Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational Integrated Pest Management


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Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational Integrated Pest Management

  1. 1. Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational Integrated Pest Management A Publication of ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgUpdated by Cucumber beetles are present throughout the United States and cause serious damage to cucurbitSteve Diver and crops. Overwintering adult insects cause feeding damage on young plants, larvae in the soil feed onTammy Hinman plant roots and second-generation adults cause feeding damage on plant leaves, blossoms and fruits.NCAT Agriculture Adult insects transmit bacterial wilt and squash mosaic virus. Organic and biorational integrated pestSpecialists management measures include delayed planting, trap crops, floating row covers, parasitic organisms© 2008 NCAT and botanical pesticides. Field scouting or yellow sticky traps can monitor insect populations.Contents Introduction corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica CIntroduction ..................... 1 ucumber beetles are pests of cucur- barberi), have similar yet distinct ecologicalSpecies of cucumber bits in most areas of the United States. and behavioral characteristics. Correctlybeetles................................ 1 Cucumber beetles transmit bacterial identifying the pest that occurs in eachLife cycle of thecucumber beetle ............ 3 wilt, squash mosaic virus and can increase geographical region is the fi rst step towardDamage to plants by the incidence of powdery mildew, black rot devising a pest management strategy.cucumber beetles .......... 4 and fusarium wilt. They also damage plantsOrganic control directly by feeding on roots, stems, leaves The striped cucumber beetle is about 1/5measures ........................... 7 and fruits. Population inch long and yellowish-green with a black monitoring .................... 7 This publication will focus on organic and head and yellow thorax. It has three par- Cultural practices ........ 8 biorational control methods that fit into allel and longitudinal black stripes along Trap crops, trap baits an integrated pest management approach. the length of its wing covers. The east- and sticky traps .......... 10 Organic control measures include delayed ern striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma Predators and parasites ....................... 12 planting, floating row covers, trap crops and vittatum) is found mostly east of the Mis- Botanical using predatory organisms and botanical or sissippi River and the western striped and biorational biorational insecticides. cucumber beetle (Acalymma trivittatum) insecticides .................. 14 is found mostly west of the Mississippi.Resources ........................ 16 Biorational pest controls are commonly knownReferences ...................... 17 as least-toxic pest controls or soft pesticides. Biorational pest controls are preferred in bioin- tensive integrated pest management because they usually target the pest and spare beneficial organisms, are relatively non-toxic to humans and have few environmental side effects.ATTRA – National SustainableAgriculture Information Service( is managed Species of cucumber beetlesby the National Center for Appro- There are six species of cucumber beetle inpriate Technology (NCAT) and isfunded under a grant from the the United States. Striped cucumber beetlesUnited States Department of in the Acalymma genus and spotted cucum-Agriculture’s Rural Business-Cooperative Service. Visit the ber beetles in the Diabrotica genus are col-NCAT Web site ( lectively known as diabroticine or diabrotic-sarc_current.php) for Striped cucumber beetle. Photo by Ken Gray,more information on ite beetles. The diabroticines, which include courtesy of Oregon State University.our sustainable agri- the closely related species known as westernculture projects.
  2. 2. The spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica running horizontally across its back undecimpunctata howardi) is about 1/3 inch and a thin green band along the center of long and greenish-yellow with a black head its back. and lime-green thorax. It has 12 black spots on its wing covers. The larval stage is known as the southern corn rootworm.Related ATTRApublications Banded cucumber beetle. Photo by Kim Davis andBiointensive Spotted cucumber beetle. Photo by Charles Schurch Mike Stangeland, Pest Lewallen.Management Adult western corn rootworms (Diabroctica The western spotted cucumber beetle virgifera virgifera) can be found crawling onFarmscaping to (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecim- cucurbit plants, but the rootworms causeEnhance Biological punctata) is similar in appearance to theControl little feeding injury to cucurbits and do not spotted cucumber beetle, but is slightly transmit bacterial wilt or virus diseases.Organic IPM Field smaller. It is found in Arizona, California, The female adult looks very similar to aGuide Colorado and Oregon, though it is more striped cucumber beetle, so it is impor- prolific and destructive in the southernOrganic Pumpkin tant to distinguish which insect is present.and Winter Squash part of its range (EPPO, 2003). Striped cucumber beetles have black abdo-Production mens underneath the wing cover, whileBiorationals: western corn rootworms have yellow abdo-Ecological Pest mens. In addition, the center stripe on theManagement striped cucumber beetle extends to the tipDatabase of the abdomen, while the center stripe on the western corn rootworm extends about three-quarters of the way. Finally, striped cucumber beetles have faint yellow mark- ings on their legs while the western corn rootworm has solid black legs. Western spotted cucumber beetle. Photo by Jack Kelly Clark, courtesy of UC Statewide IPM Project, © 2000 Regents, University of California. The banded cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata) is found throughout the south- ern United States from North Carolina to southern California (Capinera, 1999). It is about 1/5 inch long and green- ish-yellow with a red head and black Adult western corn rootworm. Photo by Jim Kalisch, thorax. It has three greenish-blue bands CropWatch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension.Page 2 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  3. 3. Notes on terms used in organic production Organic production of crops and live- organic certification should check with stimulation, as well as for weed, insect stock in the United States is regulated an accredited certifying agent before and disease control. Manufacturers sub- by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s using any pest control material men- mit product data, ingredients and related National Organic Program. The program tioned in this publication, whether it is proprietary information to the institute is an organic certification and market- described as organic or biorational, to for evaluation of suitable materials ing program that ensures food and verify approved status. according to standards established by food products labeled as organic meet the USDA National Organic Program. standard guidelines. Land must be free Biorational products include botani- of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers cals, horticultural oils, insecticidal soaps, The OMRI Products List is a directory for three years before it can be certifiedbiopesticides (biofungicides and micro- of products reviewed and approved by organic. After that, producers can only bial antagonists), mineral-based prod- the institute for use in organic crop pro- use approved organic pest control strat- ucts, parasitic nematodes, anti-feedants, duction. These products may display the egies and fertilizers. plant extracts and pheromones. Organic OMRI Listed seal on labels and in adver- farmers commonly use biorational prod- tising literature. The OMRI Products List is Producers who want to label or market uct formulations of natural origin. a convenient way for farmers to identify their produce as organic need to gain which biorational pest control products are certification through a USDA-accredited Biorational pest controls also include approved for use in organic production. certifying agent. This process involves reduced-risk pesticides and insect growth the development of an organic sys- regulators that are not allowed in organic Resources: tem plan describing details about soil production. In addition, organic farmers fertility planning, seeds and seedlings, are not allowed to use certain botanical The National Organic Program weed and pest management practices insecticides like nicotine and rotenone or USDA – Agricultural Marketing Service including materials the grower plans to specific formulations of biorational pes- use, and storage and handling routines ticides. For example, the commercially The OMRI Products List (Kuepper, 2002). A recordkeeping sys- available Entrust formulation of spinosad Organic Materials Review Institute tem and an annual farm inspection are is allowed, but many other spinosad for- also required. mulations are not. Organic regulation, certification, For more information, see the ATTRA The Organic Materials Review Institute transition and history publication Organic Farm Certifica- is a nonprofit organization that reviews ATTRA – National Sustainable tion and the National Organic Program. products used in organic crop produc- Agriculture Information Service Please note that farmers involved with tion for the purpose of fertility and plant cycle of the cucumber Applications of biorational insecticides are most effective and least costly when basedbeetle on knowledge of:Understanding the life cycle of an insectpest is critical to using control measures • The pest’s life cycleeffectively. Integrated pest management • The life stage(s) of the pest that willpest-control strategies require knowledge of damage the crop plantthe pest’s life cycle to: • The life stage(s) of the crop plant • Adjust planting times so crops are not in a susceptible growth stage most susceptible to the pest when the pest is most active • The life stage of the pest that is • Distract insects from susceptible crops easiest to control by using pheromones or trap crops • Local climate and ecological con- • Disrupt the pest’s ability to repro- ditions and how they affect plant duce or grow growth and insect movement Refer to the ATTRA publication Biointensive Integrated Pest Management for an introduction to integrated pest management concepts and ATTRA Page 3
  4. 4. Cucumber beetles overwinter as unmated on a wide range of plants in the cucurbit, adults in bordering vegetation, plant debris, rose, legume and mustard families. Banded woodlots and fence rows. Cucumber bee- cucumber beetles can produce up to seven tles are active in spring when temperatures generations per year in the Deep South. reach 55 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit and feed After feeding and mating on cucurbit seed- on alternate host plants until cucurbit plants lings, female cucumber beetles oviposit eggs appear in vegetable fields. in the soil near the base of plants. Egg produc- Striped cucumber beetles are monophagous tion ranges from 200 to 300 eggs per female, during the larval stage, meaning the bee- laid in clusters over the course of several tles only feed on roots of cucurbit plants. weeks, for the spotted cucumber beetle and Overwintering adults feed on the pollen, up to 1,500 eggs per female for the striped petals and leaves of early blooming plants, cucumber beetle. Eggs usually hatch in five especially flowering plants in the rose fam- to 10 days with larval development from 11 ily, in spring before migrating to cucurbit to 45 days. Pupae reside in the soil for four fields. Adults also feed on the leaves and to seven days and then emerge as adults. flowers of corn, beans and peas during the Depending on weather and temperature, peakH growing season and on goldenrods, sunflow- activity can spike every 30 to 60 days as new igh- ers and asters later in the season. However, generations emerge. Adults can live up to 60 altitude days or more (Capinera, 2001). both species of striped cucumber beetles currents are known as specialist feeders becausecan carry striped the beetles highly prefer cucurbit plants Damage to plants bycucumber beetles up and fruits. The beetles produce one or two generations per growing season in north- cucumber beetlesto 500 miles in three Cucumber beetles injure cucurbit crops ern regions and two or three generations into four days. southern regions. directly and indirectly. Direct feeding by larvae can injure crop roots and disrupt Spotted cucumber beetles are polyphagous plant growth. Direct feeding by adults can during the larval stage, meaning the beetles stunt seedlings and damage maturing fruits. feed on the roots of multiple host plants. The Cucumber beetles transmit bacterial wilt, larvae are commonly known as rootworms which causes plants to quickly wilt and die. because they are injurious feeders on roots Bacterial wilt is a major problem for many of corn, peanuts, small grains and grasses. vegetable growers. Adult spotted cucumber beetles feed on the pollen, petals and leaves of more than Feeding damage 200 alternate host plants. Adult spotted Cucumber beetles infl ict feeding damage cucumber beetles overwinter in southern three times during their life cycle: states and migrate into northern states in June and July, appearing two to four weeks • Overwintering adults feed on emerg- later than striped cucumber beetles. Adults ing cucurbit plants in the spring. are strong fl iers and disperse rapidly from These adults can kill or severely stunt field to field during summer. High-altitude young plants by feeding on stems and currents can also carry striped cucumber cotyledons. Adult cucumber beetles beetles up to 500 miles in three to four also transmit bacterial wilt. days. (EPPO, 2003). Spotted cucumber • Larvae from eggs laid by overwin- beetles produce two or three generations in tering adults feed on plant roots. a growing season. Larval tunneling can stunt crop The banded cucumber beetle is polyph- plants, especially seedlings, and agous during the larval stage and can be predispose the plant to soilborne an injurious feeder on roots of soybeans diseases such as fusarium wilt. and sweet potatoes in addition to cucur- • Second- and third-generation adults bits. Adult banded cucumber beetles feed emerging from pupae during thePage 4 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  5. 5. growing season or migrating into the area at mid-season feed on foli- Some varieties of a cucurbit species are more attractive to age, flowers, stems and fruit. These cucumber beetles than others. For example, cucumber beetles preferentially feed on muskmelon varieties in the following adults damage maturing fruits order, from greatest to least (Foster et al., 1995): and transmit bacterial wilt. Feed- ing damage is less serious to plants 1. Makdimon 6. Galia that are already leafed out. Dam- 2. Rocky Sweet 7. Pulsar age to fruits results in scarring and 3. Cordele 8. Passport decreases the marketability and storage life of the crop. 4. Legend 9. Super StarCucumber beetles preferentially feed on 5. Caravelle 10. Rising Stardifferent cucurbit species. The approximate See Table 1, "Ranking of cucurbits by cucumber beetle feeding preference,"order of susceptibility to feeding damage for susceptibility ratings of other cucurbit species.may vary with geographical regions. Vegetable Insect Management with Jude Boucher from the University of Connecticut ranks Emphasis on the Midwest (Foster et al., susceptibility in the northeast from greatest to least as: 1995) lists susceptibility, from greatest to least as: 1. Bitter gourds 2. Winter squash (C. maxima) such as Turk’s Turban, Blue 1. Cucumber Hubbard, etc. 2. Cantaloupe 3. Cucumbers 3. Honeydew 4. Summer squash 4. Casaba melon 5. Cantaloupe 5. Winter squash 6. Honeydew 6. Pumpkins 7. Butternut winter squash 7. Summer squash 8. Casaba melon 8. Watermelon 9. WatermelonTable 1. Ranking of cucurbits by cucumber beetle feeding preference (Jarvis, 1994).Higher ranking numbers indicate more preferred varieties by cucumber beetles. Rankings: 1 to 14 means notpreferred, greater than 45 means highly preferred. Summer squash Winter squashVariety Ranking Variety Ranking Yellow AcornSunbar 1 Table Ace 6Slender Gold 2 Carnival 7Early Prolific Staightneck 20 Table King (bush) 12Goldie Hybrid 32 Tay Belle (bush) 14Sundance 33 Butternut Straightneck Zenith 13Seneca Prolific 4 Butternut Supreme 16Goldbar 5 Early Butternut ATTRA Page 5
  6. 6. Table 1. Continued Higher ranking numbers indicate more preferred varieties by cucumber beetles. Rankings: 1 to 14 means not preferred, greater than 45 means highly preferred. Summer squash Winter squash Multipik 37 Waltham 28 Crookneck Buttercup Yellow Crookneck 8 Honey Delight 43 Sundance 34 Buttercup Burgess 44 Scallop Ambercup 55 Peter Pan 9 Pumpkins Zucchini Baby Pam 10 Gold Rush 39 Munchkin 11 Zucchini Select 40 Seneca Harvest Moon 15 Ambassador 41 Jack-Be-Little 17 President 45 Jackpot 18 Black Jack 46 Tom Fox 19 Green Eclipse 50 Baby Bear 21 Seneca Zucchini 51 Howden 22 Senator 52 Spirit 23 Super Select 54 Wizard 24 Dark Green Zucchini 56 Ghost Rider 26 Embassy Dark Green Zucchini 57 Big Autumn 27 Other summer squash Autumn Gold 29 Scallop 3 Jack-of-All Trades 30 Cocozelle 48 Rocket 31 Caserta 58 Frosty 35 Melon Spookie 36 Classic 59 Connecticut Field 38 Happy Jack 42 Big Max 47 Baby Boo 53 Bacterial wilt While horticultural literature commonly In addition to direct feeding on plants, explains that bacterial wilt overwinters in cucumber beetles are vectors for bacte- the intestinal tract of adult cucumber bee- rial wilt caused by the bacterium Erwinia tles, plant pathologists now believe the tracheiphila. While foliage-feeding adult Erwinia bacterium overwinters in the sap of cucumber beetles can injure crops, espe- alternate host plants. These plants remain cially seedlings, the transmission of bacte- asymptomatic, or do not exhibit symptoms rial wilt disease is a more serious concern of the disease (Latin, 2000). Adult cucum- because the disease causes rapid wilting ber beetles feed on these alternative host and death of cucurbit plants. crops, become infected with bacterial wiltPage 6 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  7. 7. and then transmit the disease to squash, Squash mosaic virusmelons or cucumbers by feeding on the The western striped cucumber beetle and thecrop plants or through fecal contamination spotted cucumber beetle are alternate vectorsof wounded leaves and stems. for another disease: squash mosaic virus.Following infection, the Erwinia bacterium Aphid insects are the primary vector. Whilespreads throughout the vascular system of the virus is seed-borne, the incidence of thisthe plant, causing blockage of xylem ves- disease is enhanced through cucumber bee-sels. The formation of bacterial-exuded tle feeding and transmission. Squashes andgums and resins results in restricted move- melons are particularly susceptible to thisment of water and nutrients and the plant disease because of a greater occurrence ofstarts to wilt. The incubation period from infected seeds in these species.time of infection to expression of wilting The symptoms of squash mosaic virus varysymptoms ranges from several days to sev- according to host species and cultivar, buteral weeks. Young, succulent plants are include mosaic patterns, leaf mottling,more susceptible to cucumber beetle feed- ring spots, blisters and fruit deformationing and disease transmission than older, (Provvidenti and Haudenshield, 1996). Bmature plants. Besides the use of certified virus-free acterialTo determine if a plant is infected with seeds, control measures are aimed at min- wilt is mostbacterial wilt, use the following diagnos- imizing the presence of cucumber beetles. severe ontic tests: (Provvidenti and Haudenshield, 1996 and cantaloupe and Davis et al., 1999). • Squeeze sap from a wilted stem cut cucumber, less dam- near its base. Press a knife against the stem and slowly pull it away Organic control measures aging on squash and about a centimeter. The appearance Organic control measures for cucumber pumpkin and rarely of fine, shiny threads indicates bac- beetles fall into five categories, each dis- affects established terial wilt (Snover, 1999). cussed in detail in the following sections: watermelon plants. • Population monitoring • Immerse a newly cut stem in a glass • Cultural practices of water. If the plant has bacterial • Trap crops, trap baits and sticky wilt, milky strands of bacterial ooze traps will leak from the stem in five to 10 minutes. • Predators and parasites • Botanical and biorational insecticides • Cut the stem with a knife and then Population monitoring methods like crop push the cut ends together and scouting and sticky traps are commonly slowly pull them apart. Sticky, vis- used as monitoring tools to help growers cous strands of bacterial slime indi- detect insect pest populations and make cate bacterial wilt (Latin, 2000). informed and timely pest management deci-The sap of a healthy plant is watery and will sions. Growers can use threshold data estab-not exhibit stringing and bacterial oozing lished by university Extension entomologists(Snover, 1999). to determine when control measures, like a knock-down insecticide, prevent crop dam-Bacterial wilt is most severe on cantaloupe age and disease transmission.and cucumber, less damaging on squashand pumpkin and rarely affects established Cornell University recommends cropwatermelon plants. Wilt-resistant varieties scouting twice a week, with emphasis onare available for some cucurbits, but still the inspection of young cucurbit plantslacking for others. For example, County with fewer than fi ve leaves. MonitoringFair 83 and Saladin are resistant variet- should involve thorough inspection of fiveies of cucumber, but resistant varieties of plants at each of five locations in a field.muskmelon are not developed. Pay special attention to the ATTRA Page 7
  8. 8. of leaves and plants at field edges. These Pheromone Technologies, Inc., the ISCA population counts are used to calculate yellow sticky card from ISCA Technolo- the average number of beetles per plant gies, Inc. and the Olson yellow sticky card (Petzoldt, 2008). from Olson Products, Inc. These products are listed under the Products section of Economic thresholds for cucumber bee- Resources at the end of this publication. tle control depend on the type of cucur- bit, age of plants and susceptibility to Researchers at Southwest-Purdue Agricul- bacterial wilt. Once cucurbit vines are well- tural Center in Vincennes, Ind., determined established, plants can tolerate a 25 to 50 that 20 striped or spotted cucumber bee- percent loss of foliage without a reduction in tles per trap during a 48-hour period cor- yield. However, seedling cucurbits can be respond to one beetle per plant. That is the seriously injured or killed by heavy feed- threshold for treating cucurbits in the Mid- ing from cucumber beetles. When bacterial west, especially with melons and cucum- wilt is present, risk is greater among cucur- bers, to prevent excessive loss from bacte- bit varieties that are most susceptible. Ento- rial wilt (Lam and Foster, 2005). If fewer mologists in the Midwest use a threshold of than 20 beetles are found on the traps, it one beetle per plant for insecticidal control means that beetle populations are not at an when bacterial wilt disease is present. economic threshold and treatment is not Growers can use homemade yellow sticky warranted. Growers should repeat this mon- traps or purchase commercial yellow sticky itoring procedure through critical parts of cards for detection of cucumber beetles. the growing season. Homemade and commercial insect attrac- Volatile chemicals known as kairomones tants can enhance the trapping effect. attract diabroticine beetles. Kairomones Cucumber beetles and most insets are include cucurbatacins, indoles and floral attracted to the color yellow. volatiles as well as specific kairomonal ana- To make a simple sticky trap, coat an 8- logs like 2,3-benzopyrrole and 1,2,4-trime- ounce yellow plastic cup with insect glue, thoxybenzene. Since each species of cucum- like commercially available Stickum Special ber beetle responds to unique kairomones, or Tangle-Trap. Invert the cup and secure it separate commercial lures are available on a 2-foot wooden stake (Levine and Met- for each type of cucumber beetle. There calf, 1988). Eugenol, a naturally occurring are two manufacturers of kairomone lures: insect attractant found in clove oil (82 to Trece, Inc., which sells the Pherocon CRW 87 percent eugenol), allspice oil (65 to 75 series, and Advanced Pheromone Technolo- percent eugenol) and bay oil (40 to 45 per- gies, Inc., which sells the APTLure series. cent eugenol), lures diabroticine beetles Cultural practices are land and crop (Peet, 2001 and The Scientific Commu- management practices that affect the repro- nity on Cosmetic and Non-food Products, duction of pests or the time and level of 2000). Cinnamaldehyde, found in cassia exposure crops have to pests. Cultural prac- oil and cinnamon bark oil, functions as an tices that can protect against cucumber insect attractant and natural cucumber bee- beetles include: tle bait (Environmental Protection Agency, • Delayed planting 2007). Attach a cotton swab soaked in these aromatic oils to increase the sticky trap’s • Floating row covers trapping effect. • Mulching • Cultivation and residue removal Integrated pest management suppliers sell rectangular yellow sticky cards imprinted • Insect vacuuming with grid patterns for detection of diabroti- Crop rotation within a field, a well-known cine beetles. These include the Phero- pest management tool for disease control, con AM trap card from Trece, Inc., the is ineffective to control cucumber bee- Intercept AM trap card from Advanced tles since the beetles migrate from areasPage 8 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  9. 9. surrounding the fields. Since these insects seedlings in bare, moist soil. Row coverssurvive on a number of wild hosts, the create a favorable environment for the ger-removal of alternative hosts from the farm mination and growth of weeds. Periodicwould be difficult and ineffective because of removal of row covers for mechanical cul-immigration. A two-year study in Massachu- tivation to stir the soil and disrupt weedsetts compared the effectiveness of synthetic seedlings is not very practical. Row cov-and biorational insecticides on the control ers are normally used for the fi rst 30 to 40of striped cucumber beetles and the occur- days of vine growth until the onset of flow-rence of bacterial wilt in direct-seeded and ering. This corresponds to the critical weed-transplanted pumpkin using the susceptible free period for cucurbit plant growth, whenMerlin variety. Results of the trial indicate weeds should be controlled and excludedthe need for long-distance crop rotation for as much as possible. In organic production,insecticides to be most effective. Rotation to row covers are commonly used in combi-an adjacent field close to the pervious year’s nation with weed-suppressive mulches likecucurbits did not reduce beetle numbers plastic mulch, geotextile weed barriers,(Andenmatten et al., 2002). straw, hay and paper. IDelayed planting is an effective pest man- Mulching can deter cucumber beetles from n regions withagement strategy in some regions and crop- laying eggs in the ground near plant stems. establishedping systems. Growers can avoid the fi rst Mulches can also function as a barrier cucumber beetlegeneration of cucumber beetles by keeping to larval migration and feeding on fruitsfields cucurbit-free until the establishment (Cranshaw, 1998 and Olkowski, 2000). populations, rowof summer cucurbits like cucumbers, pump- Tunneling larvae need moist soil to damage covers can make thekins and squash intended for fall harvest. ripening fruit. Limiting irrigation at this difference betweenDelayed planting is an especially useful cul- time can minimize damage (Cranshaw, a harvestable croptural strategy in cucurbits because this tech- 1998). Mulches are known to harbor squash and crop failure.nique also bypasses fi rst-generation squash bugs, however, and mulches do not deterbugs. However, this method is not relevant beetles from feeding on leaves, flowers andfor plantings of early-market spring cucur- fruits of cucurbits.bits like cucumbers, squash and melons or Researchers at Virginia Tech showed a dra-in regions with short growing seasons. matic reduction in the occurrence of stripedFloating row covers physically exclude both cucumber beetles in a Meteor cucumbercucumber beetles and squash bugs during crop and similar reductions in both stripedthe seedling stage of plant growth. Provid- and spotted cucumber beetles in a Generaling a bug- and beetle-free period allows Patton squash crop by comparing alumi-the plants to thrive and develop a mass of num-coated and aluminum-striped plasticleaf and vine growth by the time row covers mulches to black plastic mulch (Caldwellare removed at bloom. At this stage of veg- and Clarke, 1998). On various samplingetative growth, plants can withstand mod- dates, yellow sticky traps located next to theerate pest attacks. In regions with estab- aluminum-coated plastic mulches had two,lished cucumber beetle populations, row four and six times less cucumber beetlescovers can make the difference between a than stick traps located next to black plas-harvestable crop and crop failure. Row cov- tic mulch. Researches, after correlating theers are removed at the onset of flowering to number of beetles found on sticky traps toallow for bee pollination and to release vine the integrated pest management threshold,growth. Applying botanical and biorational concluded that reflective mulches reducedpesticides provides season-long protection, cucumber beetle populations to below treat-depending on location and pest pressure, ment levels.after row covers are removed. The Virginia Tech research article con-Weed control is a special consideration tains a brief economic comparison betweenwhen using floating row covers over cucurbit costs of production and prices received ATTRA Page 9
  10. 10. organic squash versus conventional squash Dietrick (Dietrick et al., 1995). Insect vacu- gown on reflective mulches. Researchers uming combined with perimeter trap crops emphasized the ability of reflective mulches is an appealing non-chemical control strat- to reduce bacterial wilt and virus transmis- egy. Researchers have employed this dual sion by cucumber beetles and aphids. technique in attempts to control flea bee- tles in brassica fields (Smith, 2000). This Cultivation and residue removal can help dual technique has also been suggested reduce over-wintering populations of cucum- ber beetles. Cornell University research sug- for mass trapping of cucumber beetles fol- gests deep tillage and clean cultivation fol- lowed by vacuuming as a pest reduction lowing harvest (Petzoldt, 2008). However, strategy and as an alternative to insecticide an organic farming sequence that shreds applications (Olkowski, 2000). The next crop residues, incorporates fall-applied section explains how pheromones attract compost or manure and establishes a win- cucumber beetles to perimeter trap crops ter cover crop will facilitate decomposition where beetles congregate in great numbers. of above- and below-ground residues. The efficacy of this dual technique for con- trol of cucumber beetles is not verified in Insect vacuuming is a form of pneumatic field trials and is mentioned here as an insect control that dislodges insects from experimental approach that organic market plants through high-velocity air turbulence farmers may wish to explore. and suction. Large, mechanized bug vacs gained notoriety in the 1980s for control Trap crops, trap baits and sticky traps, of the lygus bug in California strawberry if positioned correctly, can intercept bee- fields. Hand-held and backpack vacuuming tles through the use of smell, color and equipment is available through integrated pheromonal attraction. pest management suppliers. Market farms Trap crops release chemicals known as use the equipment to collect beneficial kairomones, which are highly attractive to insects and control pest insects in combina- insects. Kairomones produced by cucurbits tion with perimeter trap cropping. include cucurbitacin, the characteristic bit- The D-Vac, a commercially available vac- ter substance in cucurbitacae that stimulates uum, evolved from insect sampling research compulsive feeding behavior in diabroticine by the biological control pioneer Everett beetles, and a mixture of floral volatiles that lure adult beetles from some distance. Cucurbit trap crops are designed to lure and concentrate cucumber beetles where control measures using insecticides or vacuuming can be focused, reducing the need for field- scale insecticide applications. Pioneering research in the 1970s and 1980s by Robert L. Metcalf (Ferguson et al., 1979) in Illinois, as well as more recent research in Texas, Oklahoma, Maine, Connecticut and Virginia, shows that certain species and vari- eties of cucurbits can serve as trap crops next to larger fields of cucurbits (Stroup, 1998, Suzkiw, 1997, Radin and Drummond, 1994, Boucher and Durgy, 2004 and Caldwell and Stockton, 1998). Diabroticine beetles prefer- entially congregate, feed and mate on theseEntomologist Sam Pair inspects squash plants for cucumber beetles and squash kairomone-effusive trap crops. Table 1 ranksbugs lured to this trap crop and away from developing melons. the feeding preference of cucumber beetlePhoto by Scott Bauer, USDA-ARS 2008. on different varieties of cucurbits.Page 10 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  11. 11. Researchers at Cornell University found where border rows encompass all four sidescucumber beetles highly prefer the fol- of the field, is a pragmatic and an effectivelowing varieties of Cucurbita maxima and approach (Boucher and Durgy, 2004 andCucurbita pepo squash and pumpkin types Boucher and Durgy, 2005).(Grubinger, 2001): To deter entry into the field by cucumber bee-Black Jack zucchini tles and minimize the spread of bacterial wilt:Big Max pumpkin • Plant trap crops on the perimeter ofCocozelle summer squash the field as border strips. Plant multi-Green Eclipse zucchini ple rows if beetle pressure is extreme.Seneca zucchiniSenator zucchini • Plant trap crops a week or twoBaby Boo pumpkin earlier than the primary cucurbitSuper Select zucchini acreage since insects migrate to theAmbercup buttercup squash earliest emerging cucurbit plants inDark Green zucchini the field.Embassy Dark Green zucchini • In organic production, apply botan-Caserta summer squash ical and biorational insecticidesClassic melon to the trap crop before the beetlesResearchers elsewhere used Lemondrop migrate into the cucurbit patch. Insummer squash, Peto 391 summer squash, integrated pest management produc-NK530 squash, Blue Hubbard squash and tion, several synthetic insecticidesTurks Turban squash. However, experi- can be applied to the trap crop forence shows that cucurbit varieties highly beetle control. Vacuuming is a novelsusceptible to bacterial wilt, such as Turks approach to controlling beetles thatTurban, should be avoided as a trap crop congregate on the trap crop.(UMass Extension, 2002). • Use yellow sticky ribbons in com- bination with trap crops to enhanceEarly research in Maine examined the per- the attractant effect and performcentage of land devoted to the trap crop. mass trapping.When researchers grew NK530 squash asa trap crop on 15 percent and 50 percent of • Remove and destroy diseasedthe cucumber crop acreage, the trap crop plants from border strips and theattracted 90 percent of the cucumber bee- main field.tles (Radin and Drummond, 1994). The Trap baits for cucumber beetles containresearchers concluded that strategically insect-attracting kairomones, floral volatiles,placed strips of squash plants could be buffalo gourd root powder, eugenol, cinna-more advantageous. maldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol mixed with small amounts of insecticides. MetcalfIn Oklahoma, Lemondrop and Blue Hub- and coworkers pioneered the identificationbard squash planted as trap crops and of cucurbitacin analogs used in attracticidaloccupying just 1 percent of the total crop baits (Metcalf and Lampman, 1991).area highly attracted cucumber beetles incantaloupe, squash and watermelon crops Trap baits on field borders intercept beetles(Pair, 1997). The Oklahoma researchers as beetles migrate into cucurbit fields earlyalso showed that small squash plants in the in the season. Great numbers of beetlesfour- to six-leaf stage are vastly more effective die when they are lured into these attrac-as trap crops than large squash plants in the ticidal baits in a feeding frenzy. Cidetrakmore-than-six- to 12-leaf stage, which cor- CRW is a commercially available gustatoryroborates findings that cucurbitacin occurs stimulant for diabrotica that growers canin higher concentrations in young leaves. mix with synthetic or biorational insecti-Recent integrated pest management field cides in a trap bait. It is available throughtrials suggest that perimeter trap cropping, Trece, Inc., a company that specializes ATTRA Page 11
  12. 12. pheromone traps. See the Products section to 12 inches wide by several hundred feet listed under Resources for Trece, Inc. con- in length. In cucurbits, yellow sticky ribbon tact information. While most of the field tri- can be used for mass trapping of cucum- als and commercial applications with attrac- ber beetles when placed with cucurbit trap ticidal baits employed systemic insecticides, crops. Kairomone lures, available through Michael P. Hoffman at Cornell University commercial integrated pest management investigated the use of trap baits in combi- suppliers, can enhance the trapping effect. nation with botanical and biorational insec- William Olkowski, co-founder of the Bio- ticides and cultural controls (1998). Integral Resource Center, conducted an Hoffmanns field trials in New York were Organic Farming Research Foundation- part of a USDA Sustainable Agriculture funded study on mass trapping of cucum- Research and Education research project ber beetles using six different framed and to reduce insecticide use in cucurbit crop strip traps. production (Hoffman, 1998). Employing a The Bio-Integral Resource Center Trap, a mass-trapping technique, Cornell research- wooden-legged trap that held upper and ers reduced cucumber beetle populations lower strips of yellow sticky ribbon 10 feetR by 65 percent in pumpkin fields using trap esearchers long and oriented parallel to the ground, baits containing a mixture of cucurbit blos- found posi- was highly effective in trapping cucumber som volatiles and very small amounts of beetles. The 6-inch wide yellow sticky rib- tioning trap insecticide. Researchers found positioning bon is mounted on a spool and requiresbaits with a highly trap baits with a highly preferred Seneca periodic uptake to expose fresh stickypreferred Seneca zucchini squash trap crop enhanced trap tape. Since the upper strip, located 20 to baits, achieving 75 percent control with thiszucchini squash trap 26 inches above the ground, captured far dual method.crop enhanced trap more cucumber beetles than the lower strip,baits, achieving 75 In support of organic production, the proj- located 12 to 18 inches above the ground,percent control with ect examined the effectiveness of botanical researchers discontinued the lower strip in and biorational pesticides. The researchers later trials. The trap is mobile and can bethis dual method. used buffalo gourd root powder as a feeding placed in cucurbit trap crops. stimulant in trap baits laced with neem and The OFRF Information Bulletin No. 8, pub- full or half rates of rotenone (botanical) and lished in the summer of 2000, is available cryolite (sodium aluminoflouride). Neem as a Web download and is useful to develop had little effect on beetle survival or mor- an understanding of how to design and use tality, but its antifeedant trait significantly the trap (Olkowski, 2000). reduced plant damage caused by beetles. Rotenone and cryolite were both effective. Predators and parasites that prey on cucumber beetles include hunting spiders, Overall, researchers favored the half-rate web-weaving spiders, soldier beetles, cara- of rotenone mixed with buffalo gourd root bid ground beetles, tachinid fl ies, braconid powder treatment. However, in the interim wasps, bats and entomopathogenic fungi period since Hoffmanns research in 1999, and nematodes. Braconid wasps (Centisus both of these biorational products were pro- diabrotica, Syrrhizus diabroticae) and tach- hibited in organic production under the inid fl ies (Celatoria diabroticae, C. setosa) National Organic Program. Neither is listed are important natural enemies of cucumber with the Organic Materials Review Institute. beetles, with parasitism rates reaching 22 It seems reasonable that other biorationals percent and 40 percent, respectively (Cap- approved for organic production might be inera, 2001 and Kuhlmann and van der effectively used in a trap bait. Burgt, 1998). Carabid beetles (Scarites spp. Yellow sticky traps are commonly used to and Evarthrus sodalis) consumed all three monitor insect pests. Yellow sticky ribbon is life stages (larvae, pupae, adults) of spotted available from commercial integrated pest cucumber beetle, striped cucumber beetle management suppliers in dimensions of 2 and squash bugs in a laboratory feedingPage 12 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  13. 13. trial (Snyder and Wise, 1999). Biologicalcontrol from natural enemies varies widelybetween locations and is not dependableas the only control strategy in commercialcucurbit production. Providing beneficialinsect habitat can enhance cumulative bio-control results in organic farming systems.David H. Wise and co-workers in thedepartment of entomology at the Universityof Kentucky thoroughly investigated spi-der predation of cucumber beetles (Snyderand Wise, 2000, Williams et al., 2001 and Male wolf spider. Photo by Patrick Edwin Moran,Williams and Wise, 2003). Wise found that Courtesy of Creative Commons.both striped and spotted cucumber beetlesreduce their feeding rate and emigrate from stinkbugs in one season. Assuming that halfcucurbit plants in the presence of the large of the cucumber beetles were female, andwolf spiders Hogna helluo and Rabidosa using a value of 110 eggs per female, thisrabida. Spider presence reduced plant occu- means the potential destruction of 33 mil-pancy of diabroticine beetles by 50 percent. lion diabrotica larvae (Whitaker, 1995).Curiously, adult female beetles are far more An April-June 2006 article in Californiaresponsive to the presence of wolf spiders Agriculture evaluated the best way to attractand alter their behavior to avoid capture. bats to farms through the placement, shape,Consequently, males were 16 times more size and color of bat houses (Long et al.,likely than females to be killed by R. rabida 2006). For more information about creatingin one experiment; only 5 percent of males on-farm bat habitat and the use of insec-survived a two-day exposure to H. helluo tary plantings to attract beneficial insects,in a second experiment. In general, popu- see the ATTRA publication Farmscaping tolations of predaceous spiders and ground Enhance Biological Control.beetles can be enhanced through habitatmodification using straw mulch (Snyder and Entomopathogenic fungi, commonly groupedWise, 1999), straw shelters (Halaj et al., among biopesticides, produce infective2000) and beetle banks (Master, 2003). spores that attach to the larval host and then germinate and penetrate. The fungi multiplyBats are voracious eaters of insects and inside the host, acquiring nutrient resourcesmore farmers are erecting bat houses to and producing conidial spores. This causesenhance biological control of crop pests. the infected larvae to reduce their feedingJohn O. Whitaker, Jr., a vertebrate ecolo- and die, releasing fungal spores into thegist at Indiana State University, used data soil environment and further distributes thepartly derived from studies on the eve- entomopathogen.ning bat (Nycticeius humeralis) to estimatethat a typical Midwestern colony of 150 big The two fungal organisms most widely usedbrown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) might consume as biopesticides, Beauveria bassiana and38,000 cucumber beetles, 16,000 June Metarhizium anisopliae, have been evaluatedbugs, 19,000 stink bugs and 50,000 leaf- for suppression of diabroticine larvae withhoppers in one season (Whitaker, 1993). varying levels of biocontrol. Mycotrol-O is a commercially available, Organic MaterialsIn a detailed follow-up study where he dis- Review Institute-approved biopesticide con-sected fecal pellets of big brown bats from taining Beauveria bassiana and cucumberIndiana and Illinois, Whitaker calculated beetle is listed as a target pest on the label.that a colony of 150 bats might consume See the section on botanical insecticides600,000 cucumber beetles, 194,000 scar- below with notes from Reggie Destree forabaeids, 158,000 leafhoppers and 335,000 foliar mixtures containing ATTRA Page 13
  14. 14. Entomopathogenic nematodes, commonly Botanical and biorational insecticides known as parasitic nematodes, actively find like azadarachtin, an extract from the neem and penetrate soil-dwelling larvae of insect tree, have anti-feedant and insecticidal pests. The nematodes release toxins and properties. Alone, azadarachtin is not effec- transmit bacteria that is lethal to the larval tive against adult cucumber beetles. How- host. Both species of commercially available ever, recent studies by Reggie Destree, a parasitic nematodes, Steinernema spp. and crop consultant, indicate that a mixture of Heterorhabditis spp., are effective in biologi- neem with karanja oil derived from the tree cal control of diabroticine beetle larvae. Pongamia glabra, which grows in India, can reduce cucumber beetle populations Researchers in Pennsylvania obtained a by 50 to 70 percent overnight (personal 50-percent reduction in striped cucumber communication). Alone, neem oil applied beetle larvae using Steinernema riobravis in as a soil drench acts as an ovicide and is organic and conventionally managed plots effective against larval damage (Destree, of cucumbers under field conditions (Ellers- 2006). Please see the Products section in Kirk et al., 2000). The decrease in cucum- Resources below for sources of commer- ber beetle larval populations resulted in cial neem and karanja products.N ematodes superior root growth under both soil man- agement systems. Destree recommends a three-part manage- release ment regime for cucumber beetles: toxins and The researchers suggested delivery of para-transmit bacteria sitic nematodes through drip irrigation in • The neem blend described above combination with plastic mulch, since ear- has a dual mode of action. It is athat are lethal lier studies showed that plasticulture pro- systemic product that will suppressto insect pests’ vides an environment conducive to nema- insects that feed on the plant and itlarvae. tode survival while increasing effective has fungicidal properties. control of cucumber beetle larvae. • Use 1 pint Cedar ACT cedar oil to The Insect Parasitic Nematode Web site, 10 gallons water as a repellent or developed and maintained by the department pheromone disruptor during the first of entomology at The Ohio State University, fl ight of the cucumber beetle in May contains information on the biology and ecol- and the second fl ight in September. ogy of nematodes and how to use them for pest Exact dates depend on location. control in different crops (Grewal, 2007). Destree advises applying the mix- It features an extensive list of commercial ture every five to seven days when suppliers of parasitic nematodes. the fields are square or short rect- angles. Pheromone disruption does Based on results from seven published not work well for long, narrow fields. studies, Dr. David Shapiro-Ilan, a research Adding Cedar ACT to the weekly entomologist with the USDA Agricultural foliar program works well. Research Service in Georgia, found that parasitic nematodes provide approximately • Mycotrol-O is a commercially avail- 60 percent control of diabrotica larvae (Sha- able mycoinsecticide formulation piro-Ilan, 2006 and Grewal et al., 2005). containing spores of the entomo- Ilan added that it is important to put ento- pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassi- mopathogens, whether fungi or nematodes, ana GHA strain. Use Mycotrol to in perspective. Since diabroticine beetles suppress future populations. Destree migrate in from surrounding borders, these found this program works well for biological control measures have little effect all overwintering insects. A fall soil on adult beetle feeding and disease trans- treatment of the Mycotrol-O added mission. However, decreasing larval popu- to a fall residue program will insure lations through the use of entomopathogens that the active ingredient, Beauvar- can have a cumulative biocontrol effect in ria bassiana, will be reproducing in organic farming systems. the soil and will eventually infectPage 14 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  15. 15. overwintering beetles in the soil former product representative for Surround (Destree, 2006). WP, John Mosko of the Engelhard Corpora-ATTRA note: Reggie Destree is a crop con- tion, kaolin clay provides good suppressionsultant and distributes the above products. of cucumber beetles. He recommends:This information has not been validated by • Using an air blast sprayer to achieveuniversity-based research. good coverageThe botanical pesticides sabadilla, rotenone • Applying the product under the leavesor pyrethrum have moderate effectiveness where cucumber beetles congregatein controlling cucumber beetles (Caldwell • Applying Surround WP early in theet al., 2005). Sabadilla is toxic to bugs and growing season before cucumberhoney bees, and sabadilla should not be beetle populations increase. Sur-applied when bees are present. Pyrethrum round can provide remedial controlis also toxic to all insects, including benefi- of cucumber beetles, but field trialscial species. These botanical pesticides arealso highly toxic to fish until degraded (King show early applications deter bee-County Hazardous Waste Program, 1997). tles from initially entering the field and are more effectiveOne way to enhance the effectiveness of these For more information • Reapplying after a heavy rainmaterials while reducing overall manage- on biorational insecti-ment costs is to combine the materials with • Continually agitating the solution cides, or formulationsperimeter trap cropping so that sprays can while applying it with little or no long-be concentrated on the border. See the above lasting environmental • Cleaning harvested fruits with a impact, see ATTRAssection on trap cropping for more on this moist cloth or a post-harvest rinse to online Biorationals:topic. Some growers use pyrethrum or rote- remove any film residue of the kaolin Ecological Pest Man-none in combination with the commercially clay left on the crop after harvest agement Database,available particle film barrier Surround WP Protectant (Grubinger, 2001). Note that Ruth Hazzard with the University of Massa- index.html.rotenone is currently not approved by the chusetts Extension recommends using Sur-National Organic Program. round WP Crop Protectant in combination with other tactics like rotation, row cover,Results of a two-year study comparing the using transplants so plants are bigger wheneffectiveness of insecticides on management beetles arrive, and delaying planting untilof striped cucumber beetles and bacterial late June to avoid beetles. Surround can bewilt in direct seeded and transplanted pump- applied to transplants before setting themkin showed the need for long-distance crop in the field (Andenmatten et al., 2002). Seerotation for insecticides to be most effec- the Products section of Resources below fortive. When the rotation was to an adjacent information on how to obtain this product.field in different land, but close to the previ-ous year’s cucurbits, it did not reduce beetle The timing and usage of either botanicalnumbers and insecticide effectiveness tended or chemical insecticides should be basedto decline (Andenmatten et al., 2002). on observed population thresholds or mea- sured risks of population build-up. Deter-Particle fi lm barriers provide a promising mining when spring fl ight begins forecastsnew approach to insect control for organic the arrival of cucumber beetles in each geo-producers. Surround WP acts as a repellent, graphical region.mechanical barrier and irritant, and disruptsthe beetles’ host-finding abilities. The active Only treat hot spots or areas of high infes-ingredient in this product is specially pro- tations if possible. Insecticide applicationscessed kaolin clay, an edible mineral used as made between dawn and dusk, when thean anti-caking agent in processed foods and striped cucumber beetle is most active, mayproducts like toothpaste. According to the be more ATTRA Page 15
  16. 16. Resources Certis USA L.L.C. 9145 Guilford RoadInformation: Suite 175 Columbia, MD 21046Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC) 800-847-5620For a publications catalogue, contact: www.certisusa.comP.O. Box 7414 Organic pest management products including neem,Berkeley, CA 94707 parasitic nematodes and pheromones510-524-2567510-524-1758 fax Golden Harvest Organics, 404 N. Impala Fort Collins, CO 80521 The Bio-Integral Resource Center is a leader in the 970-224-4679 field of integrated pest management. BIRC publishes Fax: 413-383-2836 the IPM Practitioner and Common Sense Pest Quar- terly. They also publish a directory of IPM products and beneficial insects and offer booklets and reprints Organic pest management products, organic fertilizers on least-toxic controls for selected pests. and heirloom seedsInsect Parasitic Nematodes Home Harvest Garden Supply, Inc.Sponsored by SARE and the Lindberg Foundation. 3807 Bank StreetDepartment of Entomology, The Ohio State University. Baltimore, MD 410-327-8403 This Web site provides information on the biology and 410-327-8411 ecology of parasitic nematodes, how to use nematodes to control plant diseases and a comprehensive listing of companies that sell nematodes. Sabadilla and Safer soapHunter, C.D. 1997. Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms ISCA Technologies, North America. California Environmental P.O. Box 5266Protection Agency. Department of Pesticide Riverside, CA 92517Regulations Environmental Monitoring and Pest 951-686-5008Management Branch 815-346-1722 Fax1020 N Street, Room 161 info@iscatech.comSacramento, CA 95814-5624 Neem Resource.Com Contact: Usha Rao 952-943-9449Products: www.neemresource.comAdvanced Pheromone Technologies, Inc. Sources of karanja oil and neemP.O. Box 417Marylhurst, OR 97036-0417 Olson Products, Inc.315-299-2598 P.O. Box 1043815-425-6149 fax Medina, OH 330-723-3210 www.olsonproducts.comBioWorks, Inc. Peaceful Valley Farm Supply345 Woodcliff Dr.; First Floor P.O. Box 2209Fairport, NY 14450 125 Springhill Blvd.800-877-9443 Grass Valley, CA 95945 Mycotrol is available through Bioworks. Orders: 888-784-1722. Questions: 530-272-4769Page 16 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM
  17. 17. Caldwell, J. S. and P. Clarke. 1998. plastic for repulsion of cucumber beetles. Commercial Sabadilla and Safer soap and Eugenol, a pheromone Horticulture Newsletter, January–February 1998. attractant for northern corn rootworm Virginina Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech. WP 1998-02/1998-02-01.htmlNova Source, a division of Tessenderlo Kerley, Inc.Phone: 800-525-2803 Caldwell, J. S. and S. Stockton. 1998. Trap CroppingEmail: in Management of Cucumber Beetles. Horticulture Newsletter, Virginia Tech, July-August NovaSource is now the distributor of the kaolin clay- 1998. based products Surround WP and Surround CF. 1998-08/1998-08-04.htmlTrece, Inc.P.O. Box 129 Capinera, J. L. 1999. Banded Cucumber Beetle.Adair, OK 74330 Featured Creatures. University of Florida, Department918-785-3061 of Entomology and Nematology.918-785-3063 Fax Capinera, J. 2001. Handbook of Vegetable Pests. Also Source of CideTrak CRW Academic Press, New York. Cranshaw, W. 1998. Pests of the West. Revised:References: Prevention and Control for Today’s Garden andAndenmatten, Hazzard, R, Howell, J. Wick, R. 2002. Small Farm. Fulcrum Publishing, Golden, CO.Management strategies for Striped Cucumber Beetle Davis, R.M. et al. 1999. Squash mosaic virus. In:and Bacterial Wilt in Pumpkin, 2001 & 2002. UMass M.L. Flint (ed.) U.C. IPM Pest Management Guide-Extension Vegetable Program. lines: Cucurbits. University of California, Division _ files/ Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland.management_strategies_ for_striped_cucumber_beetle_and_bacterial_wilt_in_pumpkin_2001_2002.pdf Destree, R. 2006. Organic Marketing by Reggie. E-mail Communication August 2006.Boucher, T. J. and R. Durgy. 2004a. Demonstrating aPerimeter Trap Crop Approach to Pest Management on Dietrick, E. J., J. M. Phillips, and J. Grossman.Summer Squash in New England. Journal of 1995. Biological Control of Insect Pests Using PestExtension, October 2004, Volume 42 Number 5. Break Strips, A New Dimension to Integrated Management. California Energy Commission and the Nature Farming Research and DevelopmentBoucher, T. J. and R. Durgy, 2004b. Perimeter Trap Foundation, Lompoc, California. 39 p.Cropping for Yellow and Green Summer Squash. Uni-versity of Connecticut, Integrated Pest Management. Ellers-Kirk, C.D., S.J. Fleischer, R.H. Snyder J.P. Lynch. 2000. Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of AcalymmaBoucher, T. J. and R. Durgy 2005. Directions for vittatum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucumbersUsing a Perimeter Trap Crop Strategy to Protect grown in conventional and organic soil managementCucurbit Crops. University of Connecticut, Integrated systems. Journal of Economic Entomology. Vol. 93,Pest Management. No. 3. p. 605–612.htms/directptc.htm Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. FloralCaldwell, B. et al. 2005. Resource Guide for Organic Attractants, Repellents, and Insecticides Fact Sheet.Insect and Disease Management. New York State Experiment Station. factsheets/factsheet_ ATTRA Page 17
  18. 18. EPPO. 2003. Diabrotica undecimpunctata. EPPO Kuepper, George. 2002. Organic Farm CertificationData Sheets on Quarantine Pests, European and and the National Organic Program. ATTRA/ NCATMediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Publication #IP222. National Center for Technology.undecimpunctata/DIABUN_ds.pdf Kuhlmann, U. and W. A.C.M. van der Burgt. 1998.Ferguson, J. E., Metcalf, R. L., Metcalf, E. R., Possibilities for biological control of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, inRhodes, A.M. 1979. Bitter cucurbita spp. as Central Europe. Biocontrol News and Information.attractants for diabroticite beetles. Cucurbit Vol. 19, No. 2. p. 59N–68N. Cooperative Report. Volume 2. PDF/KUHLM.PDF Lam, W. and Foster, R. 2005. An Integrated PestFoster, R., G. Brust, and B. Barrett. 1995. Management Program for Cucumber Beetles onWatermelons, Muskmelons, and Cucumbers. In: Muskmelons. Purdue University. DepartmentRick Foster and Brian Flood (eds.) Vegetable Insect of Entomology.Management with Emphasis on the Midwest. Latin, R. X. 2000. Bacterial Wilt. APSnet FeatureMeister Publishing Company, Willoughby, OH. Story. October 5 through October 31, 2000. Contrib-Grewal, P.S., R.U. Ehlers, and D.I. Shapiro-Ilan uted by R. X. Latin, Purdue University. www.apsnet.(Editors). 2005. Nematodes as Biocontrol Agents, org/online/feature/pumpkin/bacterial.htmlCABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. 528 p. Levine, E. and R. Metcalf. 1988. Sticky attractant traps for monitoring corn rootworm beetles. TheGrewal, P. 2007 (updated). Insect Parasitic Illinois Natural History Survey Reports, No. 279.Nematodes. Department of Entomology, Ohio StateUniversity. Long, R. F., W. M. Kiser, and S. B. Kiser. 2006. Well- placed bat houses can attract bats to Central ValleyGrubinger, V. 2001. Reports from the Field. farms. California Agriculture. April-June. p. 91–94.Vermont Vegetable and Berry News, July 1, 2001. of Vermont Master, S. D. 2003. Evaluation of Conservation StripsHalaj, J., A.B. Cady, and G.W. Uetz. 2000. Modular as a Conservation Biological Control Technique in Golfhabitat refugia enhance generalist predators and Courses. M.S. Thesis, University of Maryland. 131 p.lower plant damage in soybeans. Environmental Metcalf, R.L. and R.L. Lampman. 1991. EvolutionEntomology. Vol. 29, No. 2. p. 383–393. of Diabroticite rootworm beetle (Chrysomelidae) receptors for cucurbita blossom Volatiles. Proc. Nat.Hoffman, M. P. 1998. Developing Sustainable Acad. Sci. Vol 88. p. 1869–1872.Management Tactics for Cucumber Beetles inCucurbits. Northeast Regional SARE, ANE95-022. Necibi, S.B., A. Barrett, and J. W. Johnson. Effects of a black plastic mulch on the soil and plant022&ry=1999&rf=1 dispersal of cucumber beetles, Acalymma vittatum (F.) and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi BarberJarvis, W.R. 1994. Bacterial wilt. In: Ronald J. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on melons. J. Agric.Howard, J. Allan Garland, and W. Lloyd Seaman Entomol. Vol. 9. p. 129–135.(eds.) Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops in Olkowski, W. 2000. Mass trapping western spottedCanada. The Canadian Phytopathological Society and cucumber beetles. OFRF Information Bulletin No. 8the Entomological Society of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. (Summer). Organic Farming Research Foundation,King County Hazardous Waste Program, WA. 1997. Santa Cruz, CA. p. 17–22. Local hazardous waste management news/IB8.PDFprogram in King County. Pair, S.D. 1997. Evaluation of systemically treatedhouse/yard/problems/chemical.cfm?entityID=123&Mode squash trap plants and attracticidal baits for early-sea-ID=631&grp=chemrem son control of striped and spotted cucumber beetlesPage 18 ATTRA Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational IPM