Transcript of "Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Aphid Control"
800-346-9140 GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE APHID CONTROL Appr i e Technol Tr opr at ogy ansf f Rur Ar er or al eas PEST MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL NOTE www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center funded by the USDA’s Rural Business -- Cooperative Service. Abstract: This publication summarizes IPM for greenhouse aphids on both vegetable and ornamental crops. Focus is on monitoring, sanitation, biological controls, biorational pesticides, and insect growth regulators. Supplemental tables include information on the newest biopesticides and biological control organisms.By Lane GreerNCAT Agriculture SpecialistJune 2000The following document focuses on least-toxicmethods for dealing with aphids in greenhouses.For general information on greenhouse IPM,request ATTRA’s publication Integrated PestManagement for Greenhouse Crops, which coverstopics such as screening to eliminate pests, weedmanagement, and disease control.IntroductionThere are approximately 4,000 aphid species inthe world. Life cycles and preferred hosts varywith each type of aphid. Common aphid pests ofgreenhouse crops include the green peach aphid Courtesy Of Hercules Inc., Wilmington, Delaware(Myzus persicae), the melon/cotton aphid (Aphisgossypii), the chrysanthemum aphid (Macrosiphum rosae), the potato aphid(Macrosiphoniella sanborni), the rose aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) and the foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani) (1). Contents The green peach aphid is probably the most Introduction.......................................................1 notorious aphid pest of greenhouse crops because Crop Scouting and Trapping.........................2 of its wide host range, worldwide distribution, Biological Control ............................................2 number of viral diseases it vectors, and difficulty Biorational Pesticides......................................2 of control (2). Insect Growth Regulators ..............................3 Summary and Further Resources .................4 Aphid management relies on understanding that References..........................................................5 the females of many aphid species do not have to Biological Control Suppliers.........................5 mate in order to reproduce, and they typically Appendix 1: Beneficial Organisms .............8 produce live young, rather than eggs. These Appendix 2: Biorational Pesticides.............11 characteristics contribute to the tendency of aphid populations to "explode." IS A PROJECT OF THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY
Crop Scouting and Trapping Biological ControlPlants should be visually inspected for signs of There are several biological control options foran aphid infestation. Look especially carefully at greenhouse aphid pests. Some commonplants prone to aphid problems, and at plant biological control agents (BCAs) include greenparts like the undersides of leaves, stems, and lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea, C. rufilabris,new growth. Choose plants randomly Chrysopa spp.), aphid midges (Aphidoletesthroughout the greenhouse and inspect aphidimyza), parasitic wasps (Aphidius colemaniundersides of leaves, buds or tip growth and and Aphidius matricariae) and lady beetleswatch for honeydew and cast skins. Since aphids (Hippodamia convergens). See Appendix I:are difficult to see on plants with fine foliage, Beneficial Organisms for more BCAs andhold such plants over a white piece of paper and suppliers.gently tap to dislodge any aphids. Avoid movinginfested plants to new areas where susceptible A 1998 study showed that green lacewing larvaeplants are growing. Locations where aphids are did not disperse as well as the parasitic waspfound should be flagged, so that population Aphidius colemani (3). To achieve equal aphiddevelopment and control efforts can be suppression, more of the slower-moving speciesevaluated. need to be introduced and from more points (lacewings have to be released on each benchDifferent aphid species tend to populate different because they cannot move to adjacent benches,parts of their host plants. Green peach aphids for instance). A study performed at Coloradotend to cluster on the succulent young growth, State University compared the effectiveness ofwhereas melon aphids are usually evenly parasitic wasps, aphid midges, lady beetle larvae,distributed along the plant stems. Melon aphid and green lacewing larvae (4). The researcherspopulations also have fewer winged adults than found that lacewings performed better in hotdo green peach aphids. Knowing which species temperatures, while aphid midges and ladyis infesting the crop is very important in beetles were better in cooler temperatures. At allsuccessful detection and monitoring of aphid temperatures, Aphidoletes was the best of the fourpopulations. The Cooperative Extension Service at controlling aphids.is a good resource for identification of specificaphid pests. Biorational PesticidesYellow sticky cards placed horizontally at the topof the pot or container (if you are growing Strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana providecontainerized plants) can be used for monitoring good control of aphids, including green peachwinged aphids. However, since winged aphids aphids. The fungus works by attaching to thecaught during the summer months may have outside of the pest, then penetrating into theblown in from the outdoors, sticky cards are not body and killing it. The fungus is availableas reliable as visual inspections. Sticky cards are commercially for greenhouse ornamentals asmore useful in the winter months when aphids Naturalis-O™ and for vegetables ascaught on the cards are not likely to have come in BotaniGard™. (See below for suppliers.)from the outside. It is better to rely primarily onvisual inspections for aphid detection, and use Another fungus, Verticillium lecanii, can alsosticky cards as a backup method. provide good biological control of aphids. Formulations of this fungus are currently beingSigns of an aphid infestation include honeydew sold in some European countries under theor sooty mold on leaves, yellow spots on upper names of Vertalec™ and Mycotal™, but neitherleaf surfaces, cast skins on leaves, curling of of these products is yet registered for use in theleaves, and distortion of new growth. United States. // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE APHID CONTROL Page 2
Verticillium lecanii often occurs naturally in target species, such as humans, birds, fish orgreenhouses, so it may be possible to encourage other vertebrates. For most IGRs there areits growth and distribution in the greenhouse minimal re-entry restrictions. IGRs typically takewithout the benefit of a commercially available several days to have an effect on pestproduct. V. lecanii spores require at least 93% populations. Because IGRs do not affect maturerelative humidity at temperatures between 59 insects, adult beneficials released into theand 81°F to germinate and grow (6). High greenhouse after an IGR application are not likelyhumidity must be present for at least 10–12 to be affected. Use of IGRs is generallyhours/day. Unfortunately, most plant disease- prohibited by organic certification organizationscausing fungi also grow best at these same because the products are synthesized.temperature and humidity ranges. Fungicidesused to control the plant disease-causing fungi IGRs can sometimes be used in conjunction withwould probably also kill any beneficial fungi biological control efforts and may providepresent. Insecticides may also be harmful to V. growers with a “safety net” should beneficialslecanii. fail to keep the pests below economically damaging levels. The table below lists someLeast-toxic pesticides used against aphids in well-known insect growth regulators. (Contactgreenhouses include insecticidal soap (M- information for suppliers is listed at the end ofPede™), horticultural oil (UltraFine SunSpray this document.)spray oil™), and botanical insecticides such asneem (Azatin™, Neemazad™, and Neemix™), ornatural pyrethrums. See Appendix II:Biorational Pesticides for more information andsuppliers.Insect Growth RegulatorsInsect growth regulators (IGRs) are another least-toxic pesticide control option for pests. IGRstypically kill insects by disrupting theirdevelopment. They have a complex mode ofaction that precludes insects from rapidlydeveloping resistance. IGRs can work in one ofseveral ways: 1) they can mimic juvenilehormones, so that insects never enter thereproductive stage of development; 2) they caninterfere with the production of chitin, whichmakes up the shell of most insects; or 3) they caninterfere with the molting process. IGRs usuallywork through ingestion, so good spray coverageis essential. They generally don’t affect non- Courtesy of Hercules Inc. Wilmington, Delaware // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE APHID CONTROL Page 3
Table 1. Selected Insect Growth Regulators Brand Name Supplier Active against: Azatin Hydro-Gardens, Olympic whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, Horticultural Products mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, cabbage loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms Enstar II Wellmark Intl. whiteflies, fungus gnats, aphids, soft and armored scales, mealybugs Neemazad Thermo Trilogy whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, cabbage loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms Neemix Thermo Trilogy whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, mealybugs, fungus gnats, aphids, loopers, diamondback moths, armyworms, cabbage loopers Preclude Whitmire Micro-Gen whiteflies, thrips, scales, aphids Summary and Further Resources Greenhouse aphids are tiny insects, but they control measures that dovetail very nicely with demand serious attention on the part of the the IPM philosophy. In the resources sections greenhouse grower. Integrated pest management below, growers are provided with a list of offers a sustainable approach for dealing with biological control suppliers; and tables that greenhouse aphids, and safer pest control summarize biocontrol agents and biorational products facilitate the adaptation of least-toxic pesticides that control aphids. Related ATTRA Materials • Organic Greenhouse Vegetable Production • Integrated Pest Management of Greenhouse Crops • Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Thrips Control • Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Whitefly Control // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE APHID CONTROL Page 4
References: Caltec Agri-Marketing Services PO Box 5761551) Lindquist, Richard. 1991. A guide to aphid Modesto, CA 95357 control. GrowerTalks. October. p. 75. 209-575-1295 209-575-0366 fax2) Sunderland, Keith et al. 1992. Integrated pest http://www.caltecag.com management of greenhouse crops in Northern Europe: Aphids. p. 23–30. In: Jules Janick Florikan ESA Corp. (ed.) Horticultural Reviews: Vol. 13. John 1523 Edger Place Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY. Sarasota, FL 34240 800-322-86663) Heinz, K.M. 1998. Dispersal and dispersion 941-377-3633 fax of aphids and selected natural enemies in Email: firstname.lastname@example.org spatially subdivided greenhouse environments. Environmental Entomology. The Green Spot, Ltd. Vol. 27, No. 4. p. 1029–1038. 93 Priest Rd. Nottingham, NH 03290-62044) Anon. 1999. Efficacy of four biocontrol agents 603-942-8925 on the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, in 603-942-8932 greenhouse peppers. Midwest Biological 603-942-5027 voice mail Control News. January–February. p. 7. Email: GrnSpt@internetMCI.com Harmony Farm SupplyBiological Control Suppliers 3244 Hwy. 116 No. F Sebastopol, CA 95472A-1 Unique Insect Control 707-823-91255504 Sperry Dr. 707-823-1734 faxCitrus Heights, CA 95621 Email: email@example.com http://www.harmonyfarm.com916-967-7082 faxEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Hot Pepper Wax, Inc.http://www.a-1unique.com 305 Third St. Greenville, PA 16125ARBICO Inc. 888-667-3785PO Box 4247 CRB 724-646-2302 faxTucson, AZ 85738 Email: email@example.com-SOS-BUGS http://www.hotpepperwax.com520-825-2038 faxEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Hydro-Gardens, Inc.http://www.arbico.com PO Box 25845 Colorado Springs, CO 80932Beneficial Insectary 719-495-226614751 Oak Run Rd. 719-531-0506 faxOak Run, CA 96069 http://www.hydro-gardens.com800-477-3715530-472-3523 fax International Technology Services Inc.Email: email@example.com PO Box 19227http://www.insectary.com Boulder, CO 80308-2227 303-473-9141 303-473-9143 fax Email: firstname.lastname@example.org // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE APHID CONTROL Page 5
IPM Laboratories Olympic Horticultural ProductsPO Box 300 PO Box 1885Locke, NY 13092-0099 Bradenton, FL 34206-1885315-497-2063 800-659-6745315-497-3129 Fax 888-647-4329 faxhttp://www.ipmlabs.com Email: email@example.com http://www.hortnet.com/olympicKoppert Biological Systems2856 Main St. South PraxisAnn Arbor, MI 48103 2723 116th Ave.313-998-5589 Allegan, MI 49010313-998-5557 fax 616-673-2793http://www.koppert.nl/english/index.html 616-673-2793 fax Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgM&R Durango, Inc. http://www.praxis-ibc.comPO Box 886Bayfield, CO 81122 Rincon-Vitova Insectaries, Inc.970-259-3521 PO Box 1555970-259-3857 fax Ventura, CA 93002http://www.goodbug.co 800-248-2847 805-643-6267 faxMycogen Crop Protection Email: email@example.com Oberlin Dr. http://www.rinconvitova.comSan Diego, CA 92121800-745-7476 SePRO Corp.619-453-9089 fax 11550 N. Meridian St., Suite 180Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Carmel, IN 46032-4562 800-419-7779Mycotech Corp. 317-580-8290 faxPO Box 4109 Email: email@example.comButte, MT 59702-4109 http://www.sepro.com800-383-4310406-782-9912 fax Soil Technologies Corp.Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 2103 185th St. Fairfield, IA 52556Natural Pest Controls 800-221-76458864 Little Creek Dr. 515-472-6189 faxOrangeville, CA 95662 Email: email@example.com http://www.lisco.com/soiltech916-726-0855 faxEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Stoller Enterprises, Inc.http://www.natural-pest-controls.com 8582 Katy Freeway, Suite 200 Houston, TX 77024Nature’s Control 800-539-5283PO Box 35 713-461-4467 faxMedford, OR 97501800-698-6250 Thermo Trilogy Corp.541-899-9121 fax 9145 Guilford Rd., Ste. 175Email: email@example.com Columbia, MD 21046 800-847-5620 301-604-7015 fax http://www.thermotrilogy.com // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE APHID CONTROL Page 6
Wellmark International1000 Tower Lane, Suite 245 Insect drawings courtesy of HerculesBensonville, IL 60106800-842-3135 Powder Company; Wilmington, DE-630-227-6065 fax Handbook of the Insect World 60p.Whitmore Micro-Gen3568 Tree Court Ind. Blvd.St. Louis, MO 63122800-777-8570 The electronic version of Greenhouse IPM: Sustainable Aphid Control is located at:By Lane Greer http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/gh-NCAT Agriculture Specialist aphid.htmlJune 2000 The ATTRA Project is operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology under a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. ATTRA is located in the Ozark Mountains at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville at P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702. ATTRA staff members prefer to receive requests for information about sustainable agriculture via the toll-free number 800-346-9140. // GREENHOUSE IPM: SUSTAINABLE APHID CONTROL Page 7
Appendix I: Beneficial OrganismsOrganism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsChrysoperla spp.Amblyseius degenerans or M&R Durango, Intl. Technology see above aphids(predator)Iphiseius degenerans Florikan, Green Spot Services, IPM Labs.,(predatory mite) Green SpotColeomegilla imaculataAphidius colemani Arbico IPM Labs., Florikan, aphids, caterpillars, aphids 1/sq. ft.; shipped as humidity should be 70-85%, temp. 65-77°F. Release.5-2/sq. yd.; larvae and eggs.(pink ladybird beetle)(parasitic wasp) Harmony Farm mites, scales, thrips, Release at first sign of pests and for 3 consecutive weeks Supply, Praxis, whiteflies thereafter. Sensitive to pesticides. Rincon-Vitova, GreenCryptolaemus montrouzieri Arbico, Caltec, Intl. Spot aphids, mealybugs, 2-5/infested plant; humidity should be 70-80%, temp. 70-80°F.(predator beetle) Technology Services, soft scales Larvae are cannibalistic; repeat as necessary for control; do notAphidius matricariae IPM Laboratories, Arbico, Hydro- aphids 500-3000/A.while be used in greenhouses all year long. wear white Can distributing.(parasitic wasp) Natural Pest Controls, Gardens, Green Spot Nature’s Control,Aphidoletes aphidimyza Florikan, Harmony Nature’s Control, aphids 1-3/10 sq.ft.; humidity should be 50-90%, temp. 60-80°F. Release(predator midge) Farm Supply, Hydro- Intl. Technology when aphids are first observed; release lower numers for Gardens, IPM Labora- Services, Praxis, Rincon- preventive control; apply every two weeks. Active at night; Vitova, Green Spot tories, Hydro-Gardens, sensitive to daylength. Arbico, Praxis, Rincon-Deraeocoris brevis Green Spot Vitova, Harmony Farm aphids, whiteflies,(predator) Supply, Green Spot thripsDiaretiella rapaeChrysopa carnea Arbico, Pest Controls , Natural Praxis aphids caterpillars, aphids, Release rates vary. 1 lacewing/5-30 aphids; 1000 eggs/200 sq. ft. Apply every 1-3(parasite)(predator) Beneficial Insectary, mealybugs, scales, weeks as needed. May arrive as eggs, immatures, or adults. Caltec, Arbico, A-1 spider mites, thrips,Harmonia axyridis Green Spot Unique Insect Control, scale, whiteflies, whiteflies Temps. should be 70-85°F; humidity around 70%.(Asian lady beetle) Praxis, Rincon-Vitova, mealybugs, aphids Hydro-GardensHippodamia convergens A-1 Unique Insect aphids, mites, Release at dusk near an immediate food source. Spray plants(lady beetle) (predator)Chrysoperla rufilabris Control, Arbico, Arbico, Beneficial whiteflies see above with water prior to release.(predator) Caltec, IPM Labora- Insectary, IPM Labs., tories, Natural Pest A-1 Unique Insect Controls, Nature’s Control, Nature’s Control, Harmony Farm Praxis, Supply, Hydro-Gardens, Rincon-Vitova Praxis, Green Spot
Organism Supplier Pests Controlled Application/CommentsIphiseius degenerans or Intl. Technology aphids Amblyseius degenerans Services, IPM Labs., (predatory mite) Green SpotLysiphlebus testaceipes Praxis aphids(parasitic wasp)N. cucumeris and N. barkeri Hydro-Gardens thrips, aphids, mites 1 predator/sq. ft.; humidity should be moderate, temp. 70°F. Establish population early. Repeat every month during periods of warm, dry weather.Orius insidiosus Florikan, IPM aphids, caterpillars, 1/10 sq. ft. (preventive), 1 every 2 sq. ft. when pests are(minute pirate bug) Labs., Harmony Farm thrips, whiteflies, present. Temperature should be 70-90°F. Orius are (predator) Supply, Arbico, mites dormant September–April. Re-apply every 2-3 weeks. Hydro-Gardens, Very susceptible to pesticides. Works well in combina- Praxis, Koppert, tion with Neoseiulus cucumeris. Intl. Tech. Services, Green SpotPropyleaquatuordecimpuncata Praxis aphids (predatory beetle)
Appendix II: Biorational PesticidesAzadirachtin – extract of neem seed; IGR that works through contact or ingestion Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Azatin Green Spot aphids, caterpillars, fungus 4 hours Apply when pests first appear. gnats, leafhoppers, leafminers, Western flower thrips, whiteflies, psyllids Neemazad Thermo aphids, caterpillars, thrips, 12 hours Cannot be applied through irrigation. Low rate can be Trilogy greenhouse whitefly, leafminers, used as a preventative. sweetpotato whitefly, psyllids, leafhoppersBeauveria bassiana – fungus that works through contact; exposure to non-target insects should be avoided Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Naturalis-O SePro aphids, caterpillars, mites, 4 hours Apply when insects first appear and repeat every psyllids, thrips, whiteflies 7-10 days. Need good spray coverage. Not compatible with other fungicides. BotaniGard Mycotech giant whitefly, green peach 12 hours See above. aphid, black vine weevil, other aphids and whiteflies, thrips, leafhoppers, psyllids, white grubs
Garlic extracts Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Garlic Gard Soil Tech- repels aphids and other insects nologies Garlic Barrier Green Spot repels aphids and other insects 4 hours Use late in the day. Can be mixed with fish oil or horticultural oil. Do not use in combination with bumblebees or honeybees.Horticultural oil – includes dormant and summer superior oils Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments All Seasons Green Spot aphids, mealybugs, scales, 4 hours Use on sunny days to promote rapid drying and thrips, whiteflies, spider decrease chance of phytotoxicity. Not compatible mites with beneficials.Hot pepper wax – contains capsaicin, paraffin, and mineral oil Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Hot Pepper Green Spot aphids, loopers, beet army- 4 hours Also contains herbal essential oils. Not compatible Wax worms, mites, whiteflies, with beneficials. thrips, mealybugs, etc. Hot Pepper Hot Pepper see above 0 hours Wax Wax, Inc.
Insecticidal soap – contains potassium salts of fatty acids Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments M-Pede Mycogen aphids, mealybugs, scales, 12 hours Phytoxicity is often a concern, esp. after thrips, whiteflies, spider repeated applications. mites Safer Green Spot see above 4 hours See above. Insecticidal Olympic see above soapNeem oil – multi-purpose organic insecticide/fungicide/miticide; kills eggs, larval and adult stages of insects Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Trilogy 90EC Thermo greenhouse whitefly, silver- 4 hours Apply at first signs of damage. Repeat every 7-10 days Trilogy leaf whitefly, sweetpotato as needed. whitefly, thrips, whiteflies, leafminers, aphids, mites, psyllids, San Jose scale, scale, spider mites, downy mildew, powdery mildew, Alternaria, Botrytis, etc. Triact 90EC Thermo see above 4 hours For ornamental crops only. TrilogySoybean oil Brand Name Supplier Pests Controlled REI Application/Comments Golden Natur’l Stoller aphids, fungus gnats, lace 12 hours Spray Oil bugs, leafminers, scales, mealybugs, spider mites, whiteflies