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Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control

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Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control

Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control

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    Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control Document Transcript

    • 800-346-9140 GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Appr i e Technol Tr opr at ogy ansf f Rur Ar er or al eas PEST MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL NOTE ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA’s Rural Business -- Cooperative Service. Abstract: This publication focuses on integrated pest management for greenhouse whitefly on both vegetable and ornamental crops. It is designed to complement the ATTRA publication Integrated Pest Management for Greenhouse Crops, which discusses techniques for good greenhouse supervision. Monitoring of whiteflies, biological controls, biopesticides, and insect growth regulators are discussed below. The appendices include information on the newest biopesticides and biological control organisms.By Lane GreerNCAT Agriculture SpecialistJune 2000IntroductionWhiteflies began showing resistance to syntheticinsecticides early on, and by the 1980s they werea very serious greenhouse pest. Not only do theyfeed on plants, but they also produce honeydew,which detracts from the plants appearance andattracts other insects and sooty mold. Whitefliescan also transmit plant viruses. The merepresence of whiteflies in a greenhouse will stopcustomers from buying your product. Contents Courtesy of Hercules Incorporated Wilmington, Delaware Introduction ..............................................1 Several species of whiteflies attack greenhouse Crop Scouting and Trapping.......................2 plants, and they typically have a wide host Biological Control.......................................2 range and resist insecticides. Greenhouse tomatoes Biopesticides and Biorational Pesticides.......3 and poinsettias are especially plagued by Insect Growth Regulators...........................3 whiteflies. The most common whiteflies on Controlled Atmosphere ..............................4 greenhouse crops are the greenhouse whitefly References................................................4 (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), sweetpotato whitefly Web Sites .................................................5 (Bemisia tabaci) and the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia Suppliers...................................................5 argentifolii). Appendix I: Beneficial Organisms ...............8 Appendix II: Biorational Pesticides..............10 The various whitefly species and biotypes look very much alike, but they have subtle physiological differences. These differences can ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 1
    • cause them to respond differently to control tape and resulted in significantly enhanced trappingstrategies. Because control measures must be of whiteflies, relative to controls with sticky trapsselected according to the type of whitefly present, only.accurate identification is critical to successfulcontrol. The Cooperative Extension Service is an Greenhouse plastics themselves may have significantexcellent resource for assistance with pest influence on the initial attraction of insects intoidentification. There are also several web sites greenhouses. A study from the late 1990s showed thatthat provide pictures of the various whiteflies. silverleaf whiteflies preferred to enter greenhousesSee the Web Sites section for more information. covered with film that transmitted higher levels of ultraviolet light (4).Crop Scouting and Trapping Biological ControlPlants should be visually inspected for signs of a Several types of beneficial organisms are availablewhitefly infestation—e.g., off-color or stunted for biological control of whiteflies. The parasiticplants. A hand lens is useful for systematically wasp Encarsia formosa preys on immature whitefliesinspecting a number of individual plants for the and is commonly used for greenhouse whitefly.presence of eggs, nymphs or adults. Both the Encarsia wasps kill whitefly nymphs in one of twoupper and lower leaf surfaces should be ways: they either lay an egg inside the nymph,inspected. It is important to check the providing food for their young, or they kill thegreenhouse in the same pattern on each scouting nymph right away and feed on the fluids inside of ittrip. Locations where whiteflies are found (2). Greenhouse whitefly pupae that have beenshould be flagged so that population parasitized by Encarsia formosa turn black; silverleafdevelopment and control efforts can be whitefly pupae turn amber-brown (2). The cost of E.evaluated. Scouting frequency should be formosa is comparable to foliar pesticides (2).increased during warm weather as whiteflypopulations multiply faster then. Sweetpotato and silverleaf whiteflies are not well controlled by Encarsia formosa. Two other waspTrapping with yellow sticky cards, both inside parasites, Encarsia luteola and Eretmocerus californicusand outside the greenhouse, is essential for a are commercially available for control of thesesuccessful whitefly management program. The species, but E. formosa remains the mainstay of mostcards are used to detect and monitor population whitefly biological control programs due to thelevels. As a general rule, 1 to 4 cards spaced expense and intermittent availability of these otherevenly throughout 1000 square feet of beneficials (5). Researchers are also examininggreenhouse are sufficient (1). A generally different strains of E. formosa to determine theiracceptable threshold for whiteflies is 0.5 per card effectiveness against sweetpotato and silverleafper day when the crop is young, and 2 per card whiteflies.per day as the crop reaches maturity (2). Trapsshould be hung level with the tops of the plants Mark Hoddle, University of California, Riverside,since whiteflies are most attracted to young has done some recent research dealing withfoliage. Doors, vents and other openings where Eretmocerus eremicus. E. eremicus was effective forwhiteflies can enter the greenhouse are other silverleaf whitefly control and is best used ingood sites to hang yellow sticky cards. combination with the insect growth regulatorsResearchers in California have successfully used Precision™ or Applaud™. Enstar™ was notsilver-painted pot spaces and silver polyethylene compatible with natural enemies he tested.mulch to control whiteflies on greenhouse Biological control should be used only at lowpoinsettias (3). The reflective materials were whitefly levels (less than one nymph per 10 cuttings)used in conjunction with yellow sticky cards or and must be regularly evaluated (6). ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 2
    • Mark has also compared the effectiveness of thorough spray coverage. Wider plant spacing andEncarsia formosa and Eretmocerus californicus on removal of dead lower leaves improve pesticidesilverleaf whitefly. In a 1996 study, both coverage and pest control.parasitoids controlled whiteflies at a 99% controlrate. However, fewer numbers of E. californicus A 1995 study conducted in Florida compared thehad to be released, which would result in cost effectiveness of Sunspray Ultra-Fine Spray Oil™, M-savings for growers. Another benefit: Fewer Pede insecticidal soap, a sucrose ester extractparasitoids meant more food for each, so the surfactant derived from tobacco, and Garlicreproduction rate was much higher (7). Barrier™, for killing and repelling silverleaf whiteflies (Bemisia argentifolii) on tomatoes.Delphastus pusillus, sometimes called the whitefly Sunspray provided the best control, followed by M-destroyer, is a very small, black ladybird beetle Pede and the tobacco surfactant. The Garlic Barrierthat attacks all stages of whiteflies, but prefers did not provide any control (9).eggs and nymphs. The females lay their eggswithin clusters of whitefly eggs. Adults can Researchers at Ohio State University showed thatconsume 160 eggs or 12 large nymphs every day. mortality rates of silverleaf whitefly were higherA larva consumes 1000 whitefly eggs during its when BotaniGard was used together with Adept™development. These beetles perform best at (an insect growth regulator), insecticidal soaps,temperatures between 65 and 90°F, with relative horticultural oil, Fulex SO-2000, glycerol and a yeasthumidity above 70%. These predators can be extract (10). In most cases, the rate of infection andused in combination with Encarsia species (8). kill was faster than with BotaniGard alone. This is important because it would allow more biopesticidesSee Appendix I for a complete listing of biological and biorationals to be used retroactively. Whencontrols for whiteflies. several substances are used together, they are applied at lower-than-recommended rates (one-tenth to one-half were used in this study). The researchersBiopesticides and Biorational are trying to "develop management guidelines onPesticides spray-tank mixes that would enhance fungal efficacy" (10).Some microorganisms also control whiteflies. Forinstance, the fungus Beauveria bassiana (trade See Appendix II for a complete listing of biopesticidesnames Naturalis-O™ and BotaniGard™), is and biorational pesticides available for whiteflyeffective against eggs, immature and adult management.whiteflies. Thorough coverage of leaf undersidesand correct timing of applications result in bestcontrol. Insect Growth RegulatorsAnother fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (tradename PFR-97™), is now commercially available.It controls whiteflies, aphids, and spider mites. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are another least-Both B. bassiana and P. fumosoroseus need high toxic pesticide control option. IGRs typically killhumidity for best results. insects by disrupting their development. They have a complex mode of action that precludes insects fromSeveral least-toxic, or biorational, pesticides rapidly developing resistance. IGRs can work in onehave been evaluated for their effectiveness of several ways: 1) they can mimic juvenileagainst the different whitefly species. These hormones, so that insects never enter theinclude neem-based formulations (Neemazad™ reproductive stage of development; 2) they canand Azatin™ are two registered products), interfere with the production of chitin, which makesinsecticidal soap (M-Pede™), and horticultural up the shell of most insects; or 3) they can interfereoil. Enhanced whitefly control is achieved with with the molting process. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 3
    • IGRs usually work through ingestion, so good Horticulturists at North Carolina State Universityspray coverage is essential. They generally don’t reported that whitefly population levels wereaffect non-target species—such as humans, birds, lower in greenhouses where carbon dioxidefish or other vertebrates. For most IGRs there are enrichment occurred daily for about eight hours. Theminimal re-entry restrictions. IGRs typically take likely reason for the population reductions is thatseveral days to have an effect on pest plants grown in atmospheres with high carbonpopulations. Because IGRs do not affect mature dioxide levels tend to have higher concentrations ofinsects, adult beneficials released into the carbohydrates in the plant tissue relative to nitrogen,greenhouse after an IGR application are not likely resulting in a nitrogen-dilute diet for the whiteflies.to be affected. Use of IGRs is generally Lower dietary nitrogen would slow the growth andprohibited by organic certification organizations reproduction of the pests, without adversely affectingbecause the products are synthetic. crop yields or quality (12).IGRs can sometimes be used in conjunction withbiological control efforts and may provide growerswith a “safety net” should beneficials fail to keep Referencesthe pests below economically damaging levels.The table below lists some well-known insectgrowth regulators. (See the Resources section for 1) McHugh, Jennifer. 1991. Monitoring—thesuppliers’ contact information.) first line of defense. Greenhouse Grower. February. p. 66.Table 1. Selected Insect Growth Regulators 2) Gill, Stanton. 2000. Pest control: whitefly control for cut flower growers. The CutBrand Name Supplier Flower Quarterly. Vol. 12, No. 1. p. 26–30.Adept, Dimlin Uniroyal Chemicals 3) Price, Robert P. Jr. 1999. Reflective mulchesAzatin Hydro-Gardens, Olympic and yellow sticky tape control whiteflies in Horticultural Products greenhouse poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima).Citation, Precision Novartis As reported in Williams, Greg and Pat. FromDistance Valent the 1999 ASHS conference. HortIdeas.Enstar II Wellmark Intl. August. p. 85.Neemazad, Neemix Thermo TrilogyPreclude, Pyrigro Whitmire Micro-Gen 4) Costa, H.S. and K.L. Robb. 1999. Effects of ultraviolet-absorbing greenhouse plastic films on flight behavior of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and FrankliniellaControlled Atmosphere occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. June. p. 557–562.Changing the composition of the atmosphere inthe greenhouse by either reducing oxygen or 5) Anon. 1995. Biological pest control.increasing carbon dioxide appears to provide Greenhouse Product News. July. p. 17.some control of greenhouse whiteflies, especiallyadults. Reduced-oxygen experiments by Dr. 6) Daughtrey, Margery and Christine Casey.Susan Han at the University of Massachusetts 1998. Highlights from SAFs pestresulted in 100% adult mortality after less than conference. Grower Talks. April. p. 44, 46.two hours of exposure, though eight-hourtreatments were needed to control most (about 7) Grossman, Joel. 1996. Conference notes.80%) of the eggs and pupae (11). The IPM Practitioner. March. p. 14. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 4
    • 8) Cloyd, Raymond A. 1999. Know your ARBICO Inc. friends: Delphastus pusillus: whitefly PO Box 4247 CRB predator. Midwest Biological Control Tucson, AZ 85738 News. October. p. 3. 800-SOS-BUGS 520-825-2038 fax9) Williams, Greg and Pat. 1995. Oil, soap, Email: arbico@aol.com surfactant, and garlic vs. whiteflies on http://www.arbico.com tomatoes. HortIdeas. May. p. 55–56. Beneficial Insectary 14751 Oak Run Rd.10) Brownbridge, Michael, Margaret Oak Run, CA 96069 Skinner, and Bruce L. Parker. 2000. 800-477-3715 Enhancing the activity of insect-killing 530-472-3523 fax fungi for floral IPM. Ohio Florists Email: bi@insectary.com Association Bulletin. http://www.insectary.com January. p.14–16. BioLogic Co.11) Anon. 1995. Controlled atmosphere to PO Box 177 manage whitefly. The Cut Flower Willow Hill, PA 17271 Quarterly. July. p. 14-16. Email: pyealber@epix.net 717-349-2789/29212) Tripp, Kim and Mary Peet. 1993. New use for CO2: Slowing whiteflies. American Caltec Agri-Marketing Services Vegetable Grower. November. p. 43–44 PO Box 576155 Modesto, CA 95357 209-575-1295Web Sites 209-575-0366 fax http://www.caltecag.comhttp://www.ifas.ufl.edu/~ent2/wfly/index.html Florikan ESA Corp.USDAs Whitefly Knowledgebase 1523 Edger Placehttp://www.imok.ufl.edu/entlab/projects/ Sarasota, FL 34240 whitefly.htm 800-322-8666Information on silverleaf whitefly from the 941-377-3633 faxUniversity of Florida Email: buglady@aol.comhttp://pwa.ars.usda.gov/wcrl//wwghome.html The Green Spot, Ltd.Whitefly Working Groups site on whitefly 93 Priest Rd.research at the University of Arizona Nottingham, NH 03290-6204 603-942-8925 603-942-8932Suppliers 603-942-5027 voice mail Email: GrnSpt@internetMCI.comA-1 Unique Insect Control Harmony Farm Supply5504 Sperry Dr. 3244 Hwy. 116 No. FCitrus Heights, CA 95621 Sebastopol, CA 95472916-961-7945 707-823-9125916-967-7082 fax 707-823-1734 faxEmail: ladybugs@a-1unique.com Email: kate@harmonyfarm.comhttp://www.a-1unique.com http://www.harmonyfarm.com ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 5
    • Hot Pepper Wax, Inc. Natural Pest Controls305 Third St. 8864 Little Creek Dr.Greenville, PA 16125 Orangeville, CA 95662888-667-3785 916-726-0855724-646-2302 fax 916-726-0855 faxEmail: lindag@hotpepperwax.com Email: natpestc@cwnet.comhttp://www.hotpepperwax.com http://www.natural-pest-control.comHydro-Gardens, Inc. Nature’s ControlPO Box 25845 PO Box 35Colorado Springs, CO 80932 Medford, OR 97501719-495-2266 800-698-6250719-531-0506 fax 541-899-9121 faxhttp://www.hydro-gardens.com Email: bugsnc@teleport.comInternational Technology Services Inc. Novartis Crop Protection, Inc.PO Box 19227 PO Box 18300Boulder, CO 80308-2227 Greensboro, NC 27419-8300303-473-9141 800-395-8873303-473-9143 fax http://www.cp.us.novartis.comEmail: intertechserv@worldnet.att.net Olympic Horticultural ProductsIPM Laboratories PO Box 1885PO Box 300 Bradenton, FL 34206-1885Locke, NY 13092-0099 800-659-6745315-497-2063 http://www.hortnet.com/olympic/315-497-3129 Faxhttp://www.ipmlabs.com Plant Health Care 440 William Pitt WayM&R Durango, Inc. Pittsburg, PA 15238PO Box 886 800-421-9051Bayfield, CO 81122 http://www.planthealthcare.com/970-259-3521970-259-3857 faxhttp://www.goodbug.co Praxis 2723 116th Ave.Mycogen Crop Protection Allegan, MI 490105501 Oberlin Dr. 616-673-2793San Diego, CA 92121 616-673-2793 fax800-745-7476 Email: praxis-ibc@datawise.net619-453-9089 fax http://www.praxis-ibc.comEmail: soares@mycogen.com Rincon-Vitova Insectaries, Inc.Mycotech Corp. PO Box 1555PO Box 4109 Ventura, CA 93002Butte, MT 59702-4109 800-248-2847800-383-4310 805-643-6267 fax406-782-9912 fax Email: bugnet@west.netEmail: mycotech@montana.com http://www.rinconvitova.com ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 6
    • SePro Corp. Uniroyal Chemicals11550 N. Meridian St., Suite 180 Benson Rd.Carmel, IN 46032-4562 Middlebury, CT 06749800-419-7779 203-573-2400http://www.sepro.com http://www.uniroyalchemical.comSoil Technologies Corp. Whitmire Micro-Gen2103 185th St. 3568 Tree Court Ind. Blvd.Fairfield, IA 52556 St. Louis, MO 63122800-221-7645 800-777-8570515-472-6189 faxEmail: soiltech@lisco.comhttp://www.lisco.com/soiltech Insect drawings courtesy of Hercules Powder Company;Stoller Enterprises, Inc. Wilmington, DE-Handbook of the8582 Katy Freeway, Suite 200 Insect World 60p.Houston, TX 77024800-539-5283713-461-4467 faxThermo Trilogy Corp. By Lane Greer9145 Guilford Rd., Ste. 175 NCAT Agriculture SpecialistColumbia, MD 21046 June 2000800-847-5620301-604-7015 faxhttp://www.thermotrilogy.com The electronic version of Greenhouse IPM:Wellmark International Whitefly Control is located at :1000 Tower Lane, Suite 245 http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/gh-Bensonville, IL 60106 whitefly.html800-248-7763 The ATTRA Project is operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology under a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. ATTRA is located in the Ozark Mountains at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville at P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702. ATTRA staff members prefer to receive requests for information about sustainable agriculture via the toll-free number 800-346-9140. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 7
    • Appendix I: Beneficial OrganismsOrganism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsChrysopa carnea Natural Pest Controls, aphids, caterpillars, 1 lacewing/5-30 aphids; 1000 eggs/200 sq. ft. Apply every 1-3weeks (predator) Beneficial Insectary, mealybugs, scales, as needed. May arrive as eggs, immatures, or adults. Caltec, Arbico, A-1 spider mites, thrips, Unique Insect Control, whiteflies Praxis, Rincon-Vitova, Hydro-GardensChrysoperla rufilabris Arbico, Beneficial see above(predator) Insectary, IPM Labs., A-1 Unique Insect Control, Nature’s Control, Praxis, Rincon-VitovaChrysoperla spp. M&R Durango, see above(predator) Florikan, Green SpotColeomegilla imaculata Arbico aphids, caterpillars, 1/sq. ft.; shipped as larvae and eggs.(pink ladybird beetle) mites, scales, thrips, whitefliesDeraeocoris brevis Green Spot aphids, whiteflies,(predator) thripsDelphastus pusillus Arbico, IPM Labora- greenhouse whitefly, 2000/3000 sq. ft.; temperature should be 60-85°F. Will feed on(predatory beetle) tories, Nature’s sweetpotato whitefly spider mites if no whiteflies are available. Should be used along Control, Harmony Farm with Encarsia formosa and traps. Supply, Hydro-Gardens, Rincon-Vitova, Praxis, Green Spot ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 8
    • Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsEncarsia formosa Arbico, Nature’s greenhouse whitefly, Release 1/sq. ft. weekly for 3 weeks when pest numbers are(parasitic wasp) Control, IPM Labora- sweetpotato whitefly, low. Release 2-4/sq. ft. when pest numbers are high. tories, Intl. Technology silverleaf whitefly Apply when pests are first observed. Should be used Services, Florikan, in conjunction with traps. May be used along with Harmony Farm Supply, other beneficials. E. formosa is very susceptible to Hydro-Gardens, Natural chemicals. Temps. should be at least 64°F. Re-apply Pest Controls, A-1 Unique every two weeks. Insect Control, Praxis, Rincon-Vitova, Green SpotEncarsia luteolaor E. deserti Hydro-Gardens whitefliesEretmocerus californicus Beneficial Insectary, greenhouse whitefly, Capable of handling hot, dry temperatures. Introduce or E. eremicus Hydro-Gardens, IPM silverleaf whitefly, when whiteflies are first observed. May be used in(parasitic wasp) Labs., Arbico, Praxis, sweetpotato whitefly combination with other beneficials such as green Green Spot lacewings. Eretmocerus is more tolerant of pesticides than Encarsia formosa.Harmonia axyridis Green Spot scale, whiteflies, Temps. should be 70-85°F; humidity around 70%.(Asian lady beetle) mealybugs, aphidsHippodamia convergens A-1 Unique Insect aphids, mites, Release at dusk near an immediate food source. Spray plants(lady beetle) Control, Arbico, whiteflies with water prior to release.(predator) Caltec, IPM Labora- tories, Natural Pest Controls, Harmony Farm Supply, Green Spot, Natures Control, Hydro- Gardens, Praxis ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 9
    • Appendix II: Biorational PesticidesAzadirachtin – extract of neem seed; IGR that works through contact or ingestion Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Azatin Green Spot aphids, caterpillars, fungus 4 hours Apply when pests first appear. gnats, leafhoppers, leafminers, Western flower thrips, whiteflies, psyllids Neemazad Thermo aphids, caterpillars, thrips, 12 hours Cannot be applied through irrigation. Low rate can be Trilogy greenhouse whitefly, leafminers, used as a preventative. sweetpotato whitefly, psyllids, leafhoppersBeauveria bassiana – fungus that works through contact; exposure to non-target insects should be avoided Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Naturalis-O SePro aphids, caterpillars, mites, 4 hours Apply when insects first appear and repeat every psyllids, thrips, whiteflies 7-10 days. Need good spray coverage. Not compatible with other fungicides. BotaniGard Mycotech giant whitefly, green peach 12 hours See above. aphid, black vine weevil, other aphids and whiteflies, thrips, leafhoppers, psyllids, white grubsGarlic extracts Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Garlic Gard Soil Tech- repels many insects Use late in the day. Can be mixed with fish oil or nologies horticultural oil. ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 10
    • Garlic Barrier Green Spot repels many insects 4 hours Do not use in combination with pollinating bees.Horticultural oil – includes dormant and summer superior oils Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments All Seasons Green Spot aphids, mealybugs, scales, 4 hours Use on sunny days to promote rapid drying and thrips, whiteflies, spider decrease chance of phytotoxicity. Not compatible mites with beneficials.Hot pepper wax – contains capsaicin, paraffin, and mineral oil Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Hot Pepper Green Spot aphids, loopers, beet army- 4 hours Also contains herbal essential oils. Not compatible Wax worms, mites, whiteflies, with beneficials. thrips, mealybugs, etc. Hot Pepper Hot Pepper see above Wax Wax, Inc.Insecticidal soap – contains potassium salts of fatty acids Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments M-Pede Mycogen aphids, mealybugs, scales, 12 hours Phytoxicity is often a concern, esp. after thrips, whiteflies, spider repeated applications. mites Safer Green Spot see above 4 hours See above. Insecticidal Olympic see above soap ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 11
    • Neem oil – multi-purpose organic insecticide/fungicide/miticide; kills eggs, larval and adult stages of insects Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Trilogy 90EC Thermo greenhouse whitefly, silver- 4 hours Apply at first signs of damage. Repeat every 7-10 days Trilogy leaf whitefly, sweetpotato as needed. whitefly, thrips, whiteflies, leafminers, aphids, mites, psyllids, San Jose scale, scale, spider mites, downy mildew, powdery mildew, Alternaria, Botrytis, etc. Triact 90EC Thermo see above 4 hours For ornamental crops only. TrilogyPaecilomyces fumosoroseus— fungus Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments PFR-97 Olympic whiteflies, aphids, spider 4 hours mites, Western flower thripsSoybean oil Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Golden Stoller aphids, fungus gnats, lace 12 hours Natur’l Spray bugs, leafminers, scales, Oil mealybugs, spider mites, whiteflies ATTRA // GREENHOUSE IPM SUSTAINABLE WHITEFLY CONTROL Page 12