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Grapes: Organic Production

Grapes: Organic Production



Grapes: Organic Production

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    Grapes: Organic Production Grapes: Organic Production Document Transcript

    • ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production A Publication of ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Rex Dufour Organic grape production provides a fairly predictable economic return in irrigated parts of the aridNCAT Agriculture West. In the East, organic grape production is complicated by a climate that fosters insect and diseaseSpecialist problems. Production is compounded by consumer preferences for grape cultivars (both dessert and© 2006 NCAT wine grapes) that are difficult to grow in the East. This guide presents organic management options for diseases, insects and weeds, discusses cultivar choices in terms of disease resistance, and briefly presents marketing ideas for eastern labrusca-type grapes and organic wines. References and an appendix on disease resistance rating follow the narrative.ContentsIntroduction ........................ 1 “Simply put: the principles of organic farm-Geographical Consider- ing and sustainable practices are the singleations and Disease most important tools you can employ toManagement ...................... 4 improve wine quality.” John Williams, owner,Diseases ................................ 5 Frog’s Leap Winery, Rutherford, California,Geographical Consider- speaking at the 54th Annual Meeting of theations and Insect and American Society for Enology and ViticultureMite Management .......... 12 (ASEV). June 20, 2003. Reno, Nevada.Plant ParasiticNematodes ........................ 18Vertebrate Pests .............. 18 diseases, and weeds. ForWeeds .................................. 21 general information onAlleyway Vegetation organic fertility manage-Management .................... 21 ment in tree and vineGrazing Options ..............25 crops, refer to ATTRA’sEconomics and Tree Fruits: Organic Pro-Marketing ...........................25 Photo by Rex Dufour, NCAT duction Overview.Wine Making andSustainable Energy......... 28 In some parts of the country, grapes areSummary ............................30 Introduction among the easiest fruit crops to grow organ- GReferences .........................30 rapes are grown in many parts of the ically. Diseases can be managed with aFurther Resources ........... 32 U.S., in a wide range of climates and combination of cultural strategies (includingAppendix I: Disease conditions. Certain considerations specific pruning and training techniques,Resistance Rating Chartfor Grape Cultivars..........38 and practices in grape production will be cultivar selection, and proper siting of the the same for both organic growers and con- vineyard) and organically acceptable oils ventional growers within a given region. For and soaps, and mineral- and biologically-ATTRA—National Sustainable instance, site selection, pruning and train- based fungicides. A similar range of prod-Agriculture Information Serviceis managed by the National Cen- ing, and planting techniques are similar for ucts, but including pheromonal controls,ter for Appropriate Technology both conventional and organic grape cul- can be relied upon to control most mite and(NCAT) and is funded under agrant from the United States ture. Information on these topics is available insect problems. Cover crops, mulching,Department of Agriculture’s through the Cooperative Extension Service, mowing, and mechanical cultivation can beRural Business-Cooperative Ser-vice. Visit the NCAT Web site grape growers associations, and common used to control weeds, and fertility needs(www.ncat.org/agri. vineyard texts, bulletins, and trade maga- can be met with ecological soil managementhtml) for more informa-tion on our sustainable zines. Accordingly, this publication focuses practices and purchased organic fertilizers,agriculture projects. primarily on organic controls for pests, when necessary.
    • Table 1. Wine Grape SpeciesGrape Common Names Cultivars Native to Climatic/pest AdditionalSpecies and Hybrids considerations InformationVitis vinifera European Grape, Many Asia Minor Widely planted in western US, but on hybrid root- Vinifera grape stocks, as V. vinifera root- stocks are susceptible to phylloxera. Generally not as cold hardy as native V. labrusca grapes, so less widely planted in the Northeast. Vinifera grapes can be generally charac- terized as requiring a long growing season, relatively high summer temperatures, low humidity, a ripening season free of rainfall, and mild winter temperatures.Vitis rotundifolia, Arkansas Grape, Big White Black Beauty, Black Southern Delaware Adapted to humid south- Because of its resistance to(Please note that some Grape, Black Grape, Bull Fry, Bountiful, Car- to southern Illinois, east. Lacks frost hardi- many pests, V. rotundifoliaauthorities place this Grape, Bullace Grape, Bul- los, Chief, Cowart, south by southwest ness and can be injured by would be the ideal rootstockspecies in a separate let Grape, Bullit Grape, Bush Darlene, Dear- to northeastern minimum winter temps of candidate for Vinifera graftsgenus, Muscadinia.) Grape, Bushy Grape, Currant ing, Delight, Dixie, Texas, south to the 0 degrees F. Should avoid were it not for the fact that italso: Vitis acerifolia Grape, Flowers Grape, Green Doreen, Florida Gulf, and east to the growing in areas that often will rarely accept a graft from(Le Conte), Vitis angu- Muscadine, Hickman’s Grape, Fry, Fry, Higgins, Atlantic. have 10 degree F temps. It any but its own species. Somelata (Le Conte), Vitis Muscadine Grape, Musca- Hunt, Ison, Jane- is most abundant on sandy, authorities consider that thiscallosa, Vitis cordi- dinia Rotundifolia, Mustang bell, Janet, Jumbo, well-drained bottom lands species (along with the relatedfolia, Vitis hyemalis, Grape, Roanoke Grape, Scup- Loomis, Magno- and along river banks and V. munsoniana) should beVitis incisa (Rafin- pernong Grape, Southern lia, Nesbitt, Noble, in swamps, thick woodlands in a different genus, due toesque), Vitis musca- Fox Grape, Warty Grape, Pineapple, Regale, and thickets. They tolerate a number of morphologicaldina (Rafinesque), White Grape, White Musca- Scuppernong, hot summers but do not differences (not to mentionVitis mustangensis, dine, White Musky Grape, Sterling, Summit, withstand drought and do that V. rotundifolia has a differ-Vitis peltata (Rafin- and Yellow Muscadine Supreme, Sweet not adapt well to semi-arid ent number of chromosomesesque), Vitis rotun- Jenny, Tara, Tar- conditions. Satisfactory (n=20) than other Vitas spe-difolia Flowers, Vitis heel, and Triumph growth in warmer grape cies (n=19). California Rarerotundifolia Scup- growing areas of Washing- Fruit Growers website providespernong, Vitis taurina ton, California and Oregon. much information about plant-(Bartram), Vitis ver- Nearly immune to phyllox- ing and care of this species, asrucosa (Muhlenberg), era, Pierce’s disease well as a listing of the variousand Vitis vulpina and nematodes. cultivars and their characteris-(Linnaeus). tics: www.crfg.org/pubs/ff/mus- cadinegrape.html. Also, Jack Keller’s website has a wealth of information on this species: http://winemaking.jackkeller. net/rotundif.aspVitis labrusca, also: Alexander Grape, Alexan- Alexander, Northeast and Nearly immune to phyllox- Tougher skin than EuropeanVitis blandii (Prince), dria Grape, Beaconsfield Catawba, Cham- east of US. era. Vitis labrusca has long grapes. Deep purple in color.Vitis canina, Vitis Grape, Black Cape Grape, pion, Concord been used as rootstock Major use is for sweet grapecatawba (Hort.), Black Champion, Black Fox (80% of V. labrusca for V.vinifera grafts and juice (Welch’s) and associatedVitis ferruginga, Vitis Grape, Black Grape, Buck production), Dela- for development of hardy products–jelly, jam, preserves,labrusca alexandrer, Grape, Cape Grape, Cham- ware, Niagara, hybrids. some wine.Vitis labrusca cham- pignon Grape, Clifton’s Con- Lakemont, Reli-pion, Vitis labrusca stantia Grape, Clifton’s Lom- ance, and Himrodvar. subeden tata (Fer- bardia Grape, Columbiannald), Vitis labrusca Grape, Constantia Grape,var. typica (Regel), Early Champion Grape, Grapes grow all over North America, except in the most extreme desert and tun-Vitis latifolia, Vitis Farker’s Grape, Fox Grape, dra. North America is home to more than half of the world’s 50 or so species ofluteola, Vitis sylves- Frost Grape, Madeira of York grapes. Various authorities recognize between 19 and 29 species of native Northtris virginiana (Bauh), Grape, Northern MuscadineVitis taurina (Walter), Grape, Plum Grape, Rothrock American grape. Table 1 lists the four American grape species used in wine pro-Vitis vinifera sylvestris Grape, Rothrock of Prince duction: V. rotundifolia, V. labrusca, V. aestivalis, and V. riparia. Please note, how-americana (Pluk), and Grape, Schuykill Muscadel, ever, that except for Vitas rotundifolia and Vitas munsoniana, these “species”Vitis vulpina Schuykill Muscadine, Skunk readily hybridize, resulting in a situation where one specie’s traits and range(Marshall) Grape, Springmill Constantia overlap with another (or several others!). Some areas may have two or more Grape, Swamp Grape, Tal- species co-existing and with the various permutations of hybrid offspring pos- mam’s Seedling Grape, Task- sible, identification becomes difficult. This is why there are so many names listed er’s Grape, Tolman, Vevay under “Grape Species”—some authorities described “new” grape species that Grape, Winne Grape, and had already been described by others under a different name. (Table adapted from: York Lisbon Grape Winemaking Homepage, Jack Keller, 2005. http://winemaking.jackkeller.net/natives.asp)Page 2 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Table 1. Wine Grape Species (continued) Grape Species Common Cultivars and Native to Climatic/pest Additional Names Hybrids considerations Information Vitis aestivalis (Munson), also: Cynthiana Grape, Norton, Cynthiana, Tolerant of Pierce’s Dormant cuttings of this species do Vitis nortoni, Vitis lincecumii, Arkansas Grape, Nor- America Disease. (Rombough, not root well and this trait is com- Vitis bicolor. The later two ton Grape, Norton 2002) monly passed on to hybrids (an are considered varieties of Virginia Grape, Nor- exception is the hybrid America, a V. aestivalis ton’s Seedling Grape, cross with V. rupestris, which roots Norton’s Virginia readily from dormant cuttings). Seedling Grape, and Green cuttings will root on mist Red River Grape benches (Rombough, 2002). This grape can make an excellent red wine that can compete in quality with that made from vinifera grapes. Vitis riparia, also: Vitis amara, Bermuda Vine, Frost The better root- Riparia is the most It is known to with- Riparia grows readily from from Vitis boulderensis, Vitis cal- Grape, June Grape, stocks in France widely distributed stand temperatures to cuttings and makes a good stock losa (Le Conte), Vitis canaden- Maple Leaved Cana- have been given of any American -60 degrees F., is mod- for grafting, where the union with sis acceris folio (Tournefort), dian Grape, Mignon- varietal names such species of grape. erately drought resis- other species is usually permanent. Vitis colombina, Vitis con- ette Vine, River Grape, as Riparia Gloire, It is found in New tent when naturalized Native Riparias are early bloomers color, Vitis cordifolia (Darling- Riverside Grape, Riparia Grand Gla- Brunswick and to such conditions, but late ripeners, and their fruit is ton), Vitis cordifolia riparia Riverbank Grape, bre, Riparia Scribner, northern Quebec and is found along the best for wine when left on the (Torr. et Gray), Vitis cordifolia Scented Grape, Riparia Martin and to Manitoba and banks of streams, in vine until over-ripe and even var. Riparia (Gray), Vitis cor- Sweet-Scented Grape, others. There are no Montana, south to ravines, on the islands slightly shriveled. difolia var. culpina (Eaton), Uferrebe Grape, and American or Cana- Tennessee, north- of rivers, and in wet Vitis dimidiata (Le Conte), Vignes des Battures dian counterparts ern Texas, Colo- places. It is very resis- Vitis hyemalis (Le Conte), Vitis to these French rado, and Utah, tent to phylloxera. It illinoensis (Prince), Vitis incisa varietals. and from the Atlan- is less resistent to rot (Planchon), Vitis intermedia tic to the Rock- than Aestivalis, but (Nuttal), Vitis missouriensis ies in all areas in somewhat more resis- (Prince), Vitis montana, Vitis between. tent than Labrusca. odoratissima (Donn.), Vitis The foilage is rarely odoratissima (Pursh), Vitis attacked by mildew, palmata (Vahl), Vitis popu- but is susceptible to lifolia, Vitis riparia var. pal- the leaf-hopper. mata (Planchon), Vitis riparia var. praecox (Englemann), Vitis rubra (Desf.), Vitis sero- tina (Bartram), Vitis tenuifo- lia (le Conte), Vitis virginiana (Hort.), Vitis virginana (Poir), Vitis virginiana sylvestris (Parkins), Vitis virginiensis (de Juss), Vitis vulpina (Linnaeus), Vitis vulpina var. praecox (Bai- ley), Vitis vulpina var. riparia (Regel), and Vitis vulpina var. syrt. (Fernald and Weigand). Vitis rupestris, also: Vitis Beach Grape, Bush Cultivated French Southern Mis- Rupestris is remark- Rupestris bench-grafts well but is populi foliis (Lindh.), Vitis rup- Grape, Currant Grape, rootstocks are vari- souri to Kentucky, ably resistant to phyl- less successful in field grafts. It is estris var. dissecta (Eggert), Felsenrebe Grape, ously known as western Tennes- loxera. Its propensity not widely cultivated in the United and Vitis vinifera var. rupes- Ingar Grape, July Rupestris Mission, see, Arkansas, to put down deep States as rootstock and its own fruit tris (Kuntze). Grape, Mountain Rupestris do Lot, Oklahoma, eastern rather than lateral are unprofitable. It is considered Grape, Rock Grape, Rupestris Ganzin, and central Texas roots make it espe- drought-resistent, but not if the Sand Grape, and Rupestris Mar- to the Rio Grande, cially suited to dry, land dries out deeply. It was widely Sugar Grape tin, Rupestris St. westward into New rocky soils on south- and successfully used in France George, and other Mexico. Wild stands ern slopes. as grafting rootstock where deep names. These have in Pennsylvania, roots were desired. no American coun- Delaware and terparts other than Washington, D.C. simple Rupestris. are probably due to escaped cultivars. A note about French Hybrids: Seibel is the common name for a number of Vitis vinifera hybrids that have been introduced over the years in a quest to develop climate tolerant grape varieties that are resistent to rot, mildew and phylloxera. Some of these, notably the bunch rot resistant Chambourcin, were widely planted in France in the 1970s. How- ever, stringent European Union rules forbidding the blending of hybrids in traditional wine varieties have led to their disappearance from most European vineyards. Nonethe- less, several hybrids have found acceptance as wine grapes in the Eastern United States, Canada and England, including the dark-skinned Chambourcin (Noir), Chancellor (Seibel 7053), Chelois, and Vignoles (Ravat 51). Widespread light-skinned hybrids include Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc and Villard Blanc. Seyval Blanc is in fact so widely planted in parts of the Eastern United States that it is sometimes referred to as “Indiana Chardonnay.” It is also quite widespread in England. (from: Grapes, Wines, and Vines, Bella Vista Ranch webpage, 1999. http://members.aol.com/bellavue/grapes.html)www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 3
    • Geographical Considerations Symposium. The report can be viewed online at www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/faculty/pool/ and Disease Management organicvitwkshp/tabofcontents.html. As with other fruit crops, the generally drier conditions in the western half of the United Hard copies can be ordered as indicated in States are more conducive to organic grape the Publications and Resources section at production than in the humid East, particu- the end of this publication. larly with respect to cultivation of Vitis vinif- In the East, several diseases can be devas- era (European grape). The many large-scale tating, but black rot (Guignardia bidwellii) is organic wine and table grape vineyards in perhaps the most important of these to con- California are testimony to the relative ease of trol. It only takes a few black, rotted grapes organic grape culture in that part of the coun- to render a cluster unsaleable on the fresh try. As recently as 1997, California had 96 market. On the other hand, grapes produced percent of the country’s organic grape acreage. primarily for juice, wine, or other processed A table with a state-by-state listing of acreage products will have a slightly higher tolerance of organic fruit production may be found at for cluster damage. www.ers.usda.gov/emphases/harmony/issues/ organic/table12.htm. Northern growers should choose cultivarsRelated ATTRA with proven cold hardiness for their par-Publications However, with careful attention to pest con- ticular climatic zone. The European wine trol (especially diseases) and cultivar selec- grape (Vitis vinifera) is not well-adapted out-Organic CropProduction Overview tion appropriate for each climate, grapes can side of USDA climate zone 8; zone 7 can be be grown organically almost anywhere in the marginal. In zones 5 to 7, American typesTree Fruits: Organic United States. Native American grape cul- (mostly V. labrusca) or some of the American-Production Overview tivars, or crosses between American grape European hybrids (French hybrids) are theKaolin Clay for cultivars and Vitis vinifera, known as French best choices. There are some American typesManagement of hybrids, may be easier to grow organically in that are cold hardy in zones 3 and 4.Glassy-winged Sharp- the East, because of their generally greatershooter in Grapes resistance to pests. (See Table 1, Wine Grape To view a USDA zone map, seeOrganic Orchard, Species on pg. 2.) www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/Vineyard, and Berry ushzmap.htmlCrop Documentation In contrast to the West, organic viticultureForms in the eastern U.S. is still limited to a few innovative growers, and many questions As with other types of cultural informa- remain about organic management prac- tion, cultivar recommendations for a par- tices, especially those regarding disease con- ticular region are best obtained through the trol in a humid climate. An eastern grower county or state Cooperative Extension Ser- producing for the fresh market should have vice. A University of Illinois table indicat- a disease-control plan. From 1990 to 1995, ing susceptibility of cultivars to low-tempera- Cornell University researchers explored ture injury and disease is available online at organic vineyard management in the North- http://w3.aces.uiuc.edu/NRES/faculty/Skirvin/ east in collaboration with grape growers. cfar/bbsusc.htm. (See also Appendix I: The results of this and other research are Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape found in Organic Grape and Wine Production Cultivars.) Cold Hardiness of Grape Cultivars: Very Hardy: Swenson hybrids: LaCrosse, St. Croix, St. Pepin , Edelweiss, Frontenac, Foch , Leon, Millot , Ventura Hardy: DeChaunac , Chancellor, Vignoles, Cynthiana, Steuben , Concord, Catawba , Niagara, Delaware Moderately Hardy: Seyval, Traminette , Melody Moderately Tender: Vidal, Chambourcin, Chardonel , Cayuga White Tender: Cabernet franc, Riesling, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon Very Tender: Merlot, Pinot Noir, Gewurztraminer From: Bordelon, 2002.Page 4 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Extreme disease pressure makes organicculture of bunch grapes very difficult in the What Type of Grape to Plant? Grape Cultivar Information:deep South. However, many cultivars of theindigenous muscadine grape, V. rotundifo- Grape Cultivars for North-Central New Mexico www.cahe.nmsu.edu/pubs/_h/h-309.htmllia, are readily grown without pesticides of This site provides names and descriptions of the various hybrids appropriateany sort. Muscadines have a special appeal for cultivation in New Mexico.in southern markets and are consumed Viticulture Site Suitability for North Carolinafresh as well as processed into jams, pre- www.ncwine.org/sitesuit.htmserves, juices, and wine. This site provides maps with color-coded zones that outline regions rated as most reliable, good sites and risky sites for specific cultivars of grapes, as wellDiseases as maps showing growing season, precipitation at harvest, extent of Pierce’s Disease, and freezing temperatures.The simplest and most practical approach todisease problems on grapes is to plant dis- Grape varieties—crosses and genetic composition www.littlefatwino.com/grgenetics.htmease-resistant varieties (see Appendix I: Provides a chart of non-traditional (American and French hybrid) grape vari-Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape eties, including parentage, mostly for northern climes.Cultivars) and to use certified disease-free Wine and Juice Grape Varieties for Cool Climatesstock. Unfortunately, the market often pre- www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/faculty/reisch/bulletin/wine/fers those varieties not native to a particular This site provides an excellent survey of grape cultivars suitable for plantingregion, and that are especially susceptible in cool climates, including American, French hybrid, and European varieties.to diseases indigenous to the region. This Includes descriptions of the grapes, pictures, and strong and weak points ofis the case with the V. vinifera cultivars, each variety.the high-quality European wine grapes. In California Grapevine Nursurygeneral, they are highly susceptible to all www.californiagrapevine.com/rootstockchart.htmAmerican grape diseases and pests, includ- This site has a table of information about 21 types of rootstocks, includinging downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis parentage, maturity rates, nematode and drought resistance, best soil/climateleaf spot, powdery mildew, and phyllox- conditions, and other useful comments.era (a root-feeding, aphid-like insect). If a Resistance of Grapes Grown in Michigangrower in a humid climate decides to plant www.msue.msu.edu/msue/imp/modfr/visuals/2643t1.jpgV. vinifera cultivars, the grower will likely be This site has a table of relative resistance of grape varieties (American, Frenchculturing a susceptible plant under environ- hybrid, and European) to winter freeze damage, disease (black rot, downy mildew, harvest season botrytis, and phomopsis), phylloxera, and sulfur-mental conditions that invite disease. There- induced damage.fore, profitable production of a marketableproduct without the use of fungicides willbe very difficult. However, as already indi-cated, states with dry, Mediterranean cli- As noted earlier, some breeders are exper-mates are quite amenable to the culture of imenting with French hybrids, and arethe European wine grape, and organically backcrossing French hybrids to developacceptable fungicides will be adequate for cultivars with cold hardiness, diseasecontrolling most disease problems. resistance, and good fruit/wine quality. The major breeding programs for French An excellent resource for those hybrids in the US are: interested in organic grape production in the Midwest may be found at: www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ New York State Ag fruitpathology/organic/PDF/ Experiment Station, Geneva OSU-Organic-Grape-Diseases.pdf Bruce Reisch This document focuses on organic Geneva, NY 14456 management of grape diseases, 315-787-2239 including black rot, powdery mildew, 315-787-2216 FAX phomopsis cane and leaf spot disease, bruce.reisch@cornell.edu eutypa dieback, downy mildew, botrytis bunch rot, and crown gall.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 5
    • University of Minnesota as spiders and mites that are present in the Peter Hemstad vineyard. Another problem associated with 952-443-14-92 the use of sulfur is tissue injury, or phyto- hemst001@umn.edu toxicity. This damage can occur when sul- Jim Luby fur is used while temperatures are above 612-624-3453 85°F. (about 30° C.). Some cultivars, espe- lubyx001@umn.edu cially those of V. labrusca origin such as the Concord, are highly susceptible to sulfur Elmer Swenson, Private Breeder, injury even at lower temperatures. The Dis- Osceola, Wisconsin ease Resistance Rating Chart, Appendex I, lists sulfur-sensitive grape cultivars. In University of Arkansas regions where rainfall is plentiful during the Jim Moore growing season, wettable sulfur or flowable 479-575-2811 sulfur formulations are preferred for their jnmoor@uark.edu retentive qualities. (Pearson and Goheen, John Clark 1988) Flowable formulations are less dam- 479-575-2810 aging to predatory mite populations and jrclark@uark.edu should be used whenever possible. Justin Morris Bordeaux mix (copper sulfate mixed with 479-575-4040 hydrated lime) is less likely to be phytotoxic jumorris@uark.edu than sulfur due to the “safening” influ- American grape varieties (V. labrusca and ence of the lime. However, damage can still others) differ in their susceptibility to vari- occur on sensitive cultivars, especially in ous diseases. Concord, for example is quite high temperatures. resistant to anthracnose but susceptible Organically acceptable alternatives to to black rot. Ives is relatively resistant to mineral-based fungicides exist. A new black rot but highly susceptible to downy generation of microbial fungicides, such mildew. Edelweiss (V. labrusca) and Cynthi- as AQ-10™ (for powdery mildew control) ana (V. aestivalis, also known as Norton) are and various commercial formulations of two American cultivars that appear to have Bacillus subtilis, (i.e., Serenade™, Epic™, significant resistance to most of the major Kodiak™), provide organic growers with grape diseases. Muscadine grapes (V. rotun- new tools to manage plant diseases. New difolia), suited only to the South, are very fungicides of this type, and new uses for resistant to most bunch grape diseases and previously registered microbials, appear pests. See Appendix I for more informa- regularly on the market. tion on varietal resistance. Compost teas have been successfully used Where varietal resistance, sanitation, and in other plant production operations as other cultural controls are not adequate, an a combined foliar feed and disease sup- organic grower will have to rely on organi- pressive technique. There is potential for cally acceptable mineral fungicides (various using aerobic compost tea in vineyards to sulfur and copper formulations), microbial- manage diseases, but the parent material based fungicides, compost teas, and veg- (i.e., manures vs. green waste) of the com- etable and mineral oils used as dormant post used to make the tea is an important applications, or on foliage, depending on consideration, as is the interval between the weather. last application of the tea and harvest. Organic growers are allowed to use some Additional information is provided in the mineral fungicides, since they are mined following pages under specific disease materials; however, sulfur and sulfur-con- headings. For more information, also see taining fungicides can be disruptive to ben- ATTRA’s Notes on Compost Teas and Use of eficial insects and other arthropods, such Baking Soda as a Fungicide.Page 6 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • The following discussion of grape diseases Some formulations of sodium and potassiumfocuses primarily on organic controls. For bicarbonate also have proven successfuldisease symptoms, life cycles, and epide- in controlling powdery mildew on grapes.miology, refer to the Publications and Research in Germany demonstrated thatResources section. sodium and potassium bicarbonate were highly effective against powdery mildewPowdery Mildew and can be used in organic viticulture toVitis species differ greatly in susceptibil- minimize sulfur or completely substituteity to powdery mildew. V. vinifera cultivars the use of sulfur. (Kauer, et. al., 2000). Seeare highly susceptible, whereas Ameri- ATTRA’s Use of Baking Soda as a Fungi-can species are much less so. The French cide for further details on this topic. Ore-hybrids developed by crossing V. vinifera gon State University’s 2002 Pest Manage-with American species have varying lev- ment Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon ratedels of resistance. Cabernet Franc, Cabernet baking soda (bicarbonates) as “slightlySauvignon, Chancellor, Chardonnay, Chel- effective” for powdery mildew. Results withois, Gewurztraminer, Merlot, Pinot Blanc, these products will vary according to local PPinot Noir, Riesling, Rosette, Rougeon, factors, such as relative humidity, diseaseSauvignon blanc, Seyval, Vidal 256, and pressure, the grower’s experience with alter- owderyVignoles are considered highly susceptible. native controls, and context of use (i.e., use mildew can(Ellis, 1994) in a heavily sprayed, conventionally man- reduce vine aged vineyard vs. use in a lightly sprayed orPowdery mildew can reduce vine growth, growth, yield, fruit organically managed vineyard.) Kaligreenyield, fruit quality, and winter hardiness. quality, and winterThe fungus that causes powdery mildew, and MilStop are OMRI-listed formulations hardiness.Uncinula nector, overwinters inside dormant of potassium bicarbonate.buds on the grapevine or on the surface of Calcium has been shown to inhibit fungalthe vine. Its control in commercial vine- spore germination. Low calcium or excessyards generally is based on the use of fun- nitrogen levels in the grape leaf tissue cangicides. Sulfur is effective against powdery set up conditions for powdery mildew. (Jur-mildew, but, as mentioned above, care must gens, 2005) A 1:1 ratio of calcium to nitro-be taken to avoid damage to sulfur-sensitive gen in a tissue test is ideal. (Jurgens, 2005)cultivars. Cultural practices may reduce There is some evidence that foliar sprays ofthe severity of powdery mildew. Planting in milk, diluted 1:10 with water, can reducesites with good air circulation and sun expo- powdery mildew levels on grapes (Bettiol,sure, and orienting rows to take advantage 1999; Crisp and Bruer. 2001), althoughof these factors, are helpful. (Pearson and it is not clear if the fungal inhibition is aGoheen, 1988) The use of training systems function of calcium/milk toxicity to fungalthat promote good air circulation should be spores, competition from other organismsincorporated. Some vineyards manage the feeding on milk nutrients, increased cal-leaf canopy by leaf thinning so that both cium uptake by leaf cells resulting in stron-leaves and grape clusters are exposed to ger cell walls, or some combination of thesegood air circulation, allowing them to dry factors. Whey is also used by some practi-off quickly after heavy fogs or rainstorms, tioners due to its availability and is dilutedand thus helping reduce the possibility of at a ratio of 1:3 (whey:water). The milk/infection. Although moisture is not nec- whey formulations are most effective whenessary for powdery mildew infections to used on varietals that have some resistanceoccur, rains and heavy fogs can help spread to powdery mildew. David Bruer is a chem-the spores. ist and former professor of enology at theApplied materials for managing powdery University of Adelaide. He is the owner ofmildew include sulfur products, bicarbon- a 67 acre vineyard in Australia where someates, oils, and biologicals (including com- of the milk/whey trials were done. Dr. Bruerpost teas), described in more detail below. claims that under the influence of ultravio-www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 7
    • let light, a protein in whey (ferroglobulin) Black Rot produces an oxygen radical that is extraor- Black rot is the most important disease dinarily toxic to fungal spores. facing eastern growers, yet it is virtually Various formulations of oils, some of them unknown in the West. Black rot is caused botanically based, can be used to manage by the fungus Guignardia bidwellii. This powdery mildew. A commercial formula- fungus overwinters in mummified ber- tion of neem oil, Trilogy™, manufactured ries on the soil or in old clusters still on by Certis, is registered for use on grapes the vines. Fungal spores (ascospores) are against powdery mildew and several other spread by air currents and blowing rain, diseases and is also OMRI-listed. Research both in the early spring and throughout the in Germany demonstrated that rapeseed oil growing season. All cultivated varieties of reduced the incidence of Uncinula necator grapes are susceptible to infection by the by 66 to 99 percent and reduced the sever- black rot fungus. ity of the disease by 96 to 99.9 percent on ripening berries. However, some side Hours of leaf wetness required for effects on predatory mites were observed black rot infection period at various (Trimborn et al., 2000). JMS Stylet temperatures following a rain oil is effective against powdery mil- dew and is OMRI listed. Hours (of continual The use of compost Temp (ºF) wetness from rain) teas in organic pro- A new product from Agraquest is also duction has been 50 24 now available; Sonata is a formula- reviewed by the Com- 55 12 post Tea Task Force of tion of Bacillus pumilus and is reg- the National Organic istered for use against powdery mil- 60 9 Standards Board dew on grapes. In the late 1980s and 65 8 (NOSB). The Task Force ‘90s, field and greenhouse studies on 70 7 issued a report in April compost teas in Germany found that 75 7 2004 outlining the undiluted compost watery extracts issues associated with (derived from cattle manure-based 80 6 using compost teas compost, as well as supplemented 85 9 (such as feedstocks, extracts of composts derived from 90 12 additives, and pres- horse manure) were effective against Source: R.A. Spotts, The Ohio State University ence of human patho- the causative agent of powdery mil- gens) and also made dew, Uncinula necator. The effects some recommenda- do not appear to be systemic, but are Proper sanitation is important in controlling tions. This report can antagonistic in nature, correlating black rot. Removing overwintering mum- be downloaded at with high levels of active microbes mified berries from the vines and disking www.ams.usda.gov/ on the leaf surface. (Trankner and mummies into the soil are beneficial prac- nosb/meetings/ Brinton, 1994) More recent research tices that reduce the amount of primary CompostTeaTaskForce from Germany supports these fi nd- inoculum present in the spring. (Pearson FinalReport.pdf ings, but found that at high rates of and Goheen, 1988) Black rot control for infection pressure, compost extracts bunch grapes is very difficult in the East were not able to provide a sufficient due to high humidity and foliage density. level of protection against powdery mildew. For organic growers, liquid copper formu- (Trimborn et. al., 2000) More research lations, or copper-sulfur compounds such is needed to better understand how the as Bordeaux mix, can be used for preven- components of the extracts interact with tion of black rot, as well as suppression of powdery mildew spores and the time powdery mildew, downy mildew, and pho- duration between application and harvest mopsis leaf spot. Some of the new microbial needed to ensure no contamination of the fungicides may provide control, though they grapes by pathogens that may be in the may not yet be registered for use on grapes compost teas. against black rot.Page 8 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Black Rot - Guignardia bidwellii (Ellis) Viala & Ravaz www.ipmimages.org www.insectimages.org www.forestryimages.org www.forestryimages.org©Clemson University - USDA Cooperative ©M. Clerjeau, INRA, ©M. Clerjeau, INRA, ©M. Clerjeau, INRA,Extension Slide Series Centre de Recherches de Bordeaux Centre de Recherches de Bordeaux Centre de Recherches de BordeauxBecause copper and sulfur compounds can- However, because spores require free waternot remedy an established infection, they and a certain temperature range for ger-must be used as protectants. That is, these mination and infection, a rigorous spray Bcompounds need to be present on the plant schedule will probably not be necessary lack rot issurfaces before an infection period is antic- every year. Also, proper sanitation and good the mostipated. In the case of black rot, growers early-season control will help to reduce the importantwith a history of the disease should begin inoculum levels of the pathogen.spraying when the first vegetative shoots are disease facing east-3 to 6 inches long. This is roughly when With relatively resistant cultivars and good ern growers, yet it isthe pathogen begins releasing spores that early season coverage, some eastern viticul- virtually unknown inmay infect leaf or flower tissues. Protec- turists have been able to control black rot the West.tion should be maintained until the berries with as few as two to four sprays of Bor-begin their fi nal ripening stage (at about deaux mix (the fi rst when new shoots are5 percent sugar). (Pearson and Goheen, 2 to 4 inches long, and the remainder at1988) Depending on the cultivar, inoculum two-week intervals). There are few bunchlevel, and weather conditions, it is possible grape cultivars with high levels of resis-that this could entail sprays every 7 to 14 tance, but some relatively resistant cultivarsdays from bud break until mid-July or early include Chambourcin, Cynthiana (aka Nor-August. For example, in the wet growing ton), Edelweiss, Elvira, Esprit, Foch, Ives,season of 1991, organically grown Seyval Cascade, Missouri Reisling, and Alwood.wine grapes (a rot-susceptible French The non-bunching muscadine grape ishybrid) required 17 fungicide applications very resistant to most races of G. bidwellii,for disease control. (Ellis, 1994) but there are races of this fungus that areSerenade, a formulation of Bacillus subti- pathogenic to muscadines in some areas oflis QST 713 strain, has been effective in the South. (Pearson and Goheen, 1988)reducing incidence of black rot in grapesby 50-70% over control treatments of water. PhomopsisIn other trials done by Agraquest, Sere-nade plus yucca, which is a natural deter- Phomopsis cane and leaf spot is caused bygent and acts as a sticker/spreader, also the fungus Phomopsis viticola. This fungusprovided good control of black rot. (Smith, overwinters in the bark of the canes and2005) Serenade is available through Agra- can be especially severe in the early spring,Quest in California (call 530-750-0150, when it rains for several consecutive days.or visit www.agraquest.com/prod_ frames. Inoculum levels build over time, with dis-html). Yucca Ag-Aide manufactured by ease problems increasing in severity withDesert King International is a formulation each successive cool, wet spring. Few cul-of yucca that is OMRI certified and allowed tivars are resistant to Phomopsis, thoughin organic production. there are varying degrees of susceptibility.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 9
    • Control of Phomopsis for the organic grower of these measures is sufficient for cultivars consists of a combination of appropriate highly susceptible to downy mildew, fun- sanitation measures and the use of liquid gicidal control may be necessary. As men- copper fungicides. Mycostop™, a commer- tioned above, organic growers can use liq- cial formulation of Streptomyces griseoviri- uid copper, or Bordeaux mix, for control dis, is registered for use against Phomop- of this disease. Another option for downy sis. Growers should avoid introducing the mildew management is Trilogy, a commer- problem into the vineyard by using only cial formulation derived from neem seeds, pathogen-free propagation material when which is a broad spectrum fungicide and planting or re-planting. Once the disease miticide. has appeared, growers should remove as much infected wood as possible from the Vinifera (Vitis vinifera) varieties are much vines during pruning. Severely infected more susceptible than American types, and wood in the basal areas of the cane appears the French hybrids are somewhat suscep- bleached. Badly infected canes or spurs tible. Several resistant cultivars are listed will have brown/black patches irregularly in Appendix I.B mixed with bleached areas. Debris should otrytis is be shredded, disked, or plowed into the Botrytis more of a soil. (Pearson and Goheen, 1988) Botrytis bunch rot (causal organism: Botrytis problem on cinerea), also known as gray mold, can be In addition, measures such as avoidingvarieties with tight shaded planting sites, providing good soil a problem throughout the U.S., but is espe-clusters where mois- drainage and air circulation, and plant- cially troublesome in wet or humid regions.ture tends to collect. ing rows to take full advantage of sunlight Botrytis is more of a problem on varieties and wind movement also can help control with tight clusters where moisture tends to Phomopsis. collect. California research indicates that the incidence of botrytis bunch rot can be Downy Mildew greatly reduced by removing leaves around a ripening cluster, thereby improving sun- Another disease to which V. vinifera variet- light and air penetration into the cluster. ies are highly susceptible is downy mildew, caused by the fungus Plasmopara viticola. (Bettiga et al., 1989) Although this prac- Downy mildew is a major disease of grapes tice is labor intensive, and therefore rela- throughout the eastern United States. It usu- tively costly, it has positive side effects of ally overwinters as spores in fallen leaves, increased fruit quality, including higher but it may survive in buds as mycelium malic and total acids, decreased potassium, in regions with mild winters. Downy mil- increased brix, and better grape color and dew is favored by all factors that increase wine quality. (Gubler, no date) Reducing the moisture content of soil, air, and host fertilization, thereby reducing lush vine plants. Therefore, rain is the principal fac- growth, will also help control botrytis. tor promoting epidemics. The most serious Bordeaux mixture and sulfur-containing epidemics of downy mildew occur when a fungicides are generally regarded as inef- wet winter is followed by a wet spring and a fective control measures against botrytis. warm summer with intermittent rainstorms New biofungicides are available for man- every 8 to 15 days. (Pearson and Goheen, agement of botrytis. Trichodex, a formula- 1988) tion of the beneficial fungus Trichoderma Preventative management practices for harzianum, is now registered in the U.S. downy mildew consist of draining soils, (call 212-661-9800 for the closest distrib- reducing the sources of overwintering utor). Serenade, a formulation of Bacillus innoculum, pruning out the ends of infected subtilis, QST 713 strain, is a second biofun- shoots, and speeding the drying time of gicide registered for botrytis in grapes; it is leaves and fruit. However, because none available through AgraQuest in CaliforniaPage 10 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • (call 530-750-0150, or visit www.agraquest. disease to grapevines and probably manycom/prod_ frames.html). other plant species. The blue-green sharp- shooter (Graphocephala atropunctata) isPierce’s Disease the most important vector in coastal areas. The green sharpshooter (DraeculacephalaAlso known as PD, Pierce’s Disease is a minerva) and the red-headed sharpshooterxylem-clogging bacterial (Xylella fastidi- (Carneocephala fulgida) are also present inosa) infection generally fatal to European coastal areas but are more important as(vinifera) grape vines. The chief vector is vectors of this disease in the Central Val-the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS). ley. Other sucking insects, such as grapeBoth the GWSS and PD are endemic to leafhopper (Erythroneura elegantula) arethe southern U.S., which would explain the not vectors. Management of this diseasenative American grape’s resistance to this mostly revolves around management of thepest, having co-evolved with the disease leafhopper vectors, and this informationand the GWSS over tens of thousands of can be found in the leafhopper section ofyears. Some American grape rootstocks are this publication.able to transfer resistance to vinivera vari-eties grafted onto it. A Texas researcherfound that vinifera grapes planted on Mus- Virusestang grape, V. mustangensis (synonym, V. Viruses in grapes are managed throughcandicans) rootstocks survived for eleven the use of clean planting stock. Virusesyears in an area where PD had killed all will spread from one plant to a neighbor-other susceptible grape varieties. (Rom- ing plant, but the spread is generally slow.bough, 2002) Each virus has a unique vector or set of vectors. The Virus Table on page 12 pro-The PD-GWSS complex is responsible for vides information on symptoms, cultivarthe difficulty of growing vinifera grapes in susceptibility, and modes of transmission.infested areas and has had heavy impacts (Rombough, 2002; Flaherty et al., 1992)on vinifera grape production in New Mex-ico, Arizona, and California. Chardon-nay and Pinot Noir are particularly sus- Root Rotsceptible. Researchers in California and Good soil management, particularly prac-Georgia have examined applications of tices that promote good soil drainage andterpene, a naturally occurring botanical avoid the creation of hard pans, will keepsubstance, via drip irrigation. Terpenes root rot problems caused by Phytophthorafound in plants are often associated with to a minimum. Standing water, or pro-plant defense mechanisms. Unfortunately, longed exposure of the trunk, crown orthe trials in California did not show any roots to water, will provide an environ-significant effect in treating PD. ment on these plant parts that is infection- friendly.PD and the GWSS are severe obstacles togrowing European-type (vinifera) grapes in Armillaria root rot is a disease that resultsthe southern U.S. The PD-GWSS complex from planting vines on ground on whichhas recently become a threat to Califor- host plants previously grew, either naturalnia grape growers. Although PD has been oaks or orchards of walnuts or plums. Thepresent in California since the 1880s, the armillaria exists in old roots of these cropsstrong-flying and voracious feeding glassy- that are still in the soil. When planting awinged sharpshooter was found in Ventura, new vineyard in such an area, it is impor-California, only in 1990 and has become tant that the new vines are not overwatered,the primary, though certainly not the only, and that they be planted into healthy, well-vector of the pathogen. The presence of drained soil that has good biological activ-the GWSS in California has resulted in ity, which will allow beneficial organismsthe rapid spread and transmission of the to compete with the armillaria fungus.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 11
    • Virus TableDisease Name Vector/mode of spread Cultivars Attacked Symptoms/CommentsGrape Leafroll Nursery stock Vinifera—American At harvest/leaf fall, infected red-grape vines will and possibly by mealy- rootstocks don’t show have red leaves with major veins still green. bugs. symptoms. White grape cultivars will turn yellow with major veins still green.Corky Bark Nursery stock, no known Can exist in many vinifera Grafted scions decline or die due to graft union vectors cultivars without symp- incompatibility, rootstocks may toms, which appear only survive, even be symptomless. Spread after infected bud grafted only by nursery materials in US. onto phylloxera-resistant rootstockRupestris Stem Pitting Nursery stock, no known High incidence of this Can cause a slow decline, or can be fatal if grafted vectors virus in Vinifera cultivars onto rootstock 3309, but Canada now allows mate- and French hybrids are rial with this virus as a “virus without consequence”. susceptible.Fanleaf Degeneration Nursery stock (infected Vinifera cultivars Seldom fatal, but symptoms can take rootstock, buds or cut- several forms: fanleaf deformation, vein banding, tings), and Dagger nema- and yellow mosaic. tode is vectorPeach Rosette Mosaic Nursery stock, and American cultivars Curly dock, Carolina horsenettle andVirus (PRMV) Dagger nematode Concord, Catawba and dandelion are virus hosts. Grape pommace should is vector Niagara are susceptible, be properly composted so seeds, which contain Delaware less so. virus, do not germinate and allow feeding by nema- tode vectors.Tomato Ringspot and Nursery stock, and Dag- French hybrid cultivars, Plantain, chickweed, dandelion, beans,Tobacco Ringspot ger nematode particularly blue-fruited and other plants are virus hosts. Grape pommace is vector cultivars, are susceptible. should be properly composted so seeds, which con- tain virus, do not germinate and allow feeding by nematode vectors. Geographical Considerations about providing beneficial habitat can be found in ATTRA’s Farmscaping to Enhance and Insect and Mite Biological Control. Management Wherever grapes are grown, there will be In the West, mites, leafhoppers, and lea- insect pests. Existing with each pest, how- frollers are likely to be the most trouble- ever, is a whole complex of natural controls, some arthropod pests, and all of these are including parasites (other insects), predators indirect pests; i.e., they do not directly (insects, birds, bats, mice, etc.), and dis- attack the fruit. In general, indirect pests eases (fungi, bacteria, viruses). One of the can be tolerated in higher numbers than grower’s jobs is to develop a viticulture eco- direct pests, allowing more time for system that takes advantage of and encour- naturally occurring or purchased biocontrol ages these natural controls, while also feed- agents to exert an acceptable level of control. ing the soil and supporting plant health. Although the glassy-winged sharpshooter Providing habitat for beneficial organisms is (GWSS, a leafhopper) is considered an indi- a sustainable approach to managing insect pests, but it must be tempered with aware- rect pest, it has recently emerged as a major ness of how the presence and management problem in California vineyards because it of habitat influences field operations, as well vectors Pierce’s disease. The GWSS/Pierce’s as other factors, such as incidence of harm- Disease complex has long been an obstacle to ful insects and diseases. More information production of vinifera grapes in the South.Page 12 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • The major insect pest for eastern organic vest. The row centers shouldgrape growers is the grape berry moth be almost level and seeded(Endopiza viteana). The berry moth is a to a winter cover crop. In thedirect pest of the fruit and flowers and, if spring, at least 15 days beforeleft unchecked, can render whole clusters grape bloom, the ridge soilunmarketable. A pheromone-based mat- containing the cocoons in its © Cornell University, New York State Integrated Pest Management Programing-disruption system for the berry moth surface is pulled from underprovides organic growers with an effective the trellis into the row centers Grape berry moth damage.non-pesticide option for berry moth control with a mechanical grape hoe.(see below). Any islands of soil left around the posts and grapevines may have to be raked by hand intoGrape Berry Moth the row centers. The row cen-The grape berry moth (GBM), Endopiza ters are then disked and cul-viteana, is native to eastern North America, tipacked to bury the cocoons.where it originally occurred on wild grapes. Rain or irrigation after thisIt does extensive damage directly to grape operation will help to seal in Grape berry moth larva.berries, flowers, and buds east of the Rocky the cocoons. This practice hasMountains, particularly in the Northeast. It reduced berry moth popula-feeds only on grapes. The number of genera- tions to a point where shortenedtions per year varies from 1.5 to 2 in New spray schedules can be used inYork, to 2 to 3 in Michigan, and 4 to 5 in commercial vineyards. (Pfief-Virginia. High populations and damage have fer and Schultz, 1986) Therebeen observed after consecutive mild win- is a higher risk of develop-ters. Substantial winter mortality occurs after ing GBM populations in vine- Grape berry moth adult.several days of very cold temperatures (-6 yards bordering woodlands.to +5°F). (Pfeiffer and Schultz, 1986) The (Martinson et al., 1991)Website, www.ento.vt.edu/Fruitfiles/GBM.html Pheromones can be used to monitor emerg-discusses in detail recent research about how ing populations. Pheromone traps can helptemperatures affect timing of GBM emergence time management activities, or pheromoneand diapause. dispensers can be used in a mating dis-The only biological control agent that has ruption system that disperses pheromonesbeen found to be of appreciable value is the throughout the orchard, making it difficultegg parasite Trichogramma minutum, which for males to locate females. The table belowcan be purchased from many insectaries. provides contact information for some sup-However, the grape berry moth does not pliers of these systems.appear to be an optimal host for the egg para-site, and resulting adults have poor vigor and To augment populations of natural enemies of pests, farmers canexhibit developmental abnormalities. (Nagar- apply beneficial insects purchased from commercial insectaries. Thiskatti et al., 2002) It’s possible that a differ- directory contains a comprehensive listing of companies raising biocontrolent T. minutum ecotype, one that is naturally organisms in North America.found parasitizing eggs of the GBM, would be Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America. Hunter, Charles D. 1997.more effective. California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA. 32 p. For a free copy, write to:Destruction of fallen grape leaves, which California Environmental Protection Agencyare overwintering sites for the cocoon-pro- Department of Pesticide Regulationtected pupa, can help reduce spring popula- Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management Branchtions. Covering leaves with at least an inch 1020 N Street, Room 161of firmed soil is another control option. One Sacramento, CA 95814-5624popular method is to throw the soil from the 916-324-4100row centers into a low ridge under the grape A Web-based version can be found at:trellis with a grape hoe, disk, or plow. This www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/dprdocs/goodbug/benefic.htm.should be done 30 to 45 days before har-www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 13
    • Commercial Monitoring/ erythroneura, egg parasites) can be achieved if habitat for non-pest leafhopper species— Disruption Pheromone Systems especially blackberry bushes and French Timely use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can prune trees—is maintained near the vine- suppress populations of the grape berry yard. The bushes and trees attract related moth. Use of pheromone traps can aid the Erythroneura species of leafhoppers, provi- grower in timing Bt applications. The Bt ding an important food source for the para- should be applied as the fi rst instar larvae sitic wasp. However, maintaining diverse are hatching out of eggs. habitat in this manner may confl ict with management for the glassy-winged sharps-Pheromone Chart hooter (see below).Type of System Company Contact Information Clean cultivation in and around the vine- Pacific Biocontrol yard can help reduce leafhopper popula-Mating Disruption, 14615 NE 13 St, Suite A tions, because the adults overwinter in shel- Vancouver, WA 98685 ters provided by weeds in these areas. Ifrope dispenser www.pacificbiocontrol.com leafhoppers are a problem, and the grower 800-999-8805 wants to use alley cover crops, then selec- 3M Canada ting those covercrops least attractive toMating Disruption, www.3m.com/intl/CA/English/centres/mfg_ leafhoppers is an option. Organic growerssprayable industrial/ag/spray_canada/grape_ main.html can use insecticidal soaps and the botani- cal insecticide sabadilla to control leafhop- Gempler’s pers. Soap sprays are only effective if they 1210 Fourier Dr, Suite 150,Monitoring Traps Madison, WI 53717 cover the leafhopper; i.e., if there is no resi- www.gemplers.com/items/R01023.asp dual effect from soap left on a plant surface. 800-382-8473 PyGanic, a formulation of pyrethrins, is an effective control of leafhoppers and also listed by OMRI. Leafhoppers Surround™, a kaolin clay-based insect Grape leafhoppers, Erythroneura species, repellent, is effective against leafhoppers, also can be a serious problem throughout leafrollers, and the glassy-winged sharpshoo- the United States, but these pests more con- ter. It is accepted by the Organic Materials sistently trouble West Coast vineyards. Review Institute for use in organic produc- Research in California indicates that biolo- tion. For leafhoppers and related insects, it gical control of grape leafhoppers by a tiny seems to act as a deterrent to locating host parasitoid wasp (Anagrus epos and Anagrus plants, as well as deterring feeding and egg- laying. For additional information, contact: John Mosko Marketing Manager Crop Protectants Engelhard Corporation 732-205-7140 john.mosko@engelhard.com www.surround.engelhard.com More information about kaolin clay-based management options for the GWSS is avai- lable in the ATTRA publication Kaolin Clay for Management of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter in Grapes.Photo by Rex Dufour, NCAT According to Tom Piper, former managerSome vineyards are now using an innovative strategy of planting dwarf grasses in of Fetzer’s organic vineyards, leafhopperthe alleys in order to manage excessive vigor of some varieties. populations are proportional to the vigorPage 14 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • of the vine. He keeps close watch on both herbicides, and (2) cover crop biomass waswater and nitrogen inputs and tries to keep cut and left in row middles. If sulfur dustthe vines just vigorous enough to make a (used for disease control) was used sparin-good crop, but not so vigorous as to attract gly in late spring and early summer, the pre-leafhoppers. If leafhopper populations get sence of these cover crops increased earlyout of hand, Piper uses PyGanic. season activity of predatory mites, resulting in reduced spider mite infestations. Simi-The glassy winged sharp shooter, Homa- larly, where leafhopper numbers were notlodisca coagulata, emerged in the 1990s very low and cover crops were properly main-as a major pest of grapes in California. tained through early July, the presence ofThe GWSS feeds on stems and leaves of a cover crops resulted in reduced infestationswide range of plants and efficiently vectors of leafhoppers. These reductions were attri-Pierce’s Disease (PD), a xylem-clogging bac- buted to enhanced activity of certain groupsterial infection generally fatal to grape vines. of spiders that consistently attained higherAlthough PD has been present in California densities in the presence of cover crops,since the 1880s, the strong-flying and vora- compared to the clean-cultivated systems.cious feeding GWSS has become the primary Leafhoppers also used the cover crops asvector of the pathogen. PD and the GWSS non-host crops, which may have resulted inare important obstacles to growing Euro- less time spent on vines.pean-type (vinifera) grapes in the southernU.S. Riparian areas in the West have a wide For more information on this study, contact:variety of plants that are hosts to the GWSS Frank G. Zalomand can be leafhopper corridors. Monitoring Extension Entomologistshould be directed to areas of the vineyard Department of Entomologyclosest to riparian zones. University of California Davis, CA 95616Research in California has shown that, if 916-752-8350properly managed, winter annual legume- 916-752-6004 FAXgrass cover crops—such as a vetch and oats fgzalom@ucdavis.edumix—can reduce reliance on insecticidesand miticides to control leafhoppers and spi-der mites in vineyards. This is in addition Mitesto the soil-improving and weed-suppressive Various mite species cause problems onbenefits of cover crops. This research exami- grapes throughout the United States. Properned two cover crop systems: (1) cover crop irrigation, dust reduction along roadways,biomass was cut and placed on row berms as and other practices that conserve and aug-a dry mulch to suppress weeds and reduce ment natural enemies (including predatory Photos by Rex Dufour, NCATAlternate disking of alleyways decreases dust and conserves Every other row in this vineyard is planted to an oats-bell beanbeneficials. covercrop.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 15
    • mites (Metaseiulus, Typhlodromus), sixspot- Trilogy™ are registered for use on spider ted thrips (Scolothrips sexmaculatus), and mites, but like soap sprays, can negatively other generalist predators) can help reduce affect wine quality if used too close to har- spider mite problems. vest. (Thrupp, 2003) Although sulfur dusts or pyrethrum can be used against mites, In the West, the three major spider mite they are not commonly used since they pests on wine grapes are Willamette mite, can be disruptive to beneficial mites and Eotetranychus willamettei (McGregor), other natural enemies of the pest mites, as twospotted mite, Tetranychus urticae well as natural enemies (such as the wasp (McGregor), and Pacific mite, Tetranychus Anagrus epos) of leafhoppers. pacificus. The most important mite preven- tion practice is dust control. Heat spikes in The beneficial predatory mite Metaseiulus the weather, combined with dust-stressed occidentalis is effective in controlling spi- plants, often result in a mite outbreak. Dust der mites in California. Another preda- can be managed several ways: improving tory mite, Typhlodromus pyri, is effective road surface from dirt to rock or gravel; against spider mites in locations as wide- using water, straw, or dust-suppressant spread as New Zealand and Oregon. TheseM compounds to prevent dust; reducing driv- beneficial mites can be purchased from aintaining ing speed; and disking only every other several insectaries in California and else- a ground alleyway—vehicle traffic is then routed where. Maintaining a ground cover on the cover on on non-disked rows to provide a dust-free vineyard floor is advantageous to predatorythe vineyard floor pathway for machinery performing agricul- mites and various beneficial insects such tural operations. as green lacewings, sixspotted thrips, andis advantageous to Growers in New Zealand use vegetable oil minute pirate bugs.predatory mites. or fi sh oil as dormant sprays in combina- tion with release of predatory mites. (Welte, Grape phylloxera 2000) Soap sprays also can be effective The grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira against mites, but thorough spray cover- vitifoliae) is a very small, aphid-like insect age is essential, since the mites reside and that is very difficult to see with the unaided feed primarily on the underside of the leaf eye. It has two forms—an aerial, leaf- surface. Soap spray should only be used galling form and a subterranean root- early in the season because of the possi- feeding form. Historically, the root form bility of altering the taste of the grape or has been the more economically damaging the wine. Neem-based products such as of the two. Organic Management – Phlumoxes Phylloxera A two-year field study by UC Davis researchers found that in San Joaquin (own-rooted) were on AXR#1 rootstock. No soil management practices can significantly influence the significant differences between OMVs and CMVs were found amount of root damage resulting from phylloxera-induced for single year comparisons of percent organic matter, total fungal infections. The researchers found that per-unit root nitrogen, nitrate, and percent sand/silt/clay. The pooled data populations of phylloxera did not significantly differ between for the two years tell a slightly different story: OMVs’ soil had organically managed vineyards (OMV) and conventionally a significantly higher (by .5 percent) percentage of organic managed vineyards (CMV), when both were infested with matter (percent OM) than CMVs soil, and over all vineyards phylloxera. However, root samples from OMVs displayed and all years there was a weak but significant inverse corre- significantly less root necrosis (9 percent) caused by fungal lation between root necrosis and soil percentage OM. Cul- pathogens than did samples from CMVs (31 percent). Organic tures of the necrotic root tissue also revealed some interest- vineyard management is characterized by use of cover crops ing differences: significantly higher levels of the beneficial and composts and no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. fungus Trichoderma were found in OMVs in 1997 (but not in This study sampled four OMVs in Sonoma, Napa, and Men- 1998), and significantly higher levels of pathogens Fusarium docino counties. Eight CMVs were initially sampled in these oxysporum and Cylindrocarpon species were found in CMVs counties and San Joaquin County. This was later reduced to in 1998 (but not in 1997). five CMVs for practical reasons. All vines except for those (Lotter et al., 1999)Page 16 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Phylloxera is most injurious to V. viniferaroots, but foliar feeding on all grape spe- A California study on beneficial insect habitat found that creationcies can be severe enough to cause defo- of corridors of sequentially flowering native plants can serve as a key strategy to allow natural enemies emerging from riparian forests to dis-liation, although this is rare. Roots of V. perse over large areas of otherwise monoculture systems. This studyrupestris and other American species are examined distributions and abundance of western grape leafhopper,tolerant or relatively resistant, compared to Erythroneura elegantula, its parasitoid, Anagrus species, western flowerV. vinifera, which is why V. vinifera is com- thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, and generalist predators.monly grafted onto V. rupestris roots. Graft- (Nicholls et al., 2000)ing onto American species practically elim-inates phylloxera injury.Although there are no known controls for applications of Bt for best effectiveness. Btalready infested roots, recent studies have works best on the younger, smaller caterpil-shown that soil management practices can lars. It also degrades when exposed to UVsignificantly influence the amount of root light, so it will generally not retain effective-damage resulting from phylloxera-induced ness for more than three to four days.fungal infections. Phylloxera infestations inorganically managed vineyards resulted in Mealybugsless root damage, compared to that caused Mealybugs are not a major pest in the North-by similar phylloxera populations in con- east or the South, but three species—theventional vineyards. Root damage is caused grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus;primarily by secondary infections of plant the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni;pathogens at phylloxera feeding sites. and the longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus(Lotter et al., 1999) longispinus—can become pests in California vineyards. Natural controls generally keepCaterpillars these pests in check, although ants must beSeveral lepidopterous species attack grapes, controlled if they are milking the mealybugsincluding the grape berry moth (covered and warding off natural enemies. Trilogy™,earlier), orange tortrix, the omnivorous lea- a formulation derived from neem, is regis-froller, cutworms, the grape leaf skeleton- tered for use on mealybugs and is listed withizer, beet armyworm, and the saltmarsh OMRI (Organic Materials Review Institute).caterpillar. Providing habitat for benefi- Female mealybugs can not fly, so must relycial organisms is an important management on other means of transport to spread, suchstrategy to maintain “ecological pressure” as equipment, birds, infected vines andagainst all life stages of these pests—eggs, human traffic.larva, pupa and adult. Providing habitat for A new pest in California vineyards is thebats can help reduce these pests through vine mealybug (VMB), Plannococcus ficus.direct predation—bats feed at dusk and at The VMB has several attributes that makenight, when many of the moth pests are fly- it a more damaging pest than most othering—as well as through avoidance (adults mealybug species. It is native to the Mediter-of many lepidopterans are sensitive to bat ranean, so there are no parasites or preda-echolocation and may avoid areas where tors that have evolved locally to control it.bats are actively feeding). The naturally Hosts in its native range include grape, fig,occurring bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis date palm, apple, avocado, citrus, and a few(Bt) is effective against most of these lepi- ornamentals. In California, it has only beendopterans. Trade names include Dipel™, found on grapes. (Bently et al., 2003) It hasThuricide™, and Javelin™. Some Bt formu- five to six generations per year, so it is ablelations may contain inert ingredients that to multiply quickly. It has a cryptic lifestyle,are not permitted in certified organic pro- hiding in the roots or under the bark, espe-duction, so be sure to verify product sta- cially as the weather cools. The VMB exudestus with your certifier. Monitoring vineyards more honeydew than other mealybugs, andfor these pests is important in order to time this characteristic, along with infestationswww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 17
    • below the soil line, will help vineyard work- Soil amended with organic mat- ers identify the pest. Management of this ter possesses greater populations pest requires managing the ants that spread and diversity of soil organisms, it. Controlling the ants increases the chances which results in competition of parasitism by the imported VMB para- and predation of plant parasitic site, Anagyrus pseudococci. As noted above, nematodes. Trilogy™ is an option. Any machinery mov- Cover cropping can cause increases, ing between infested and non-infested vine- decreases, or no change in nematode popu- yards should be washed thoroughly. Beware lations in the vineyard, depending on the of nursery stock or machinery coming from nematode complex that is present and the infested areas. type of cover crop planted. For example, Cahaba White vetch as a cover crop is a Plant Parasitic Nematodes good host for Meloidogyne hapla (north- Nematodes are tiny worm-like creatures that ern root knot nematode), a poor host for M. live in the soil. Some nematodes are benefi- incognita (root knot nematode), and antag- cial and feed on bacteria and fungi (playing onistic to Xiphinema americanum (dag-B an important role in nutrient cycling), while ger nematode). (Westerdahl et al., 1998) ird control other species, such as root-feeding nema- For more information about non-chemical is generally control strategies, biocontrol mechanims, todes, are plant parasites and destructive more to crops. and ecological soil management practices,difficult because see the ATTRA publication Alternative There are many nematode species that Nematode Control.birds are so mobile attack grape roots. As a consequence, noand the fact that single rootstock provides complete resis-many species are tance. Grape cultivars recognized for broad Vertebrate Pestsprotected. resistance to nematode species include Vertebrate pests fall into two categories: Ramsey, Freedom, and several rootstocks in mammals and birds. Mammals, such as the Teleki series. (Teleki 5C is the only one ground squirrels, voles, gophers, rabbits, that has been specifically tested—this root- and deer, generally damage the roots, the stock is also resistant to phylloxera types A vine, or the foliage. High populations of and B, but does not do well on soils prone to these animals can be very damaging, par- drought.) (Kodira and Westerdahl, 1999) ticularly for young vineyards. Sustainable management entails: Important points for nematode management: • Identifying the animal causing • Soil type influences the type and the problem severity of nematode infestations • Ident i f y ing habitat modi f ica- (i.e., sandy soils increase the poten- tial of nematode problems). tions that may reduce population pressures • Ecological soil management—with its emphasis on building organic • Identifying practical short term matter through additions of com- management options (use of baits, posts, cover crops, and green fumigants, or traps) manures—helps manage nematodes • Identifying habitat modifications in two ways: that will increase predator popula- Soil with increased soil organic tions (i.e., hawk perches, owl boxes, matter, and especially soil snake habitats) humus, functions like a sponge Birds are serious pests of grapes. Control is and retains soil moisture for generally more difficult because birds are longer periods during the so mobile and the fact that many species growing season, thus reducing are protected (so make sure the bird spe- vine stress. cies is positively identified prior to takingPage 18 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • control actions). Again, habitat modification starling (Sturnusbgh vulgaris), and theis helpful to reduce attractiveness of nearby American robin (Turdus migratorius). Theareas as nesting and resting sites. Flags, house fi nch is not common in the centralnoisemakers of various kinds, mylar strips, U.S., but starlings and robins are foundetc., generally are effective for only a short throughout the country. Other bird speciestime, and then birds become habituated to may be locally damaging. Local farm advi-these devices and ignore them. sors should be consulted about managementThe most important problem birds are options and local, state, and federal lawsthe house fi nch (Carpodacus mexicanus), governing them.Bird Management Options Summary (adapted from Allen et al., 2005) Control method/ Time of application Remarks product Place in vineyard: distress calls, exploder guns, crackers, eye spot bal- Scare devices Before damage occurs loons. It’s illegal to shoot migratory birds without a permit from the U.S. Fish Shooting Before grapes ripen and Wildlife Service. Place on each side of canopy or drape over canopy; support above vines Netting Before grapes ripen on a frame. Remove just before harvest. Labor costs may be high. Net costs at least $800/acre. Net life: 7-15 years. Nearly 100% effective. From veraison [when the Practiced in northern and central CA. One falcon can cover roughly 350- grapes first begin to color] Falcon Predators 500 acres, and falconers typically charge $50 to $70 an hour. (Cantisano through harvest— and Alley, 2003) 5-6 weeks Falcon Resources Brad Felger Thomas N. Stephan The companies listed here can provide bird Airstrike Technology Field Operations pest management services using falcons. This 4050 Tampico Rd., Atascadero, CA 93422 Air Superiority Falconry Services technique is generally more effective on larger 805-391-0444 • coastfalcons@yahoo.com 346 Oak St Ramona, CA 92065 760-789-1493 (office) • 760-801-2207 (cell) acreages, due to the costs involved and the area www.air-superiority.com effectively covered by a falcon. Tom Savory Avian Abatement Technology 9700 Orofino Rd., Ft. Jones, CA 96032 530-468-2962 Photos by Rex Dufour, NCATNetting can be very effective at preventing grapelosses due to birds, but does not integrate easily withother agricultural operations. In California, by the The nets can be “stored” by attaching to end poststime the nets are placed, most operations that the nets and drawn up over the grapes when birds are likely tomight interfere with have occurred. cause damage prior to harvest.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 19
    • Organically Acceptable Herbicides Active Product Comments Manufacturer/ Ingredient Name on Use Distributor Citric and AllDown Green AllDown is a formulation of 5% citric acid and .2% garlic. Non-selec- SommerSet Products, Inc. Acetic Acid Chemistry tive herbicide for broadleaf weeds and grasses. The need for and 4817 Normandale Highlands Dr. (vinegar) Herbicide use of citric/acetic acid for weed control must be explained in the Bloomington, MN 55437 Organic System Plan. There are some uncertainties about the appro- 952-820-0363 priate use of these products in an organic system, so growers should www.sumrset.com always check with their certifier prior to their use. Citric and Ground Force Ground Force is a formulation of citric acid and vinegar, but mostly Abby Laboratories Inc Acetic Acid (10%) citric acid. Non-selective herbicide for broadleaf weeds and Craig Morris (vinegar) grasses. The need for and use of citric/acetic acid for weed con- 14000 Sunfish Lake Blvd NW, Ste 100 trol must be explained in the Organic System Plan. There are some Ramsey, MN 55303 uncertainties about the appropriate use of these products in an 763-422-0402 organic system, so growers should always check with their certifier 888-399-2229 (toll free) prior to their use. 763-422-0405 (FAX) cmorris@abbylabs.com www.abbylabs.com Clove oil Matran 2 A non-selective, post emergence herbicide for annual grasses and EcoSMART Technologies, Inc. broadleaf weeds. Can be combined with vinegar. Matran 2 is 45.6 318 Seaboard Lane, % clove oil. According to manufacturer, the use of the yucca extract Franklin, TN 37067 ThermX 70 (0.3 fl. oz/gallon) and fulvic acid (6 fl. oz./gallon) signifi- 888-326-7233 (8 am to 4 pm CST) cantly enhances the coverage and the performance of Matran™. The www.biconet.com/lawn/matran.html need for and use of clove oil for weed control must be explained in the Organic System Plan. There are some uncertainties about the appropriate use of these products in an organic system, so growers should always check with their certifier prior to their use. Clove oil Xpress For general broadleaf and annual grasses weed control. Xpress is a Bio HumaNetics formulation of thyme oil (10.4%) and Clove Oil (10.1%). Lyndon Smith 201 S Roosevelt Chandler, AZ 85226 480-961-1220 800-961-1220 (toll free) 480-961-3501 FAX lyndon@biohumanetics.com www.biohumanetics.com Corn Gluten Bio-Herb Bio-Herb is a non-selective herbicide that inhibits root development Biofix Holding Inc during germination and early root development of any plant. It will Martin Blair not kill established weeds or plants. Application must be done before P.O. Box 2820, Denton TX 76202 the weeds germinate. It is also a slow-release fertilizer. The need for 940-382-2594 and use of corn gluten for weed control must be explained in the 940-387-2294 (FAX) Organic System Plan. Must not be derived from GE sources. exports@biofix.com www.biofix.com Corn Gluten Bio-Weed Bio-Weed is a non-selective herbicide. The need for and use of corn Bioscape Inc gluten for weed control must be explained in the Organic System Ralph Zingaro Plan. Must not be derived from GE sources. 4381 Bodega Ave. Petaluma, CA 94952 707-781-9233 877-246-7227 (toll free) 707-781-9234 (FAX) ralph@bioscape.com www.bioscape.com Corn Gluten Gold-N-Gro The need for and use of corn gluten for weed control must be McGeary Organics Inc 9.6-0-0 explained in the Organic System Plan. Must not be derived from GE David Poorbaugh sources. P.O. Box 299 Lancaster, PA 17608 717-394-6843 800-624-3279 (toll free) 717-394-6931 (FAX) sales@mcgearyorganics.com www.mcgearyorganics.com Soaps For use on non-food crops (ornamental crops) only; use on food crops or fallow fields is prohibited. Allowed use for farmstead maintenance (roadways, ditches, right of ways, building perimeters).Page 20 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Weeds among vineyards (1,800 to 8,726 pounds of dry biomass per acre), so weed suppressionWeed management will vary widely in vine- using the mow-and-mulch technique canyards across the country, due to differences vary. Perennial weeds, such as field bind-in climate, soil, and irrigation. It is help- weed, were not well-controlled. (Hanna etful to discuss weed control strategies in al., 1995.) Use of alternative herbicides—the context of goals for the vineyard floor. with ingredients such as acetic acid (i.e.,Goals for the vine row or berm (“in-row”) vinegar), lemon oil, and clove oil—provide awill likely be different from those for the burn-down option for management of weedsalleyway (“middles”). and living mulches, but their use may be restricted to roadsides, ditches, and non-In-Row Weed Management cropping areas.The most difficult task in farming grapes Growers in areas with summer rains may beorganically may be managing weeds under able to mow their covers several times perthe vine rows. A common in-row strategy is season, adding to the in-row mulch layer.to eliminate all forms of vegetation (weeds Two disadvantages to be aware of with in-as well as cover crops) to avoid competition row mulches are that they can be a fire haz-and interference with the vines, at least dur- ard in dry environments and can provideing the fi rst three to five years of establish- habitat for rodents that can damage vines.ment. Thereafter, living mulches are some-times grown in the vine row during certain Finally, in mature vineyards, cover cropsparts of the growing cycle. are sometimes managed as living mulches or an understory intercrop during part ofEspecially in young vineyards, a weed-free the year. In conventional production thesezone around each vine or down the entire are managed with herbicides. In organicrow is commonly recommended to elimi- vineyard management, living mulches cannate vegetative competition. Specialized till- be suppressed by mowing, tillage, thermalage implements designed for vineyards and methods, and alternative herbicides.orchards are widely used to stir the soil anddisrupt weeds in organic vineyards. Theseinclude a tractor-mounted French plow or Alleyway Vegetationgrape hoe, as well as articulating swing-arm Managementimplements (with rotary harrow and disk Sustainable vegetation management in alleysattachments to stir the soil) that retract when is as much an art as a science. Particulara sensor touches the vine. Thermal weed attention must be paid during the fi rst fewcontrol equipment is becoming more popular years after vine planting, and during dryin organic vineyarding and includes flame, years, that alley vegetation does not reduceinfra-red, and steam options. Drip irrigation vine vigor. Many organic growers are con-should be hung on trellis wires when thermal stantly experimenting with cover crop blendsweeding is planned and to avoid interference for the alleys, seeking mixtures that willwith mechanical implements. maximize benefits (beneficial insect habi-“Mow and blow” cover crops can provide an tat, improved soil tilth, equipment tractionin-row mulch from cover crop biomass raised and access to alleys during wet periods,in the alleyways. This can prevent germina- reduced dust and soil erosion) and mini-tion of weed seed, but it is not very effective mize costs (fuel, equipment and labor costs associated with planting cover crops, as wellin killing weeds that are already there, so it’s as the cost of mowing, seeds, and fertilizer).important when using this technique to start The needs of a particular vineyard will dic-with a clean in-row area. Mulching will also tate the goals for the row middles (Pool etminimize temperature and moisture fluc- al., 1990), which might include:tuations in the upper soil layer, which maybenefit the grape vine. A study in California • Creating optimal competition withfound that dried cover crop residue varied the vine to prevent over-vigor-www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 21
    • ous growth, but not interfere with General Categories of Alleyway production. Vegetation • Increasing soil organic matter and Resident vegetation. Well adapted to local soil quality. environment, and may reseed itself easily. • Decreasing water/wind erosion of soil Growers can use mowing to shift resident (important for mite management). vegetation toward a particular species or set • Reducing soil compaction caused by of species if the flowering/seeding times of heavy equipment moving through the plants are closely monitored. Because the vineyard. resident vegetation is typically a complex • Providing habitat for beneficial mix of plants, there will generally be a good organisms. cover no matter what type of weather the season brings, since some plants will do • Increasing access for machinery better in wetter years, others in dryer years. to the vineyard (alleyways planted Some growers have planted native grasses in covercrops will tend to provide and forbs to good effect. machinery with better “footing” sooner after rains). Mixtures of cereals and legumes. These mixes can provide both nitrogen and organic mat- Several management tools can be used sin- ter to vineyard soils. The planting times for gly or in combination to achieve these goals, these mixtures will vary according to locale. including use of cover crops, living mulches, More than one legume species should be and mowing, in addition to vegetation and planted to take advantage of differences in weed control through mulching, flaming, and tillage. There are different costs and benefits climatic preferences, so that at least one of to each method or combination of methods the species will provide reasonable ground of weed control. For example, regular tillage, cover. Mixtures heavy on legumes will though an effective weed degrade relatively quickly when mowed. control, has high costs Mixtures high in cereals will last longer in terms of equipment when used as in-row mulches due to the and fuel as well as high C:N ratio of the plant material. degrading soil structure Perennials. Perennials do not need replanting and increasing the poten- and save on seed and equipment costs. These tial for soil erosion. plants will generally need a year to become well established. Perennial cover crops may be more competitive with the vines, particu- larly in newly planted vineyards or in shal- low or less fertile soils. (Elmore et al., 1998) Use of perennial legumes may encourage Photos by Rex Dufour, NCAT gopher activity. Some sod grasses would do well in this situation, particularly some of the new dwarf cultivars that respond to minimal management practices such as low water and low fertility. (Allen et al., 2005) However, research in New York that examined both grass-only and legume-only cover crops on ownrooted Concord grapes found that all liv- ing covers, regardless of species, depressed vine size, particularly if growing during the post-bloom period, and did not contribute to higher grapevine tissue nutrient concentra-This subclover cover crop provides a weed-suppressive mulch as well as good habi- tions. (Pool et al., 1995) This research wastat for spiders and other beneficial organisms. done on a conventionally managed vineyard,Page 22 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • however, and may not reflect the soil dynam- In the context of alley cover crops, thisics of an organically managed system. means that some growers use two sets of cover crops in adjacent alleys, rotating theNo species or species mix will do well in cover crop mix used in a particular alleyall locations and in all years. It is up to the every year. Other growers will clean culti-grower to observe and learn to adjust man- vate one alley for frost protection and plantagement practices accordingly, so that weed cover crops in the adjacent alley, then switchmanagement and vine growth can be opti- the two the following year. Still anothermized with minimum inputs of costly labor strategy is to keep one alley in a perennialand material. cover and plant an annual cover in the nextIt is important to remember that continu- alley, which is disked at grape bud break.ous use of any single management strategy The following machinery is used inwill tend to select for weeds that tolerate that organic vineyards for managing weeds andstrategy. Continuous mowing may select for vineyard f loor vegetation. The table isprostrate weeds. Continuous flame weed- adapted and modified from Growinging will destroy small, broad-leaf plants and Organic Winegrapes Sustainably: An Intro-select for grasses and perennial plants that ductory Guide for Growers, by Ann Thrupp,have growing points protected by the soil. Fetzer Vineyards. Weeding Equipment Type of Machine Short description French, or Hoe Plow Heavy duty, traditionally used, does best in moist soil, needs to have soil thrown back under the vine in subsequent pass. Clemens Cultivator Sturdy, few moving parts, slices under weeds, can be mounted in front, mid, or rear. Can handle tight spaces, and is faster than some of the other cultivators. Does not work well if ground is hard. Kimco Cultivator Extremely heavy duty, usually very slow. Can be fit with cultivator or mower head. Has some ability to adjust the angle, allowing use on slopes. The cultivator teeth wear out rapidly. Gearmore Cultivator Similar to the Clemens, but not as heavy duty. It’s considered reliable though lighter, and uses a blade to slice weeds. Less expensive than Clemens. Weed Badger Cultivator Fairly heavy duty; different models vary in durability. Lots of moving parts; fair reliability, but slow. Can be fit with cultivator or mower; works for any size weed. Head can be adjusted to work on a variety of angles & slopes, but may be too wide for narrow rows. Pellenc Sunflower Cultivator Works on single and dual rows, mid or rear mount. Good ability to handle slopes; works best on small and medium weeds. Teeth wear out rapidly; hardfacing is needed. It’s fairly slow and expensive. Bezzerides Cultivator Shallow cultivator with single rod/blade, durable, better for use on mature vines, generally used on flat land, but can be adapted for slopes, faster than most other cultivators, not good for young vines. ID David Cultivator Versatile, with several attachments including mower, weed knife, cultivator, hoe. Slow, and lots of parts to maintain. Good ability to adjust to different row widths, berm heights, slopes. Fairly good sensor. Will handle large weeds, can be mounted on front or mid. Omnas Boomerang Cultivates with a rototiller head; its mode of articulation around vines permits close cultivation. Useful for young vineyards and on small terraces. It’s flexible to adjust to different slopes. Spedo (for tillage or mowing) This machine has optional attachments for under-vine tillage, a weed knife, rotary hoe, and mower. It offers flexibility. It is distrib- uted by Gearmore, manufactured by Spedo & Figali. Kimco In-Row Mower Mows vegetation under the vines. This is an option for vineyards that are no-till systems. Andros Engineering In-Row This is a hydraulic mower that mows vegatation under the vines; works on a spring system, and is light weight. Mower (special design) “Perfect” Rotary Mower This rotary mower is manufactured in Holland, and it can be initially adjusted for different row sizes. It has options for mowing between the vines, and arms for mowing under the vines. Propane Flame Weeders Relies on propane gas burners to produce a controlled and directed flame that passes over weeds. The intense heat sears the leaves, (“Flamers”) (see “Contacts” and the weed wilts and dies one to three days later. Needs to be used on young weeds; doesn’t work on large weeds. Flame weeders below for listing of distributors come in various models and can be fitted to tractors, or used in hand-held model. Moves slowly and may be fire risk to use in sum- of thermal weeders) mer. Liquid propane works best, as it provides more heat than butane.(Lanini, Tom. 2003.) Infrared weeders may reduce fire risk by using a propane-heated radiator, so there are no flames in contact with the ground. Other thermal weeders (steam Using steam or foam for weed control has attracted attention in trade journals, and has been used effectively in organic vegetable and foam) production, but is not yet well tested in vineyards.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 23
    • Contacts: Thermal Weeders (adapted from Quarles, W. 2004. The IPM Practitioner. May/June. p. 8) Handheld Flamers Infrared Weeders Atarus Ranger (lease only) Forevergreen (Ecoweeder, push along and Australian Company handheld) 2-6 Raglan Road 19974 12 Avenue AUBURN NSW 2144m Langley, BC, Canada V2Z1W3 0411-8750379 604-534-9326 02 9645-1665 FAX 604-530-7129 FAX ianj@batchen.com.au info@chemfree-weedcontrol.com www.batchen.com.au/index1.htm www.chemfree-weedcontrol.com BernzOmatic. (#jt850), Available in hardward Rittenhouse & Sons stores or directly from BernzOmatic (Infra-Weeder, push along and handheld; 800-654-9011 see above) Flame Engineering, Inc. (Red Dragon) Steamers P.O. Box 577, LaCrosse, KS 67548 888-388-6724 Atarus Stinger (See above.) 785-222-3619 FAX Sioux Steamer flame@awav.net One Sioux Plaza www.flameeng.com Beresford, SD 57004 Peaceful Valley Farm Supply 605-763-3333 (Flamers and supplies) 888-763-8833 (toll-free) P.O. Box 2209, Grass Valley, CA 94945 605-763-3334 FAX 530-272-4769 www.sioux.com 888-784-1722 (toll-free) Hot Water 530-272-4794 FAX helpdesk@groworganic.com Waipuna USA www.groworganic.com 715 N Independence Romeoville, IL 60466 Rittenhouse & Sons (Weed Torch) 630-514-0364 RR#3, 1402 Fourth Ave 630-759-8155 FAX St. Catharines, ON, Canada L2R 6P9 jeffw@waipuna.com 905-684-8122 800-461-1041 (toll-free) OESCO, Inc. (Aquacide) 905-684-1382 FAX P.O. Box 540, Route 116 prosales@rittenhouse.ca Conway, MA 01341 www.rittenhouse.ca/asp/menu.asp?MID=88 413-369-4335 800-634-5557 (toll-free) Row Crop Flamers 413-369-4431 FAX Flame Engineering, Inc. Two- to eight-row flamers info@oescoinc.com for tractor operation (see above). Infrared and Hot Water Thermal Weed Control Systems, Inc. Sunburst (four- to eight-row flamers for tractor operation, P.O. Box 21108 hooded models) Eugene, OR 97402 N1940 State Hwy 95 541-345-2272 Neillsville, WI 54456 info@thermalweedcontrol.com 715-743-4163 www.thermalweedcontrol.com/ 715-743-2921 FAX jonesconsulting@juno.com Flame Weeders (push along) Rt. 76, Box 28, Glenville, WV 26351 304-462-5589 flame-weeders@juno.com www.flameweeders.cjb.netPage 24 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Grazing Options Economics and MarketingSome farmers in California have used The Grape Production Cost Resourcespygmy sheep to graze in alleys and under chart will have more detailed informationtrellises. The following is from an e-mail appropriate to specific regions of the coun-listserve posting about using sheep in vine- try about establishment and maintenanceyards. (bdnow e-mail archive, 2002) costs of vineyards. Typical vineyard estab- lishment costs—including soil preparation,“I have a friend here in Sonoma County plants, irrigation, and trellising system—[coastal Northern California] that is run- range from $3,500 to $26,000 or morening sheep in his vineyard year round with per acre, excluding land or machinery.great success. They are pygmy sheep, and Maintenance of the planting may cost up tothey wear a kind of harness that keeps them $2,000 per acre per year (mostly labor forfrom getting up into the leaves. Apparently, pruning and picking), and it takes three toif they can get at the end of a cane that has four years for a new vineyard to begin sig-drooped down, they will yank the cane nificant production. (Weber et al., 2005)down all the way to the trunk. The sheep According to Bob Blue of Bonterra Vine-are Old English Baby Doll South Downs. yards in Mendocino County, California,These are short but not small sheep. The organic weed control runs $100 to $150harnesses are dog harnesses for the body more per acre than conventional practicesand a sheep halter for the face. Tie the two (Cox, 2000), but this is relative to farmertogether from chin to chest. Some of the expertise, climate, and farm type. Due tosheep get too big around to fit into the dog greater moisture available to the alleys,harness.” weed control in the East will likely requireIt should be noted that to avoid the potential more time and use of machinery, but itof contamination by manure, it’s required also represents an opportunity to creativelythat the sheep be removed from the use the resource represented by vegetativevineyard at least 90 days prior to growth in the alley.grape harvest. Organic certification costs will vary accord-Aside from pygmy sheep, other options ing to the certifying agency, but will likelyinclude geese, which specialize on grasses. include an inspection fee and an annualRoughly four geese per acre are required certification charge. The inspection feefor grass weed control in new vineyards. (generally $150 to $400, though there will(Lanini, 2003) Any breed will work, but be exceptions) will be higher for largergeese in a rapid growth stage will be more operations, mixed operations that have bothaggressive weeders. organic and conventional ground, and com- plex operations with sev- eral crops and/or several plots of land. There are two programs to help reim- burse farmers for the cost of certification: Agricul- tural Management Assis- tance Program (AMA), and the National Organic Certification Cost Share Program (NOCCS). Both programs cover 75 percent of cost of certification, not to exceed $500, and the states process applications Photo by Rex Dufour, NCAT and distribute funds. Thewww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 25
    • AMA program is currently only run in the A five-year study by Cornell University in following states: CT, DE, ME, MD, MA, NV, New York indicated that growing costs were NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT, UT, WV, WY. 69 to 91 percent higher for organic than for The NOCCS program expired in October, conventional growers in New York. (White, 2004, but some states may still have money 1995) In fact, two of the three cultivars remaining from the federal funds allocated (Seyval, Elvira, and Concord) lost money to them for this program. See ATTRA’s in the organic system. Only Elvira provided Organic Farm Certification and The National a modest positive return of $35 per acre Organic Program for more information about (compared to about $375 per acre for con- certification costs. ventionally grown Elvira). The econom- Because of these high establishment and ics of the system will clearly be different if maintenance costs and the long-term nature the grower is also marketing the grapes as of a vineyard, it is important that a potential wine, as opposed to selling them wholesale. organic grape grower have a realistic mar- The authors of this study point to high weed keting plan before planting on a commercial control costs as a major factor in the eco- scale. This is particularly true on the West nomics of the organic plots. These relative Coast, where production fi nally exceeded cost data do not apply to organic produc- demand in 2002. tion on the West Coast, because the Medi- Grape Production Cost Resources University of California Cooperative Extension, Cost Estimates for Establishing a Vineyard, Sample Costs To Produce Organic Wine Grape: Iowa State University Chardonnay, 2004 http://viticulture.hort.iastate.edu/info/costestimate.html www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/uploads/cost_return_articles/ http://viticulture.hort.iastate.edu/info/cost.pdf grapeorgnc2004.pdf Although these sites, maintained by Iowa Cooperative Exten- The sample costs for organic wine grape production in the sion, do not specifically discuss installation of organic vine- North Coast Region (Sonoma County) are presented in this yards, many of the costs will be the same whether installing study. The hypothetical vineyard used in this report consists of a conventional or organic vineyard. 30 acres that were established conventionally and then con- verted to organic production. An additional 5 acres are in farm- Establishing and Producing Wine Grapes in Hood stead, roads, reservoir, and pumping stations. Two additional River County studies published in 2005 on conventional grape production Oregon State University in the intermountain region (Shasta and Trinity counties in http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/em/ northern California) and the San Joaquin Valley can be seen em8878-e.pdf at www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/. Although this publication, produced by Oregon Cooperative Extension, does not specifically discuss installation of organic The Economics of Wine Production in Virginia vineyards, many of the costs will be the same whether install- www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/viticulture/463-008/463-008.html ing a conventional or organic vineyard. Information is up to Although this site, maintained by Virginia Cooperative Exten- date, published in September, 2004. sion, does not specifically discuss installation of organic vine- yards, many of the costs will be the same whether installing 2001 Grape Enterprise Budget French Hybrid and 2003 a conventional or organic vineyard. Table Grape Enterprise Budget http://aede.osu.edu/People/Moore.301//grape/index.htm Considerations for Starting a Vineyard, Although this site, maintained by Ohio State University Coop- Texas Cooperative Extension erative Extension, does not specifically discuss installation of http://winegrapes.tamu.edu/grow/start.shtml organic vineyards, many of the costs will be the same whether Although this site by Texas Cooperative Extension does not installing a conventional or organic vineyard. specifically discuss installation of organic vineyards, many of the costs will be the same whether installing a conventional or organic vineyard.Page 26 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Agricultural Management Program (AMA) This program is administered by USDA’s Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). The program is currently only run in the following states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming. This program is budgeted at $20 million per year and authorized through 2007. For more information: Dave Mason, National Program Manager, 202-720-1873, dave.mason@wdc.usda.gov, www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/amaterranean climate reduces weed production Marketing Labrusca-Type Grapesin the (usually) non-irrigated soils of the Another consideration for the organicvineyard alleys. Another important factor grower outside of the West Coast “V. vinif-is the generally higher prices obtained for era belt” is choosing cultivars that are bothV. vinifera grapes which dominate West adapted to the grower’s region and relativelyCoast production. resistant to diseases. The problem is thatTwo prime examples of successful organic many cultivars that are both disease-resis-grape production on the West Coast are Bon- tant and adapted to a particular region areterra Vineyards (378 acres) and Fetzer Vine- likely to be seeded labrusca types. Thoughyards (2,000 acres), both of which use organ- labrusca grapes can be marketed as bothically grown grapes as a marketing tool. In table grapes and as wine grapes, most of the seedless types, preferred by consum-addition, Fetzer Vineyards has devoted some ers, and which were developed for the East,of its acreage to Biodynamic production. (For are not particularly disease-resistant. Marsmore information about Biodynamic farming (seedless) appears to be one of the mostpractices, see ATTRA’s Biodynamic Farming resistant, yet it can suffer greatly from blackand Compost Preparation.) Fetzer announced rot in a wet year.in late 2002 that it will grow and purchaseonly organic wine grapes for its wines by Moreover, most of the seedless varieties,harvest 2010. Only about 20 percent of such as Canadice, Interlaken, Himrod, andFetzer’s 250 contract grape growers are Lakemont, are subject to major crop lossespresently organic. (Horner, 2003) Bonterra in many parts of the East due to freeze dam-winemaker Robert Blue states, “After thir- age to fruit buds in winter and early spring.teen years of farming organically, our expe- The cultivar Reliance is an exception to thisrience is that vineyards with balanced, fer- last rule, but, again, it is susceptible to most of the major grape diseases.tile soil produce healthier vines and grapesand subsequently better wines….” Some consumers prefer the full, fruity fla- vor of these American grapes. Many olderOne advantage that producers of vinifera type consumers grew up thinking that grapesgrapes have is that these grapes keep longer were “supposed” to taste the way Ameri-(one to four months at 32°F) than labrusca can grapes taste. Young people exposed totypes (two to four weeks). The various advan- grape jelly (usually made from Concords)tages inherent in organic grape production in and grape-flavored candy and bubblegumthe West, combined with a competitive mar- are also familiar with the flavor of Amer-ket, may make it difficult for growers outside ican grapes. It might behoove the directof California, Oregon, Washington, or Ari- marketer to offer a labrusca berry or twozona to successfully compete in a wholesale as free samples to potential customers atorganic market dominated by such large pro- farmers’ markets or roadside stands. Theducers. Some wholesale buyers and sellers of seedless white and red grapes from Califor-organic grapes in both the eastern and west- nia and Chile have so dominated the tableern U.S. can be found through the Organic grape market that many consumers don’tTrade Association’s Web site at www.theor- even know what a labrusca grape is. As aganicpages.com/topo/index.html. table grape, labrusca has evolved into awww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 27
    • minor, local market niche. It remains one that state from about 178 acres in 1989 to of the primary wine grapes for eastern some 12,000 acres in 2000. (Cox, 2000) wineries, however. Another source estimated 18,500 acres of organic vineyards in California in 1997. Offering recipes and suggestions for a par- (Greene, 1997) Whatever the true figure, ticular cultivar’s best use (wine, preserves, clearly there are many thousands of acres fresh eating, etc.) also could be help- of organically grown grapes in California ful. Because many of the labrusca types and the West Coast. Entrepreneurs hop- have tough, sour, but “slipping” skins, it ing to fi nd an unexplored niche market in might even be helpful to show customers organic grapes or organic wines probably how to eat these slip-skin types (the pulp will be disappointed. However, there is can be squeezed into the mouth and the increasing public awareness and empha- skin discarded). sis on locally-grown and processed foods, and savvy growers producing a good prod- Organic Wine uct may be able to market to it. There may There is a difference between wine made be more opportunity for this marketing with organically grown grapes and organic approach in the East, since there are rela-T he market wines. Organic wine is made from organi- tively fewer organic wine producers there. for organic cally grown grapes, but without added sul- Given the weaker economics of organic wine and fites, although it may contain some naturally grape and wine production in the East, it occurring sulfites. In addition, the wine- would seem even more important that east-wine made from making facility must be certified to ensure ern growers receive a premium for theirorganically pro- compliance with the National Organic Stan- products. A 1990 study (White, 1995)duced grapes is dard. Wine made with organic grapes and concluded that there was no price pre-growing. containing added sulfites to protect against mium in the marketplace in 1990 for wine bacterial spoilage may be labeled “pro- labeled organic. However, in the 15 years duced from organically grown grapes.” since that study, consumer attitudes have Some wineries grow grapes organically or changed, and the quality and quantity of purchase organic grapes, but don’t market organic wines has increased substantially, them as organic wine, either due to the cost as have the improved cultivar selections of certifying their land and winery or the available for planting. These changes, com- added expense of cleaning machinery that’s bined with the new pest management tools required when switching from handling and available to organic growers, will provide processing conventional grapes to organic additional incentives for eastern vineyard- grapes. Other wineries don’t seek organic ists to examine the market for organically certification for their wines but instead rely grown grapes. on “ecological” or “sustainable” produc- tion methods; for example, using composts and cover crops to supply organic matter Wine Making and and increase beneficial insect habitat, yet Sustainable Energy employing selective pesticides in an IPM Winemaking is a highly energy-intensive program. (Cox, 2000) Most winemak- operation, with some of the main consum- ers with experience in ecologically grown ers of energy being (1) refrigeration; (2) grapes feel the quality of the grape, and moving wine in and out of tanks; (3) run- the resulting wine, is better when soil man- ning motors, drives, and pumps; (4) heat- agement is ecologically based. ing, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC); and (5) lighting. The market for organic wine and wine made from organically produced grapes The first step towards improved energy is growing. About 5 percent of California management is usually some kind of energy vineyards were certified organic as of fall audit that tells you how much energy you 2000, and organic acreage has grown in are using and where the energy is going.Page 28 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • A conversation with your utility representa-tive may be the best place to start. As partof this conversation, inquire whether energy Links to information about Federal and State Energy Incentive Programsaudits are available, or whether you canget help in doing your own audit. An audit 1. The Farm Bill Clean Energy website, from the Environmental Lawshould also help you identify “low hang- & Policy Center is at www.farmenergy.org. Information about theing fruit,” targets for highly cost-effective Energy Title programs of the Federal Farm Bill and “energy effi-energy saving improvements. ciency and renewable energy opportunities that benefit farmers, ranchers and rural communities.”Many wineries have found ways to dramati-cally reduce their energy consumption, while 2. The Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE)others have incorporated renewable energy is “a comprehensive source of information on state, local, utility,into their operations. These improvements and selected federal incentives that promote renewable energy.”often pay for themselves quickly in energy www.dsireusa.orgsavings while also attracting favorable pub- 3. The California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance provideslicity and public relations benefits. Substan- links to energy efficiency resources.tial incentives for energy-saving projects are www.sustainablewinegrowing.org/resourcescurrently available from numerous federaland state agencies, as well as utilities. Some approaches to energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in vineyards and wineries: Sutter Home (Trinchero Family Estates, St. Helena, CA) • Night harvesting takes advantage of off-peak hours and reduces refrigeration needs. • Better insulation of warehouses, along with roof fans that pull in cool air at night. • Replaced incandescent lights with fluorescents (payback about ½ year). • Installed energy-efficient motors on all refrigeration tanks. • Using 45% recycled glass in bottles. Simpson Meadow Winery (Madera, CA) • Installed low-emission engines for two irrigation pumps, reducing fuel use 15%. • Drip irrigation during off-peak hours in the evening and on weekends, reducing PG&E bills 27% through use of time-of-use rate schedules and reduced evaporation. Fetzer (Hopland, CA) • Simple insulated concrete wall separates cold stabilizing wine from warm-fermenting wine, reducing power bills $5,000 per month. • Computerized and upgraded temperature tank controls allow better control and the ability to completely shut off the system as needed. • Natural gas-powered co-generation unit produces hot water for barrel washing and electricity for heating, cooling, and lighting. • Purchasing 100% green power; PV provides 75% of power for Administration Bldg. • 40% recycled glass in bottles; case boxes 100%. Sanford Winery (Santa Barbara, CA) • Winery built from on-site materials: adobe bricks, recycled timbers, indigenous stone, etc. • High-quality, thermally efficient walls reduce heating and cooling costs. • Make full use of ambient temperatures for cooling in the aging cellars. Fans draw cool night air into the building. • Grass cover crops reduce tractor passes for disking of weeds. Benziger Family Winery (Glen Ellen, CA) • Changed from incandescent to fluorescent lighting, reducing lighting energy 20-25%. • Cave excavation for barrel aging avoids power needs for chilling and humidity control. • Changed electrical service from 240 volts to a more efficient 480 volt service. • Rewired the crush pad and installed variable speed motors. • Applied foam insulation to fermentation and storage tanks, roof of the barrel barn.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 29
    • Summary the types of cultivars adapted to Eastern cli- mates. French hybrids and back crosses with As is the case with so many other crops, French hybrids will provide a wider range organic grape production faces different chal- of cold- and disease-resistant cultivars with lenges depending on where the vineyard is high quality grapes that are more compatible located. This is reflected in the vast regional with organic production systems. Organically differences in the areas under organic grape acceptable fungicides and insect controls, production. Public concerns reflected by as well as disease-resistant cultivars, make increased regulation of synthetic agrichem- small-scale organic production of grapes icals combined with market pressures for possible in the East, but long-term commer- a better quality grape or wine are pushing cial success may depend on novel market- grape production to develop better, more eco- ing techniques, new organically acceptable logical approaches to vineyard management. pest management techniques, and continuing At the forefront of this movement are organic research into innovative methods and tech- and Biodynamic grape growers. niques of organic production. Improved tech- It is clear that in the arid West, producing niques for organic vineyard management will grapes organically is a profitable and sus- evolve in the East, as they have in the West, tainable enterprise, whether for fresh mar- as more research is conducted on organically ket or wine grapes. Increasing numbers of managed vineyards and more growers gain conventional producers are incorporating experience in the science and art of organic sustainable (if not organic) practices into grape production. their vineyards to increase the quality of the Those that practice organic grape farming grapes in an increasingly competitive mar- anywhere in the country will benefit from ket. This is a win for the growers, for con- exchanging information. In that spirit, and in sumers, and for the environment. order to better protect our nation’s resources, In the humid East, the commercial suc- please contact the author at rexd@ncat.org if cess of organic grape production is compli- you have information you would like to share cated by disease and insect pressure and with other farmers.References Bettiga, L. et al. 1989. Integrated control of botrytis bunch rot of grape. California Agriculture. March-Allen, N., A. Connelly, J. DeFrancesco, G. C. Fisher, April. p. 9–11.J. Howe, J. W. Pscheidt, M. C. Vasconcelos, and R.D. William. 2005. 2005 Pest Management Guide for Bordelon, B. 2002. Grape Cultivars for the UpperWine Grapes in Oregon. Oregon State University. Midwest. Purdue University, Department of Horticul-http://eesc.orst.edu/agcomwebfile/edmat/html/em/ ture and Landscape Architecture. http://viticulture.em8413/em8413.html hort.iastate.edu/info/pdf/bordeloncultivars.pdfbdnow e-mail archive. 2002. E-mail listserve posting. Cantisano, A., and L. Alley. 2003. Falcons in Califor-www.mail-archive.com/bdnow@envirolink.org/ nia Vineyards Protect the Grapes. Organic Consum-msg04875.html ers Association Web site. AG News You Can Use #13. www.organicconsumers.org/organic/falcons110203.cfmBently, W. J. et al. 2003. UC Pest Management Guide-lins. Vine Mealybug. http://ucipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/ Cox, Jeff. 2000. Organic Winegrowing Goesr302301911.html Mainstream. The Wine News. August/September. www.thewinenews.com/augsep00/cover.htmlBettiol, W. 1999. Effectiveness of cow’s milk againstzucchini squash powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuligi- Crisp, P., and D. Bruer. 2001. Organic control of pow-nea) in greenhouse conditions. Crop Protection Vol. dery mildew without sulfur. Australian Grapegrower18, (September). p. 489-492. and Winemaker 452(September):22.Page 30 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Ellis, M.A. 1994. Ohio State University Extension Lanini, Tom. 2003. Weed pathologist, personalFactsheet HYG-3018-94. Powdery Mildew of Grape. communication. Organic Winegrowing Short Course,http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/3000/3018.html Hopland, CA.Elmore, C.L., D.R. Donaldson, and R.J. Smith. 1998. Lotter, D.W., J. Granett, and A.D. Omer. 1999.Weed Management. p. 107-112. In: Cover Cropping in Differences in grape phylloxera-related grapevineVineyards. A Growers Handbook. University of Cali- root damage in organically and conventionally man-fornia Division of Agiculture and Natural Resources. aged vineyards in California. HortScience. Vol. 34,Publication #3338. 162 pp. No. 6. p. 1108-1111. http://ashs.frymulti.com/ hortscience.asp (Browse for full article.)Flaherty, D.L., L.P. Christensen, W.T. Lanini, J.J.Marois, P.A. Phillips, and L.T. Wilson (technical ed.). Martinson, T.E., C.J. Hoffman, T.J. Dennehy, J.S.1992. Grape Pest Management. University of Califor- Kamas, and T. Weigle. 1991. Risk Assessment for thenia Publication 3343, Second Edition. University of Grape Berry Moth and Guidelines for ManagementCalifornia, Oakland, CA. 400 p. of the Eastern Grape Leafhopper. New York’s Food and Life Sciences Bulletin. Number 138. 10 p. www.Gempler’s nysipm.cornell.edu/publications/grapeman/risk.pdf800-382-8473 Nagarkatti, S., A. J. Muza, M. C. Saunders, and P. C.www.gemplers.com Tobin. 2002. Role of the egg parasitoid TrichogrammaGreene, C. USDA-ARS 1997 data, published in 2002 minutum in biological control of the grape berry moth,www.ers.usda.gov/emphases/harmony/issues/organic/ Endopiza viteana. Biocontrol. Vol. 47. p. 373-385.table12.htm Nicholls, C., M. Parrella, and M.A. Altieri. 2000.Gubler, W. D. (No date) Organic Grape Production in Establishing a plant corridor to enhance beneficialCalifornia. Department of Plant Pathology, insect biodiversity in an organic vineyard. OrganicUniversity of California, Davis Farming Research Foundation. Winter. No. 7. p. 7–9.www.infodienst-mlr.bwl.de/la/lvwo/kongress/ Pacific BiocontrolORGANIC.htm 14615 NE 13 St, Suite AHanna, R., F. G. Zalom, and C. L. Elmore. 1995. Vancouver, WA 98685Integrating cover crops into grapevine pest and nutri- 800-999-8805 www.pacificbiocontrol.comtion management: The transition phase. SustainableAgriculture Technical Reviews. Summer 1995. v7n3 Pearson, R.C., and A.C. Goheen (ed.). 1988. Compen-www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/newsltr/v7n3/sa-7.htm dium of Grape Diseases. American Pathological Soci- ety Press, St. Paul, MN. 93 p.Horner, V. 2003. Winery to go totally organic byharvest 2010. The Capital Press. Jan. 3, 2003 Pfeiffer, D.G., and P. B. Schultz. 1986. Grape berry moth, Endopiza viteana Clemens. Modified from exten-Jurgens, R. 2005. Talk on Mineral Nutrition, Plant sion bulletin “Major Insect and Mite Pests of Grape inDisease and Pests. At: Sustainable Agriculture PCA Virginia” Virginia Cooperative Extension Service pub-Conference, San Luis Obispo, Dec 3, 2005. lication 444-567.Kauer, R, B. Gaubatz, M. Wohrle, U. Kornitzer, H.R. www.ento.vt.edu/Fruitfiles/GBM.htmlSchultz, and B. Kirchner. 2000. Organic Viticulture Pool, R.M., R.M. Durst, A.F. Senesac. 1990. Man-Without Sulfur? 3 Years of Experience with Sodium- aging Weeds in New York Vineyards. I. Choosing aand Potassiumbicarbonate. Proceedings of the 6th Weed Management Program. Cornell Grape Facts. 3International Congress on Organic Viticulture, August pgs. Available free upon request to: Bulletin Room,25-6. p. 180-182. New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456Kodira, U.C., and B. B. Westerdahl. 2002. UC PestManagement Guidelines: Grape Nematodes Section. Pool, R. M., A. N. Lakso, R. M. Dunst, J. A. Robin-ANR Publication 3448. UC IPM Online. son, A. G. Fendinger and T. J. Johnson. 1995. Weedwww.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r302200111.html Management. Organic Grape and Wine Productionwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 31
    • Symposium, Third N. J. Shaulis Symposium, Geneva, www.asev.org/Journal/Journal.htmNY, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Refereed scientific journal for wine research. Call or e-mail for cost.Rombough, L. 2002. The Grape Grower: A Guide toOrganic Viticulture. 2002. Chelsea Green Publishing Compendium of Grape Diseases. 1988. Pearson, R.C.,Company, White River Junction, VT 289 p. and A.C. Goheen (ed.). American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN. 93 p.Smith, N. 2005. Personal communication with Agra- Comprehensive treatise on this subject. Color plates ofquest employee at the Davis facility about Serenade symptoms. Highly recommended for the serious grower.trials in the Northeast. December 7. $49 plus shipping and handling from:Thrupp, L. A. 2003. Gowing Organic Winegrapes: An APS PressIntroductory Handbook for Growers. Fetzer Vineyards, 3340 Pilot Knob RoadHopland, CA. 64 p. St. Paul, MN 55121-2097 800-328-7560 toll-freeTrankner, A., and W.F. Brinton, 1994. Compost Prac- 651-454-0766 FAXtices for Control of Grape Powdery Mildew (Uncinula aps@scisoc.orgnecator). Biodynamic journal reprint. www.shopapspress.org/40888.htmlTrimborn, B.F., H.C. Weltzien, G. Schruft. 2000. Cover Cropping in Vineyards. A Growers Handbook.Contributions to Environmentally Safe Plant Protec- Westerdahl et al. 1998. University of California Divi-tion Systems in Grapevine Culivation. Proceedings of sion of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publica-the 6th International Congress on Organic Viticulture. tion #3338. 162 pp.p. 166. This book will be most useful to growers on the West Coast. It covers various cover crops, their histories, usesWeber E. A., K. M. Klonsky, and R. L. De Moura. and management, effects on soil and pest manage-2005. Sample Costs to Produce Organic Wine Grapes. ment. It has a very useful section that describes howNorth Coast Region, Napa County. University of Cali- California grape growers use cover crops.fornia Cooperative Extension publication GR-NC-05-O. 18 p. Establishment and Maintenance of Muscadine Vine- yards. 1983. Hegwood, C.P. et al. MAFES BulletinWelte, A. 2000. Plant Protection in Organic Viticul- 913. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State,ture in New Zealand. Proceedings of the 6th Interna- MS. 20 p.tional Congress on Organic Viticulture. p. 65-8. A short but comprehensive treatise on commercial pro-Westerdahl, B.B., E.P. Caswell-chen, and R.L. Bugg. duction of muscadines. Valuable discussion of the hor-1998. Nematodes. p. 113-125. In: C.C. Ingels, R.L. ticultural traits of cultivars. Cooperative Extension inBugg, G.T McGourty, and L.P. Christensen (eds.). other southern states also produce materials on musca-Cover Cropping in Vineyards. A Growers Handbook. dines. Free from:University of California Division of Agiculture and Office of Agriculture CommunicationsNatural Resources. Publication #3338. 162 pp. Box 9625 Mississippi State, MS 39762White, G. B. 1995. The economics of growing grapes 662-325-7774organically. p. 78. In: R.M. Pool (ed.). Organic Grapeand Wine Symposium. Cornell University, Geneva, NY. Grape Pest Management. 1992. Flaherty, D.L. et al. University of California Publication 3343, Second Edition. University of California, Oakland, CA. 400 p.Further Resources This is an invaluable reference for West Coast grape growers. It has hundreds of color pictures, many linePublications and Periodicals drawings and diagrams, and covers nearly all impor-American Journal of Enology and Viticulture tant diseases, nematodes, weed management, andP.O. Box 2160 insect, mite, and vertebrate pests. Excellent colorDavis, CA 95617-2160 plates. $70 plus $7.00 shipping and handling from:530- 753-3142 DANR Communication Services530-753-3318 FAX University of Californiaeditor@asev.org 6701 San Pablo Ave.Page 32 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Oakland, CA 94608 607-535-7133 800-994-8849 800-535-5670 (toll-free) 510-643-5470 FAX 607-535-2998 FAX danrcs@ucdavis.edu Trade journal for the Northeast wine industry. www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/IPMPROJECT/ADS/manual_ $37/6 issues/year. grapes.html www.practicalwinery.com/Modern Winemaking. 1985. Jackisch, P.Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 289 p. Organizations $35 plus $3.50 shipping and handling from: Cornell Cooperative Extension Sales Department Sage House 365 Roberts Hall Cornell University Press Ithaca, New York 14853-5905 512 East State Street 607-255-2237 P.O. Box 250 cce@cornell.edu Ithaca, NY 14851-0250 www.cce.cornell.edu 607-277-2211 Produces an excellent series of fact sheets and other cupress-sales@cornell.edu bulletins relevant to eastern grape production, which are listed in their publications catalog.Organic Viticulture in New York. 1995. Pool,Robert (ed.). Organic Grape and Wine Production American Society for Enology and ViticultureSymposium. NYSAES Special Report, Number 69. P.O. Box 1855NYAES Communications Services, Cornell University, Davis, CA 95617-1855Geneva, NY. 530-753-3142 A useful guide on growing organic grapes in the East. 530-753-3318 FAX Available on the Web in Acrobat in its entirety at society@asev.org www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/faculty/pool/ www.asev.org/ organicvitwkshp/tabofcontents.html A nonprofit scientific society dedicated to the interests Order as “SpR 69, Shaulis III,” $13 ppd., from: of enologists, viticulturists, and others in the fields of Bulletins, Communications Services wine and grape research and production throughout the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station world. Members include professionals from wineries, Cornell University vineyards, academic institutions, and organizations. Geneva, New York 14456 American Vintners AssociationThe Grape Grower: A Guide to Organic Viticulture. 1200 G Street, NW2002. Rombough, Lon. Chelsea Green Publishing Suite 360Company, White River Junction, VT. 289 p. Washington, DC 20005 According to the author, “From finding and preparing 800-879-4637 (toll-free) the right site for your vineyard to training, trellising, 202-347-6341 FAX and pruning vines, to growing new grapes from seeds info@americanwineries.org and cuttings, The Grape Grower offers thorough and www.americanwineries.org/ accessible information on all the basics. The chap- ters on grape species, varieties, and hybrids are alone The mission of the American Vintners Association is worth the price of a college course in viticulture. And to enhance the public perception and business environ- technical information on the major (and minor) insect ment of American wine growing through marketing, pests and diseases that affect grapes, as well as their public information, and grassroots government repre- organic controls, makes this book an invaluable refer- sentation initiatives. ence that readers will turn to again and again.” See American Wine Society the author’s full description at www.chelseagreen.com/ 3006 Latta Rd. Garden/GrapeGrower.htm Rochester, NY 14612Vineyard and Winery Management 585-225-7613 Tel/FAXP.O. Box 231 Sperling@AmericanWineSociety.comWatkins Glen, NY 14891-0231 www.americanwinesociety.com/www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 33
    • Amateur and professional viticulturists and wine Operates the Missouri State Fruit Experiment Station makers. Promotes home production. Sponsors and the Midwest Viticulture and Enology Center. The wine competitions. department conducts research programs in biotechnology/Badger Mountain molecular genetics, entomology, plant pathology, molec-1106 S. Jurupa Street ular plant virology, pomology/plant physiology, enology,Kennewick, WA 99338-1001 and viticulture, and has advisory programs in fruit pro-509-627-4986 duction, grapes and wine, and consumer education. The800-643-9463 (toll-free) department also conducts the Grape Importation and509-627-2071 FAX Certification Program, a USDA quarantine site.www.badgermtnvineyard.com Harmony Farm Supply and Nursery A 100% certified organic vineyard in Washington. 3244 Hwy 116 NorthCalifornia Association of Winegrape Growers Sebastopol, CA 95472555 University Ave 707-823-9125Suite 250 707-823-1734 FAXSacramento, CA 95825 info@harmonyfarm.com916-924-5370 www.harmonyfarm.cominfo@cawg.org Consultant for organic production. Also supplier forwww.cawg.org/ natural pest control products. Dedicated to enhancing the business of growing wine grapes through research, advocacy, and leadership. Heller Vineyards Web site features a section on Sustainable Wine Grow- Tasting Room and Offices ing, as well as a number of research publications and P.O. Box 999 other resources. 69 W. Carmel Valley Road Carmel Valley, CA 93924California Table Grape Commission 800-625-8466 (toll-free)392 W. Fallbrook, Suite 101 831-659-6226 FAXFresno, CA 93711-6150 heller@redshift.com559-447-8350559-447-9184 FAX www.hellerestate.cominfo@tablegrape.com A California vineyard that produces chemical-freewww.tablegrape.com grapes without pesticides or herbicides and is certified Grape growers united to promote California table 100% organic. grapes. Conducts research on production. Quarterly Minnesota Grape Growers Association grower report. 35680 Hwy. 61 Blvd.China Bend Winery Lake City, MN 550413596 Northport Flat Road 651-345-3531Kettle Falls, WA 99141 grapes@connect.com800-700-6123 (toll-free) www.mngrapes.comwinery@chinabend.com Source of information for growing grapes in very coldwww.chinabend.com climates. Newsletter and annual “Yearbook.”Cooperative Extension Service and Land-Grant Munson Memorial VineyardUniversity System Grayson County Community College Every state has a land-grant university and an associ- 6101 Grayson Dr. ated Extension Service. Research and Extension ser- Denison, TX 75020 vices relevant to viticulture are offered in many states. 903-786-4382 To contact the county CES, see Yellow Pages under www.grayson.edu/grayson/ “Government, County.” A repository for the cultivars developed at the turn ofDepartment of Fruit Science the 20th century by the prolific grape breeder and bot-Southwest Missouri State University anist T. V. Munson. Munson crossed native and Euro-9740 Red Spring Road pean species for disease resistance and for adaptabilityMountain Grove, MO 65711-9252 to various soils and climates. The Vineyard providesmtngrv.smsu.edu only information and cuttings—no plants.Page 34 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • New York Wine & Grape Foundation MGGA350 Elm St. 35680 Hwy. 61 Blvd.Penn Yan, NY 14527 Lake City, MN 55041315-536-7442 651-345-3531315-536-0719 FAX grapes@connect.cominfo@newyorkwines.org www.mngrapes.comwww.uncorkny.com/ Grower/processor/retailer group that promotes sales and Shelburne Vineyard use of New York grapes and grape products. Also pro- 70 Pierson Drive vides marketing information assistance. Shelburne, VT 05482 802-734-1386North American Fruit Explorers, Inc. (NAFEX) kalbert@shelburnevineyard.comRt. 1, Box 94 www.shelburnevineyard.comChapin, IL 62628 An organic vineyard in Vermont. This Web sitevorbeck@csj.net has some excellent insights into weed and diseasewww.nafex.org management in a Northeastern U.S. setting. Also Amateur and professional fruit afficionados share discusses cultivars used in their vineyard and some information in a quarterly journal, Pomona, and in cultural practices. national and regional meetings. Washington Association of Wine Grape GrowersOhio State University Box 716College of Food, Agricultural, andEnvironmental Sciences Cashmere, WA 98815http://ohioline.osu.edu/lines/fcrop.html#FRU.8 509-782-8234 Provides a number of useful online publications 509-782-1203 FAX related to grape pests and diseases. scharlau@televar.com www.wawgg.orgOrganic Grapes into Wine Alliance (OGWA) A grower association committed to representing,1592 Union St., Suite 350 educating, and promoting wine grape growers inSan Francisco, CA 94123 Washington State.415-256-8882www.organicwine.com Yorkville Cellars An alliance of wine makers, grape growers, and wine- 25701 Highway 128 trades people who support the production of wines P.O. Box 3 made from organically grown grapes through the Yorkville, CA 95494 establishment of production standards, education, 707-894-9177 cooperation, and leadership. 707-894-2426 FAX yvcellars@pacific.netOrganic Wine Guild www.yorkville-cellars.com/organic.htmlBox G Organic estate winery in California.Santa Rosa, CA 95402707-522-0550info@organicwineguild.com Web Siteswww.organicwineguild.com Controlling Fungal Diseases of Grapevine Under Founded in 2001 to educate vintners, consumers, Organic Management Practices. Gadoury, David M. vineyard managers, and others about the benefits of No date. Cornell University. Downloaded December converting vineyards to organic and Biodynamically 2005. www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/faculty/pool/ grown grapes. organicvitwkshp/newgadoury.pdf Aids organic grape growers with controlling majorMinnesota Grape Growers Assoc. 1990. Growing fungal diseases.Grapes in Minnesota. MGGA, White Bear Lake, MN.67 p. Grape Production in New York: Resistant Rootstocks Excellent guide for viticulturists in cold climates. for New York Vineyards. Pool, Robert M. No date. $8.50 ppd. From: Cornell University. Downloaded December 2005.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 35
    • www.nysaes.cornell.edu/hort/faculty/pool/rootstocks/ Plant Suppliersnyrootstocks.html Helps New York grape growers determine whether A list of Grapevine Nurseries is located online at to use a special rootstock. Topics covered include www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/grapeweb/nurseries.htm resistant stocks, hybrid varieties, viticultural factors, Boordy Vineyard and more. 12820 Long Green Pike Hydes, MD 21081Internet IPM Resources on Grapes and Current 410-592-5015www.ippc.orst.edu/cicp/fruit/grape.html 410-592-5385 FAX This is a comprehensive listing of Web-based grape pest wine-info@boordy.com management information, organized by topic as well www.boordy.com as by source. Wide range of labrusca, vinifera, and FrenchNorthwest Berry & Grape Information Network hybrid grapes.http://berrygrape.orst.edu California Grapevine Nursery, Inc. A cooperative effort of Oregon State University, Uni- 1085 Galleron Road versity of Idaho, Washington State University, and the St. Helena, CA 94574-9790 USDA Agricultural Research Service, the Network’s 707-963-5688 Web site is a comprehensive information and commu- 800 344-5688 (toll-free) nications resource for berry and grape production prac- 707 963-1840 FAX tices, research, and marketing. The primary intended sales@californiagrapevine.com audience is commercial growers, marketers, crop con- www.californiagrapevine.com/ sultants, pest management advisors, educators, and researchers in the Pacific Northwest. It includes infor- Concord Nurseries, Inc. 10175 Mile Block Rd. mation and links related to organic production meth- North Collins, NY 14111-9770 ods and research. 800-223-2111 (toll-free)Organic Wineries—CA 800-448-1267 FAXwww.cawinemall.com/organic.htm info@concordnursery.com Identifies and provides links to organic wineries www.concordnursery.com in California. Wide range of labrusca, vinifera, and French hybrid grapes.Sample Costs to Produce Organic Wine Grapes in theNorth Coast with an Annually Sown Cover Crop. Klon- Double A Vineyardsskey, Karen et al. 1990. University of California Coop- 10277 Christy Roaderative Extension, Davis, CA. Accessed December Fredonia, NY 140632005. www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/pubs/costs/92/grape1.htm 716-672-8493 Addresses issues that are integral to organic wine grape vine@rakgrape.com farming, including the seasonal flow of operations for www.rakgrape.com the production of organic wine grapes, cover crops, pest Some 75 varieties available, with production of other management, and current status of regulations for varieties by request. Catalog available online. organically grown grapes and organic wine. Despite its Duarte Nursury age, this is a useful publication for farmers and others 1555 Baldwin Road interested in organic grape production. Hughson, CA 95326 209-531-0351 (toll-free)The Super Gigantic Y2K Winegrape Glossary by www.duartenursery.com/main.htmAnthony J. Hawkins Free delivery in most of California and Oregon. Therewww.wineloverspage.com/wineguest/wgg.html is a minimum order of 100 vines for shipping. All This Web page has many links to other grape-related orders outside of California or Oregon will be shipped pages and contains a comprehensive collection and UPS at customer’s expense. Shipping is approx. $1.00 discussion of various wine grape cultivars, with within- per vine from Dec. - Feb. Balance of the year is shipped page links to each cultivar discussed. UPS Express, which is estimated at $2.00+ per vine.Page 36 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Fairacre Nursery Sunridge NurseriesRt. 1, Box 1068 441 Vineland Rd.Prosser, WA 99350 Bakersfield, CA 93307509-786-2974 661-366-4251 FAX Wholesale only. Specializes in viniferas. www.sunridgenurseries.comeVine Grape Sales Listings Minimum order: 50 vineswww.evine.com/ Dave Wilson Nursery Online resource that allows users to quickly and easily 19701 Lake Rd. research and compare products from different growers Hickman, CA 95323 in one convenient location. Searchable by grape type 800-654-5854 (toll-free) and variety, as well as region. 209.874.1920 FAXIson’s Nursery & Vineyards www.davewilson.comP.O. Box 190 Wholesale only. Specializes in viniferas.Brooks, GA 30205770-599-6970 Vineyard Suppliesinfo@isons.comwww.isons.com A. M. Leonard Inc. Specializes in muscadines. 241 Fox Drive Piqua, OH 45356King Estate Winery 800-543-8955 (toll-free)80854 Territorial Road 800-433-0633 FAXEugene, OR 97405 info@amleo.com541-942-9874 www.amleo.com/textproducts.html541-942-9867 FAX Carries a wide range of horticultural tools.info@kingestate.comwww.kingestate.com Green Hoe Co., Inc. A certified nursery that produces premium grafted and P.O. Box 268 non-grafted (dormant and green-growing) grapevines. Portland, NY 14769 Offers a fine selection of both certified and non-certi- 716-792-9433 fied material. 716-792-9434 FAXOwens Vineyard & Nursery jim@greenhoecompany.comGeorgia Hwy. 85 greenhoecompany.comGay, GA 30218 Hydraulic grape hoes, end-post anchors, more. Specializes in muscadines. Harmony Farm Supply & NurseryLon Rombough 3244 Hwy. 116 NorthP.O. Box 365 Sebastopol, CA 95472Aurora, OR 97002 707-823-9125503-678-1410 707- 823-1734 FAXlonrom@bunchgrapes.com info@harmonyfarm.comwww.hevanet.com/lonrom www.harmonyfarm.com Private grape breeder and consultant for grapes. Main- Irrigation supplies, organic fertilizers, ecological tains a large collection of grape cultivars; sells cut- pest controls. tings. Enclose SASE with inquiries. Oregon Vineyard SupplySouthmeadow Fruit Gardens 2700 St. Joseph RoadP.O. Box 211 McMinnville, OR 97128Baroda, MI 49101 503-435-2700616-422-2411 1-800-653-2216 (toll-free)616-422-1464 FAX 503-474-0476 FAXsmfruit@aol.com www.ovs.comwww.southmeadowfruitgardens.com Complete range of vineyard supplies and organic nutri- Specializes in “antique” and rare cultivars, including ents, as well as tractors, power equipment, and more. some Munson selections. Web site includes a vineyard Q&A section.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 37
    • Pacific Biocontrol Corp. Peaceful Valley Farm Supply14615 NE 13th Court, Suite A P.O. Box 2209Vancouver, WA 98685 Grass Valley, CA 95945360-571-2247 1-888-784-1722 (toll-free)360-571-2248 FAX 530-272-4769jackjenkins@qwest.net helpdesk@groworganic.comwww.pacificbiocontrol.com/ www.groworganic.com Pheromone disruption system for grape berry moth. Organic pest controls and fertilizers.Appendix I Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape Cultivars Compiled by Guy Ames & Ric Lancaster October 1999, Revised by Rex Dufour 2006 Sensitive to: Downy Powdery Botrytis Phomop- Anthrac- Cultivar: Black Rot Eutypa Sudlfur 1 Copper 2 Mildew Mildew Rot sis nose Abouriou MR Alicante Bouschet MR Alicante Ganzin HR Alwood R S S America MR Angur Kalan HR Aramon MR Athens HS Aspiran HS Aubun HR Aurore HS MS MS HS SS HS No MS Babeasca Neagra HR Bacchus HS Baco Noir HS MS MS MR SS SS MS No Barbera MR Baroque HR Bath MR Belcan MR Black Corinth HS Bouteillan HS Brighton HS MS Buffalo MS MR MR MR Cabernet Franc HS HS HS SS No Cab. Sauvignon HS HS MS SS HS HS No SSHR=Highly Resistant MR=Moderately Resistant SR=Slightly Resistant R=Resistant SS=Slightly Susceptible S=Susceptible MS=ModeratelySusceptible HS=Highly Susceptible+=Fruit of Vignoles is highly susceptible to anthracnose while foliage and shoots are only slightly susceptible*=Fruits not susceptible1=Slight to moderate sulfur injury may occur–even on tolerant cultivars–when temperatures are 85 degrees F or higher during, or immediately following, the application2=Copper applied under cool, slow-drying conditions is likely to cause injury.Page 38 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape Cultivars continued from pg. 38 Sensitive to: Downy Powdery Botrytis Phomop- Anthrac- Cultivar: Black Rot Eutypa Sudlfur 1 Copper 2 Mildew Mildew Rot sis nose Campbell HS Campbells Early MS HS Canadice HS HS MS MS No Cardinal HS Carignane HS Cascade MR MR MS MR MS MS No Castor HR Catawba HS HS MS SS HS MS SS No MS Cayuga White MS MS MS SS SS HS SS No SS Caywood MR Challenger HS HS MS HS No Chambourcin MS SS MS MS SS Yes Champanel MR MR Chancellor MS HS HS SS HS MS SS Yes HS Chardonnay HS HS HS HS HS MS No SS ChardonnayNY MS HS HS HS No Chardonel MS MS MS MS No Chelois SS SS MS SS HS SS SS No SS Chenin Blanc MS Clairette HS Claverie HS Clinton MR HR Concord HS MS MS SS HS SS HS Yes SS Cottage R Cynthiana/Norton MR MS SS SS SS SS Yes DeChaunac MS MS MS MS HS MS HS Yes Delaware HS HS* MS MS HS MS SS No Diamond HS MS HS Durif (Petite Sarah) MR Dutches MS MS MS MS MS MR No Einset seedless HS MS HS SS Elviria MR MR MS MS SS SS No MS Emperor HS Erie S Flame Tokay HSHR=Highly Resistant MR=Moderately Resistant SR=Slightly Resistant R=Resistant SS=Slightly Susceptible S=Susceptible MS=ModeratelySusceptible HS=Highly Susceptible+=Fruit of Vignoles is highly susceptible to anthracnose while foliage and shoots are only slightly susceptible*=Fruits not susceptible1=Slight to moderate sulfur injury may occur–even on tolerant cultivars–when temperatures are 85 degrees F or higher during, or immediately following, the application2=Copper applied under cool, slow-drying conditions is likely to cause injury.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 39
    • Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape Cultivars continued from pg. 39 Sensitive to: Downy Powdery Botrytis Phomop- Anthrac- Cultivar: Black Rot Eutypa Sudlfur 1 Copper 2 Mildew Mildew Rot sis nose Foch MS SS MS MS MS HS Yes Fredonia MS HS MS MR MS No French Colombard MR Frontenac MS SS MS MS SS No Gewürztraminer HS HS MS HS No SS Glenora HS HS HS HS Goeth Golden Muscat HS MS HS Greek Perfume S Grenache MR MR Grignolino MR Himrod HS MS HS SS HS No Island Belle S Isabella MR Italia S Ives MR HS MR MR MS Yes Janjal Khara HR Jupiter MS SS HS SS SS Kendaia Kerner MS LaCrosse HS MS MS HS MS Lady Patricia R Lakemont S Leon Millot MS MS HS SS SS SS SS Yes Limberger HS HS HS SS HS No Lomanto MR Long John MR Loretto R Lutie R McCampbell MR Maccabeu HR Malbec MR Manito S Marechal Foch MS SS MS SS MS HS Yes Mars SS SS HR SS SSHR=Highly Resistant MR=Moderately Resistant SR=Slightly Resistant R=Resistant SS=Slightly Susceptible S=Susceptible MS=ModeratelySusceptible HS=Highly Susceptible+=Fruit of Vignoles is highly susceptible to anthracnose while foliage and shoots are only slightly susceptible*=Fruits not susceptible1=Slight to moderate sulfur injury may occur–even on tolerant cultivars–when temperatures are 85 degrees F or higher during, or immediately following, the application2=Copper applied under cool, slow-drying conditions is likely to cause injury.Page 40 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape Cultivarscontinued from pg. 40 Sensitive to: Downy Powdery Botrytis Phomop- Anthrac-Cultivar: Black Rot Eutypa Sudlfur 1 Copper 2 Mildew Mildew Rot sis noseMarsanne MRMataro MRMauzac HRMelody HS MS SS SS NoMerlot MS HS HS MS HS HS NO MSMeunier HRMid-South RMissouri Riesling SS HS HS MSMoored SMoore’s Diamond HS SS HS MS MS NoMuscadel HSMuscat Alexandra HSMuscat Ottonel HS HS HS MS HS NoNiabell HRNiagara HS MS MS SS HS SS No SSOberlin 595 ROntario MROptima HSOrion MRPatricia RPearl SPerlette HSPetite Bouschet MSPhoenix HRPinot Gris HS HS HS MS HS NoPinot Blanc HS HS HS MS No SSPinot Meunier HS HS HS HS HS NoPinot Noir HS HS HS HS No SSPollux MRPortlandRekasetali HRReliance HS HS SS SS MS HS No SSRiesling (gray) HRRiesling (white) MRRiesling MSHR=Highly Resistant MR=Moderately Resistant SR=Slightly Resistant R=Resistant SS=Slightly Susceptible S=Susceptible MS=ModeratelySusceptible HS=Highly Susceptible+=Fruit of Vignoles is highly susceptible to anthracnose while foliage and shoots are only slightly susceptible*=Fruits not susceptible1=Slight to moderate sulfur injury may occur–even on tolerant cultivars–when temperatures are 85 degrees F or higher during, or immediately following, the application2=Copper applied under cool, slow-drying conditions is likely to cause injury.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 41
    • Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape Cultivarscontinued from pg. 41 Sensitive to: Downy Powdery Botrytis Phomop- Anthrac-Cultivar: Black Rot Eutypa Sudlfur 1 Copper 2 Mildew Mildew Rot sis noseRieslingNY HS HS HS HS MS MS No SSRubired HRRish Baba HSRosette MR MR HS MR MS MS No HSRougeon MR HS HS MR HS SS Yes HSRoyalty MRRubired HRSaint Croix MS MS MSSaturn SSauvignon blanc HS HS HS HS NoSchuyler SSemillon MRSeneca SSeyval MS MS HS HS MS NoSeyval Blanc HS SS HS MS SS NoSilva HRSirius MRSovereign Corona- StionSteuben HS MS MS MR NoSuelter RSylvaner MSTampa HRTerret Noir HRThompson Seedless HSTinto Cao HRTraminette SS MS SS SSUgni Blanc MSUrbana MS HSValdiguier HRVanessa HS MS MS MR MRVanessa Seedless MRVentura MS MS MS SS SS NoVenus HS HS HS MSVerdelet MS MR MSHR=Highly Resistant MR=Moderately Resistant SR=Slightly Resistant R=Resistant SS=Slightly Susceptible S=Susceptible MS=ModeratelySusceptible HS=Highly Susceptible+=Fruit of Vignoles is highly susceptible to anthracnose while foliage and shoots are only slightly susceptible*=Fruits not susceptible1=Slight to moderate sulfur injury may occur–even on tolerant cultivars–when temperatures are 85 degrees F or higher during, or immediately following, the application2=Copper applied under cool, slow-drying conditions is likely to cause injury.Page 42 ATTRA Grapes: Organic Production
    • Disease Resistance Rating Chart for Grape Cultivars continued from pg. 42 Sensitive to: Downy Powdery Botrytis Phomop- Anthrac- Cultivar: Black Rot Eutypa Sudlfur 1 Copper 2 Mildew Mildew Rot sis nose Vernaccia MR Vidal HR Vidal Blanc MS SS HS SS SS HS SS No Vignoles MS MS MS HS MS HS+ MS No Villard Blanc HS SS HS SS HS Villard Noir SS HS SS Vinered HS HS MS SS HS Westfield S White Riesling HS HS HS HS Worden MS HS Yates S Zinfandel MRHR=Highly Resistant MR=Moderately Resistant SR=Slightly Resistant R=Resistant SS=Slightly Susceptible S=Susceptible MS=ModeratelySusceptible HS=Highly Susceptible+=Fruit of Vignoles is highly susceptible to anthracnose while foliage and shoots are only slightly susceptible*=Fruits not susceptible1=Slight to moderate sulfur injury may occur–even on tolerant cultivars–when temperatures are 85 degrees F or higher during, or immediately following, the application2=Copper applied under cool, slow-drying conditions is likely to cause injury.References: (The information for this chart was taken from the following sources. Please consider that the disease reaction of a par-ticular cultivar depends on several factors, especially the climate in which it is grown.)Anon. 1987. Relative disease susceptibility under Missouri conditions and sulfur sensitivity of grape cultivars. Missouri Grape PestControl Guide. State Fruit Experiment Station, Mtn. Grove, MO.Brown, Maurus V., James N. Moore and Patrick Fenn. 1999. Evaluation of grape germplasm for downy mildew resistance. FruitVarieties Journal. January. p. 22-29.Ellis, M.A., and M. Nita. 2004. Organic Small Fruit Disease Management Guidelines, Integrated Management of Grape Diseases.www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/fruitpathology/organic/PDF/OSU-Organic-Grape-Diseases.pdfRies, Stephen M. 1999. Relative susceptibility of grape cultivars for five deseases. University of Illinois Extension.www.ipm.uiuc.edu/diseases/series700/rpd703Ries, Stephen M. and Roscoe Randell. 1990. Pest Management for Small Fruit. p. 99-102 in Proceedings of the 1990 Illinois SmallFruit, Strawberry, and Amateur Winemaker Schools. University of Illinois, Dison Springs Agricultural Center, Simpson, IL.Roy, Robert R. and David W. Ramming. 1990. Varietal resistance of grape to the powdery mildew fungus, Uncinul necator. FruitVarieties Journal. July. p. 149-155.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 43
    • Grapes: Organic Production By Rex Dufour NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2006 NCAT Paul Driscoll, Editor Amy Smith, Production This publication is available on the Web at: www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/grapes.html or www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/grapes.pdfSpecial thanks for reviewing this publication to: IP 031Steve Diver (NCAT), Slot 32Martin Guerena (NCAT), Version 060706and Ed Weber (County Director & Viticulture Farm Advisor, University of CaliforniaCooperative Extension, Napa, CA.)Page 44 ATTRA