, J. M.; Wali, A.; Soucek, D.; Stotz, D. F. 2005. Brownfield redevelopment: a hidden opportunity for conservation biology. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 21-26Zovanyi, G (2005). Urban Growth in Management and Ecological Sustainability: Confronting the “Smart Growth” Fallacy. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 35-44. 151
  • 155. Benefits of Improved Street Lighting Using Energy Efficient LED TechnologyBy Justin HellerIntroduction Worldwide energy consumption is growing exponentially and depleting our naturalresources at an alarming rate. Currently, the majority of our energy needs comes from theconsumption of non-renewable fossil fuels. These are limited resources which have the potentialto run out in the near future. The combination of population growth and increased economicdevelopment will further speed up this process (Dincer and Rosen, 1999). Environmental impacts are often associated with the utilization of energy resources. Theuse of fossil fuels for energy creates air pollution, including the release of greenhouse gases.Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, released from the burning of fossil fuels for energy,are the leading cause of global warming (Houghton, 2005). These gases trap infrared radiationin the earth’s atmosphere, resulting in an increase in global temperatures. This process is knownas the greenhouse effect. Impacts resulting from global warming may include sea level rise frommelting glaciers and climate change. Flooding from sea level rise could have severe impacts onhuman populations along coastal areas. Climate change can disrupt ecosystems and negativelyimpact those people and animals that rely on them for survival (Houghton, 2005). In order tomitigate global warming, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) must bereduced. A push towards cleaner, more sustainable energies is needed (Omer, 2008). The concept of sustainable energy development means that energy resources can bemaintained long into the future while simultaneously minimizing impacts to the environment.Sustainable development also requires that energy resources be used as efficiently as possible(Afgan et al. 1998; Dincer and Rosen, 1999; Dincer, 2000). One way of reducing GHGE is toswitch to clean, renewable and sustainable energy resources. Examples of these include wind, 152
  • 156. hydroelectric, geothermal, and solar energy. These energy sources contribute little to no GHGEand can be sustained well into the future (Rubin et al 1992; Lior, 2010). Renewable energiesalone however, are not enough to bring about changes in energy consumption. The higher costof renewable energies as compared to fossil fuel resources, make most societies reluctant toimplement them. Renewable energy sources can be restricted to certain geographic locationswhere they are abundant, and the construction of new infrastructure may be required to movethat energy to other areas. A more effective way to reduce global energy use and ultimatelyreduce GHGE is to increase energy efficiency in current and future technologies (Rubin et al.1992; Dincer and Rosen, 1999; Lior, 2010). One important area for increased energy efficiencyis in new lighting technologies. Lighting accounts for a significant portion of energy consumption throughout the world.Much of the world’s population, particularly in developing nations, is still reliant on fuel basedlighting such as kerosene lamps. Fuel based lighting consumes large amounts of energy andproduces equal amounts of pollution and GHGE. A switch to more energy efficient forms oflighting in these areas is needed. (Mills, 2002; Adkins et al. 2010). In the United States, Lighting accounts for approximately 25% of all electricityconsumed. The economic cost associated with this adds up to over 37 billion dollars annually(DOE, 1995). With new, more efficient lighting technologies entering the market, there is greatpotential for significant energy savings. New technologies may also improve lighting quality andreduce associated environmental impacts (DOE, 1995). There are many forms of electric lighting systems available in today’s market includingincandescent, fluorescent or high-intensity discharge lamps. A new lighting technology beingconsidered for many lighting applications is the light-emitting diode or LED. With new 153
  • 157. improvements in energy efficiency, LEDs have the potential to revolutionize the lighting market.Though still moderately expensive compared to other lighting technologies, they offer significantsavings in the form of very low energy consumption and little to no maintenance costs. Otherbenefits include long operating life, reduced light pollution, adjustable color, opticalcontrollability, and many others (Shur & Zukauskas, 2005; DOE, 2008; Khan and Abas, 2010). Street lighting accounts for a significant portion of total energy demand from lighting(Mills, 2002). Conventional roadway lighting using traditional lamps consumes an average of200 watts per lamp in order to meet current roadway lighting standards (Wu et al, 2009). TheLED could be an effective way of lowering energy consumption and reducing energy andmaintenance costs of street lighting. Many studies have shown significant energy and costsavings over the lifetime of the lights (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2006, 2008; Colon, 2010).Importance of Street Lighting The main goal of street lights is to illuminate roadways in order to enhance visibility atnight time for drivers and pedestrians. Improved visibility helps people to navigate safely andultimately avoid collisions. Another key benefit of street lighting is a safer nighttimeenvironment. In many neighborhoods, crime can be a big problem, especially in the cover ofnight. Many studies have examined the effects of street lighting on crime (Painter, 1996; Painterand Farrington, 1999, 2001; Farrington and Welsh, 2007). The majority of these studies showeda significant decrease in the amount of crime with improved street lighting. Not only did thenumber of crimes decrease, but fear of crime was also lowered, resulting in a greater number ofpeople using lighted streets at night (Painter, 1996). A Study by Painter and Farrington (2001)examined the effects of improved street lighting on crime and found that crimes decreased by41% and 43% in the two experimental research areas. A cost-benefit analysis found that 154
  • 158. financial savings from reduced crimes exceeded the financial costs of street light improvementsby between 2.4 and 10 times after just the first year. The financial savings from preventedcrimes more than paid for the cost of the improved street lighting within one year. Theyconcluded that improved street lighting can be extremely cost effective (Painter and Farrington,2001).Current Street Lighting Technologies The lighting industry produces about 14,000 different types of lamps, which are classifiedinto three basic categories: incandescent, florescent and high density discharge. Each distinctcategory holds characteristics that make them suited for different types of lighting applications.High density discharge (HID) lamps are predominantly used in street lighting applications. HIDlamps produce light by discharging an electric arc through a gas filled arc tube thereby excitingatoms and ions of different gases sealed within the tube. All HID lamps require the use of alighting ballast which is a piece of equipment needed to supply sufficient starting voltage toionize the gas in the arc tube and to regulate current during operation (DOE, 1995; DPPEA,2010). Metal Halide (MH) and High Pressure Sodium (HPS) are the two most common HIDlamps currently being used in street lighting applications. Background information on these twotypes of HID lighting is provided below followed by a brief summary on some of thedisadvantages of HID lighting.Metal Halide Metal halide lamps were created in the 1960s to improve the color rendering capability ofmercury vapor lamps. Different metals were added to improve color and increase efficiency.They produce a blue-white light by passing an electric current through a mixture of gases thatinclude halide metals and mercury (DOE, 1995). Because they produce a whiter light they are 155
  • 159. useful where a more natural color representation is needed. Metal halide street lights have a lifespan ranging between 6,000 and 20,000 hours depending on the lamp and use between 32-1500watts with an efficacy of approximately 80-100 lumens per watt (DPPEA, 2010). Efficacy,which is measured in lumens per watt, refers to the amount of light produced by a lamp as a ratioto the power needed to produce that light (Colon, 2010). The lamps provide a non-temperaturesensitive, concentrated, controllable source of light with good color uniformity. There can besignificant lamp to lamp wattage variation of approximately twenty percent in Metal Halidelamps, and they take up to five minutes to reach full luminosity (DPPEA, 2010).High Pressure Sodium High Pressure Sodium (HPS) is the most common street lighting lamp type in current useand has been around since the 1970’s. They have poor color rendering and produce theyellowish-orange light that many of us have become familiar with. They are more energyefficient than metal halide and are preferred when true color rendering is not critical such as instreet or parking lot lighting applications (DPPEA, 2010). The HPS lamps produce light bypassing an electrical current through an arc tube filled with vaporized sodium under pressure athigh temperature. The physical shape, electrical, and photometric characteristics are differentfrom metal halide lamps to maximize efficiency (DPPEA, 2010). HPS lamps are readilyavailable and come in a variety of sizes from 35 to 1,000 watts. They have a life span ofapproximately 12,000 to 24,000 hours and have an efficacy of 45 to 150 lumens per watt(DPPEA, 2010; Colon, 2010).Disadvantages of HID Lights There are several drawbacks associated with HID lighting including light pollution, highenergy inputs, slow start up times and mercury pollution. One common problem associated with 156
  • 160. HID lamps is their considerable light pollution. This can come in the form of sky glow or lighttrespass. Sky glow is when light is projected upwards into the sky causing the glow of cities thatcan be seen at night from afar. Light trespass is when the light is projected into unwelcomedareas such as someone’s home (NYSERDA, 2002; Colon, 2010). The light coming from HIDlamps is projected 360 degrees out from the lamp and the use of reflectors is required to directthe light towards the street. The light however, is often scattered in many directions due to theiruse of a drop lens. This scattered light is also what produces glare which can be a distraction tomany drivers (Colon, 2010). Most HID lamps have a light efficiency of 40-60% meaning thatonly about half of the light produced reaches the street below (Tetra Tech, 2003). Furthermore,they require the use of a ballast which is required to supply the large amount of energy needed tostart. They can take up to several minutes to warm up to full luminosity and if there is aninterruption in the power supply they must first cool down before they can restart (DOE, 1995;DPPEA, 2010). All HID lamps also contain some amount of mercury which classifies them ashazardous waste. This can creates disposal problems and leads to environmental pollution(Colon, 2010).Light-Emitting Diodes The light-emitting diode (LED) was first created back in the 1950’s. LEDs emit lightfrom a small semiconducting chip when a current is applied to it, whereas traditional lightsources produce light by heating a filament or creating an electrical arc through a gas mixture(Colon, 2010). They are powered by a low direct-current voltage which is converted fromalternating-current in the power lines. They also do not require the use of a ballast like HIDlamps (Tetra Tech, 2003). The most recent LED lamps can produce over 100 lumens per watt,and have a life span of 50,000 to 100,000 hours (DOE, 2008). A brief summary on some of the 157
  • 161. advantages and disadvantages of LED lighting is provided in the sections below.Advantages of LED Lighting There are many advantages of LEDs over traditional electric lighting. These include longlamp lifetimes, low power requirements, good color rendering, optical controllability highefficiency, durability, and other improved features (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2008). LED lamps have a very long operating life and can last up to 5 times longer than HIDlamps and up to 25 times longer than incandescent. Substantial savings can come from reducedmaintenance cost and fewer lamp replacements over time. The lower power requirements ofLEDs allow them to operate on low direct current voltage. They also do not need a ballast inorder to operate. This makes them compatible with solar power and battery backups for off gridlighting applications (DOE, 2008; Pode, 2009; Wu et al, 2009). The color rendering ability of LEDs is very accurate. The color rendering index (CRI) isa measure of a lights ability to depict the natural color of an illuminated object. White LEDshave a CRI score of around 80-90 out of 100 which is very good compared to most HID lamps.The yellow-orange light of most HPS lamps have poor color rendering and score on the low endwith a CRI around 20-30 (Tetra Tech, 2003). The optical controllability of LED lamps allows a more directed light with an 80-90%efficiency compared to 40-60% for HID lamps. This higher efficiency means that more lightreaches the road surface below thereby allowing a lower output LED lamp to achieve the sameeffect as a higher output HID lamp while also minimizing light pollution and glare (Tetra Tech,2003). The LED lights are very durable as a result of their solid-state construction, making themmuch more resistant to damage. An LED lamp is comprised of many individual LEDs meaning 158
  • 162. that several LEDs could be damaged without complete failure of the lamp. LED lights do not failor cycle on and off like HID lamps at the end of their life, but rather dim and do not cause anydisruption in service (Tetra Tech, 2003). There are several other characteristics that favor LEDs over HID lamps. LED lights aremercury free, making them much more environmentally friendly than HID lights. They do notrequire a warm-up time and they can instantly turn on or off unlike HID lights. They are alsodimmable which means lighting brightness can be decreased during off peak times for furtherenergy savings (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2008).Disadvantages of LED Lighting Two main disadvantages of LED lighting are the high initial investment cost and lowerefficacy. The high initial cost of LEDs can be several times greater than traditional HID lamps.This high initial cost may deter people from switching over to the new technology. The true costsavings of LED lamps comes from reductions in energy and maintenance cost over the lifetimeof the product (DOE, 2008). The efficacy of LED lamps is currently lower than some HPS lamps. The best LEDlamps can produce around 100 lumens per watt whereas the best HPS lamps produce around 150lumens per watt. Fortunately both of these factors are predicted to decrease in upcoming years asthe technology continues to advance and LEDs make up more of the lighting market (Tetra Tech,2003). 159
  • 163. High Pressure Table 1 LED Metal Halide Sodium Good color rendering Long lamp life Controllable/Dimmable Good color rendering Lowest cost No ballast needed Lower cost Readily available Advantages Instant on/off Readily available Highest Efficacy Mercury free Low light pollution High durability Poor color rendering Contain Mercury Contain Mercury Require a ballast High initial cost Require a ballast Shorter lamp life Disadvantages Lower efficacy Shorter lamp life Slow start-up time Less available Slow start-up time High light pollution High light pollution Low durability Low durabilityPilot Study Examples Since LEDs are new to the street lighting market, there have been many pilot studies totest LED lighting in real world applications. The majority of these have found significant energysavings with the use of new LED technologies. Below are summaries from three of these pilotstudies and their results. A study done by Colon (2010) compared LED and induction lighting technologies withhigh pressure sodium (HPS) lighting at 56 Air Force installations. He found that LED lightingshowed moderate economic savings and less environmental impact when compared to HPSlights. An overall economic life-cycle analysis found LED costs were 21% less than HPSlighting, while an environmental life-cycle assessment showed a 45% reduction for LEDlighting. HPS lights were found to be more costly on average to operate than LED lights. The 160
  • 164. LED lights consumed 48% less energy and had an estimated payback of seven years (Colon,2010). Ann Arbor, Michigan conducted a pilot LED study by replacing 25 of its downtownpedestrian globe lights. The LED lights used were 48 watts and lasted up to 10 years. Thesereplaced HPS lamps that used greater than 100 watts and lasted only 2 years. Each LEDreplacement lamp was estimated to pay for itself in only 3.3 years and have a savings of $1,111in energy and maintenance costs over its 10 year lifespan (Relume Tech., 2009). The plannedsecond phase of the project will use cobra head street light fixtures in a residential neighborhood.The fixtures have wattages varying from 50 to 80 watts and will be used to replace 250 wattfixtures. These fixtures have a higher initial cost but based on preliminary testing, shouldprovide greater savings than the replacement globe lights (Relume Tech., 2009). Palo Alto California conducted a pilot LED roadway lighting project in which theyreplaced 14 HPS fixtures with 9 LED and 5 induction street light fixtures. The LED lightingsystems used the least amount of energy of the three, with a 44% reduction compared to HPS.Estimated payback was 12 years for a LED luminaire retrofit and 10 years for new installations(DOE, 2010).LED Street Lighting in Sarasota, FL Sarasota is doing their part to help conserve energy. In November 2009, Sarasota Countydecided to install LED street lighting along one of its main roadways. A company namedSunovia Energy Technologies, Inc., a locally based company in Sarasota, won the bid for acontract with Sarasota County to provide 148 LED street light fixtures which will be placedalong Fruitville Road in Sarasota. The company markets its products under the brand nameEvoLucia. They are providing 120 watt EvoLucia brand LED cobra head-style street lights 161
  • 165. which are suitable for direct replacement of the current HPS cobra head street lights. This meansthat Sarasota can install them on existing poles with no needed adjustments in pole spacing. Theenergy efficient lights produce more than 50 lumens per watt and are expected to last more than10 years without maintenance. The LED lights are expected to save Sarasota Countyapproximately $14,000 each year in energy and maintenance costs, and will reduce carbonemissions by approximately 355 tons over the next 10 years. If Sarasota were to complete a citywide LED street light replacement of 62,000 fixtures, it could save the county over $5.28 millionyearly in energy and maintenance costs and would reduce carbon emissions by 111,500 tons over10 years (Sunovia Energy Technologies, 2009).Newtown Assessment An assessment of current street lighting conditions was conducted for major, secondary,and local roadways in the Newtown Community Redevelopment Area in order to determine ifsufficient lighting conditions were being met based on recommended street light spacing. Majorroads were defined as primary thoroughfares for traffic flow. Collector roads served trafficbetween major and local roadways, and local roadways gave direct access to residential orcommercial properties but did not serve through traffic (City of San Diego, 2002). The recommended street light spacing is approximately 75 meters, however in high crimeareas 50 meter spacing is preferred (FDOT, 1999; City of San Diego, 2002). Based on thesecriteria, a street should have about 21 lights per mile on average, or 32 lights per mile in highcrime areas. For each road type, four miles of randomly selected roadway were surveyed, and allstreet lights were counted for each stretch of road. The average number of street lights per milewas then calculated for each road type. These were then compared to the recommended lightingconditions. 162
  • 166. Results Newtown Newtown Newtown Table 2 Recommended Major Roads Collector roads Local roads Average # 21 Standard street lights 32 High Crime 51 18 12 per mile Areas The results of the assessment on Newtown street lighting found that recommendedlighting conditions were only met on major roadways. Major roadways on average exceededboth standard and high crime area recommendations. Surveyed roads included parts of MartinLuther King Way, 41 and 301. Collector roadways had acceptable lighting conditions on some ofthe roads surveyed but were on average below both standard and high crime arearecommendations. Roads surveyed included parts of Cocoanut Ave, Central Ave, N. OrangeAve, and Old Bradenton Rd. Local roadways had poor lighting conditions and had well belowthe recommended number of street lights for standard and high crime areas. Many sections ofdifferent local roads were examined. Examples of some of the roads surveyed included WintonAve, Maple Ave, Church Ave, and 29th - 32nd Street.Recommendations for Newtown Improving street lighting conditions in Newtown will help meet several of the goals andobjectives set forth in the Newtown Community Redevelopment Plan (City of Sarasota. 2002).Improvements in street lighting using LED technology can have many benefits to thecommunity. These include improved nighttime visibility and safety, reductions in crime,enhanced aesthetics, and significant energy and costs savings. One of the criteria that qualified Newtown as a Community Redevelopment Area was itshigh incidence of crime compared to other parts of Sarasota. Based on the survey of Newtownstreets, sufficient lighting was lacking on most collector and local roadways. Studies have shownthat improved street lighting can make for safer nighttime conditions and significant reductions 163
  • 167. in crime (Painter, 1996; Painter and Farrington, 1999, 2001; Farrington and Welsh, 2007).Adding additional street lighting to these areas is recommended. The cost of these lights couldpotentially pay for themselves in only a few years based on reductions in crime alone (Painterand Farrington, 2001) and further savings could come from lower energy usage and reducedmaintenance if the new fixtures use LED lighting (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2008). The additionof new street lights could first focus on areas where crime rates are the highest and at all streetintersections. Using already existing electrical poles will help reduce instillation costs. CurrentHID fixtures could be replaced systematically or one at a time as they fail. LED lights have a whiter more efficient light that directs more light towards the streetbelow thereby minimizing light trespass into unwanted areas. White LED’s render colors closerto their natural color and are aesthetically more pleasing than the yellowish glow of an HPS lightand are ideal for lighting historic buildings and storefronts. Smaller LED lamps can be placed indecorative globe light fixtures such as those recently installed on Martin Luther King Way. Theaddition of high quality lighting may increase nighttime use of streets by pedestrians inNewtown. Providing high levels of lighting is critical for revitalizing downtown urban areas andis needed to encourage pedestrian shopping and other activities at night (FDOT, 1999). Led lighting fixtures can be purchased through previously contracted Sunovia LightingTechnologies Inc. or products from additional companies could be explored. Newtown couldalso work with the city of Sarasota to become a pilot study for LED lighting. If street lightingapplications are successful, additional LED lighting in parks, parking lots, and around publicbuildings could be considered. The addition of LED street lighting will ultimately have a numberof benefits and a positive impact on the Newtown Community. 164
  • 168. ReferencesAdkins, Edwin, Sandy Eapen, Flora Kaluwile, Gautam Nair, and Vijay Modi. 2010. Off-gridenergy services for the poor: Introducing LED lighting in the Millennium Villages Project inMalawi. Energy Policy 38, no. 2: 1087-1097.Afgan, Naim H., Darwish Al Gobaisib, Maurizio Cumo, and Maria G. Carvalho. 1998.Sustainable energy development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2, no. 3: 235-286.Carlos J. Colon Jr. 2010. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Impacts Associated withCurrently Available Street Lighting Technologies. Master’s Thesis, Air Force Institute ofTechnology.City of San Diego. 2002. The City of San Diego Street Design Manual. Prepared by: City of SanDiego Street Design Manual Advisory Committee and the City of San Diego PlanningDepartment.City of Sarasota. 2002. Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan Through 2020, VolumeIII Background Data. Prepared by: A. A. Baker and Associates.Dincer, Ibrahim., Marc A. Rosen. 1999. Energy, environment and sustainable development.Applied Energy 64, no. 1-4: 427-440.Dincer, Ibrahim. 2000. Renewable energy and sustainable development: a crucial review.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 4, no. 2: 157-175.DOE, 1995. Energy-Efficient Lighting. Prepared by The National Renewable Energy Laboratoryfor the U.S. Department of Energy.DOE, 2006. Energy Savings Potential of Solid State Lighting in General Lighting Applications.Final Report, prepared by Navigant Consulting Inc., Inc. for U.S. Department of Energy,Washington D.C.DOE, 2008. Energy Savings Potential of Solid State Lighting in Niche Lighting Applications.Final Report, prepared by Navigant Consulting Inc., Inc. for U.S. Department of Energy,Washington D.C.DOE, 2010. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting onResidential and Commercial Streets in Palo Alto, California. Prepared for the U.S. Departmentof Energy by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.DPPEA, Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance. 2010. Fundementals ofEnergy Efficient Lighting. Accessed Nov. 2010 from: www.p2pays.org/ref/32/31148.pdfFarrington, David P., and Brandon C Welsh. 2007. Improved Street Lighting. In PreventingCrime: What Works for Children, Offenders, Victims, and Places, 209-224. 165
  • 169. FDOT, Florida Department of Transportation. 1999. Florida Pedestrian Planning and DesignHandbook. Prepared by: The University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Centerwww.dot.state.fl.us/safety/ped_bike/handbooks_and_research/ped16_e.pdfHoughton, John. 2005. Global warming. Reports on Progress in Physics 68, no. 6: 1343-1403.Khan, N., and N. Abas. 2010. Comparative study of energy saving light sources. Renewable andSustainable Energy Reviews.Lior, Noam. 2010. Sustainable energy development: The present (2009) situation and possiblepaths to the future. Energy 35, no. 10: 3976-3994.Mills, Evan. 2002. The $ 230-billion Global Lighting Energy Bill. In Proceedings of the 5thInternational Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting.NYSERDA. 2002. How-to Guide to Effective Energy-Efficient Street Lighting for MunicipalPlanners and Engineers. Albany, New York: New York State Energy Research and DevelopmentAuthority.Omer, Abdeen M. 2008. Green energies and the environment. Renewable and SustainableEnergy Reviews 12, no. 7: 1789-1821.Painter, K. 1996. The influence of street lighting improvements on crime, fear and pedestrianstreet use, after dark. Landscape and Urban Planning 35, no. 2-3: 193-201.Painter, K. A. and Farrington, D. P. 1999. Improved street lighting: crime reducing effects andcost-benefit analyses. Security Journal 12: 17-32.Painter, K., and D. P Farrington. 2001. The financial benefits of improved street lighting, basedon crime reduction. Lighting Research and Technology 33, no. 1: 3-12.Pode, Ramchandra. 2010. Solution to enhance the acceptability of solar-powered LED lightingtechnology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, no. 3: 1096-1103.Relume Technologies Inc. 2009. Case Study: Ann Arbor, Michigan. Accessed Nov. 1st from:http://www.relume.com/docs/pdf/rt_cs_aa_20090506.pdfRubin, E. S., R. N. Cooper, R. A. Frosch, T. H. Lee, G. Marland, A. H. Rosenfeld, and D. D.Stine. 1992. Realistic mitigation options for global warming. Science 257: 148-149, 261-266.Shur, M.S., and R. Zukauskas. 2005. Solid-State Lighting: Toward Superior Illumination.Proceedings of the IEEE 93, no. 10: 1691-1703.Sunovia Energy Technologies. 2009. Sunovia Energy Wins LED Street Lighting Contract FromSarasota County. Press Release. Retrieved Oct. 29th 2010 from: 166
  • 170. http://sunoviaenergy.com/archives/2009/11/18/sunovia-energy-wins-led-street-lighting-contract-from-sarasota-county/Tetra Tech EM Inc. 2003. Technology Assessment of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) for Streetand Parking Lot Lighting Applications. Report for San Diego Regional Energy Office, SanDiego, CA.Wu, M.S., H.H. Huang, B.J. Huang, C.W. Tang, and C.W. Cheng. 2009. Economic feasibility ofsolar-powered led roadway lighting. Renewable Energy 34, no. 8: 1934-1938. 167
  • 171. Sarasota’s Food Desert:A Case for Providing Newtown’s Residents Access to Healthy FoodsGarrett HyzerIntroduction Obesity and diabetes are two of the most serious epidemics endangering the health ofAmericans today. The prevalence of both has been on the rise for the past two decades (Mokdadet al., 2001). Since 1994, the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. has increased 7% (Flegal et al.,2002). Diet is one of the most important factors in controlling one’s weight or preventing theonset of Type II Diabetes and also plays an enormous role in managing Type II Diabetes after itis onset (Horowitz et al., 2004). Recent research has begun to suggest that in addition toindividual choices, environmental variables can greatly influence the type of diet one practices(Eisenhauer, 2001). Studies have been conducted that show that people with low socioeconomic statustypically practice poorer, unhealthier eating habits (Turrell et al., 2002), but some of thesestudies have failed to consider environmental factors---those factors outside of an individual’scontrol---that contribute to these poor diets. Urban areas with poor, ethnic communities havefaced diminishing food shopping options over the past two decades (Eisenhauer, 2001). Many ofthese urban areas face a dearth of larger supermarkets (Morland & Filomena, 2007) and have torely on smaller, independent grocers for their shopping needs. While large supermarkets are lacking in these communities, studies have shown that fastfood restaurant density is higher in poorer, urban areas than it is in wealthier suburban areas 168
  • 172. (Block et al., 2004). Considering the lack of larger supermarkets and the abundance of fast foodrestaurants, it is not surprising that studies suggest that poor, urban communities do not havemany food options that pass USDA recommendations for a healthy diet in the small foodestablishments that are common in their communities(Baker et al., 2006). It seems that of allcommunities, African American communities have the least access to supermarkets. In onestudy, among the most impoverished communities studied, those that had the greatest number ofAfrican Americans were, on average, further from the nearest supermarket than those with agreater number of White residents (Zenk, Schulz, Israel et al., 2005). A significant number ofAfrican Americans in poorer communities travel less than a mile to their primary grocery store(Powell et al., 2007), so the absence of large supermarkets in urban environments places a largerimportance on the inventory of smaller food stores especially when it comes to healthy eatingoptions. Children’s diets can be especially susceptible to these factors as described by Timperio etal. and Edmonds et al(2008 & 2001). Timperio et al. shows that there is an inverse relationshipbetween the proximity of fast food restaurants and convenience stores to children’s homes andthe amount of fruits and vegetables they were likely to eat. Edmonds et al. suggests thatrestaurant juice availability in a child’s community, and to a lesser extent vegetable availability,have a direct relationship with the amount of juice and vegetables that child will consume.Pregnant women’s health is also in jeopardy when access to fresh foods is limited (Laraia et al.,2004). Pregnant women living more than four miles from a supermarket have lower diet qualityindexes than pregnant women who live within four miles of a grocery store. In addition to a lackof healthy foods in poor, urban environments, other studies have shown that as communitywealth decreases, the number of establishments that sell and/or serve alcohol increases (Morland, 169
  • 173. Wing et al., 2002). Increased alcohol availability is yet another factor contributing to the numberof unhealthy diet options in poor communities. Not all research conducted on this topic agrees with the above conclusions. A study fromEngland (Pearson et al., 2005) found that socioeconomic status in communities and distancebetween supermarkets and communities did not significantly affect fruit and vegetableconsumption. Another study in Edmonton, Canada did not find that socioeconomic status was afactor that contributed to the distribution of supermarkets like it is in the U.S. (Smoyer-Tomic etal., 2008). However, most of the studies that conflict with the assessments above took placeoutside of the United States. It seems that most research using study sites in the United States dofind factors such as race and income to be significant factors when it comes to the distribution ofgrocery stores and the access of healthy foods. Even if fresh food options are available in poor, ethnic communities, Chung et al. (1999)and Cummins et al. (2006) show that it can sometimes be financially out of reach. Theirresearch suggests that poorer communities may be charged more for goods than residents inwealthier communities. This could potentially mean that even if healthy food items are available(which can be expensive to begin with) their prices put them out of reach of poorer consumers.This price discrepancy may be attributed to the business risk some owners feel they are takingwhen operating in poorer areas. When the demand for certain items, such as fresh produce, isless dependable than it is in other areas, the grocers may feel a need to increase the price on thoseitems in order to ensure a profit. That so many residents of food scarce areas have to travel greatdistances to find access to healthy food choices only compounds the problem of cost. Theadditional expenditure of transportation for residents to travel to these grocers becomes added onto the total cost of the items they purchase. 170
  • 174. Background on Food Deserts According to statistics from the Florida Department of Agriculture (FDA, 2010), Floridais an agricultural powerhouse among states. Florida ranks first in the nation in production ofmany varieties of produce, including oranges, grapefruit, sweet corn and tomatoes. In 2008,Florida accounted for 70% of the United State’s citrus production. In terms of exports, Floridaranks 3rd for fruit and 5th for vegetables among states, with fruits generating over $771 million ayear and vegetables generating over $214 million a year. Sarasota County alone produces $31million a year in agricultural products. With all of this agricultural activity, it is perplexing thatany part of Florida could be facing fresh fruit and vegetable shortages. Food deserts are areas where access to foods needed to maintain a healthy diet isrestricted (Zenk et al., 2005). These areas aren’t necessarily lacking in food----they often haveplenty of fast food restaurants and convenience stores offering unhealthy choices----but they dotend to lack healthy varieties of food (Cummins, 2006). For years, America’s major supermarketchains have been criticized for abandoning densely populated, minority communities (Gray,2009). This abandonment originated with urban white flight; as white, middle-class residentsfled certain parts of cities, many of the larger, chain grocers followed, leaving food deserts intheir wake (Gallagher, 2006). Although food deserts can be located in urban, suburban and ruralareas, urban food deserts and their public health implications, have been studied most. BecauseNewtown, the subject of this paper, lies in an urban area, urban food deserts are the variation thatwill be referred to in this paper. The term food desert was popularized in a study by Mari Gallagher on the public healtheffects of fresh food scarcity on certain neighborhoods in Chicago (Gallagher, 2006). She 171
  • 175. created a metric used to measure the food environment in particular communities, whichinvolves the distance between a residence and the nearest fast food restaurant, as well as thedistance between a residence and the nearest grocer. Gallagher determined that a typical AfricanAmerican residence block is twice as far from the nearest grocer as they are from the nearest fastfood restaurant. Based on the results of this metric, she discovered a statistically significantcorrelation between out of balance food environments and higher rates of residents dying fromdiabetes. Michelle Obama has recently drawn attention to the health risks food deserts pose topeople who reside inside their confines. Shortly after Barack Obama took office, MichelleObama created her “Let’s Move” program, which targets the United States growing epidemic ofchildhood obesity (White House, 2010). In addition to installing a community garden at theWhite House and conducting healthy eating campaigns in schools, Mrs. Obama has also focusedon eliminating food deserts in both urban and rural areas. The Let’s Move program has invested$400 million in creating healthy eating options in these areas, and they hope that the success ofthis initial investment will leverage an even greater effort to eradicate this problem. Financially,it is in the United States government’s best interest to invest in eliminating these food scarceareas and bringing in healthy eating options. Food deserts have been shown to contribute to thehealth crises America is facing, including obesity, heart disease and diabetes (Powell, 2007).Many of the costs of these diseases are borne by government agencies such as Medicaid andMedicare, which treat a significant percentage of the lower-income residents within these fooddeserts. Though $400 million may sound like too much government money to fight food deserts,it could pay dividends in the long term, with reduced treatment costs billed to Medicaid andMedicare. 172
  • 176. Food Scarcity in Newtown Newtown is a poor, largely African American community in Sarasota, FL that issurrounded by wealthier, whiter neighborhoods. 37.4% of Newtown’s population sits below thepoverty level whereas only 16.7% of Sarasota’s population is below the poverty level (City Data,2008). Its borders coincide roughly with Myrtle St. to the north, 17th St. to the south, BradentonRd. to the west and N. Washington Blvd to the east. Mokdad et al. (2001) found that African Americans have the highest rate of obesityamong all races, at 29.3% as well as the highest rates of diabetes at 11.1%. Within SarasotaCounty, Newtown included, the number of children and adults with these problems has increasedas well (CHIP, 2008). Sarasota has seen a 4.1% increase in the number of overweight childrenand a 3.0% increase in obese adults between 2006 and 2008. Type II diabetes prevalence inadults has also increased by 0.7% in the same period of time. It is evident that Newtown is dealing with concerns over fresh food availability due to thecurrent lack of a grocer within the community. In August of 2010, Anthony Cormier of theHerald-Tribune wrote an article titled Loss of Winn-Dixie a ‘Slap in the Face’, which notes theclosing of a Winn-Dixie grocery store that had been located in Newtown for forty years. Forthree decades of the Winn Dixie’s existence, a Publix grocer was located in the same vicinity asthe Winn-Dixie, providing Newtown residents with two large grocer options. In 1996, thePublix grocer closed down, leaving Newtown with just the one grocer. Now that the Winn-Dixiehas recently closed down, a Publix grocer two miles outside of Newtown is now the nearestmajor grocer available. Winn-Dixie executives cite poor performance as the reason for thestore’s closure. Local officials in Newtown are now looking at the possibility of putting in a 173
  • 177. smaller grocery store in the spot vacated by Winn-Dixie. Currently Newtown has no major grocer within its community limits as noted above, andhas only three small grocers/convenience stores with limited or no fresh produce available. Mostof these small grocers lie along Martin Luther King Jr. Rd. which roughly bisects Newtown fromeast to west. Newtown does have a number of fast food restaurants near the edges of itscommunity, especially in its southeast corner at the 17th St. and N. Washington Blvd crossing.There is also a Walgreens, offering limited shopping options, located on N. Tamiami Trail Rd.,adjacent to the old Winn-Dixie location. After considering all of the shopping options discussedabove, it appears that Newtown is experiencing a lack of healthy food ----particularly freshproduce----in its community. This seems to suggest that Newtown is a food desert, putting itsresidents at an increased risk for obesity, heart disease and diabetes.Options for Combating Food Scarcity in NewtownNeeds AssessmentBefore any direct actions take place, it is important to collect some data from communitymembers on what their food needs are. A brief survey could be conducted on a random group ofresidents. Important questions to address are: 1) How many fruit and vegetable servings do they consume a day? 2) Would they prefer to consume more, and if so, what is preventing them from doing so (not sold where they shop, price, don’t know how to cook them)? 3) Where do they shop for groceries? 4) Does anyone in the household suffer from a weight related disease such as type II diabetes? If so, are they aware of how diet can contribute to its onset? 174
  • 178. Once a survey has been conducted, a better understanding of the community’s needs could bedetermined. If Newtown residents are happy not consuming fruits and vegetables, or if theywould like to but don’t know how to cook them, then different educational programs could beinitiated. Pertinent topics of these educational programs could be the importance of these itemsin one’s diet and easy ways to cook with them. This survey could also generate important dataon just where Newtown residents buy their groceries, which would help in determining the bestway to provide healthy food access to Newtown’s residents.Working with Local GrocersThe most sensible approach to bringing healthy foods to Newtown is to work with the existinggrocers in the community. If they could fill the healthy food void, then they may stand to profitas well. The first step is to speak with the grocer owners in Newtown and discover why they donot already carry a wider selection of fresh produce. Perhaps they feel there is no market for it,which would indicate a greater need for an educational program within the community. It is alsopossible they would like to carry a wider array of fresh foods, but it can often be difficult forsmall grocers to find suppliers who are willing to work with them and their small inventory. Ifthis is the case, then efforts to find produce suppliers for these small grocers are necessary.Finally, it may be possible that local grocers do want to carry a wider variety of produce in theirstores and the suppliers are even in line, but the start-up cost of maintaining this inventory is costprohibitive. Fresh foods are not as easy to keep as are non-perishables. Fruits and vegetablesoften require refrigeration units which can be expensive to buy and require lots of energy to run.Perhaps Newtown, or the city of Sarasota, could offer grocers willing to fill this need, credits forthe initial investment in this machinery, or subsidize the cost of energy required to run theseunits. 175
  • 179. Recruiting Outside Grocers It may be decided that it is not possible to work with local grocers to fill this fresh foodniche. In this case, recruiting other grocers who can survive, financially, in Newtown is anoption. As food deserts are now common in many cities across the United States, manyinnovative approaches have been developed to provide residents of these areas with access tohealthy foods. These are approaches, implemented elsewhere, that may work well for Newtown. Aldi is a supermarket company that has found recent success in penetrating urbanmarkets (Gray S, 2008). Aldi first launched stores in the United States in 1976, hoping toreplicate the profitability they achieved in certain countries in Europe. Their business model hascertain characteristics that allow them to out-compete larger, American grocers. Aldi’s storestypically have a smaller footprint than American grocers-----10,000 sq. ft. on average for an Aldistore vs. an 80,000 sq. ft. average for a typical American grocer like Winn-Dixie or Publix. Thissmaller footprint allows them to move into urban markets where real estate is usually moreexpensive. Aldi’s stores have eliminated many of the frills found in American grocers, such asdelis and fancy displays. There stores also offer fewer choices between brands of the same item.All of these things allow Aldi to undercut their competitors and make profits in areas where othergrocers have failed. Aldi may be the kind of grocer with a business model tailored to succeed inan area such as Newtown. If making healthy eating items available in the existing Newtowngrocers is deemed not possible, then encouraging a company such as Aldi, who has had successin similar urban environments, to place a store in Newtown may be a good option. Perhaps theycan flourish where others, such as Winn-Dixie, have failed. In Chicago it is estimated that nearly 600,000 residents---1/6th of the city’s population--- 176
  • 180. live in areas lacking a conventional grocery store (Gray, 2009). Some Walgreens locations therehave decided to expand food selection in their stores, in an effort to combat the food scarcity inthe area in which these stores are located (Byrne, 2010). These stores now offer over 750 fooditems, including fresh fruit and vegetables, frozen meats, and fish. Walgreens is the mostaccessible retailer in Chicago and due to this accessibility, it can play an important role in theeradication of food deserts in Chicago. Newtown currently has a Walgreens on its far north-western corner. It seems possible that if Walgreens could be convinced that there is a profit to bemade, then they could be persuaded to revamp its store in Newtown, providing the same healthyfood options it now has in its Chicago locations. In addition to their improved food selection, certain Walgreens in Chicago have alsopartnered with Northwestern Medicine to pilot a program designed to educate residents of thefood deserts on healthy eating habits (Progressive Grocer, 2010). Food “prescriptions” areoffered to these residents at local health clinics, with a focus on residents dealing with healthissues such as diabetes and heart disease. This seems like an education program that would bebeneficial to Newtown as well. Even if Walgreens could not expand their nearby store to offeradditional food items, it’s conceivable that this food “prescription” program could be initiatedthrough a local health clinic. Syracuse, NY has found yet a different method for serving residents in their food scarceareas. Wegmans Food Markets, a local grocer, is bringing produce to food desert locations via atruck, dubbed the “farm fresh mobile market” (Garry, 2010). This truck makes multiple stopseach week in urban, food scarce areas, and sells produce to those residents who are interested.Wegmans also has developed a relationship with local farmers and is able to buy producedirectly from them, which in turn lowers the prices for customers of the farm fresh mobile 177
  • 181. market. This program could be discussed with outside grocers such as Publix or Whole Foods.If they saw a potential profit in the program, they may be convinced to implement it.Bringing Newtown Residents to Outside Grocers In Madison, WI, Fresh Madison Market, a local grocer, has begun offering free bus ridesto its stores, two days a week (FMM, 2010). Customers are given one hour to shop before thebus returns the customers to their neighborhood. This is a mutualistic relationship, where theFresh Madison Market benefits from the new business and the food desert residents benefit fromthe access to greater food choices. This is an interesting option that may work well for residentsof Newtown who don’t shop at grocers outside of the community because it is cost prohibitive.Perhaps new business many appeal to grocers outside of Newtown, like Winn-Dixie, Publix, orWhole Foods. If the new business creates enough revenue to offset the bus service cost, thesegrocers may be persuaded to initiate a similar program.Online Grocery Shopping Baltimore, Maryland has developed an innovative approach to dealing with the fooddeserts throughout the city. The Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) has created aVirtual Supermarket project which partners local churches and community centers, located infood deserts, with Santoni’s, a Baltimore grocery chain (BCHD, 2010). Residents of these fooddeserts can use computers located in these various churches and community centers to order theirgroceries online. Groceries are then shortly delivered to the location they were ordered from,where customers can pick them up, saving these residents a long, expensive cab fares or a longride via public transportation. Purchases by different customers are pooled for a single deliveryto a location, reducing the transportation cost. The BCHD subsidizes the delivery program aswell. Current internet grocery shopping, with a company such as Peapod, is typically used for 178
  • 182. convenience by financially secure people who value their time more than the cost of havinggroceries delivered. However, this internet shopping business model translates effectively as away to make healthy foods more accessible in certain areas. If a community center, church, oreven the library could be outfitted to serve as a hub for online grocery shopping, this could be aneffective, cheap way for residents to find access to healthy foods.ConclusionThe health of food desert residents, like those of Newtown, are in significantly more jeopardythan those with access to healthy foods (Morland et al., 2002). Given that African American’shave the highest obesity and diabetes rates in the United States, it should be a priority ofNewtown’s community leaders to look for ways to make healthy foods more available toresidents as well as providing residents with the necessary education on why these foods shouldbe integrated into their diets. The sounder strategy when combating health afflictions such asdiabetes and obesity is to be proactive rather than reactive. Even if there is a significant costinvolved in introducing healthy eating options to Newtown, it is almost certain that the healthbenefits and reduction in health care costs for residents will greatly outweigh the initialinvestment of providing these foods. Determining the desire of accessible, healthy foods amongNewtown residents is critical prior to installing vendors. If the desire among Newtown residentsexists, then working with existing, local grocers to provide these foods should be the firstpriority. If this kind of relationship cannot be accomplished, then recruiting outside vendors whocan fill this healthy food void is the next step. The case studies discussed previously providegood starting points as to how healthy foods can be made accessible from sources outside thecommunity. Working to transform Newtown from a food desert into a community with healthyeating options is paramount to the overall wellbeing of the residents. 179
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  • 185. Newtown CRA. 2010. Retrieved on October 31, 2010 from:http://www.sarasotagov.com/Newtown/CRA.htmlPearson T, Russell J, Campbell MJ, Barker ME. Do Food Deserts Influence Fruit and VegetableConsumption?--A Cross-Sectional Study. Appetite. 2005; 45: 195-197.Powell LM, Auld MC, Chaloupka FJ, OMalley PM, Johnston LD. Associations Between Accessto Food Stores and Adolescent Body Mass Index. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.2007; 33(4S): S301-S307.Powell LM, Slater S, Mirtcheva D, Bao Y, Chaloupka FJ. Food Store Availability andNeighborhood Characteristics in the United States. Preventive Medicine. 2007; 44: 189-195.Progressive Grocer. Walgreens Expands Food Selection at 10 Chicago Stores. August 11, 2010.Retrieved on October 20, 2010 from: http://www.progressivegrocer.com/top-story-walgreens_expands_food_selection_at_10_chicago_stores-30219.htmlSarasota Enterprise Zone. 2010. Retrieved on October 31, 2010 from:www.floridaenterprisezones.comSmoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiv V, CutumisuN, Hemphill E, Healy J. The Association Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status andExposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets. Health & Place. 2008; 14: 740-754.Timperio A, Ball K, Roberts R, Campbell K, Andrianopoulos N, Crawford D. Childrens Fruitand Vegetable Intake: Associations with the Neighbourhood Food Environment. PreventiveMedicine. 2008; 46: 331-335.Turrell G, Hewitt B, Patterson C, Oldenburg B, Gould T. Socioeconomic Differences in FoodPurchasing Behaviour and Suggested Implications for Diet-Related Health Promotion. Journal ofHuman Nutrition and Dietetics. 2002; 15: 355-364.White House. Retrieved on October 18, 2010 from:www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/02/24/taking-food-desertsZenk SN, Schulz AJ, Hollis-Neely T, Campbell RT, Holmes N, Watkins G, Nwankwo, R,Odoms-Young A. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in African Americans; Income and StoreCharacteristics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2005; 29(1): 1-9.Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Sherman JA, Bao S, Wilson ML. Neighborhood RacialComposition, Neighborhood Poverty, and the Spatial Accessibility of Supermarkets inMetropolitan Detroit. American Journal of Public Health. 2005; 95(4): 660-667. 182
  • 186. Sustainable Redevelopment within the Newtown Community of Sarasota, Florida: Green Streets By Katrina JohnsonIntroduction“Green streets” are a type of best management practice (BMP) that utilizes low impactdevelopment techniques to manage the effects of urban stormwater runoff, benefiting not onlythe environment but the people within it. The construction of impervious surfaces in urban areasdisrupts the natural hydrologic cycle. Traditional development practices handled runoff withdrainage systems that discharged untreated stormwater into nearby water ways. As stormwaterpasses over impervious surfaces it picks up pollutants such as fertilizers, heavy metals andsediments created by human activities becoming a non-point source pollutant that contributes tothe degradation of local water bodies in and around urban areas (Jartun, 2008; Hood, Clausen &Warner, 2007; Elliott & Trowsdale, 2007; Brun & Band, 2000). Contaminated stormwater thatreaches water bodies can negatively impact ground water flow and the water quality, aquatic life,and structure of streams, (Jartun, 2008; Dietz, & Clausen, 2007). The use of low-impact development (LID) techniques has been shown to help inmanaging stormwater runoff by reducing runoff volume and speed, and the level ofcontamination that makes its way into nearby waterways (Elliott & Trowsdale, 2007; Hood,Clausen & Warner, 2007; USEPA, 2000). LID practices accomplish this with techniques thatreturn the local hydrologic cycle back to predevelopment levels and filters the water as itpermeates through the soil. This recharges ground water and base flow, as well as slows downand disrupts the rush of water into rivers, lakes and streams (Dietz & Clausen, 2008; Dietz, 2007;Walsh, Fletcher, & Ladson, 2005). Green streets accomplish this goal with bioretention systemsand permeable pavements which create a more porous surface to allow for infiltration of runoff. 183
  • 187. What makes a green street?Bioretention SystemsBioretention systems, also known as biofiltration systems, are built alongside roadways to helpintercept runoff before it reaches stormwater drainage systems. This is accomplished byconstructing these systems at a lower elevation than the roadway, allowing the stormwater to rundown into the bioretention area and accumulate before being absorbed into the ground.Bioretention systems are also built to manage the pollutants that are washed off of impervioussurfaces in what is called the “first flush” of water (Jartun, 2008; Davis et al., 2001; US EPA,2000). Bioretention systems manage runoff through their use of carefully selected permeabledrainage media and cover vegetation (Cho et al., 2009). Many current BMPs such as vegetated swales and rain gardens can be considered typesof bioretention systems. Vegetated swales collect stormwater runoff in low lying features suchas ditches that run alongside roadways. Rain gardens reduce runoff and recharge groundwaterby redirecting stormwater into low lying depressions planted with an assortment of vegetationand covered with mulch. Roads without curbs allow easy access to the bioretention systems,while other areas may need to have sections of curbs removed to create a flow path for therunoff. Vegetated swales allow some filtration of the runoff, but they are primarily used to slowdown the runoff velocity and channel it into a connecting drainage system, with only limitedinfiltration into the soil. Typical vegetation utilized in swales is grass for absorbing and trappingcontaminates within the runoff, but other types of plants can also be planted to increaseabsorption rates. Vegetated swales are a less expensive form of managing stormwater then othertypes of stormwater management practices (Deletic & Fletcher, 2005; USEPA, 2000). However,a study conducted by Ana Deletic and Tim D. Fletcher observed that this type of biofiltration 184
  • 188. system removes large sediment particulates more efficiently then it does nutrients (Deletic &Fletcher, 2005). The rain gardens collect the stormwater runoff and allow it to quickly infiltrate into theground, avoiding the accumulation of stagnant water and the need for a traditional drainagesystem. The filtration that occurs as water permeates through the soil can allow for greaterremoval of nutrients than vegetated swales, but researchers Michael E. Dietz and John C.Clausen feel that much still needs to be studied about the “retention and infiltration abilities” ofrain gardens. In a field study conducted by these researchers, they observed 98.8% of thestormwater runoff being absorbed. Unfortunately, their tests revealed that the rain gardens wereonly able to significantly remove ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) from the runoff, with phosphorusand other forms of nitrogen poorly filtered (Dietz & Clausen, 2005). Bioretention areas ingeneral however, have had more in-depth studies conducted recently to help in understanding themechanics of media filtration and plant absorption in removing runoff and pollutants. Careful attention should be paid to the local soil when constructing a bioretention system;unlike typical retention ponds the soil within this system should be highly porous with a highpercentage of sand. This allows for quick infiltration of stormwater into the media so that morewater can enter into the system and be removed from quickly and efficiently from the roadway.Studies showed that as the runoff passes through the media, it also helps in removing pollutantssuch as heavy metals, suspended solids and nutrients. At times, perforated piping is buried underthe layer of media to encourage the water to be pulled in, and carried to another location for amore rapid removal of runoff (US EPA, 2000). What also makes these bioretention systems different from traditional retention ponds isthe use of flora to assist in the absorption processes and the removal of pollutants. Ideally, the 185
  • 189. flora used in these systems is native, however this is not always possible when looking for plantsthat can withstand extreme wet and dry conditions, absorb large amounts of water, and handlepollutants such as heavy metals and high levels of nutrients (Read et al., 2008; US EPA, 2000).However, proper selection of plant species can affect how pollutants are treated by bioretentionsystems, as different species vary in their ability to remove pollutants from stormwater runoff(Read et al., 2008). Overall, the structure of a bioretention pond has a layer of mulch over the media with avariety of flora from trees to shrubs planted within. This combination is very efficient atabsorbing stormwater runoff and removing pollutants such as suspended solids and heavy metals(Hatt et al., 2008; Hsieh et al., 2007; Davis et al., 2003). Tests have shown that the bioretentionsystems were able to sink these pollutants, stopping them from exiting the system and reducingthe chances of groundwater contamination. However, soluble nutrients removal has had varyingresults. At times it has been observed that phosphorous has exited the bioretention system athigher levels than was introduced through runoff, possibly because of high preexisting levels offertilizer within the mulch or media (Bratieres et al., 2008; Hsieh et al., 2007). Caution shouldbe taken when constructing a bioretention that no fertilizer already exists within the media orwill be added during the maintenance of the system. Nitrate and ammonia were also foundwithin the effluent as it exited the system during lab tests. Researchers did possibly find asolution for dealing with phosphorous as well as nitrates and ammonia by creating speciallayering within the media to remove the pollutants. The media layering that was most efficientat removing phosphorous was one that had a top layer of higher permeability and a second layerunderneath of a less porous media. The initial rapid absorption and then slowing down throuhthe second media layer allowed enough time for the system to remove the phosphorous (Hsieh et 186
  • 190. al., 2007). The removal of nitrates and ammonia followed a similar pattern of a top media thatpromoted rapid infiltration using mulch and soil mixture. However the second layer of sand alsois a highly permeable layer and wold not detain the runoff as long as the phosphorous mediamixture would (Hsieh et al., 2007). Another concern regarding bioretention systems and other permeable surfaces is thechance for groundwater contamination. By creating a more permeable surface that encouragesrunoff to filter through, there is a fear of some contaminates reaching the water table below andcompromising the quality of the groundwater. Some researchers are concerned that more solublepollutants may not be able sink into the bioretention system as they pass through (Yang et al.,2010), whereas other studies conducted using dissolved pollutants found that after filtratingdown 25 cm into a bioretention system, 90% of the pollutants were removed from the runoff(Sun & Davis, 2007). Lastly, bioretention systems and other pervious enhanced surfaces should only be built inurban residential areas where pollutant build up is small. Business districts are not consideredadequate locations due to the larger concentration of pollutants that may accumulate on top ofthe impervious surfaces. There is a concern that due to high levels of contaminates within theindustrial runoff, the bioretention system may not be able to remove all of the pollutants,potentially leading to ground water contamination.Permeable pavements (porous asphalt/concrete, pavers, grids)The use of traditional concrete and asphalt when developing homes, roadways, sidewalks,parking lots and many other structures has lead to the problem we are facing today of impervioussurfaces disrupting the natural infiltration of stormwater into the ground. The hydrologic cycle isrenewed by taking impervious asphalt and concrete and replacing it with asphalt or concrete thatis more porous and allows water to filter through. This may be as simple as replacing the 187
  • 191. traditional binding agents or particulates within the material to leave voids and openings betweengrains that allow water to permeate. Blocks or grids can also be laid down to make surfacesmore pervious, with either turf or crushed rock placed between the pavers to further help withwater filtration (Dietz, 2007). Under these permeable top layers is another highly pervious layerof mixed aggregate used to aid in filtration and stability of the road above. This layer ofaggregate has larger spaces between its particles, drawing the water through the first porous layerand into the larger spaces of the crushed aggregate. Depending on the crushed aggregate used, ahighly pemeable layer would allow for a quicker movement of water through the system (Scholz& Grabowiecki, 2007). Within this layer, the stormwater can infiltrate into the soil away fromthe surface to reduce flooding and interrupt the flow of unfiltered runoff into waterways. Studies have shown the effectiveness of permeable pavers in removing suspended solids,hydrocarbons, and heavy metals (Scholz & Graboiecki, 2007). Tested both in a controledlaboratory setting and out in the field, the results were possitive in both situations. Of the fourpavers tested (non-permeable pavers with small gaps between pavers, permeable pavers withoutgaps between the pavers, and two types of porous pavers with green spaces) the porous paverwith green spaces looking similar to latice work allowed for infiltration to occur quickest. Thesecond best at filtering runoff was the other type of porous paver that used green spaces betweenthe edges/joints of the paver. Not only were the porous pavers with green spaces efficient atabsorbing runoff, but also at removing hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Both the laboratory andfield tests concluded that there are no concerns for groundwater contamination when usingpermeable pavers. The studies also showed that it may be at least 50 years before concernswould need to be addressed regarding ground water contamination, and 15 when using porouspavers in low impact areas such a playground (Dierkes et al., 2002). 188
  • 192. An obstacle to the use of pervious pavements is the tendency for the pores to becomeclogged, which means maintenance of permeable pavement is recommended to keep the systemrunning efficiently. The use of a high powered vacuum or power pressure washing is thought tobe the best way of removing the clogs. In a study conducted in Germany, a new device was builtthat both power pressure washed and used a high powered vacuum to remove clogging materialand contaminates that were not absobing. The results of the study showed that after utilizing thecleaner, the pores of the pavers was cleared and the efficiency of the system was greatlyincreased (Dierkes et al., 2002). Maintenance however, can be time consuming and expensive tokeep up with, and it may be in the best interest of the city to only use the permeable pavers onsidewalks and bike paths where less traffic occurs and a slower rate of clogging may occur.Use of green streets in Seattle, WASeattle has already begun the process of utilizing LID designs to build green streets in a programcalled Green Stormwater Infrastructures (GSIs). The drive to build GSIs arose after it becameapparent that Puget Sound and other rivers, lakes and streams were suffering from pollutantsbeing washed into waterways through stormwater drainage pipes. Sediments and high levels ofnutrients along with other environmental contaminants were creating a habitat unsuitable forsalmon spawning as well as negatively affecting other wildlife (SPU, 2010). Using GSItechniques the government came up with the idea of the Natural Drainage Projects (NDPs),whose goals were reduce the amount and speed of runoff, reduce flooding, improve waterquality, and return the hydrologic cycle back to levels closer to predevelopment standardsnaturally (SPU, 2010). In 2001 Seattle’s pilot project called the Street Edge Alternatives (SEA) took root andgrew. It utilized vegetated swales and rain gardens as natural and aesthetically appealing BMPsfor slowing down and filtering stormwater runoff. Whenever possible, existing trees (especially 189
  • 193. old growth) and other natural features to preserve the native landscape. Construction of theNDPs brought awareness to the community of what a watershed is, how their actions wereaffecting the environment around them and what could be done to lessen these harmful effects ofstormwater runoff. The goal of the city is to ultimately reconstruct all roadways running fromnorth to south using GSI. NDPs must fullfill stormwater management criteria as well asmaintaining an aesthetically appealing landscape so that residents and other pedestrians will beable to enjoy walking along the sidewalks under the shade of old and young trees. It alsopresents the opportunity to educate others who see the beautiful landscaping and want to knowmore about what it is and what it does. Other benefits of GSI that do not include stormwatercontrol is their ability to assist with filtering air pollution and reducing the heat island effect(SPU, 2010). An example of an NDP from Seattle can be seen in the Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Natural Drainage Project (NDP), Seattle, WA (SPU, 2010)Newtown, SarasotaLocated in northern Sarasota County, FL near the Gulf coast, Newtown is a community thatcould benefit from the construction of green streets. The Environmental Protection Agency haslisted the Whitaker Bayou that runs through the community as impaired due to high levels ofnutrients within the water (USEPA, 2010). This is a sign that traditional methods of stormwatermanagement are discharging pollutants into the Whitaker Bayou, which leads into the Gulf of 190
  • 194. Mexico. By redeveloping the current streets in Newtown, the community could not only helpreduce the amount of nutrients discharging directly into the Whitaker Bayou, but also improvethe community pride and knowledge of their actions towards the environment.An example of how stormwater in Newtown is being handled currently is shown in Figures 2 and3 below, where traditional stormwater management practices have pipes leading directly to thenearest water to discharge. Figure 2. Newtown Sarasota, FL traditional stormwater drainage system Figure 3. Newtown Sarasota, FL stormwater drainage system discharge 191
  • 195. Figure 4. Newtown Sarasota, FL ideal location for a green streetRoads such as the one in Figure 4 have potential to make ideal green streets. The grassyeasement seen on the left hand side of the picture would make an ideal location for a vegetatedswale. For this to occur the elevation of the easement would have to be lowered and an openingin the curb would have to be created to direct the runoff into the swale. If no curb was presentthe downward slope of the easement would be enough to redirect the flow. Within thesebioretention areas a variety of shrubs and trees should be planted to allow for efficient absorptionof the runoff and removal of pollutants from the system (Reed et al., 2008). Ideally, evergreenswould be used to allow for evapotraspiration year round, and more mature trees would have agreater absorpion and storage capacity for runoff. Also an older tree would usually have a largercanopy that could interrupt rainfall and allow for the water to evaporate from the leaves beforereaching the ground below (SPU, 2010). 192
  • 196. Figure 5. Newtown Sarasota, FL potential location for permeable pavementOther features that could be utilized by Newtown to make its streets greener would include theuse of permeable pavement on areas where there are sidewalks or bike lanes. In Figure 5 youcan see a bike lane that is not very well defined and a sidewalk. By using pavers or perviouspavement with a different texture than the main street, you not only create an area where runoffcan be absorbed, but also better define the bike lane. This can be accomplished without the useof lines and symbols painted on the road which wear away over time, and need to be reapplied.Sidewalks could also be made more aesthetically appealing by using pavers that make thesidewalk more permeable and stand out from the rest of the roadway. However, not all roadways in Newtown can be considered adequate for redevelopinginto green streets. Areas that would not benefit from the use of green streets would be narrowroads where the easement already contains a lot of large old growth trees that do not leaveenough room to construct a bioretention area. In some cases wider roads would allow thebioretention area to be built into the street, narrowing the road and creating a traffic calmingstructure where vehicles slow down to move around bioretention areas. The construction ofsuch features should be done carefully so as not to make the road too narrow and obstruct themovement of fire rescue vehicles, making sure the roads the current regulations for streets is 193
  • 197. maintained. Access by a fire truck however, has been noted to be possible within streets thatare 24 feet wide (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999). These features are constructed using curbs todefine the boarders of the system, leaving open sections of the curb alongside to allow forrunoff to enter. These bioretention areas could be built alternating each side of the roadtraveling down the street, creating a meandering pattern to the roadway which also helps slowdown runoff as well as vehicle traffic. With slower traffic the road can potentially become asafer location for children to spend time outside enjoying the weather and the aesthetics of thenew landscape design. Not only would children benefit from slower traffic, but also pedestriansand bicyclists would feel safer, and encourage healthy outdoor activities. Increased time spentoutdoors also helps to strengthen community relationships. Neighbors will watch out for oneanother and help to reduce crime rates within their community. Another benefit of green streetsslowing traffic and creating more aesthetically enhanced areas is that they may also help enticebusinesses to come build within a community which would help the local economy (Newman &Kenworthy, 1999). Figure 6. Newtown Sarasota, FL not an ideal location for a green streetAnother area in Newtown that would not be ideal for the construction of green street features isthe large factory district as seen in Figure 6. The roads around this area are wide and constructed 194
  • 198. in the manner of traditional practices that could normally benefit from the use of permeablesurfaces to reestablish the hydrologic cycle. However, there is potential for large amounts oftoxic pollutants to accumulate on the impervious surfaces and wash into the bioretention areasand contaminate the groundwater. It is the goal of these systems to facilitate the infiltration ofcontaminated runoff into the soil, which works well in urban residential locations wherepollutant levels are small and manageable. Factories create a wider range and larger volume ofcontaminants, which bioretention areas may not be able to remove before the pollutants reach thegroundwater (Dietz, 2007). Although green streets could help return the hydrologic cycle of thearea, the potential for contamination of the groundwater is too great of a risk to take. The waterfrom around and on the land of these factories should be processed separately at another locationwhere special attention could be made toward removing the pollutants from the runoff withoutrisk to the surrounding environment.ConclusionIn conclusion Newtown would greatly benefit from the construction of green streets.Construction of green streets uses a variety of different tree and shrub species, that whenprofessionally planted can add an aesthetic appeal that homeowners can enjoy while spendingtime outside. Spending more time outside enjoying the beautiful landscape, neighbors couldstart to form friendships that could lead to social events such as neighborhood barbecues. Theserelationships could then lead to the neighborhood coming together and forming neighborhoodwatches to help create a safe place to live and raise children (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999).The construction of vegetated swales/bioretention areas could also help entice potential buyers topurchase property within Newtown. Beautiful, environmentally conscious landscaping has anaesthetic appeal that could help to catch the eye of a person looking to purchase a home near theGulf coast. Seeing people outside and children playing would appeal to younger families 195
  • 199. looking to find a place to start a family that wanted the feel of a close-knit community whichwould watch out for each other. The concept of going green is also becoming very popular, sothe construction of a green street, and being a part of helping the environment may also appeal tothose who want to live a more sustainable lifestyle. In the end, these green streets will ultimately help Whitaker Bayou recover from theeffects of stormwater runoff. By constructing bioretention areas throughout the community, theamount of nutrients and other pollutants discharged into the waterway would be greatly reduced,helping to preserve the Whitaker Bayou for future generations to enjoy. The community couldalso take pride not only in the aesthetics of their environmentally sustainable roadways, but alsoin their contribution towards maintaining the rain gardens by removing litter and helping keeptheir streets clean. At the same time as enjoying the beauty of their streets and contributing tothe maintenance of the system, the community becomes educated about the impact of humans tothe environment and how small contributions by individuals and a community can help to reducethe impact (SPU, 2010).ReferencesBrun, S.E., & Band, L.E. (2000). Simulating runoff behavior in an urbanizing watershed. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 24, 5-22.Cho, K.W., Song, K.G., Cho, J.W., Kim, T.G., & Ahn, K.H. (2009). Removal of nitrogen by a layered soil infiltration system during intermittent storm events. Chemosphere, 76, 690- 696.Davis, A.P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H. & Minami, C. (2001). Laboratory Study of Biological Retention for Urban Stormwater Management. Water Environment Research, 73, 1:5-14.Davis, A.P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H., Minami, C., & Winogradoff, D. (2003). Water Quality Improvement through Bioretention: Lead, Copper, and Zinc Removal. Water Environment Research, 75, 1:73-82.Deletic, A. & Fletcher, T.D. (2005). Performance of grass filters used for stormwater treatment – a field and modeling study. Journal of Hydrology. 317, 261-275. 196
  • 200. Dierkes, C., Kuhlmann, L., Kandasamy, J., & Angelis, G. Pollution Retention Capability and Maintenance ofPermeable Pavements. 9th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Portland, Oregon. 8-13 September 2002.Dietz, M.E. (2007). Low Impact Development Practices: A review of Current Research and Recommendations for Future Directions. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 186, 351-363.Dietz, M.E. & Clausen, J.C. (2005). A field evaluation of rain garden flow and pollutant treatment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 167, 123-138.Dietz, M.E. & Clausen, J.C. (2008). Stormwater runoff and export changes with development in a traditional and low impact subdivision. Journal of Environmental Management, 87, 560-566.Elliott, A.H., & Trowsdale, S.A. (2007). A review of models for low impact urban stormwater drainage. Envionmental Modelling & Software, 22, 394-405.Hatt, B.E., Fletcher, T.D. & Deletic, A. (2008). Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater biofiltration systems at the field scale. Journal of Hydrology. 365, 310-321.Hsieh, C., Davis, A.P., & Needelman, B.A. (2007). Bioretention Column Studies of Phosphorous Removal from Urban Stormwater Runoff. Water Environment Research, 79, 2:177-184.Hsieh, C., Davis, A.P., & Needelman, B.A. (2007). Nitrogen Removal from Urban Stormwater Runoff Through Layered Bioretention Columns. Water Environment Research, 79, 12:2404-2411.Hood, M., Clausen, J., & Warner, G. (2007). Comparison of stormwater lag times for low impact and traditional residential development. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43, 1036-1046.Jartun, M., Ottesen, R.T., Steinnes, E., & Volden, T. (2008). Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps. Science of the Total Environment, 396, 147-163.Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. (1999). Traffic calming. In S. & T. Wheeler & Beatley (Ed.), The Sustainable Urban Development (pp. 123-129). New York: Routledge.Read, J., Wevill, T., Fletcher, T. & Deletic, A. (2007). Variation among plant species in pollutant removal from stormwater in biofiltration systems. Water Research. 42, 893-902.Seattle Public Utilities. (2010). Natrual Drainage Projects. Retrieved November 9, 2010. From http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStormwaterIn frastructure/NaturalDrainageProjects/index.htm 197
  • 201. Scholz, M., & Grabowiecki, P. (2007). Review of permeable pavement systems. Building and Environment, 42, 3830-3836.Sun, X. & Davis, A.P. (2007). Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems. Chemosphere, 66, 1601-1609.United States Environmental Protection Agency (2000). Low Impact Development (LID): A Literature Review. Retrieved March 12, 2010. From http://www.eqa.gov/owow/nps/lid/lid.pdfUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Total Maximum Daily Loads. Retrieved on November 8, 2010, From http://iaspub.epa.gov/tmdl_waters10/enviro.control?p_list_id=FL-1936&p_cycle=Walsh, C.T., Fletcher, T.D., & Ladson, A.R. (2005). Stream Restoration in Urban Catchments through Redesigning Stormwater Systems: Looking to the Catchment to Save the Stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24, 3:690-705. 198
  • 202. Promoting Sustainable Redevelopment in Newtown with Urban Forestry by Jason KendallAbstract The Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan (NRAP) begins by discussing theneed of African-American community revitalization projects to go beyond just local cleanup andstreetscaping. The plan calls for a combination of these beautification efforts with specific socialand economic gains, in order to reach the full potential of project goals. Although the NRAPcalls for going beyond beautification, the need is clearly important to redevelopment in Newtownas the terms trees, landscaping and streetscaping are discussed twenty-six times in the document.In this paper I will discuss how a healthy urban forest will promote sustainable redevelopment inNewtown by discussing some of the environmental, social, and economic benefits to thecommunity. I will also discuss the current state of Newtown’s urban forest and potential areasfor improvement.Introduction The 1969 enacted Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) first listed objective wasto address the physical, social and economic problems associated with distressed areas such asNewtown. Development or redevelopment that addresses these three issues has been coined“sustainable development” in the 1987 Brundtland Report. The Brundtland Report was theproduct of a global commission that convened with the purpose of discovering a solution to someof the problems associated with worldwide urbanization. The commission defined sustainabledevelopment as “development that meets the needs of the present without jeopardizing the ability 199
  • 203. of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on EnvironmentalDevelopment, 1987).” This report has been widely accepted as the beginning of sustainabledevelopment practices across the globe, although the definition has been the subject of someamount of scrutiny. The major discussions about the validity of the definition focus on the term“needs of the present,” and the question of what exactly are those needs, and who is to determinewhat those needs are (Redclift, 1992). Regardless of the questioning of the definition, it isimportant that Newtown use sustainable development as a guideline for the revitalization processthat is currently underway. One of the leading problems determined in the report is poverty, asthe poor typically live in degraded environments. It is easy to determine from this report that aseconomies decline, then environments, society and quality of life are soon to follow. The environment, society and economy of a community are closely related in manyaspects. There are also many methods in which to address the problems associated with them.One subject that is commonly overlooked in previously developed spaces is the urban forest.The urban forest is overlooked for many reasons, but one major reason is simply the lack of treesdue to maximization of building space and roadways. Street-side trees often come secondary tothe progress of development in urban areas as their many benefits were not recognized in thepast. It is also necessary to manage street trees with urban forestry programs which can be animmediate cost to some communities (although the benefits far exceed the cost). “Urban forestryis often defined as the cultivation and management of trees for their present and potentialcontribution to the physiological, sociological and economic well-being of the urban society(Falck and Rydberg, 2000).” Urban street trees and forested parks provide many benefits, someof which are widely known and others that are not so easily observed. In fact, many of the socialand economic benefits of trees were not studied until recently. Simply providing and 200
  • 204. maintaining street trees in urban areas can cover all three pillars of sustainable development(economy, society and environment) if managed properly.Benefits of Trees in Urban SpacesEnvironmental The environmental benefits of urban trees have been more widely studied and acceptedthan the social and economical benefits. Urban areas are typically made up of dark surfaces suchas asphalt and roof tops that create a “heat island effect,” where local temperature are muchhigher than surrounding areas. Streets trees provide shade which lowers the surroundingbuilding temperatures and directly lowers cooling cost for the owners. According to a study byAkbari et al. (2001) “electricity demands in cities increases by 2-4% for each 1.8°F rise intemperature.” The same study also determined that on a typical summer afternoon urban airtemperatures are as much as 4.5°F warmer than the surrounding rural areas. The decreasedbuilding temperatures also indirectly reduce air pollution and energy use by lowering air-conditioning usage. The reduced energy consumption lowers the amount of pollutants emitted tothe atmosphere from coal fired power plants. The shade provided by trees can also lowertemperatures over time by reducing the amounts of greenhouse gas being emitted to theatmosphere through these plants. Air pollution is also directly reduced by the trees themselvesby the filtration of particulates such as pollen, dust smoke and ash. The leaves, bark and roots oftrees also store smog-causing carbon dioxide (CO2) for use in photosynthesis. In a study byNowak and Crane (2002), they found that “large trees store approximately 1000 times morecarbon than small trees.” This fact combined with increased shading of larger trees show theimportance of preserving large historic trees in urban areas. 201
  • 205. Street trees also help to reduce water pollution and peak flooding by increasing filtrationand decreasing discharge. In urban areas, 60% of the rainwater is discharged to waterwaysthrough storm drains carrying pollutants from roadways and parking lots with it (Bolund andHunhammar, 1999). This percentage is greatly reduced in vegetated landscapes as only 5-15%of rainwater runs off the ground in these areas (Bolund and Hunhammar, 1999). As rainwaterhits and stays in the canopy of the tree, peak runoff rates are reduced. Lower runoff rates meanthe rainwater that does hit the ground typically infiltrates or evaporates instead of discharging asflood waters. Infiltration also filters pollutants that remain in the soil where they are used up bythe tree as nutrients instead of discharged into local waterways.Social Benefits While the environmental benefits of trees alone are enough reason to preserve and planttrees in urban areas it can be hard to gain public support for urban forestry programs for justthese reasons. The people-tree relationship has become another major reason to promote urbanforestry programs. There are many of us who have childhood memories of playing around aparticular tree or have watched a tree grow as we did. There are many people who plant trees asmemorials for a loved one’s death or a child’s birth. As a result, people hold very strong ties totrees, with some attachments approaching a spiritual level (Dwyer et al. 1991). There is also the widely known aesthetic benefit of trees and landscapes. Too manypeople, there is nothing more relaxing than a walk in the park or around the block to get somefresh air and take in nature. In a study by Dwyer et al. (1991), the authors surveyed peopleoutside the Morton Arboretum in Chicago to try and understand some of these emotional ties wehave with trees. Four-fifths of the people studied described the park as “serene,” “peaceful,” and“restful.” The venue for rest or relaxation does not need to be a park as it can be any canopy 202
  • 206. covered street where any type of recreation can take place. Recreation can be explained as an“activity that is engaged in for pleasure, which includes among other things, exercise, relaxation,social contacts, natural studies and aesthetic pleasure (Falck and Rydberg, 2000).” In a study byWolf (2010), she found that people are more inclined to walk to task destinations (work,shopping, school, etc.) if there are natural features such as street trees. As the number of obeseAmericans and cars on the road grow by the second, making cities more friendly to walkingshould be a top priority in every community. Tree plantings can also be a good way for peopleof a community to come together for a common goal. This can be done through churches,schools, community clean-ups, Earth Day celebrations and so on. Tree plantings are not only away for people to socialize but also provides the community with a sense of accomplishment, asthey feel they are improving their environment and creating something for future generations toenjoy. Trees also help to establish a sense of place; that is a feeling of identification andbelonging that is important to people’s enjoyment and well-being and to the process ofcommunity (Elmendorf, 2008). Another important social benefit of street trees and perhaps the most important benefit toNewtown at this early stage in the redevelopment process can be crime prevention. Streetscapedenvironments have proven to reduce both the fear of crime and the potential for committingcrimes. The theory of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) involves thedesign and management of the physical environment to reduce the opportunities for crime, and isbased upon the assumption that the offender enters into a rational decision making process beforecommitting a crime (Cozens, 2002). Cozens (2002) explains that CPTED is based upon fourstrategies, which are: territoriality, natural surveillance, activity support and access control.Trees and landscaping (among other strategies) can establish well defined spaces and create 203
  • 207. territoriality. Natural surveillance can be provided by designing for the right landscaping in theright place, such planting trees and other landscaping away from building entrances so peoplemight be seen from the inside and outside. Activity support is accomplished by encouragingpublic gatherings to occur in central locations such as city parks where large amounts of peopletypically go. Access control can be accomplished by Newtown’s front porch initiative. Ifentrances are landscaped to provide one way in and out and there is a neighbor on the frontporch, then criminals would likely think twice before committing a crime. These principlesshould also be adhered to on city wide level. Key entranceways into Newtown such as Dr.Martin Luther King Jr. Way could be accentuated with landscaping to mark the boundaries of thetown limits.Economic Benefits Perhaps the most important benefit of trees to Newtown at this time will be the economicones. The increased shade provided by large tree canopies can lower cooling cost for residentsand business owners alike. There are however, many other benefits that are not as easilyrecognized, such as increased shopper traffic in tree covered versus non-tree covered businessdistricts. In a detailed study by Wolf (2005), she looked beyond the typical marketing studies ofaesthetics and consumer responses inside the stores, and looked at the streetscapes outside thestore. Data from her study indicated that stores on tree covered streets were much moredesirable than quality designed buildings with small sidewalks and no trees. In fact “imageshaving well-tended, large trees received the highest preference ratings of all examples, eventhough the large trees obscured other elements (such as historic buildings) that often are thetargets of business improvement programs (Wolf, 2002).” In the same study by Wolf (2002) shefound that patrons spent longer times and spent more money in business district with trees versus 204
  • 208. barren landscapes. Many of the benefits an urban forest has on a community are closely intertwined. Thereis also evidence that most of the benefits increase in proportion to increased size of the trees(Schroeder et al. 2009). Tree lined streets in business districts make them more appealing andphysically comfortable. As a result, more people visit the area and more money is spent. Whentrees are planted or preserved in residential areas, property values rise and make the area moreattractive to outsiders, eventually inviting more people to the area. When more money is spentand more people move into the area, tax revenues increase and more money can be spent in thecommunity to improve parks, streets and so on. More people then walk the streets and socialinteractions increase, along with a feeling of pride about their community.Trees of Newtown I wanted to search Newtown for the locations of historic trees, tree covered roadways andareas for opportunity. The main priority of my study was first to examine the major roadwaysthrough and around Newtown since they mainly represent the business districts. To do this Itraveled the perimeter streets: US 41, HWY 301, Myrtle Street and 17th Street and then Dr.Martin Luther King, Jr. Way by car. Secondly, I wanted to see the majority of the CentralCocoanut Historic District and the surrounding residential areas within the Newtown CRA. Todo this I parked at Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Park and biked the entire CentralCocoanut Historic District and as many of the north south residential streets within the CRA areaas possible over one afternoon. Although US 41 has been constructed, Hwy 301 is currentlyunder construction and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way has been master planned, it wasimportant to see how these business districts connected to the residential areas of Newtown. Iwas able to drive the entire perimeter and central streets stopping at several locations, bike the 205
  • 209. entire area northeast of US 41 and 17th Street to Orange Avenue to the east and Dr. MartinLuther King Jr. Way to the north, and approximately 20% of the north/south streets east to USHwy 301. It was found that the streetscape was more established and diverse the closer to US 41you are. The Ringling College had been constructed around many large trees that providedcanopy covered access around the school. The main thoroughfare of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.Way was surprisingly lacking of any large historic street trees. The area containing the largestamount of historic trees was found to be the Central Cocoanut Historic District located south ofWhitaker Bayou.Discussion As Newtown moves forward there are many opportunities that need to be takenadvantage of in the subject of urban forestry. Newtown is a historic community with a proudpast, and its historic trees should be honored and protected, just as its historic buildings are. Itwas obvious through talking to several members of the community that many important eventshave happened around these trees. The community could start a campaign to find the mosthistoric tree in Newtown by asking the public for pictures of trees that are still here today and ingood condition. Stands could be set up by these trees with the old pictures and stories aboutwhom the tree was important placed in each. This would be a way to educate the youth about thehistory of the community, and promote awareness of urban forestry at the same time. Trees suchas the 51” diameter live oak (Appendix A; Fig. 1) at the corner of 18th Avenue and CocoanutDrive in the Central Cocoanut Historic District could be added to historic tours throughout thearea. 206
  • 210. Some of the important areas to Newtown’s redevelopment are already under constructionor have already been master planned. Phase II of the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way EconomicDevelopment Plan calls for buildings to be placed towards the street with parking in the rear.This is evident in the Market Place at Janie’s Garden development that is currently underconstruction, where little room has been left for street trees to provide patrons with shade duringsummer months (Appendix A; Fig. 2). It is important that planners and developers reflect on theVisual Preference Survey from the same development plan. It is clear to see by the first choiceof those surveyed, the desired look of the corridor is one with landscaped areas and trees. Forthose areas not in these two categories, Newtown could designate certain scenic corridors thatlead to key locations such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way, the Robert L. Taylor CommunityComplex or parks throughout the neighborhoods. These scenic corridors could be implementedinto code or constructed as public works projects. Emphasis could be put on developing acontinuous tree cover from the neighborhoods to business districts to provide shade andprotection for residents such as Bradenton Road south of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way(Appendix A Fig. 3) or 23rd Street (Appendix A, Fig. 4) do now. In areas where there are powerlines or other limited space obstacles, silviculture plans could be put in place now for theharvesting of street trees for production of mulch and lumber in the community, and thenreplanting the area with trees again. A perfect area to start this might be 21st Street on the way tothe Boys and Girls Club where there is little to no canopy cover. Another opportunity might beMyrtle Street across from Booker Middle school where there is a large open ditch located in themedian that could be planted with Cypress Trees to filter pollutants and reduce runoff. There are many funding opportunities available for street tree programs and Newtownredevelopment officials should work closely with the Sarasota Environmental Services 207
  • 211. Department to access these possibilities. The City of Sarasota and Sarasota County have beendesignated Tree City USA Communities by the Arbor Day Foundation, which provides financialassistance for forestry programs. The City of Sarasota also requires people who remove treeswithout permits to replace the trees or pay into a tree fund. Newtown officials could request thatthese trees and/or funds be placed in their area for a time in specific areas of importance. Lastlythe Florida Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture in located in Sarasota and isalways available for support. One other key area of opportunity is the establishment and management of city parks inNewtown. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Park is situated perfectly as a natural arealocated centrally in town for residents to enjoy. Parks multiply the many environmental, socialand economical benefits trees provide mentioned above, and provide a meeting place for cityresidents. Additionally, planners should look at vacant properties to see if any otheropportunities exist to convert these areas to parks. Several studies have shown that resident’sfeelings of insecurity associated with vandalism and crime increases around vacant buildings(Chiesura, 2004).Conclusion With the unique opportunity that has been provided to this community, it is importantthat the Newtown Community Area Advisory Board address urban forestry issues to aide insustainable redevelopment practices. Focusing on urban forestry and sustainable developmentwill provide for the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generationsby harnessing the environmental, social and economic benefits of street trees. Special emphasisshould also be put on preserving the historic trees in the community, as they have provided such 208
  • 212. an important meaning to some of Newtown’s residents. Urban planners and developers shouldwork together to design streetscapes that promote walkability and natural crime prevention.Increased walkability and crime prevention would bring more business and residents to the areaand ultimately increase tax revenues. The community would benefit greatly if socialorganizations such as churches became involved in tree plantings to promote civic awareness andpride in the area. While this report focused on the large historic trees and canopy coveredstreets, it is important that Newtown considers the entire urban forest of small and large trees.The practice of “right tree, right place” must be implemented by planners and developers, asNewtown moves forward. ReferencesAkbari, et al. (2001). Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air qualityin urban areas. Solar Areas, 70(3), 295-301.Bolund, P. and Hunhammar, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas. EcologicalEconomics, 29, 293-301.Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape andUrban Planning, 68, 129-138.Cozens, P. (2002). Sustainable urban development and crime prevention throughenvironmental design for the british city. Towards and effective urban environmentalism for the21st century.Cities, 19(2), 129-137.Crane, D. and Nowak, D. (2002). Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in theUSA. Environmental Pollution, 116, 381-389.Dwyer et al. (1991). The significance of urban trees and forest: Toward a deeperunderstanding of values. Journal of Arboriculture, 17(10), 276-284.Elmendorf, W. (2008). The importance of trees and nature in community: A review ofthe relative literature. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 34(3): 152-156.Falck, J. and Rydberg, D. (2000). Urban forestry in Sweden from a silviculturalperspective: a review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 47, 1-18. 209
  • 213. Redclift, M. (1992). The meaning of sustainable development. Geoforum, 23, No.3,395-435Schroeder et al. (2009). Big trees in the urban forest: An endangered resource worthsustaining. Arborist News, 18(2): 60-62.Wolf, K. (2005). Business district streetscapes, trees, and consumer response. Journal ofForestry, (103)8, 396-400.Wolf, K. (2010). City tree, nature and physical activity. Facility Management Journal,20(1), 50-54.World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our Common Future.Oxford: Oxford University Press 210
  • 214. Appendix AFigure 1: A 51” diameter live oak with large spreading canopy on 18th Street just west ofCocoanut DriveFigure 2: The Market Place at Janie’s Garden along Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way underconstruction with little room left for street trees. 211
  • 215. Figure 3: Bradenton Road just south of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way. From left to right a 46”oak, 27” pine, 30” oak and a 31” oak.Figure 4: Canopy cover of 23rd Street west of Orange Avenue. 212
  • 216. The Potential Effects of Rising Sea Levels on Sarasota and Newtown, and the Lessonslearned from Hurricane Katrina.Christopher KlugSea Level Rise is RealThere is no dispute that sea levels are rising due to climate change. Although various factionsdisagree on the causes of said climate changes, almost none in the business of climate studydenies the observable and measurable phenomenon of global warming.(Anderegg, 2010) In arecent survey, 97.5% of climatologists that actively publish research on climate change agreedthat global warming is occurring, and that human activities have a significant impact on climatechange.(Cook, 2010) Global warming is melting the polar ice caps and sea levels aremeasurably rising. (Vermeer, Dec 22 2009) As coastal Floridians, we will be among the firstAmericans impacted by these rising waters. Because we make our home in Florida, we aresubject to seasonal hurricanes and the accompanying tidal surges. Florida is a naturally low lyingState, with virtually no high ground to speak of. Can the Sarasota and Newtown area survive aclass 5 hurricane if sea levels rise 4 feet? What kind of storm surge can the area expect if sealevels change dramatically? The following illustration Figure 1 is from the Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange, and shows a 2100 sea level rise prediction of 60cm due to rising temperature, but doesnot take into account recent measurements of accelerated ice pack melt.(Nicholls, 2010) Itshould also be noted that sea level rise is not uniform, and that it is generally observed to beaccelerating. (Ibid)Courtesy: Science, Vol 328, June2010 213
  • 217. Scientific Geographical ExaminationThis study focuses on the redrawing of flood maps due to rising sea levels, a measurable featureof our landscape. The case will be made that sea levels will rise, and that upper level estimatesare in the neighborhood of a rise of 4 feet by the year 2100. Parts of Sarasota County are verylow lying, and the potential for property loss due to the rising sea level is great. Human activitysuch as agriculture and the drawdown of underground water supplies contribute to subsistence,the phenomena of sinking land. Currently, the elevation reported at Sarasota-Bradenton airport 214
  • 218. is 21.9 feet above sea level; Venice airport, representing the southern half of Sarasota County isreported to be at 12.2 feet above sea level. (AirNav, 2009) What will happen during a Category5 hurricane, when the storm surge can exceed 60 feet? (Scales-Wikipedia, 2010)Current Federal flood maps of the Sarasota area are out of date, and are being updated with acompletion date of Nov 2011. The Geologic Survey data used to determine land elevationderives from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929, and was only accurate that year towithin 1 meter.(Frazier T. G., 2010) The latter makes forecasting storm surge less accurate, buteven with these shortcomings the projections are ominous. The modeling was done using datafrom Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes, or SLOSH. This data was obtained fromthe National Hurricane Center and NOAA, who rely on the same data for their modeling andprojections. (Frazier T. G., 2010)Researchers took the data from this model and using GIS, created overlays of the land use mapof Sarasota County 2050 Comprehensive Plan. The researchers presented this data during a oneday workshop in Sarasota to “Workshop participants (who) reflected various political agendasand socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergencymanagement and infrastructure, government, and planning.”(Frazier T. G., 2010 (30)) Thisassembly absorbed the science, and remarkably “Despite different agendas, interests, andproposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need toincrease community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to exploreadaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.” (Frazier T. G.,2010 (30))It is common knowledge in planning circles that comprehensive land-use planning is the mosteffective method for reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience to natural hazards. 215
  • 219. Sarasota’s population has grown by 17% in the last ten years (US Census 2000), and City andCounty planners have had to consider a host of socioeconomic pressures as well as hazardsimminent and far into the future. To grapple with population increase is hard enough, but ifelements enter the equation that dramatically reduce the land area and can radically affect powerdistribution networks, sewer and water line placement, storm-water control and rezoning ofresidential neighborhoods based on newly drawn flood plain maps, the job becomes extremelydifficult. This is especially true if these elements are due to a volatile subject like the effects ofclimate change.Historical Weather and the FutureSarasota’s history of hurricanes is documented from 1858, and shows storms in 1878, 1901,1903, 1925, 1944, 1983, 1988, 2001, and 2004. The last severe hurricane to hit Sarasota Countydirectly was in 1944. The Pinar del Rio hurricane was a Category 3, and caused nine deaths andsevere damage to the citrus industry. It has been estimated that this storm damage wouldapproach $40 billion by today’s standards. (Barnes, 2007) Hurricane Charlie just brushed theunincorporated and mostly uninhabited part of southern Sarasota County, and yet this category 4storm caused 19 deaths and $25 billion in damages. Some experts argue that climate change willincrease the number of hurricanes each year, and some argue against it. (Knutson, May 5 2010)A consensus is building that hurricanes will increase in intensity and strength, even as thenumbers of events decrease.(Frazier T. G., 2010) The danger is amplified by the high numbersof new residents moving into coastal zones, which are already crowded and overbuilt.Local ImpactTo be in compliance with the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, cities and counties have beenencouraged to inventory their assets located in hazard zones. It is also important to know how 216
  • 220. many critical and essential facilities lay within these hazard zones. By critical and essential, weare speaking of clinics, doctor’s offices, hospitals, government offices, fire stations, policestations, first responder locations, grocery stores, fueling stations, etc, etc. Electricitydistribution infrastructure is also considered critical and essential, as substations can take monthsto bring back online once flooded, delaying recovery. Municipal water wells, septic treatmentplants and sewer infrastructure are also subject to outages and damage from flooding, as well assalt infiltration and pollution of drinking water supplies and networks. All of these facilities areneeded for normalcy in living conditions, and great deals of these are now in new hazard zones,capable of being functionally wiped out by storm surge flooding. 217
  • 221. The increased size of the projected hazard zones is apparent in these illustrations. The number ofcritical and essential facilities within the flood zone also increases, from 1% in a Category 1storm to 9% and from 5% in a Category 2 event to 20%. Affected population also follows thistrend, with 8% affected in a Category 1 event to 16%, or 51,000 people now living within thehazard zone. The Category 4 and 5 increases were not as dramatic, as 69% of Sarasota County’s232,000 people would be affected in this scenario from storm surge flooding with a 120cm risein sea level. In the unincorporated area, just over 50% of the county’s population is in theexposed area while about 40% of the city of Sarasota’s population, almost all of Venice’spopulation, and just over half of North Port’s residents are exposed. The smaller municipalities 218
  • 222. of Longboat Key, Siesta Key, Nokomis, Plantation, Englewood, Laurel, and Warm MineralSprings all have a smaller number of residents exposed than the four bigger communities buthave 100% of their total population in the hazard zone. There are several smaller communitiesthat are entirely in the storm-surge hazard zones and several more that are almost entirely in thehazard zones when sea level rise is added. (Frazier T. G., 2010 (30)) One can see that thischanges the character of storm-water management dramatically, and raises the problem ofeffective land planning strategy with regard to the new flood hazard boundaries.Planning and RegulationIn looking at Sarasota’s 2050 Comprehensive Plan, the trend is followed in future land use forresidential use; double the land currently classified as in the hazard zone will fall in the newhazard zone accounting for sea level rise. Commercial and transportation property fared farworse, with four times the area falling into the new hazard areas. Truly, this will take somecreative engineering and flood control to allow for safe development for Sarasota County’snewly arriving population.On the bright side, Sarasota County has a comprehensive land use plan, and a coordinated effortby Federal, State, County and local officials to solve these problems before they becomedisasters. One of the first things to come to light in post-Katrina New Orleans was the fact thatthe city and parish had no comprehensive plan for development, and instead had allowedcommunities, private flood control contractors and local governments to develop willy-nilly,without control or zoning.(Cigler, Dec 2007) Florida requires a comprehensive plan by mandate,and the Florida Department of Community Affairs reviews all proposed changes to the plan. Inthis regard, Florida is miles ahead of Louisiana in regards to public safety.The Local Government Comprehensive Planning and Land Development Regulation Act 219
  • 223. requires all of Floridas 67 counties and 410 municipalities to adopt Local GovernmentComprehensive Plans that guide future growth and development. Comprehensive plans containchapters that address future land use, coastal management, conservation, recreation and openspace, intergovernmental coordination housing, transportation, infrastructure, and capitalimprovements.(Florida Statutes Chapter 163, part II) This is absolutely vital for storm-water andflood control, and New Orleans had nothing like it. Their Federal flood maps were out of date,too.Environmental Impact of Wetlands DestructionNew Orleans also had something in common with Florida; Big Oil had cast its eye on the oilreserves off the Gulf coast. Louisiana, long time friend of the oilman, welcomed the oilexploration and production that made billionaires of several of the State’s citizens andpoliticians. The oil companies dredged and cut canals through most of Louisiana’s wetlands forheavy equipment access, opening up “hurricane highways” through the buffering wetlands.Katrina’s storm surge was funneled up these channels, intensifying the pressure against NewOrleans’ levees and floodgates with predictable and terrifying results. Florida must guardagainst damage to wetlands, as they are the first line of defense against storm surge and flooding.In the years leading up to Katrina, The Corps of Engineers received $2 billion for New Orleanslevee projects, but the money was diverted to politically lucrative development projects, insteadof overdue levee repair.(Cigler, Dec 2007) No comprehensive plan, no zoning in coastal areas,monies diverted from levee repair and “hurricane highways” all contributed to the horribleflooding, loss of life and national tragedy that was the effect of Hurricane Katrina on NewOrleans. (ibid) The extreme vulnerability of the human populace also came to light, and haslessons for all who live in the potential path of hurricanes. 220
  • 224. Newtown’s VulnerabilityIn Newtown, human vulnerability to extreme climatic events is perhaps greater for someresidents than others. It is clear that some people are more likely to be affected by a disastrousevent than others. In New Orleans, people that were able to flee the hurricane did so, but thegreat majority of people trapped in the city did not evacuate because they either had no specificplace to flee to, or because they did not have the motivation, ability or finances to flee. (Cigler,Dec 2007) Reasons vary, but lack of access to an automobile, lack of funds to flee and survivewhile evacuation is in effect can affect the ability and will of people to evacuate when ordered todo so. Some people will refuse to evacuate because of the natural reluctance to leave one’s homeand neighborhood, or the fear of looters pilferage. Some are disabled, perhaps unwilling to leavepets or unable to take them, or unsure of what to do or where to go. Different humancharacteristics, including demographic and socioeconomic ones, lead to different vulnerabilitiesfor a population at risk. (Tobin, 2009)Many of these vulnerabilities can be addressed by the community leaders, churches and citizensprior to events. Vulnerability can be ameliorated by planning and dissemination of knowledge.For those of us that live on the sea coast, it is imperative that evacuation plans be discussed andmapped out before the event is imminent. Local government can determine the at-risk groups ofcitizens, and make plans for their evacuation. Local churches can provide buses and an out oftown haven for vulnerable residents by making evacuation compacts within parishes and fellowreligious organizations. Many churches do outreach service to the community on a regular basis,and can be invaluable to city planning staff in identifying and briefing at-risk citizens.Arrangements can be made for the safety and transportation of pets. Newtown has a strongcommunity identity and spirit, this is key to the sustainability of Newtown’s people. 221
  • 225. Sarasota maintains a very good website with information on hazard planning, and access to theInternet is provided free from public libraries. (www.sarasota.gov) Evacuation, securing ofproperty, stockpiling of food and water are just a few of the topics covered on this website. Thenew Robert L. Taylor Community Center can be an ideal place for stockpiling of emergencysupplies, foodstuffs and water, and for conducting an educational program regarding hurricanepreparedness. In a few very significant ways, Newtown is in a better position to provide for itsresidents than other communities in Sarasota County, and this position will only strengthen withtime.North Sarasota County is of higher elevation than the southern portion of the county, andtherefore will not be as affected by sea level rise. With a projected sea level rise of 120 cm or 4feet, Longboat Key and most of the City of Venice will be completely flooded. The most severeflooding could occur in the areas of offshore barrier islands, coastal properties and rural southSarasota County.(Frazier T. G., 2010) The following chart is representative of the number ofresidents exposed to flooding after the anticipated sea level change. It is plain to see that thenorthern portion of Sarasota County will fare much better relative to sea level rise, and as thefederal flood maps are updated property values could reflect the relative safety of higher ground.Plainly speaking, Newtown is in a good geographical position, and represents an excellentstaging area for assisting the rest of the county in times of future high water.Figure 2 The gray bars represent pre-sea level rise storm surge, the black area of the barsrepresent post sea level rise storm surge. (Frazier T. G., 2010) 222
  • 226. Sarasota Urban Service BoundarySarasota County has sought to restrict urban sprawl by designating an urban service boundary.This restricts development from occurring east of the service boundary, and allows fordevelopment west of I-75. Unfortunately, this boundary restricts development to areas prone tostorm surge. Much of the county’s utility infrastructure also is in this area, and with increaseddevelopment, it is to be expected that increased utility infrastructure will follow. It is importantfor utility companies to evaluate the potential damage from immersion in flood waters, and toplan accordingly. Although sprawl may be controlled by the urban service boundary, it is certainthat is a tradeoff for increased hurricane vulnerability in coastal developments. (Frazier T. G.,2010)Newtown is well within this urban service boundary, and is experiencing the pressures of growth 223
  • 227. of the community around it. Road widening, utility construction and more and more close-bydevelopments increase the demand on flood control measures. More development means morepavement and buildings, increasing runoff and exacerbating flood control. Newtown city leadersshould pay close attention to flood control improvements aimed at providing relief toneighboring developments, in the event that some of these could adversely affect the citizens ofNewtown in the future. Sarasota County planners are under pressure from many directions andinterests, and Newtown should make its voice heard on any proposed “improvements” beforepermanent changes to the Comprehensive Plan are made. It is much easier to voice objectionsand concerns at scheduled public hearings and forums before undesirable changes are adoptedand made part of the Comprehensive land use plan.Conclusions and RecommendationsIn conclusion, the studies done on sea level rise were done scientifically using National Oceanand Atmospheric Administration models. The rise of 120 cm, or four feet are at the high range ofestimated rise by 2100. It is prudent to plan for the worst, and to carefully watch developments inmeasurements and data. Newtown’s Booker Elementary School shelter is at an elevation of 34feet above sea level. (Sarasota) Newtown is fortunate to be on higher ground than most ofSarasota County, and is in the portion of the county least likely to suffer an extreme shift ofhazard zones. It would be prudent for property owners and City officials to keep abreast ofchanges in sea level and to mark changes in the 2050 Comprehensive Plan and future updatesthat could affect storm-water management in their neighborhoods. Newtown’s population needsto be prepared for severe weather by utilizing Sarasota’s excellent hazard planning resources, bymaking plans for evacuation before the need arises, and by supporting local government, localchurches and community groups in hurricane preparedness outreach efforts. 224
  • 228. In terms of potential property damage and loss of life due to flooding, Newtown is muchbetter situated than more affluent areas such as Longboat Key and the expensive high-risedevelopments of the Florida Coast. Areas directly on the Sarasota coast will be affected byrising sea levels first, with a direct impact on wealthy homeowners and condominiums. This isin sharp contrast to the damage inflicted by Hurricane Katrina, which primarily affected thosecitizens without the means to flee, and who lived in those neighborhoods of New Orleans withlower elevations and high proximity to weak Mississippi River levees. (Cigler, Dec 2007)Newtown still faces vulnerability to flood damage to utilities, water delivery systems, sewersystems and communications because these systems exist largely outside of the Newtown area.In the event of significant flooding in southern and coastal Sarasota County, power and otherutilities could be disrupted for weeks. However, the Newtown Community Redevelopment Areais situated on some of the highest ground in Sarasota County, and the value of high ground inthis area and should not be underestimated. Potentially, this area could have the highestcommercial and residential value in the county in the next century.BibliographyAirNav. AirNav: KSRQ. 2009. 26 Nov 2010 <http://www.airnav.com/airport/KSRQ>.—. AirNav: KVNC. 2009. 26 Nov 2010 <http://www.airnav.com/airport/KVNC>.Anderegg, William R.L., James W. Prall,Jacob Harald, Steven Schnieder. "Expert Credibility inClimate change." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ofthe United States ofAmerica (2010): 1-3.Barnes, J. Floridas Hurricane History. Chapel Hill: the University of North Carolina Press, 2007.Cigler, Beverly A. "The "Big Questions" of Katrina and the Great New Orleans Flood of 2005."Public Administration Review (Dec 2007): 64-76.Cook, John. Skeptical Science. 2010. 26 Nov 2010 <http://www.skepticalscience.com/global-warming-scientific-consensus.htm>. 225
  • 229. Frazier, Tim G., Nathan Wood, Brent Yarnal. "Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategiesfor adapting to Climate change-enhanced Coastal Hazards:Sarasota, Florida." AppliedGeography (2010 (30)): 506-517.Frazier, Tim G., Nathan Wood, Brent Yarnal, Denise Bauer. "Influence of Potential sea level riseon Societal Vulnerability to Hurricane storm surge hazards:Sarasota, Florida." AppliedGeography (2010): 490-505.Knutson, Thomas R. Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity? Scientific.Princeton, NJ: General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, May 5 2010.Nicholls, Robert J., Annie Cazanave. "Sea Level Rise and its Impact on Coastal Zones." Science(2010): 328: 1517.Sarasota, City of. http://maps.scgov.net/evacinfo/evacinfo.aspx. 26 Nov 2010<http://maps.scgov.net/evacinfo/evacinfo.aspx>.Scales-Wikipedia, Tropical Cyclone. Tropical_Cyclone_Scales. 20 Oct 2010. 1 Nov 2010<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_cyclone_scales>.Tobin, G.A. and T.E. Montz. "Environmental Hazards." 2009.Vermeer, Matin and Stefan Rahmstorf. "Global Sea Level linked to Global Temperature."Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ofthe United States of America (Dec 222009). 226
  • 230. Bicycle Infrastructure in NewtownAnna LeechIntroduction Sustainable development has been defined as “meeting the needs of the present withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission onSustainable Development, 1987). Basic needs generally refer to food, shelter, jobs and clothing.In the United States, it seems like they would be quite easy to meet due to widespreadavailability, but transportation is generally necessary to meet these needs. Transportation alsoneeds to be sustainable, and it is not currently due to the dependence on automobiles, and thepollution and noise that they spew (Black, 1996). Fortunately, with research from Europe, andchanges in policies, it is possible to create more sustainable transportation that is lessenvironmentally damaging, and potentially could increase transportation availability (Green andWegener, 1997). A possible way to increase the sustainability of transportation and decrease congestionand environmental problems due to automobiles is to increase the use of walking and bicyclingfor transportation. Options for this include traffic calming, which creates an environment moreconducive to alternative forms of transportation, and the addition of bicycle friendlyinfrastructure (Newman and Kenworth, 1999; Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). The purpose of this project is to understand transportation in low income communities,and with this information, look specifically at Newtown. This will include an investigation intothe current bicycle infrastructure in Newtown, and a proposal for improvements such as bicyclelanes and traffic calming. The traffic calming program in West Palm Beach, Florida, will bediscussed in order to better understand how it works, and how it can impact Newtown. 227
  • 231. Transportation in Low-Income Households Lower-income households are less likely than others to own a vehicle (Schimek, 1996;Murikami and Young, 1997; Pucher and Renne, 2005). A city that is designed to increasewalkability and bicycle usage will have a higher rate of walking and cycling than most othercities; however, income is an even bigger influence on vehicle ownership and use than thewalkability and density of an area (Saelens et al, 2003; Schimek, 1996). Twenty six percent oflow-income households do not own a car, and are dependent on other forms of transportation(Murikami and Young, 1997; Pucher and Renne, 2005). Unfortunately, the lack of a car can make everyday life difficult for low-incomeindividuals in their everyday life. Low income mothers are more likely to walk than their higherincome counterparts, and although this is good exercise, it can also increase stress levels andexhaustion (Bostock, 2001). The reliance on walking makes it difficult to travel any greatdistance to reach food, medical care, and other important locations (Bostock, 2001; Yang et al,2006). A lack of personal transportation also makes it difficult for low-income individuals tofind and keep jobs (Ong and Blumenberg, 1998). Mass transit can be helpful for getting to work;however, these routes often lack flexibility and do not always stop in a close proximity to theplace of employment (Wachs and Taylor, 1998). Bicycles can increase the flexibility of publictransportation, because many busses can hold bicycles on the front, allowing individuals to bringtheir bikes for use at either end of the bus route (Wachs and Taylor, 1998). Additionally, the costof public transportation can sometimes be a large portion of a person’s income, making it almostimpossible to make a decent wage (Wachs and Taylor, 1998; Ong and Blumenberg, 1998). Children in low income households are also impacted by transportation, and are morelikely to ride bicycles or walk to school than higher income children (McDonalds, 2008; Martin 228
  • 232. et al, 2007). Despite the fact that more children of low income households ride bikes to school,and those with no cars are more likely to use bicycles to make trips, there may be a lack ofnecessary infrastructure in important locations, such as bike racks at libraries, to accommodatethese travelers (Pucher and Renne, 2005; Thompson, 2006). In addition, a study from Floridasuggests that motor vehicle-bicycle collisions are more likely to occur in areas of low income,potentially due to an increased use of bicycles (Epperson, 1995; Dill and Carr, 2003).Traffic Calming A potential method of increasing the safety of bicycling is through traffic calming.Traffic calming is part of New Urbanism, which aims to move away from single-use suburbanneighborhoods, and more towards the mixed-use communities that were built prior to theexplosion of the automobile. New Urbanism principles include the following: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice (Congress for the New Urbanism, 1996). Since Newtown is an older community, many of these aspects are incorporated because itwas built before residential suburbanism was the norm. However, like many communities,Newtown’s roads were developed for automobile traffic, and in many cases, bicycles andpedestrians have lost out. This can be rectified in some cases through the use of traffic calming. The purpose of traffic calming is “to slow auto traffic and create more urban humaneenvironments better suited to other transportation modes” such as bicycles and pedestrians 229
  • 233. (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). It began in the early 1920s with the automobile boom, and hascontinued to be used across the world. The main method used for traffic calming is physicallychanging the street. Some of the possibilities include adding S-shaped diverters and neck-downs, which change the geometry of the road, as well as adding speed bumps or tables, whichforce the driver to slow down. Adding more landscaping and pedestrian/bicycle friendly design,such as wide sidewalks and bicycle lanes, also slows drivers, because the road is no longer aclear asphalt path. With these changes, drivers will realize that there are more pedestrians andbicycles, so they must be more aware (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). An example of a successful road calming project is in West Palm Beach, Florida. Thisproject was part of a larger New Urbanism project that was designed to revitalize the city inmany aspects (Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). Similarly to Sarasota, West Palm Beach has thereputation that its residents are all wealthy; however, there are sections of the city that are lowand middle income (Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). A great deal of West Palm Beach’s earlytraffic calming was based on main roads. For example, Clematis Street is a main through road,and the city added on street parking, wider sidewalks, clearer crosswalks, a raised intersection,and landscaping and furniture that were pedestrian friendly (Stillings and Lockwood, 2000).Following several other traffic calming projects, residents are generally supportive of themeasures, and pedestrians and cyclists feel safer moving through the area (Stillings andLockwood, 2000). An important aspect of the traffic calming projects is to gain communitysupport, and take a close look at the area to understand what traffic calming measures will workin the area. 230
  • 234. Bicycle Infrastructure and Safety In addition to traffic calming, there are bicycle infrastructure options that can makecycling safer. This is imperative for those that depend on cycling for transportation. Allen-Munley et al (2004) found that roads without shoulders, regardless of lane width, were morelikely to have accidents involving bicyclists. Numerous studies have been done to determine howto increase the comfort of cyclists, safety and motorist’s awareness( Van Houten and Seiderman,2005). These showed that regardless of the type of markings, from just adding an undesignatedlane on a wide road (Hunter et al, 2005), to adding signage and blue road markings at motorvehicle-bicycle crossings (Jensen, 2008; Hunter et al, 2000), cyclist safety and comfortincreased. The most common form of bicycle infrastructure on a road is a bicycle lane – a goodbicycle lane is at least four feet wide, but substandard lanes can be as narrow as 3 feet (FloridaBicycle Associate, 2010). Bicycle lanes include bicycle markings on the road as well as bicyclelane signs that alert drivers to the presence of the bicycle lane (Florida Bicycle Association,2010). However, it is important to take into consideration how to end these markings, and doingso abruptly mid-block hasbeen found to be quitedangerous (Krizek andRoland, 2005). When roads are notwide enough for bicyclelanes, a road marking known Figure 1: Bicycle sharrow located in the automobile travel lane. From:as a bicycle sharrow can be http://www.flickr.com/photos/litlnemo/3615826903/sizes/o/in/photostream/ 231
  • 235. used (Figure 1). These markings are located in the middle of the lane, and consist of a bicycleoutline and two arrows. This indicates to automobile operators that bicycles may be travelling inthe lane, and to be aware. Sharrows have been used in several locations in Florida, including30th Avenue North, St Petersburg (personal experience). Since Newtown is a low-income area with high rates of unemployment, it is possible thatalternative forms of transportation can help decrease unemployment. Even with masstransportation, it can be less expensive to ride a bicycle, and a bicycle can increase the distancesthat can be travelled vs. walking. This can increase access to not only jobs, but to medical careand food. Since children may be more likely to ride bikes to school, and cars may not be widelyavailable, cycling is potentially a great option for transportation, and should be made as safe aspossible. This brings up the question of what bicycle infrastructure already exists in Newtown,and how can it be further developed to increase safety?Current Bicycle Infrastructure in Newtown The town of Newtown has some bicycle infrastructure currently in place. Bicycle lanesof varying degrees of signage and marking exist on several of the main roads through the town(Figure 2). Old Bradenton Road is considered by the City of Sarasota to be a fair bicycle route,as it has moderate to high speed limits and traffic levels (Alliance for ResponsibleTransportation, 2009). The bicycle lane on Old Bradenton Road has very worn painted roadmarkings and bicycle lane signs from Myrtle Street south to Dr Martin Luther King Way. Insome areas it is difficult to see the remnant of the paint on the road, which can create problems atnight since the reflectivity of the paint has deteriorated. Cocoanut Avenue and Central Avenueboth have bicycle lanes from Dr Martin Luther King Way south, past 17th Street and are also 232
  • 236. considered to be fair bicycle routes (Alliance for Responsible Transportation, 2009). Theseavenues both have bicycle lane signs and street markings, however, the markings and signs arefew, and there are great distances between them. Cocoanut Avenue also has no parking signs,which can help with reducing parking in the bike lanes, which appears to be a problem in severalparts of the community. North Orange Avenue has a bicycle lane complete with road markingsand signs. Unfortunately, since the bicycle lanes were added after the roads were built, theydisappear at several intersections. Finally, North Washington Blvd is currently underconstruction; however, the plans include bicycle lanes in both directions, including the sectionthat borders Newtown, from Myrtle Street, south to 17th Street. There are currently two east-west bicycle lanes in Newtown. The first is a small sectionof Dr Martin Luther King Way. This bicycle lane is part of the Sarasota Recreational Trail. The 233
  • 237. section of bicycle lane enters Newtown from the west side of US 41(N Tamiami Trail), and is anundesignated lane up to Old Bradenton Road. In the roadway between N Tamiami Trail and OldBradenton Road, there are speed tables to calm the traffic. East of Old Bradenton Road toCocoanut Avenue, the bicycle lane is marked on the road and with signs. At Cocoanut Avenue,there is a small sign that indicates that the bicycle trail turns south onto Cocoanut Avenue;however, the bicycle lane is on the left of the right turn lane, indicating that bicyclists can safelycontinue travelling east, even though there is no bicycle lane. The other east-west bicycle laneis on 17th Street between North Orange Avenue and US 301 (North Washington Blvd). Thisbicycle lane has on-street markings and signs, however, it ends mid-block, just before NWashington Blvd, and there is no sign to indicate the end of the bicycle lane. As is evident in Figure 2, there is a lack of east-west bicycle lane connectivity. Despitethis, based on current road widths and parking needs, it appears that Newtown has done a verygood job in adding bike lanes where it is possible. There are several changes that can be made toincrease bicycle infrastructure and encourage the use of bicycles within the community, whichwill be discussed throughout the next sections.Suggestions for Bicycle Infrastructure Improvement Many of the roads through Newtown have low speed limits (35 mph and below), and arenarrow. The low speed limit makes cycling safer than higher speed limits, but the narrow roadsmake it difficult to add bicycle lanes. Looking at the map, it is clear that many of the mainnorth-south roads have bicycle lanes. Even though the roads are painted with lines and thebicycle symbol, and have signs, there are a few improvements that could be made. To begin, 234
  • 238. Old Bradenton Road has very worn road markings, and could benefit from being re-marked.This will increase the visibility of the bicycle lanes, and potentially make drivers more aware ofits presence. On both Cocoanut and Central Avenues, it would be beneficial to add more bicyclelane markings on the road. Since there are a lot of side streets, this would make it clear to driversturning onto these avenues that they need to be aware of bicycles. North Orange Avenue hassafety issues based on the fact that the bicycle lanes disappear around intersections. The longterm goals could be to slightly widen the road to add a bicycle lane all the way through;however, this is not a practical short term solution. In the mean time, the addition of signs toindicate that the bicycle lane ends can make drivers more aware of cyclists. North Tamiami Trail runs along the western border of Newtown, and does not currentlyhave a bicycle lane in the Newtown area. This road is currently labeled as unsafe for bicycles bythe city of Sarasota due to a lack of bicycle lane, high speeds and a lot of motor vehicle traffic.The Bicycle/Pedestrian Advocates (BPA) have proposed that the road be restriped to include abicycle lane. There are two twelve feet wide lanes in each direction, and BPA proposeschanging it to two ten foot wide automobile lanes and one four foot bike line in each direction.This can make it safer for bicycles, while still maintaining the same number of lanes for motorvehicles (Bicycle/Pedestrian Advocates, 2009). This is a well researched proposal, and wouldincrease the bicycle accessibility of Newtown residents. The only other north-south road that is wide enough to have traffic lanes and bicyclelanes is North Osprey Avenue from Myrtle Street to Dr Martin Luther King Way. An issuearises here in that there is on street parking in the vicinity of several churches along this road.This could be accommodated for by warning that the bicycle lane is going to end near thoselocations, and allowing parking. Safety could be improved in the parking area by adding “Share 235
  • 239. the Road” signs, and decreasing the speed limit. Starting at the northern boarder of Newtown, Myrtle Street does not have a bicycle lane.Unfortunately, due to the narrow width of this road, adding a bicycle lane or a narrower,undesignated lane is not possible. Widening this road is also not a feasible long term goal,because both sides have drainage ditches and buildings. A potential short term safety feature thatcould be added would be “Share the Road” or similar signs (Figure 3), as well as adding bicyclesharrows. The speed limit on this road is low, and traffic was not observed to be heavy, so thiscould sufficiently increase safety. In the longer term, adding other traffic calming measures suchas speed bumps or tables can help reduce speeding. Since this road runs next to the high school,it could potentially increase the safety for drivers coming and going from the school, especiallyduring high traffic times. Again, the drainage ditch makes it difficult to widen sidewalks, butthis green area could have increased landscaping to calm the road. Figure 3: Several of the Florida Department of Transportation approved signs that could be used in Newtown to alert drivers to the presence of bicycles, and remind them of the law. Images from: http://flbikelaw.org/2010/01/riderightdrive-right- campaign/ and http://www.ckwheelmen.org/images/Share_the_Roa d.gif Dr Martin Luther King Way has a short distance of bicycle lane, but is mainly void ofthem. This particular road presents a problem because of the parking on both sides. Cars parkedon a street present a special problem, because drivers can open their doors without checking forbicycles and cause serious injury. Because of this, it is recommended that automobile trafficshould flow no closer than 14 feet from the curb for parked cars and bicycles, and bicycles rideat least 4 feet away from parked cars (Florida Bicycle Association, 2010). Currently, it is not 236
  • 240. feasible for Dr Martin Luther King Way to have marked bicycle lanes next to the parked carsbecause the road is not wide enough. Unfortunately, because there are buildings close to thestreet, it is not going to be possible in the long term to widen the road to accommodate parkedcars and a bicycle lane. A suggested way to increase safety in this area is to add “Share theRoad” signs and bicycle sharrows. Traffic calming measures can also be added. The on-streetparking and trees already in place are traffic calming measures. Adding speed bumps or tables insome locations can also calm the road. Potentially improving crosswalks to be more visible,such as adding a new color similar to the bicycle lanes mentioned previously can make driversmore aware of a change. Like Myrtle Avenue, traffic calming could potentially greatly increasesafety on Dr Martin Luther King Way. Also, although it is not generally encouraged, according to state statute 316.2065(10)bicycles are legally allowed on the sidewalk in Florida as long as they follow pedestrian laws, donot ride at high speeds, and yield to pedestrians (Florida Bicycle Association, 2010). Sidewalkriding can at times be a safe alternative as long as the bicycles respect the sidewalk riding rules. An alternative route for those trying to travel east-west on Dr Martin Luther King Waywould be using either 21st or 24th Street. Although both of these have parking down each side,they are quiet roads that already have traffic-calming speed bumps in place to keep the speedlimit low. Although adding bicycle lanes is not an option for these roads, it would potentially besafer to encourage bicycles to use these roads instead of Dr Martin Luther King Way whenpossible. Again, the addition of “Share the Road” or similar signs, as well as bicycle sharrows,can increase driver awareness on these roads. On many of the roads throughout the community, cars have been observed parking inbicycle lanes. This can create hazardous conditions for bicyclists, and should be avoided. 237
  • 241. Parking needs can be taken into account when looking at bicycle lane placement; however, in theareas that this was observed, there generally appeared to be sufficient driveway parkingavailable. In these areas, it is suggested that no-parking signs be added and enforced. However,it is suggested that some community input is taken into account when making changes, becausethere could be potential conflicts.Bicycle Parking Research suggests that even when bicycle lanes are in place, it is difficult to use bicyclesbecause there is not always a place to secure them once a rider is at a destination (Thompson,2006). Throughout Newtown, it appears that bicycle racks have been included in many of thenewer facilities, such as the library and the park on the corner of Washington and Dr MartinLuther King Way. There are still many places that lack this basic facility. Bicycle racks makepeople more comfortable using bicycles and make public places look neater, as the bicycles areall in the same place and not just attached to whatever looks secure. Bicycle racks arerecommended at several locations throughout the community. The Newtown RedevelopmentOffice, the health clinic on Dr Martin Luther King Way, and the Robert L. Taylor CommunityComplex are all important places within the community that provide valuable services, yet theydo not have bicycle racks. Businesses and churches are also encouraged to add bicycle rackswhenever possible. Businesses and churches can benefit by appearing to be welcoming to thoseon bicycles, which could potentially increase the number of customers/followers. 238
  • 242. Conclusion Overall, the bicycle infrastructure currently in place in Newtown is a very goodbeginning. Almost all of the roads that are wide enough for bicycle lanes have them, althoughthere are some parking issues that can potentially be taken care of by the addition of no parkingsigns. Now is the time for the more difficult bicycle infrastructure and safety steps to be taken.These projects include traffic calming and signs indicating that bicycles are sharing the roads. Itis critical that bicycle friendly infrastructure is present in the community. This infrastructure willpotentially increase the sustainability of the community by reducing vehicle emissions, and cancreate a better environment for the numerous residents that can be seen riding bicyclesthroughout the community. Getting to work, the grocery store and the health clinic can all beeasier, safer, and more comfortable with access to safe bicycle routes. Despite the numerous benefits that come from adding bicycle infrastructure and trafficcalming, it is imperative that the community is involved in the decision making process. Therecould be underlying reasons that are not visible to an ‘outsider’ that would make changes such asadding no parking signs and reducing speeds difficult to digest. However, with communityeducation and discussion, these community improvements can most likely occur with communitysupport. 239
  • 243. ReferencesAlliance for Responsible Transportation. (2009). Bike Facilities. Accessed 9 Oct 2010 from < www.sarasotagov.com/sgc/YGC/pdfs/bike_suitability_map.pdf>Allen-Munley, C., Daniel, J., & Dhar, S. (2004). Logistic Model for Rating Urban Bicycle Route Safety. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1878, 107-115.Bicycle/Pedestrian Advocates of Sarasota. (2009). Accessed 8 Oct 2010 from < http://www.bike- ped-sarasota.org/index.html>Black, W.R. (1996). Sustainable Transportation: A US Perspective. Journal of Transport Geography, 4:3, 151-159.Bostock, L. (2001). Pathways of Disadvantage? Walking as a Mode of Transport Among Low- Income Mothers. Health and Social Care in the Community, 9:1, 11-18.Congress for the New Urbanism. (1996). Charter of the New Urbanism. Accessed 5 Oct 2010 from < http://www.cnu.org/charter>Dill, J., & Carr, T. (2003). Bicycle Commuting and Facilities in Major U.S. Cities: If You Build Them, Commuters Will Use Them. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1828, 116-123.Epperson, B. (1995). Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Bicyclists Involved in Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Accidents. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1502, 58-64.Florida Bicycle Associates. (2010). Florida Bicycle Law Enforcement Guide.Greene, D.L., & Wegener, M. (1997). Sustainable Transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 5:3, 177-190.Hunter, W.W., Feaganes, J.R., & Srinivasan, R. (2005). Conversion of Wide Curb Lanes: The Effect of Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Interactions. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1939, 37-44.Hunter, W. W., Harkey, D. L., Stewart, J. R., & Birk, M. L. (2000). Evaluation of Blue Bike- Lane Treatment in Portland, Oregon. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1705, 107-115.Jensen, A.U. (2008). Safety effects of blue cycle crossings: A before-after study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 742-750. 240
  • 244. Krizek, K.J., & Roland, R.W. (2005). What is at the End of the Road? Understanding Discontinuities of On-Street Bicycle Lanes in Urban Settings. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 10:1, 55-68.Martin, S.L, Lee, S.M., & Lowry, R. (2007). National Prevelance and Correlates of Walking and Bicycling to School. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33:2, 98-195.McDonalds, N.C. (2008). Critical Factors for Active Transportation to School Among Low- Income and Minority Students: Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34:4, 341-344.Murakami, E., & Young, J. (1997). Daily Travel by Persons with Low Income. NPTS Symposium, Bethesda, MD. 29 October 1997.Newman, P. & Kenworth, J. (1999). “Traffic Calming” From: Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Island Press: Washington, D.C.Ong, P., & Blumenberg, E. (1998). Job Access, Commute, and Travel Burden among Welfare Recipients. Urban Studies, 35:1, 77-93.Pucher, J., & Renne, J.L. (2005). Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS. Transportation Quarterly, 57:3, 49-77.Saelens, B.E, Sallis, J.F., & Frank, L.D. (2003). Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling: Findings from the Transportation, Urban Design, and Planning Literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 25:2, 80-91.Schimek, P. (1996). Household Motor Vehicle Ownership and Use: How Much Does Residential Density Matter? Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1552, 120-125.Stillings, T., & Lockwood, I. (2000). West Palm Beach Traffic Calming: The Second Generation. TRB Circular E-C019: Urban Street Symposium, I-5, 1-22.Thompson, S.T.C. (2006). Bicycle Access to Public Libraries: A Survery of Pennsylvania Public Libraries and Their Accessibility to Patrons Arriving via Bicycle. Library Philosophy and Practice, 9:1, 1-11.Van Houten, R., & Seiderman, C. (2005). Part 1: Bicycles: How Pavement Markings Influence Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Positioning: Case Study in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1939, 1-14.Wachs, M., & Taylor, B.D. (1998). Can transportation Strategies Help Meet the Welfare Challenge? Journal of the American Planning Association, 64:1, 15-19. 241
  • 245. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987) “Towards Sustainable Development” From: Our Common Future. UN Documents.Yang, S., Zarr, R.L., Kass-Hout, T.A., & Kourosh, A. (2006). Transportation Barriers to Accessing Health Care for Urban Children. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17:4, 928-943. 242
  • 246. Assessing the Potential Benefits of Florida Friendly Municipal Landscaping in Newtown,SarasotaCorey LeonardBackground Over the past fifty years, big beautiful green lawns and public spaces have become iconic,symbolizing the American dream. Unfortunately, the watering and maintenance requirementsthat these turf laden lawns and landscapes require are not sustainable. The benefits of alternativelandscaping practices, such as Florida Friendly Landscaping (FFL), have been documented in theliterature, however there is a lack of information regarding the benefits of using FFL techniqueson municipal lands or common areas. The Newtown Redevelopment Office has identified citylandscaping along U.S.301, from 10th St. to Myrtle St. as a prospective project in the near future.This research aims to quantify the environmental and economic benefits that FFL will bring toNewtown, Sarasota. Specifically, this research will (1) calculate the land area that will beaffected by the new city landscaping, (2) design two theoretical landscapes (conventional andFFL) to be used in the analysis, and (3) calculate the annual economic and environmentalbenefits of landscaping the study area using FFL techniques. This will be accomplished with theuse of a Resource Conserving Landscaping (RCL) cost calculator provided by the EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA) and GIS. Recent research emerging from Canada and the northeast has challenged thesustainability of private green spaces and lawns. The socio-cultural perspectives of the Americanlawn and the assessment on behavioral and risk perception of lawn chemical usage have beenwell documented, however the risks associated with the high input regimes that traditionallandscaping requires has been outweighed by the pursuit of suburbanization (Robbins and Sharp 243
  • 247. 2003, Robbins 2001, Sandberg 2005). It was not until the post World War II era that the lawnbecame a homogenous norm in the United States and Canada. The post war economic boom ledto an unprecedented level of spending power in the middle class, resulting in changes in urbanand suburban practices (Robbins and Sharp 2003). An increase in suburban development, fueledin part by the creation of the highway system, turned the nation into a green canvas. The lawnhad become the outdoor expression of 1950’s conformism (Steinberg 2006). The unnatural lookof the lawn became the standard, and has since become embedded deep within the Americanpsyche. The perfect landscape is a “dream founded on two resources our nation is rapidly runningout of-oil and water” (Steinberg 2006). Water resources around the globe are being threatenedby pollution and by increases in demand (Loucks 2000, Solomon 2010, Vorosmarty et al. 2000).Florida is not considered an arid region, however the amount of clean drinking water availablehas decreased significantly over the past decade (Fletcher 2002). According to the Departmentof Environmental Protection (DEP), landscape irrigation accounts for up to one-half of allpublic water supplied in Florida. Adding to the problem, the top ten species of sod commonlyused in Florida are non-native and either requires thick rich soil or continuous irrigation tothrive. The soil in Florida is generally sandy, which drains well and is incapable of retainingwater for significant amounts of time. Studies have shown that people associate the quest for aperfect lawn with home values and neighborhood connectivity, so even when the negativeconsequences are known, the behavior still persists (Robbins 2001). The high chemical (pesticide and fertilizer) input that is required by exotic landscapingpractices pose environmental and health hazards (Sandberg 2005, Robbins 2001). The risks 244
  • 248. associated with lawn chemical usage have increased with the spread of the suburban lawn. Raw,non-agricultural pesticides have a world market value of $10.4 billion dollars, with 40 percentof the sales being represented by US household consumption. In 1984 more synthetic fertilizerswere used on American lawns than on all of the food crops of the entire nation of India(Robbins and Sharp 2003). Research illustrates that the consumption of lawn chemicals in theU.S. has increased, and we are using more than necessary. Studies have shown that nearly 50%of households fail to carefully read and follow the directions when using lawn chemicals.Overuse of chemicals leads to a buildup of residue, which is often tracked into the home wherethey accumulate on carpet. Small children, who are more vulnerable to toxins, become at riskfor chronic exposure (Robbins and Sharp 2003, Steinberg 2006). Humans are not the only onesat risk from the adverse affects of lawn chemicals. Pesticides are designed to kill pests, howeverthey commonly affect non-target species. It is estimated that lawn-care pesticides areresponsible for the death of 7 million birds each year (Steinberg 2006). Nevertheless, not all of the literature regarding landscaping is negative. In fact, researchhas attempted to document the social, economic, and environmental benefits of landscaping(Grove 2006, Laverne 2003, Wei et al. 2009, Xian, Crane, and Su 2007). Good landscapingaesthetics have been shown to have a positive effect on commercial building rental rates andproperty values (Laverne 2003). When executed properly, landscaping can also increase thesurface area of non-impervious surfaces, reducing pollution loading into drainage basins (Wei etal. 2009, Xian, Crane, and Su 2007). Although the aforementioned research is aimed athighlighting the benefits of landscaping, the control or comparison group is often pavement.One can argue that any form of landscaping would be better than pavement. However, thebenefits cited do not offset the current unsustainable practices and maintenance regimes. 245
  • 249. The movement towards alternative practices has been slow; few people question theconventional lawn “because its true price is not readily apparent” (Steinberg 2006). In 1989,the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) imposed restrictions aimed to reduceexcessive lawn watering, and in 1991 Florida passed the nation’s first water reducing landscapelaws (Adams 1993). The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) released areport in 2006 that examines Florida friendly landscape and irrigation standards, which revealedsignificant reductions in the amount of water and chemicals used on residential lawns(Landscape Irrigation 2006, Haley et al. 2007). Florida friendly landscape standards have alsobeen set fourth by SWFWMD and are based on the following nine principles:1. Right Plant, Right Place: By removing exotic and invasive species, decreasing the amount of turf, and increasing the amount of plants that thrive in the local environment, the need for water and lawn chemicals can be drastically reduced.2. Water Efficiency: Water plants only when they show signs of stress, use a moisture sensor, and decrease watering in the cooler months. This will help create a healthier landscape and save water and money.3. Fertilize Appropriately: Excess fertilizer seeps into the aquifers or runs into water bodies. Only fertilize to maintain health, use a slow release fertilizer, follow directions on the package, and avoid weed and feed products.4. Mulch: Mulching around plants shrubs will help to control weeds, retain moisture, and will reduce storm water runoff and erosion. Replace grass with mulched areas. Be sure to look for mulch not harvested from Florida’s wetlands, or choose recycled mulch or mulch alternatives. 246
  • 250. 5. Attract Wildlife: Attract friendly visitors by providing cover with trees and shrubs and introduce native plants, which would serve as natural food, shelter, and nesting plants to local wildlife.6. Manage Yard Pests Responsibly: Misused pesticides can enter waterways and harm beneficial wildlife. Let beneficial insects to the work for you and be tolerant, low levels of best do minimal damage. If pesticides are needed, choose the least toxic and read and follow the labels carefully.7. Recycle: Recycling yard waste back into the landscape can improve water-holding abilities and improve fertility. Leave grass clippings on the turf and start a compost pile with yard waste and kitchen scraps.8. Reduce Stormwater Runoff: Runoff carries pollutants and excess lawn chemicals into nearby waterways. Direct gutters into the lawn or plant beds, sweep clippings, fertilizer and soil into the lawn, and pick up pet waist to help reduce the amount of pollution washed into the storm drains.9. Protect the Waterfront: To increase the quality of waterways, plant a buffer zone between your property and the shoreline; a maintenance free zone of at least 10 feet should be established. Never prune mangroves or remove any vegetation without proper permits or guidelines (SWFWMD 2010). Florida Friendly landscaping is slowly gaining popularity in Florida’s suburbs, however, there is a lack of literature quantifying the effects of Florida friendly landscaping on common areas that are maintained by individual municipalities. Sustainable landscaping of common areas has the potential to benefit the environment and save money by reducing the amount of 247
  • 251. water, pesticides, and fertilizers needed to maintain them. Documentation of the economic andenvironmental benefits would ultimately progress the alternative landscape movement.Research Objectives and Methods The Newtown Redevelopment Office has identified city landscaping along U.S.301, from10th St. to Myrtle St. as a prospective future project. This research aims to quantify theenvironmental and economic benefits that Florida friendly landscaping will bring to Newtown.The individual research objectives of this research include the following: 1. Determine the land area that will be affected by the new city landscaping, 2. Design a conventional landscape and calculate irrigation and maintenance requirements for total area, 3. Design a Florida friendly landscape and calculate irrigation and maintenance requirements for the total area, 4. Determine the annual economic and environmental benefits of landscaping the study area using Florida friendly landscaping. Areal imagery (2009) obtained from the City of Sarasota was added in ArcGIS 9.2 tomap the study area, and a parcel shape file provided by the property appraiser’s office was usedto identify areas that may be landscaped. Polygons were manually drawn around areas of landalong U.S.301, from Myrtle St. to 10th St., that are owned by the municipality. The polygonswere used to calculate the area of land, in square feet, that could possibly be affected by thecity-landscaping project. The actual area of land that will be landscaped may vary; however,the calculated study area is large enough to make an accurate and meaningful comparison. 248
  • 252. After the area was calculated, a Resource Conserving Landscaping (RCL) cost calculatorprovided by the EPA was used to compare differences between the two landscape types. Basedon the size of the area to be landscaped, the RCL cost calculator demonstrates how differencesin landscape design could lead to a net economic and environmental savings over time (EPA2010). In order to accurately assess savings and to calculate the cost of generated waste, thelength of the growing season for the study area was determined by using data provided by ESRIGlobe. The annual maintenance requirements were calculated based on a set of estimatesprovided in the RCL calculator. These estimates are based on average prices charged by privatelandscaping businesses, so the actual cost of maintenance provided by the city will be lowerthan the maintenance figures calculated. The estimates are included in both analyses todemonstrate the differences in maintenance costs between the two types of landscapes. Next, thecalculator required that the area be divided into three zones: 1. Regular watering zone – zones that require watering at least once per week, once established, in the absence of rain; 2. Occasional watering zone- zones that would require watering once every two to three weeks, once established in the absence of rain; 3. Natural rainfall zone- zones that only require water from natural rainfall, once established (EPA 2010).After the percentages of land in each zone was determined, the percentages of turf, shrubs, trees,and flowering plants were input based on landscape design standards provided by the DEP andSWFWMD. Finally, the initial costs of the landscaping projects were calculated using nationalaverages provided by the EPA; similarity in costs between the landscape types was assumed. All 249
  • 253. of the parameters were input into the calculator. The 3-year, 6-year, 10-year, and average annualcost savings are determined based on water savings, maintenance cost, and the cost of wastedisposal.Results The polygons created to represent the area to be landscaped from Myrtle St. to 10th St.,along U.S.301 had a total land area of 100,717 square feet. This area was divided into threezones based on vegetation type for conventional and Florida friendly landscapes. Theconventional landscape was designed to have a ground cover dominated by sod, accounting for80573.6 square feet (80%) of the study area. Flowerbeds planted with annuals typically found inconventional landscapes accounted for 100717.7 square feet (10%), shrubs and bushes accountedfor 5035.85 square feet (5%), and trees made up 5035.85 square feet (5%) of the study area. TheFlorida friendly landscape was designed with sod accounting for 50358.5 square feet (50%) ofthe ground cover. Flowerbeds planted with perennial Florida friendly species accounted for5035.81 square feet (5%), shrubs and bushes accounted for 30215.1 square feet (30%), and treesaccounted for 15107.51 square feet (15%) of the study area. The areas of the three wateringzones were calculated based on type of plant cover. Sods in both landscapes were assigned tozone 1. Flowerbeds in the conventional landscape were assigned to zone 1 while flowerbeds inthe Florida friendly landscape were assigned to zone 2. Shrubs in both the conventional andFlorida friendly landscape types were assigned to zone 2 and trees in both landscapes wereassigned to zone 3. The cost per 1000 gallons of water was determined to be $6.60. This wasbased on tier II irrigation water costs provided by the City of Sarasota. Actual costs paid by thecity may vary. 250
  • 254. The gallons of water needed to irrigate the conventional landscape was calculated to be1,132,331 (low estimate) to 2,280,180 (high estimate), which would cost $7,473-$15,049annually. The gallons of water needed to irrigate the Florida friendly landscape was calculatedto be 651,734 (low estimate) to 1,334,502 (high estimate) annually. The annual cost of irrigationwould be $4,301-$8,808. A Florida friendly landscape design on U.S. 301, from Myrtle St. to10th St., could reduce the amount of water used for irrigation by 773,138 gallons (58.2%) peryear. The water savings would equate to $4,706 per year, which could go towards other projectsto benefit Newtown. The average annual cost for irrigation, maintenance, and disposal of generated waste forthe conventional landscape was calculated to be $66,036 (Table 1), while the average annual costfor the Florida friendly landscape was $42,671 (Table 2). If Newtown uses Florida friendlylandscape designs they could possibly save an average of $23,365 per year (64.41%) onirrigation, maintenance, and waste disposal (Figure 1). The average annual water, maintenance,and disposal costs at 3, 6, and 10 years were $70,063, $140,126, and $233,543 respectively(Figure 2). The proportionate increase over time was expected due to the assumption of equalinitial cost. If initial capital requirements are higher for the Florida friendly landscape, the watersavings would remain the same, but the economic benefit would increase over time. 251
  • 255. Low Cost High Cost Conventional Landscape Estimate Estimate Averages Initial Cost $193,377 $374,667 $284,022 Gallons of Water Used Annually 1,132,331 2,280,180 1,706,256 Annual Water Cost Due to Irrigation $7,473 $15,049 $11,261 Annual Flower Bed Maintenance $18,532 $38,172 $28,352 Annual Turf Maintenance $11,119 $15,954 $13,536 Annual Shrub and Ground Cover Maintenance $655 $1,108 $881 Annual Tree Maintenance $252 $957 $604 Landscape Firms Travel Cost $228 $228 $228 Landscape Firms Profit $3,079 $5,267 $4,173 Annual Maintenance Cost $33,864 $61,685 $47,774 Annual Yard Waste Disposal Cost $7,000.00 $7,000.00 Annual Water Maintenance and Disposal Cost $48,337 $83,734 $66,036 3 Year Cost $338,389 $625,869 $482,129 6 Year Cost $483,400 $877,070 $680,235 10 Year Cost $676,749 $1,212,006 $944,378Table 1: Water, maintenance, and disposal cost estimates for the conventional landscape, ascalculated by the EPA’a RCL cost calculator Low Cost High Cost AVERAG Water Saving Landscape Estimate Estimate E Initial Cost $193,377 $374,667 $284,022 Rebate $0 $0 $0 Net Initial Cost $193,377 $374,667 $284,022 Gallons of Water Used Annually 651,734 1,334,502 993,118 Annual Water Cost Due to Irrigation $4,301 $8,808 $6,555 Annual Flower Bed Maintenance $9,266 $19,086 $14,176 Annual Turf Maintenance Cost $6,949 $9,971 $8,460 Annual Shrub and Ground Cover Maintenance $3,626 $6,345 $4,985 Annual Tree Maintenance $604 $2,719 $1,662 Landscape Contractors Travel Cost $228 $228 $228 Landscape Contractors Profit $2,067 $4,164 $3,116 Annual Maintenance Cost $22,741 $42,513 $32,627 Annual Yard Waste Disposal Cost $3,500.00 $3,500.00 Annual Water Maintenance and Disposal Cost $30,542 $54,821 $42,681 3 Year Cost $285,003 $539,129 $412,066 6 Year Cost $376,629 $703,591 $540,110 10 Year Cost $498,797 $922,874 $710,835Table 2: Water, maintenance, and disposal cost estimates for the Florida Friendly landscape, ascalculated by the EPA’s RCL cost calculator 252
  • 256. Figure 1: Cost savings for conventional and Florida friendly landscape typesFigure 2: The annual water, maintenance, and disposal cost over time for conventional andFlorida friendly landscapesDiscussion and Conclusion The RCL cost calculator allows one to estimate the total cost of a landscaping projectover time. This analysis has shown that Florida friendly landscaping has the potential toeconomically benefit Newtown, as well as reduce the need for pesticides, fertilizers, andunnecessary irrigation. The study area used in the analysis is only an estimate of the total land to 253
  • 257. be landscaped; so actual water savings could be higher. The economic benefits from thedecreased water needs of the Florida friendly landscape could also be underestimated. Watersavings could lead to price drops into a lower tier, causing actual savings to be higher. Reducingthe turf area by 30% and increasing shrubs and bushes by 25%, which also increases mulchedareas, greatly reduces the amount of water needed for irrigation. The type of plants that will beselected will also have an affect of the amount of water needed for irrigation. Newtown shouldselect plants and sod that are native to the area and are able to thrive, given the soil andprecipitation conditions. The maintenance needs and generated waste also decreased with the Florida friendlylandscape. Again, choice of plants and sod will be extremely important. Many of the Floridafriendly species grow slowly, which reduce maintenance needs and generated waste. The actualfigures calculated for maintenance costs are not meant to represent the costs that will be incurredby Newtown, they are general estimates provided by the EPA, which are necessary to generatethe calculation. Newtown’s cost of maintenance is expected to be lower, as the city will beresponsible. However, the figures do serve as an adequate comparison tool that illustrates aproportional difference between the two landscapes. Newtown could expect to save 31.7% onmaintenance and 50% on waste disposal. While the analysis focused on how much water and money can be saved by implementingFlorida friendly landscaping, there are several other environmental benefits that are associatedwith this type of landscaping that cannot be calculated. For instance, a Florida friendlylandscape conserves fossil fuels. Minimizing turf grass reduces the need for mowing andtrimming, which ultimately reduces the amount of fuel used to power lawn equipment. This alsoreduces the associated air emissions, which reduces air pollution and improves air quality. 254
  • 258. Florida friendly landscaping requires the grouping of plants based on water needs, which reducesrunoff and retards erosion. It also supports the local ecology because native plants are uniquelyadapted to the local ecosystem and are better able to resist drought and disease, while supportinglocal flora and fauna. The resistance to disease and drought means that less pesticides andfertilizers are needed, keeping lawn chemicals out of the fragile ecosystems and our homes(SWFWMD 2010). The solution to the high environmental and economic costs of the conventional lawn isalternative landscape practices, such as Florida friendly landscaping. However redesigning theAmerican lawn is not going to be an easy task. The traditional lawn holds “an important place inthe American view of an ideal life” (Bormann et al. 2001). To move forward, a mass awakeningof people who question traditional landscaping practices is necessary. The lawn, with all of isglorious greenness, is a human-modified ecosystem that has no function other than to consumeresources that are in short supply in order for people to feel a sense of belonging. Traditionallandscaping practices and maintenance regimes are not sustainable; we must reevaluate ourattachment to the lawn and begin to redefine the purpose and function of landscaping. The useof alternative landscaping along busy streets and in common areas, such as the proposedlandscaping project in Newtown, has the potential to create a trend in residential areas. Oncepeople are given an example that showcases the beauty and cost-effectiveness of alternativelandscapes, the easier it will be to challenge the monoculture of the traditional lawn. Works CitedAdams, Bruce. "Floridas Cooperative Approach." Planning 59.9 (1993): 12. Print.Birkenholtz, T., Robbins, P. “Turfgrass Revolution: Measuring the Expansion of the American Lawn”. Land Use Policy 20 (2003): 181. Print. 255
  • 259. Bormann, F. et al. Redesigning the American Lawn. Yale University Press: New Haven and London (2001).Department Of Environmental Protection. “Landscape Irrigation and Florida-Friendly Design Standards” Report. (2006) Print.Environmental Protection Agency. “Greenscape Tools”. 2010. http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/rrr/greenscapes/tools/Feagan, R. "Reading Private Green Space: Competing Geographic Identities at the Level of the Lawn." Philosophy and geography 4.1 (2001): 79. Print.Fletcher, C. “Florida Water Resource Development: A Call for State Wide Leadership”. Journal of Land Use 18.1 (2002): 113. Print.Grove, M., Cadenasso, M., et al. “Data and Methods Comparing Social Structure and Vegetation Structure of Urban Neighborhoods in Baltimore, Md.” Society and Natural Resources 19 (2006): 117. Print.Haley, M., Dukes, M., and Miller, G. “Residential Irrigation Water Use in Central Florida”. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 10 (2007) :427. PrintLaverne, R. J., Windson-Geildeman, K. "The Influence of Trees and Landscaping on Rental Rates at Office Buildings." Journal of arboriculture 29.5 (2003): 281. Print.Loucks, D. P. "Sustainable Water Resources Management." Water International 25.1 (2000): 3. Print.Robbins, P. et al."Lawns and Toxins:: An Ecology of the City." Cities 18.6 (2001): 369. Print.Robbins, P., Sharp, A. "Producing and Consuming Chemicals: The Moral Economy of the American Lawn." Economic Geography 79.4 (2003): 425-51. Print.Sandberg, L. A., Foster, J. "Challenging Lawn and Order: Environmental Discourse and Lawn Care Reform in Canada." Environmental Politics 14.4 (2005): 478-94. Print.Solomon, Steven. "Fresh, Clean, and Scarce." Sierra (2010): 80-1. Print.Steinberg, T. “American Green: The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Lawn”. W.W. Norton and Co.: New York (2006).SWFWMD. “Florida Friendly Landscaping” 2010. http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/yards/.Vorosmarty, C. J., Green, P., et al. "Global Water Resources: Vulnerability from Climate Change and Population Growth." Science 289.5477 (2000): 284. Print. 256
  • 260. Wei, O. Wang, X., Hao, F., and Srinivasan, R. “Temporal-spatial Dynamics of Vegetation Variation on Non-point source pollution”. Ecological Modeling 220 (2009): 2702. Print.Xian, G., Crane, M., and Su, J. “An Analysis of Urban Development and its Environmental Impact on the Tampa Bay Watershed” Journal of Environmental Management 85 (2007): 965. Print. 257
  • 261. Noise Pollution and Environmental JusticeScott A. Moore There is nothing environmentally sustainable about the roaring sounds of a highwayoutside of a bedroom window, or similarly, the supercharged sounds of jet engines overheadduring a meal. People are unable to achieve peace of mind when they are literally surrounded bya cacophonous din for most of their waking and sleeping life. By definition, one could call these sounds I have described above as noise. Additionally,when compared to an ideal situation, one could portray the situations described above as beingnegatively affected and polluted. Naturally, these two concepts come together in the field ofNoise Pollution, and these are precisely the concepts that I will focus on in this study. Noisepollution is a social ailment that plagues many different kinds of people in many differentcircumstances and locations. Generally speaking, it is the poorer parts of a city that tend to be thenoisiest, as there are much less effort made to soften the sounds of modernity. In this paper, I will consider the broad field of noise pollution and bring it into the contextof how it relates specifically to lower-income neighborhoods and parts of larger towns. I willalso consider why or why not this is different from the way these sounds interact with residentsliving in a wealthier part of a city or municipality. Newtown, Sarasota is one place in particular that falls on the lower side of the economicspectrum, and one can be sure that as the highways outside of their neighborhoods are widened,the amount of noise being produced will increase dramatically. This kind of dynamic, which is tosay, the battle between people and access to assets and a fine quality of living, can be described 258
  • 262. as a study in Environmental Justice, and this field will be an active informant in conducting thisstudy. One of the most significant notions of this paper is that all of these noise-sources andnoisy environments can be totally rectified, and done so in a natural and sustainable way.Throughout this study it will be my goal to relate the two fields of environmental justice andnoise pollution by arriving at an end-point that is deeply indebted to sustainability. The presentage is one of very green intentions: sustainable solutions are becoming more viable with eachpassing day, and eventually systems will be in place that will solve an environmental problemonce and for all, rather than hastily patching it up to attempt to fix it again later. This paper willlook optimistically towards the future by way of nature’s path for a practical and contemporarysolution to the problem of noise pollution and environmental justice, which faces our citiespresently. In order to set the scene for sustainable solutions in the field of noise pollution, whatit means to be “sustainable” must first be gleaned and gathered. Something can be considered sustainable when “it meets the needs of the present withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Wheeler, 62).” This canbe interpreted as perfecting a system of growth or operations until it results in a natural andcyclical wheel of life or process, rather than one that is linear and finite. To achieve thesustainable is to finally return to progressivism and practicality. The goal and inspiration for thesustainability movement is to create scenarios where something new begins directly aftersomething old has just ended, forming out of the ashes of the leftover components. This newcomponent is developed through to maturity, processed, finalized, and then reconsidered inpreparations for naturally restarting the cycle. An ideal example of this would be a harvest oftrees. Let’s say that five trees are planted, maintained and allowed to flourish for some time. 259
  • 263. Then, five more are planted as two of them have reached maturity by completely natural means,and are harvested. So, now two mature, organic trees have been produced, and there are eightmore to follow with an ever-increasing amount of surplus trees being produced due to the factthat the harvester is imitating nature’s cycle of endless plenty. How then, do such scenarios play into the fields of noise pollution or acoustics? Beforethis question is answered, the intricacies of all things noise must be described and brought intocontext. What then is the official definition of noise? Not surprisingly, this question can result inseveral answers: one could either go the direct way, as described by Clifford R. Bragdon on pagefifty-one of his book “Noise Pollution,” declaring that noise can be “defined subjectively asunwanted sound, sound not desired by the recipient” (Bragdon, 1970). Of course after being toldthat this is the definition of noise, one may openly declare that they feel their conversations withother people are unwanted sounds, and that their colleagues are noisemakers! Or one could alsodescribe the sounds coming from an undesired radio station as noise, and that it is polluting thesonic environment. However, these are not necessarily the kinds of noise I am interested inregarding this research. The above quips could almost be understood as problems of aesthetics and irritation,rather than problems of especially noisy sounds. If Bragdon has decided that noise is merelysubjective to the listener and that it has a sliding scale of validity or affectation, then I am moreinterested in a di