Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions
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  • 1. BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS A RESOURCE GUIDE FOR FARM-TO-SCHOOL AND FARM-TO-INSTITUTION PROGRAMS National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service RESOURCE SERIES www.attra.ncat.orgB yBarbara C. Bellows, Rex Dufour,and Janet BachmannNCAT Agriculture SpecialistsOctober 2003Copyright©2003 NCAT INTRODUCTION Small-scale farmers are often unable to selltheir produce and processed meats directly tolocal markets such as grocery stores, schools,hospitals, prisons, and other institutional din-ing facilities. Food production and process-ing are very centralized in America, with mostof our food grown and distributed by large-scale or corporate farms—some located inother nations. Table of Contents The Farm-to-School salad bar at Malcolm X Middle School in Berkeley, CA, proves that the fresh taste of locally-purchased Introduction .............................................1 foods appeals to kids of all ages. Benefits and Constraints of Farm-to-School Consumers overall are disconnected from one or Institution Programs ............................2 of the most important components for their own Program Coordination .............................2 health and happiness—the food they eat. Rarely Table 1. Funding and Assistance do they have contact with or personal knowledge Programs ..................................................5 about the farms and farmers who grow their food. Program Implementation Steps ...............7 As a result, most consumers have very limited Table 2. 2002 Farm Bill Provisions that Impact on Development of control over the quality and safety of their food. Farm-to-School Programs ........................8 When small-scale farmers are able to sell their Table 3. United States Department of products to local stores and institutions, they gain Agriculture Programs ..............................9 new and reliable markets, consumers gain access Successful Programs ................................9 to what is often higher-quality, more healthful Acknowledgements ............................... 11 food, and more food dollars are invested in the References .............................................. 11 local economy. Table 4. Farm-to-School and This publication provides farmers, school Farm-to-Institution Publications ........... 13 administrators, and institutional food-service Table 5. Local Food Security Publications ........................................... 16 planners with contact information and descrip- Table 6. Farm-to-School and tions of existing programs that have made these Farm-to-Institution Programs ................ 18 connections between local farmers and ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information service operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology, through a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. NCAT has offices in Fayetteville, Arkansas (P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702), Butte, Montana, and Davis, California.
  • 2. local school lunchrooms, college dining halls, or These programs also provide opportunities forcafeterias in other institutions. To help commu- student involvement in related educational andnities initiate similar programs, this publication community-based activities such as composting,includes resource lists of: recycling, and community gardening.✦ Publications on how to initiate and POTENTIAL CONSTRAINTS manage farm-to-school and farm-to-institu- While schools and institutions a generation tion programs. ago relied heavily on local products for meal✦ Sources of funding and technical assistance planning and preparation, the majority of today’s from government and non-government pro- institutions use food obtained through national grams. food distributors. Much of this food is processed and prepared by food service companies, thus✦ Provisions within the 2002 Farm Bill support- eliminating the need for schools and institutions ing implementation of farm-to-school and to have cooking staff or kitchen facilities. Simul- other community food programs. taneously, the huge growth in the fast foods in- dustry has affected food preferences of both chil-BENEFITS AND CONSTRAINTS dren and adults. As a result, students and other institutional customers often reject, rather thanOF FARM-TO-SCHOOL OR embrace, the introduction of fresh salads, fruit plates, or other dishes prepared from local pro-INSTITUTION PROGRAMS duce (1). BENEFITS PROGRAM COORDINATION As mentioned above, selling to schools, To be successful, farm-to-school programscolleges, hospitals, prisons, or other institu- must have a good buying, selling, and distri-tions provides smaller- bution system. Food ser-scale farmers with a de- vice buyers want to makependable market. For their food purchases us-consumers, local pro- ing a one-stop shoppingduce means fresh food approach that allowsfrom a known source. them to order, receive,Breakfasts and lunches and pay for produce in anprovided by schools efficient and cost-effec-are often the major tive manner. Farmerssource of nutrition for want a dependable buyerchildren from low-in- who pays them a reason-come homes. At other in- able price, while not re-stitutions, the food ser- quiring them to absorbvice may be the pre- excess processing or dis-dominant, if not only, A good way to get students interested in eating vegetables tribution expenses.source of food for con- and fruit is having them grow produce in school gardens.sumers. Consumerswho have access to local food in schools or otherinstitutions become more aware of local food sys- DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMStems and may be encouraged by the superior Kelli Sanger with the Washington State Depart-taste and quality to increase their purchases of ment of Agriculture Small Farm and Direct Mar-locally produced food through farmers markets, keting Program summarized distribution ap-farm stands, or other venues. This has positive proaches that existing farm-to-school and farm-to-ripple effects on the local economy. For colleges institution programs have used successfully (3):and universities, farm-to-campus programs can ✦ A farmers’ cooperative acts as a distributorhelp break down barriers between “town and and broker. Individual farmers belong to agown,” while stimulating the local economy. cooperative that collects their produce, thenPAGE 2 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 3. Farmers & institutions: critical constraints they face Both farmers and the schools or institutions they seek to serve face several critical constraints in the develop- ment of farm-to-school or farm-to-institution programs. From the perspective of the institution, these constraints include (2): ✦ Current contract agreements they have with food service compa- nies ✦ Lack of knowledge of food service staff in how to store and prepare fresh farm products and meet mandated portion requirements ✦ Food preferences of students and other consumers ✦ Lack of availability of many fresh farm products during certain times of the year ✦ Lack of efficiency of ordering and payment procedures with farmers compared to contract food service companies ✦ Institutions having limited funds to purchase food, while local foods often cost more than prod- ucts available through contract food service companies ✦ Institutional access to free or low-cost foods through USDA surplus commodities programs From the perspective of farmers, these constraints include whether they can: ✦ Supply food in quantities that meet the needs of the institution ✦ Assure food quality and food safety ✦ Obtain adequate liability insurance ✦ Get access to processing, packaging, and storage facilities ✦ Efficiently distribute and transport products to educational or institutional buyers processes and distributes it to schools and/ tion where schools pick up farm products. or institutions. Schools or institutions purchase produce at Examples: New North Florida Cooperative a local farmers’ market. To ensure that insti- of Small Farmers and University of Wis- tutional buyers get the type and quantity of consin campus diner service program produce they desire, orders are placed in ad- vance with specific vendors. A coordinator✦ A non-profit organization acts as distributor is required to order, pick up, and deliver pro- and broker. A community-based nonprofit or- duce from the market to the schools. ganization serves as a liaison between grow- ers and institutional buyers. The organization Example: Santa Monica-Malibu School Dis- receives food orders from institutions and co- trict and the Occidental College Center for Food ordinates with the cooperating farmers to fill and Justice and deliver the order. ✦ State government acts as the distributor of Example: All-Iowa Meals project with Iowa state commodities and produce. The State State University Department of Agriculture works with the U.S. Department of Defense produce procure-✦ A local wholesaler acts as distributor and bro- ment program to identify and contract with ker. A local food wholesaler picks up, pro- farmers. These agencies coordinate the pur- cesses, and delivers produce to schools and/ chase and distribution of produce for the pro- or institutions. gram. Example: America Fresh Distribution Example: North Carolina Department of System Agriculture and Consumer Services✦ Farmers’ markets serve as the central loca- ✦ Fresh Produce Program: The U.S. Depart- //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 3
  • 4. ment of Defense (DOD) acts as a procurement institution of the benefits of buying from local agency for produce used in school lunch pro- farmers (2). Smaller-scale farmers may need to grams. It purchases food from farmers and form cooperative agreements with other farm- then serves as vendor to the schools. The ers in the area or work through existing distri- DOD does not deliver produce to schools. bution networks, such as the U.S. Examples: North Carolina, Florida, Tennes- Department of Defense procurement see, Kentucky, and Washington State are agency, to provide schools and institutions with working with the U.S. Department of Defense the necessary volume of farm products on a con- in coordination with theUSDA’s Small tinuing basis (4). Often, farmers can form initial Farms/School Meals Initiative. California and agreements with schools and institutions by Illinois also have agreeing to provide pilot programs un- products that serve a Suggestions for creating contracts particular niche, such as derway. Once farmers have an initial agreement to foods favored by vari-✦ Food service compa- supply food to schools or institutions, they ous cultural groups or nies as intermediaries should draw up finalized contracts that include products that are hard in farm-to-campus the following components (5): to obtain through the programs. Private ✦ The total estimated volume usual institutional food food service compa- of each item to be delivered service companies (4). nies that contract Several face-to-face with colleges and ✦ The time an item will be ripe, when it will be delivered, and acceptable meetings between the universities to pro- farmer and the institu- seasonal substitutes cure, process, and de- tional buyer may be nec- liver food to cafete- ✦ The amount and price of standing order essary before an agree- rias procure some of items ment can be signed. In- their meat and pro- stitutional buyers will ✦ Delivery schedule: time of day, frequency, duce from local farm- probably need to visit and location ers rather than the farm or cooperative through institutional ✦ Packing requirements: standard box, grade, site to inspect the fields brokers. loose pack, bulk, etc. and washing and cool- E x a m p l e s : ✦ Postharvest handling practices; is the prod- ing facilities. The Aramark at Slippery uct pre-cooled? farmer may encourage a Rock University in ✦ Processes for meeting health and safety visit from institutional Pennsylvania, standards chefs, who generally are Burlington Food Ser- trained to appreciate ✦ Cost per unit, payment terms, payment vices at Middlebury food quality and fresh- process College in Vermont, ness. Bon Appetit at Ever- Once the farm-insti- green State College in tution link is established, some institutions hold Washington. an annual training for their food service staff at a participating farm. During these trainings, staff FARMER AGREEMENTS WITH can see, taste, and prepare the produce freshly SCHOOLS OR INSTITUTIONS harvested from the field. They can also meet par- Farmers who propose to sell food products ticipating farmers to learn about growing andto schools or institutions need to carefully ana- harvesting produce and suggest additional vari-lyze what they can offer, when they can provide eties for the farmer to grow.it, and the quantity that they can deliver. If they Farmers wanting to establish and maintainare approaching a school or institution that has marketing agreements with schools or institu-not previously made purchases from farmers, tions should be particularly sensitive to the needproducers also need to conduct some basic mar- to deliver their products in a timely manner thatket research to determine what products the is consistent with food preparation schedules.school wants or needs. Their products also need to be stored in a man- In addition, producers need to convince the ner that retains product freshness until the con-PAGE 4 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 5. Table 1. Funding and Assistance Programs Program Comments WebProcurement ProgramsDepartment of Defense Fresh The DOD developed a partnership with the USDA DOD certificationProduce Program in 1994 that would enable the national school lunch requirements and program to use DOD’s procurement and distribu- application: <http:// tion system for fresh fruits and vegetables. School 131.82.241.3/contract/ districts pay an overhead fee of 5.8% to use this new.htm> procurement service. Farmers must be registered through the Defense Supply Center’s Central Con- DOD Fresh Produce tractor Registration database. Program: <http:// www.dscp.dla.mil/subs/>USDA-AMS Commodity While many commodity purchases use strict com- USDA/AMS FoodProcurement Program petitive bidding processes, other purchases are ex- Purchase Resources: plicitly designed to increase the participation of <http://www.ams.usda. small, minority-owned, or economically disadvan- gov/cp/resources.htm> taged business as suppliers to the National School Lunch Program and other federally sponsored feed- ing programs. Purchases are made in semitrailer load quantities.AMS, Federal-State The FSMIP gives high priority to small farms, di- Description of theMarketing Improvement rect marketing, and sustainable agriculture prac- application process forProgram tices. Grants awarded to state-sponsored mar- SMIP grants: <http:// keting projects. www.ams.usda.gov/tmd/ fsmip.htm>United States Department of Agriculture ProgramsCooperative State Research, The USDA-CSREES Web site has a wealth of in- <http://Education, and Extension formation and links to a variety of programs related www.reeusda.gov>Service to food systems, including funding sources and contacts for state and local partners. This site has information and links to Rural Busi- <http://www.reeusda.Rural Development ness Enterprise Grants and Rural Business Op- gov> portunity Grants. It focuses on funding for agricul- tural marketing and production innovations.Rural Business Cooperative Rural Cooperative Development grants are made <http://www.rurdev.Services for establishing and operating centers for coopera- usda.gov> tive development for the primary purpose of improv-Rural Cooperative ing the economic condition of rural areas throughDevelopment Grant (RCDG) the development of new cooperatives and improv-Program ing operations of existing cooperatives.Rural Business Cooperative One objective of this program is to encourage in- <http://Services dependent producers of agricultural commodities www.rurdev.usda.gov/rbs/ to further refine these products and increase their coops/tvadg.htm>Value-Added Agricultural value to end users. The second objective is toProduct Market Development establish an information resource center to collect,Grants (VADG) coordinate, and disseminate, information on value- added processing to independent producers and processors. Continued on page 6 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 5
  • 6. Table 1. Funding and Assistance Programs, cont’d. United States Department of Agriculture Programs, cont’d. Food and Nutrition Lists the programs under the FNS, including Food Stamps, <http:// Service WIC/Farmers Markets, Food Distribution, Team Nutrition, www.fns.usda.gov/fns> and Child Nutrition. Lists grants for state agencies includ- ing Team Nutrition and Federal State Marketing Improve- ment Program (FSMIP). Sustainable Agriculture Funded by the USDA and organized by region, the SARE <http://www.sare.org> Research and program has competitive grants that may be used to fund Education (SARE) creation of new marketing strategies for farmers and other Program innovative projects. SARE also funds multi-institutional, collaborative approaches to sustaining local food systems. American School Food Coordinates, along with USDA, the implementation of a <http://www.asfsa.org/ Service Assoication provision in the 2002 Farm Bill calling for the creation of a newsroom/sfsnews/ pilot program with school food services designed to in- fruitandvegpilot.asp> crease the amount of fruits and vegetables children eat by providing them free during the school day. Indiana, Michi- gan, Iowa, and Ohio serve as pilot sites. Each of 25 schools in each state may receive up to about $50,000 to offer fresh and dried fruits and vegetables at no charge to all children in the school . The American School Food Service Association can pro- vide information on industry trends and directions. Community Food Federal grants to support the development of Community <http://www.reeusda. Projects Competitive Food Projects designed to meet the needs of low-income gov/crgam/cfp/ Grant Program people by increasing their access to fresher, more nutri- community.htm> tious food supplies; increase the self-reliance of commu- nities in providing for their own food needs; and promote comprehensive responses to local food, farm, and nutri- tion issues. National Non-governmental programs Food and Society This is a project of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation to sup- <http://www. Initiative port the creation and expansion of community-based food foodandsociety.org/> systems enterprises (CBEs) that are locally owned and controlled, environmentally sound, and promote good health. Foundation Databases <ttp:// Community Foundation Lists foundations by state with an easy-to-use U.S. map <http:// Locator graphic. Also uses maps to show locations of each com- www.foodandsociety.org/ munity foundation. > igrant.com Corporate and community foundations listed by state or <http:// grant category with links on "How to Write a Grant Pro- www.onlinegrants.com/ posal." Grant categories include environmental nonprofit wri_proposal.asp> organizations and agricultural resources. Foundation Center For a $20 monthly fee one can have access to and search <http:// the foundation center database for possible funding op- www.fdncenter.org/> portunities. Many grant directories are also available.PAGE 6 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 7. tracted delivery time. Farmers may also needto change their production schedules and themanner in which they process and packagetheir products to meet the needs of the food ser-vice provider (4). PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION STEPS The initial phase of program implementa-tion is typically time consuming, involves sev-eral face-to-face meetings, and may require thepurchase of processing, storage, or distribution Stanford Food Service Director, Nadeem Saddiqui,equipment. This program development step usu- inspects organic strawberries at ALBA, the Agriculturalally requires the work of a program coordinator Land Based Training Association.or facilitator. Examples of initiators of farm-to-school or farm-to-institution agreements include: ful farm-to-school or farm-to-institution pro- gram will differ from one situation to the next.✦ A government organization The common theme in all these steps is building Example: Natural Resource Conservation a trusting relationaship between buyers and Service (NRCS) working with the New sellers, which increases the sustainability of the North Florida Cooperative Program program. To build this trust, it also helps to start small (i.e., one school or one cafeteria, or even✦ An interested college student one type of food/produce, such as a salad bar), Examples: Slippery Rock University in then build on successes. Pennsylvania and the University of Wis- Often the first step in developing a farm-to- consin school or farm-to-institution program involves✦ A faculty member in the School of Hospitality the formation of a food advisory committee. For a farm-to-school program this committee would Examples: Pennsylvania College of Tech- probably include farmers, food purchasers for the nology and Cornell University school, kitchen personnel, school board mem-✦ A non-profit organization bers, and representatives from any coordinating Example: Practical Farmers of Iowa selling organization. Based on the experience of exist- farm products to Iowa State University and ing farm-to-school programs, this committee Grinnell College guides new program development by (2, 4, 6):✦ An interested food service director Examples: High School District 211 in NW Cook County, Illinois, and Williams College in Massachussetts. Farm-to-institution coordinators educatefood service buyers and consumers about thebenefits of using locally produced food. Theyalso serve as meeting coordinators and managethe negotiation, inspection, and distribution pro-cesses required to develop and maintain farm-to-school or farm-to-institutions contracts. Theymay also be responsible for seeking outside fi-nancial assistance to cover management andequipment costs. Every effort should be made to make purchasing local Specific steps used to implement a success- foods easy for institutional staff. //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 7
  • 8. ✦ Examining logistical and management con- — billing and payment systems cerns such as: — regulations affecting food handling and — type of food consumed by school chil- marketing practices dren ✦ Addressing issues identified in the feasibil- — cooking and storage facilities available ity study. In most cases this can involve de- at schools veloping a pick-up, processing, and delivery — food preparation skills of food service system, as well as a business office to coordi- personnel nate orders, billing, and payment. The eco- nomic sustainability of the program is impor- — access to processing facilities (and cost) tant to keep in mind. In their initial years, — amount of produce that schools can use many of these programs require external and when funding, but that will last only a short time. — type and amount of produce that farm- Many programs enlist volunteers, drawing ers can provide and when on parental or student interest, but unless the volunteers’ time is well coordinated, their in- — processes for food quality and food safety terest will wane. Program development oversight should include processes to “institutionalize” — selling prices for produce contractual agreements between farmers and — pick-up and distribution systems that are food service operations. available and their cost ✦ Identifying or establishing a coordinator po- Table 2. 2002 Farm Bill Provisions with Impact on Development of Farm-to-School Programs • Program must meet specific state, local, or neighborhood food and agricultural needs, including needs for the creation of in- novative marketing activities that mutually benefit agricultural producers and low-income consumers. • Program must encourage long-term planning activities and mulit- Section 4125. system, interagency approaches, with multi-stakeholder collabo- ration, that build the long-term capacity of communities to ad- Food Assistance for dress their food and agricultural problems. Stamp Act Community Food Projects • Program must include innovative programs for addressing com- mon community problems. To this end, grants will be available to gather information and recommend innovative programs for addressing a) loss of farms and ranches, b) rural poverty, c) welfare dependency, d) hunger, e) need for job training, f) the need for self-sufficiency by individuals and communities. The Secretary shall encourage institutions participating in the Section 4303. school lunch program under this Act and the school breakfast Purchases of program established by section 4 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 locally produced (42 U.S.. 1773) to purchase, in addition to other food purchases, Child foods locally produced foods for school meal programs, to the maxi- Nutrition mum extent practicable and appropriate. Program The Secretary shall carry out a pilot program to make available to Section 4305. Fruit and Vegetable Pilot students in 25 elementary or secondary schools in each of 4 states, Program and in elementary or secondary schools on 1 Indian Reservation, free fresh and dried fruits and fresh vegetables through the school day in 1 or more areas designated by the school.PAGE 8 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 9. sition or coordination structure to facilitate of established programs. Schools and institu- communication and business management. tions are becoming increasingly receptive to✦ Identifying and coordinating with available these programs, as are the food services with funding or coordination structures such as which they contract. Funding and government support for these programs is also becoming in- U.S. Department of Defense procurement creasingly available. The 2002 Farm Bill pro- programs and local processing and distribu- vides funds for selected schools in four pilot tion facilities. states (Indiana, Michigan, Iowa, and Ohio) to✦ Assisting schools or institutions to identify offer fresh and dried fruits and vegetables to chil- and obtain federal, state, or local exemptions dren at no charge (7). Based on a 1994 agree- to standard competitive bidding require- ment between the United States Department of ments when purchasing from local or minor- Agriculture and the U.S. Department of De- ity-owned businesses. fense, national school lunch programs can use✦ Assisting producers to increase the diversity the DOD procurement and distribution system, of their products and extend their growing referred to as DOD Fresh, to obtain fresh fruits season. and vegetables. Local and state organizations are also work-✦ Ensuring that the program maintains pro- ing to change policies to favor procurement of fessionalism, accountability, and strict ad- locally produced foods. In New York State, NY herence to food safety and quality standards. Farms! is urging the state legislature to ease the✦ Helping integrate appreciation for food pro- bidding requirements for contracts with school duction into the curriculum by developing lunch programs to allow school food farm visits or other food-system-related ac- service directors to use more lo- tivities for school children. cally produced foods. The Community Food Se- curity Coalition works with local organizations to develop farm-to-school programs, while the SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMS Center for Food and Justice in the Urban and En- vironmental Policy Institute at Occidental Col- Farmers and food service directors wanting lege works to promote policies that make schoolsto establish local farm-to-school or farm-to-insti- healthier places to learn.tution programs can learn from the experience Table 3. United States Department of Agriculture Programs Organization Web Based Information Web Address Agricultural Marketing Direct marketing publications <http://www.ams.usda.gov/ Service directmarketing/publications.htm> Comments: Several excellent farmer-direct marketing publications, including How Local Farmers and School Food Service Buyers Are Building Alliances, and an overview of the New North Florida Cooperative, an early, innovative farm-to-school effort. Also see the following Web page for a Power Point presentation of the New North Florida Cooperative: <http://www.ezec.gov/Pubs/noflacoop.ppt> Food and Nutrition • WIC and Senior Farmers’ Market <http://www.fns.usda.gov/fns/> Service Food Stamps • Local purchase of produce for school lunch programs Comments: Farm Bill provisions, farm to school planning documents. Cooperative State Community Supported Agriculture <http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/ Research, Education, and csa/csaorgs.htm> Extension Service Comments: This site has links to many others with information about CSAs, including a link to a national state-by-state CSA database. //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 9
  • 10. Institutional markets like this Stanford, CA, salad bar (left) are great for small farmers. Fresh fruits and vegetables at Malcolm X Middle School in Berkeley, CA, (below) leave patrons smiling. The farm-to-school and farm-to-in-stitution programs described in the fol-lowing resource list cover a broad rangeof marketing interactions, food prod-ucts, and types of community involve-ment. For example:✦ Farmers in north Florida formed a coopera-tive to process and distribute col- to-school or farm-to-college programs can help lard greens and other crops to local schools. promote more sustainable lifestyles on cam- This cooperative has expanded its operations puses, in schools, and within the community. to work with 15 school districts in three For example: states, while also increasing its product line ✦ Bates College, Bowdoin College, Bastyr Uni- and packaging capabilities (8). versity, Middlebury College, Slippery Rock✦ Cafeterias at colleges and universities asso- University, and Tufts University all have ciated with the University of Wisconsin sys- composting programs in conjunction with tem purchase up to one-third of their ingre- their farm-to-college programs. dients from local and organic farmers (10). ✦ Some schools’ food services have adopted✦ Schools in upstate New York (11) and in Min- “green” mission statements to guide all their nesota (12) provide markets for local farm- activities, not just food purchases. For ex- ers, while seeking to influence children’s food ample, Northland College is adopting more preferences, by involving youth with food in sustainable practices in its dining services, many ways, including growing, harvesting, including switching to more environmen- preparing, taste-testing, learning about it, and tally safe cleaning supplies, installing and touring farms and farmers’ markets. using energy and water-saving devices, in- creasing recycling and reuse efforts, and✦ High schools in Pennsylvania have estab- working with renewable energy sources. lished School Market Programs where, by cre- ating and operating farmers’ markets, stu- ✦ The Oberlin College Food Service purchases dents learn about nutrition, food marketing, foods from local producers who support the and the role of food in their community (13). rights of farm workers.✦ Professors and students at the University of People interested in establishing farm-to- Northern Iowa helped establish marketing school or farm-to-institution marketing arrange- links between local farmers and a county hos- ments can also share their experiences at several pital. The hospital now buys almost 25% of regional and national conferences. its food locally (14). In 2002, the Community Food Security Coali- tion (http://www.foodsecurity.org/index.html) These programs also demonstrate how farm- sponsored the first national conference on FarmPAGE 10 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 11. to Cafeteria: Healthy Farms, Healthy Students. At: <http://www.asfsa.org/newsroom/The enthusiastic response to this conference no sfsnews/fruitandvegpilot.asp>.doubt ensures that other conferences and work- 8) Holmes, Glyen, Vonda Richardson, andshops will focus on this subject in the future. Dan Schofer. 2002. Taking it to the next level: Success of small Floida vegetable co- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS op leads to a network of similar coopera- tives. Rural Cooperatives. September/The authors would like to express their thanks October. p. 18-23, 37. At: <http://to NCAT Technical Specialists Nancy Matheson www.rurdev. usda.gov/rbs/pub/sep02/and Julia Sampson for their insightful review of sep02.pdf>.this document. Marion Kalb, the Farm to School 9) Mascarenhas, Michelle, and RobertCoordinator for the Community Food Security Gottlieb. 2000. The Farmers’ Market SaladCoalition, provided invaluable assistance Bar: Assessing the First Three Years of thethrough her review of and many additions to Santa Monica-Malibu Unified Schoolthe programs list. District Program. Community Food Security Coalition, Los Angeles, CA. 24 p. R EFERENCES 10) The College Food Project. Institutional Food Purchasing. Center for Integrated1) Stern, Robert. 2002. Community Food Se- Agricultural Systems. University of Wis- curity Coalition listserve. November 1. consin. Web page. At: <http:// www.wisc.edu/cias/research/2) Gregoire, Mary, Catherine A. Strohbehn, and institut.html>. Jim Huss. 2000. Local Food Connections from Farms to Schools. Iowa State Univer- 11) Neff, Glenda. 2002. Community Food sity. University Extension, Ames, IA. At: Security Coalition list serve. November 1. <http://www.exnet. iastate.edu/>. 4 p. 12) Koester, Ulrich. 1999. Giving Children a3) Sanger, Kelli. 2001. Creative ways to sell Role in Sustainable Agriculture. Midwest and distribute locally produced foods to Food Connection, Minneapolis, MN. 28 p. school and university cafeterias: Examples of 13) The Food Trust. Building Strong Comuni- selling and distributing food from across the ties Through Healthy Foods. Web page. nation. Washington State Department of At: <http://www.thefoodtrust. org/ Agriculture, Olympia, WA. 19 p. schools.html>.4) Tropp, Debra, and Surajudeen 14) Strohbehn, Catherine A., and Mary Olowolayemo. 2000. How Local Farmers Gregoire. 2002. Local Food Connections: and School Food Service Buyers are Build- Food Service Considerations. Iowa State ing Alliances. USDA Agricultural Market- University. University Extension. Ames, ing Service, Washington, D.C. At: <http:/ IA. At: <http://www.extension. /www.ams.usda.gov/tmd/mta/ iastate.edu/Publications/PM1853C.pdf>. Farm%20To%20School%20Marketing.pdf>. 4 p. 30 p.5) Visher, David. 1996. Selling Directly to Local Schools. Small Farms Center, Uni- versity of California, Davis, CA. At: <http://www.sfc.ucdavis. edu/pubs/ SFNews/archive/96032.htm>. 2 p.6) Valen, Gary. 2001. Local Food Project. A How-to Manual. Humane Society of the United States, Washington, D.C. 41 p.7) USDA to Select Schools for Fruit and Vegetable Pilot. Amerocam School Food Service Association. asfsa.org Web page. //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 11
  • 12. By Barbara C. Bellows, Rex Dufour, andJanet BachmannNCAT Agriculture SpecialistsPhotographs by Rex Dufour.October 2003©NCAT 2003 The electronic version of Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions is located at: HTML http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/farmtoschool.html PDF http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/ farmtoschool.pdfIP242Slot #244PAGE 12 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 13. Table 4. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution PublicationsCitation AnnotationUSDA. Innovative Marketing Opportunities for Describes the formation and marketingSmall Farmers: Local Schools as Customers. strategies of the New North Florida Coop-2000. USDA. 61 p. erative and its development of a farm-to-http://www.ams.usda.gov/directmarketing/ school program.publications.htmUSDA. Small Farms/School Meals Initiative A step-by-step guide of activities for groupsTown Hall Meetings. 2000. USDA Food and to plan, conduct, and publicize professionalNutrition Service. 22 p. town meetings that encourage smallhttp://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/lunch/ farmers and local school food officials to begin a farm-to-school project.Tropp, Debra, and Surajudeen Olowolayemo. Provides an overview of lessons learned2000. How Local Farmers and School Food from the USDA Small Farm/School MealsService Buyers are Building Alliances. USDA Workshop. Chapters include: Food ser-Agricultural Marketing Service. 30 p. http:// vice preferences, Potential barriers forwww.ams.usda.gov/tmd/mta/ small farmers to enter into food serviceFarm%20To%20School%20Marketing.pdf contracts, Strategies for small farmers approaching school meal services, Gov- ernment programs, Marketing checklist for small farmers, and Marketing checklist for school food service directors.Azuma, Andrea, and Andy Fisher. 2001. This book describes in detail seven farm-Healthy Farms, Healthy Kids: Evaluating the to-school projects from around the country,Barriers and Opportunities for Farm to School examining the barriers and opportunitiesPrograms. Community Food Security Coali- surrounding farm-to-school programs,tion. 64 p. including childhood obesity, the strugglesAvailable from the Community Food Security of family farmers, and the changing schoolCoalition food environment with the rise of fast foodPO Box 209 and soft drinks in the school lunchroom.Venice, CA 90294 The report also includes an analysis of310-822-5410 federal policies related to nutrition and localhttp://www.foodsecurity.org food systems, and makes a series of policy recommendations.Mascarenhas, Michelle, and Robert Gottlieb. The Occidental College Center for Food2000. The Farmers’ Market Salad Bar: As- and Justice initiated the Farmers’ Marketsessing the First Three Years if the Santa Salad Bar at the Santa Monica-MalibuMonica-Malibu Unified School District Pro- Unified School District. This booklet hasgram. Community Food Security Coalition. some preliminary data on cost of this24 p. program and describes the potential forAvailable from the Community Food Security such a program as well as problemsCoalition encountered.PO Box 209Venice, CA 90294 Continued on page 14310-822-5410 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 13
  • 14. Table 4. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Publications, cont’d Citation Annotation Valen, Gary. 2001. Local Food Project. A An excellent resource for people interested How-to Manual. Humane Society of the in starting a local food project. Drawing United States. 41 p. upon his experience in developing a farm-to- Available from the Humane Society of the college project at Hendrix College in Arkan- United States sas, Valen outlines why local food systems 2100 L. St., NW are important and what steps to take to Washington, DC 20037 implement a local food systems project. 202-452-1100 This booklet contains a good resource list. Fax: 301-258-3081 http://www.hsus.org Gregoire, Mary, Catherine A. Strohbehn, and Provides an overview of potential opportuni- Jim Huss. 2000. Local Food Connections ties and issues to be addressed in imple- from Farms to Schools. Iowa State University menting farm-to-school programs. This Extension. 4 p. booklet also provides guidelines for individual http://www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/ farmers and community organizations PM1853A.pdf seeking access to schools as markets. UW CIAS. 2000. New markets for producers: This report, based on interviews with per- selling to colleges. Research Brief 39. Uni- sonnel from six U.S. colleges with significant versity of Wisconsin Center for Integrated local, sustainable food buying components, Agricultural Systems. identifies opportunities and barriers facing http://www.wisc.edu/cias/pubs/briefs/039.html producers who would like to market to colleges. While these institutions are trying to increase efficiency and meet budgetary and safety requirements, marketing opportu- nities do exist for producers of local, sustainably produced food, even within the largest and most structured food service departments. Institutional food buyers were more interested in buying locally produced foods that benefited their communities than they were in buying certified organic foods. UW CIAS. 2001. Dishing up local food on Report on interviews conducted with food Wisconsin campuses. Research Brief 55. service directors at 34 colleges and universi- University of Wisconsin Center for Integrated ties in Wisconsin to learn more about their Agricultural Systems. potential as local food buyers. http://www.wisc.edu/cias/pubs/briefs/055.html Koester, Ulrich. 1999. Giving Children a Role A guide to classroom and farm visit activities in Sustainable Agriculture. Midwest Food for grade school students. These activities Connection, Minneapolis, MN. 28 p. may be coordinated with a farm-to-school 612-871-0317, ext. 345 program to enhance student appreciation of agriculture. Continued on page 15PAGE 14 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 15. Table 4. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Publications, cont’dCitation AnnotationUniversity of Missouri. 2000. The Food The Food Circles Networking Project worksCircles Networking Project: Report on 1999– in the Columbia and Kansas City, MO, areas2000 Activities. Missouri Community Food promoting local food systems, includingSystems and Sustainable Agriculture Pro- farmers’ markets, farm-to-school and farm-gram. 4 p. to-institution programs, and communityhttp://www.foodcircles.missouri.edu/ gardens.spring00.pdfVallianatos, Mark. 2002. Healthy School Food An evolving document that provides policyPolicies: A Checklist. Center for Food and recommendations for healthy school lunchJustice, Urban & Environmental Policy programs, including integration with schoolInstitute, Occidental College. 10 p. educational, health, and environmentalhttp://www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/ missions, and purchasing to promotefarm-paper-1.htm and community economic development and thehttp://www.uepi.oxy.edu/schoolfoodschecklist livlihoods of local farmers.Malloy, Claudia, Joy Johanson, and Margo Addresses goals and strategies for improv-Wootan. 2003. CSPI School Foods Tool Kit. ing school foods and beverages and con-Center for Science in the Public Interest. tains background materials and fact sheets1875 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 300 on children’s diets and health, school mealWashington, DC 20009 programs, and vending and other school202-777-8352 food venues. It also has a section on tech-E-mail: nutritionpolicy@cspinet.org niques that you can use to effect change,http://www.cspinet.org/schoolfood/ with guidance and model materials for communicating with decision makers, the press, and other members of your commu- nity.McDermott, Maura. 2003. The Oklahoma A survey of 638 public institutions (includingFarm-To-School Report. Oklahoma Food colleges and universities, technology cen-Policy Council/Kerr Center for Sustainable ters, prisons, state hospitals, and stateAgriculture. resorts) indicated that food managers havePoteau, OK a significant interest in using more locally-http://www.kerrcenter.com/kerrweb/ofpc/ produced food in their food service pro-farmtoschool.htm grams. They also thought that many of the perceived obstacles could be solved through education. The Oklahoma Food Policy Council outlines steps that may be used to increase the use of local foods by institu- tions while working to improve the access of people, especially school children, to healthy diets. Continued on page 16 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 15
  • 16. Table 4. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Publications, cont’d Citation Annotation Campbell, Shawn. 2003. The Oklahoma Addressing a demand for local food in Okla- Food Connection 2003. Oklahoma Food homa, this directory lists farmers, where they Policy Council/Kerr Center for Sustainable are located, and what they produce. Consum- Agriculture. 58 p. ers and public institutions wanting to buy Poteau, OK locally may wish to contact farmers in their http://www.kerrcenter.com/kerrweb/ofpc/ area. This publication also lists schools that foodconnection.htm have expressed interest in buying local pro- duce. Table 5. Local Food Security Publications Citation Annotation USDA. 2000. Community Food Security Re- This kit is an excellent resource for those work- source Kit: How to Find Money, Technical As- ing on food system projects, providing infor- sistance, and Other Help to Fight Hunger and mation about programs and projects (includ- Strengthen Local Food Systems. USDA. 92 ing many funding sources) across the nation p. http://www.reeusda.gov/food_security/ that are working on community-centered food scgc/resoukit.htm security activities. Tauber, Maya, and Andy Fisher. 2002. A Guide This guide features case studies of seven di- to Community Food Projects. Community verse and innovative projects funded by Food Security Coalition. 19 p. USDA’s Community Food Projects grant pro- http://www.foodsecurity.org/pubs.html gram. It also includes basic information about the CFP program and sources for more infor- mation. Fisher, Andy, Kai Siedenburg, Mark Winne, and The guide includes an inventory of California Jill Zachary. 1999. Getting Food on the Table: programs, policies and functions that provide An Action Guide to Local Food Policy. Com- opportunities for supporting community food munity Food Security Coalition. 70 p. Avail- security. The guide also includes case stud- able from the Community Food Security Coa- ies, advice from experienced food policy ad- lition. vocates, a resource guide, and federal fund- http://www.foodsecurity.org/pubs.html ing sources. Bailkey, Martin, and Jerry Kaufman. 2000. This report investigates the nature and Farming Inside Cities. Community Food Se- characteristics of city farming for market curity Coalition. 125 p. Available from the Com- sales. It also discusses obstacles to munity Food Security Coalition. market-based city farming activities and http://www.foodsecurity.org/pubs.html ways of overcoming these obstacles. More than 120 people served as informants, and some 70 entrepreneurial urban agriculture projects in the United States were found for this study. Continued on page 17PAGE 16 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 17. Table 5. Local Food Security Publications, cont’dCitation AnnotationFisher, Andy. 1999. Hot Peppers and Parking This booklet examines farmers’ markets,Lot Peaches: Evaluating Farmers’ Markets in WIC (Woman, Infant, Child) Farmers MarketLow Income Communities. Community Food Nutrition Programs, case studies, electronicSecurity Coalition. 61 p. Available from the benefit transfer, farmstands, policy issues,Community Food Security Coalition. guidelines for successful markets, andhttp://www.foodsecurity.org/executive.html policy recommendations.Ashman, Linda (ed.) 1993. Seeds of Change: This is perhaps the most thorough documen-Strategies for Food Security for the Inner City. tation of an urban community’s food system.Community Food Security Coalition. 400 p. Sections on hunger, nutrition, food industry, su-Available from the Community Food Security permarket industry, community case study,Coalition. farmers’ markets, urban agriculture, joint ven-http://www.foodsecurity.org/pubs.html tures, and food policy councils.Joseph, Hugh (ed.) 1997. Community Food This guidebook details such issues as theSecurity: A Guide to Concept, Design, and concept of CFS, community food planning,Implementation. Community Food Security needs assessments, building collaborationsCoalition. 57 p. Available from the Community and coalitions, project implementation,Food Security Coalition. entrepreneurship, funding, programhttp://www.foodsecurity.org/ sustainability, case studies, and multipleCFSguidebook1997.PDF attachments.McDermott, Maura. 2001. Healthy Farms, Excerpts from the “Bringing in the Sheaves”Food and Communities. Field Notes. Kerr symposium, a meeting focusing on commu-Center for Sustainable Agriculture. 9 p. nity food systems, economic and ethical im-http://www.kerrcenter.com/kerrweb/nwsltr/ pacts of food choices, and community sup-2001/winter/1-9.pdf ported agriculture. //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 17
  • 18. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution ProgramsProgram name and contact information Comments National Programs Community Food Security Coalition The Community Food Security Coalition is Marion Kalb a non-profit organization dedicated to build- Farm to School Program Director ing strong, sustainable, local and regional PO Box 363 food systems that ensure access to afford- Davis, CA 95617 able, nutritious, and culturally appropriate 530-756-8518, ext. 32 food for all people at all times. CFSC seeks Fax: 530-756-7857 to develop self-reliance among all commu- E-mail: marion@ foodsecurity.org nities in obtaining their food, and to create http://www.foodsecurity.org/ a system of growing, manufacturing, pro- cessing, distributing, and selling food that Community Food Security Coalition is regionally based and grounded in jus- Kristen Markley tice, democracy, and sustainability. Farm to College Program Manager CFSC has more than 250 member PO Box 109 organizations. Publications, conferences, Markley Lane and other activities focus on community Beaver Springs, PA 17812 food projects including farmers’ markets, 310-822-5410 farm-to-school projects, and community Fax: 310-822-1440 gardens. CFSC Farm-to-School and Farm- E-mail: kristen@ foodsecurity.org to-College programs provide information, http://www.foodsecurity.org/ workshops, and development assistance farm_to_college.html in the initiation and implementation of these programs across the country. National Farm to School Program This partnership of several educational Mark Wall, Co-Director institutions, the Community Alliance with Center for Food and Justice Family Farmers, and the Community Food Occidental College Security Coalition — with the Center for 323-341-5098 Food & Justice as the lead organization — Fax: 323-258-2917 is creating a database of every school and E-mail: mwall@oxy.edu college that has a farm-to-school element http://www.farmtoschool.org/National/ in their educational work. Currently work- index.htm ing on nine projects funded by the USDA, the program has helped create school and projects that buy from local farmers, a Food Marion Kalb, Co-Director Service Director’s Guide to Farm to School, Community Food Security Coalition educational seminars, evaluation of exist- (See above for contact information.) ing projects, and ongoing technical assis- tance to potential and current projects. California Farmers’ Market Salad Bar This began as a project of the Occidental Tracie Thomas, Coordinator College Center for Food and Justice. The 1651 Sixteenth Street program is also linked to school garden Santa Monica, CA 90404 programs and educational activities, such 310-450-8338, ext. 324 as farmers’ markets and farm tours, to Fax: 310-399-2993 promote a holistic view of food. E-mail: payton@smmusd.org http://departments.oxy.edu/uepi/cfj/ resources/farmtoschool01cover.PDF Continued on page 19PAGE 18 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 19. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d California cont’dCenter for Eco-Literacy The Center for Eco-Literacy coordinated theJanet Brown Berkeley Food Systems Project and was2522 San Pablo Avenue instrumental in drafting the Food Policy forBerkeley, CA the Berkeley Unified School District.510-845-4945E-mail: janet@ecoliteracy.orghttp://www.ecoliteracy.org/Davis Joint Unified School District The program began at three elementary(DJUSD) school sites and has now expanded toRafaelita M. Curva seven schools,with an eighth expected toDirector of Student Nutrition Services join in the fall of 2003. The integrated1919 Fifth Street programs include salad bars (CrunchDavis, CA 95616 Lunch!), composting/recycling, gardens,530-757-5385, ext. 119 cooking carts, and farm visits. Food prepa-Fax: 530-758-3889 ration for the salad bars is centrally donehttp://www.djusd.k12.ca.us/District/index.htm from the Davis High School Kitchen and delivered to the various sites. Start-up costs and direct labor costs were funded by grants. Now, grants cover equipment procurement and outreach/curriculum connections. All food, supply, and other direct costs are covered by Student Nutrition Services. The program purchases roughly $8000/year of produce from local farmers, and the main constraint to increasing that figure is the physical size of the prep area and time constraints of staff.Ventura Unified Farm to School Program This program started in 2001 and is nowMarilyn Godfree operating in three schools. Marilyn GodfreeHealthy Projects Coordinator is responsible for the educational and805-641-5050 outreach components of the program, whileTammy Nelson Tammy Nelson manages the salad bars,Salad Bar Coordinator orders food, and works with vendors. The805-641-5054 salad bar operates twice per week at oneE-mail: mgodfree@vtusd.k12.ca.us school and once per week at the other two, where it is the only meal choice for that lunch day. The salad bar lunch reaches roughly 1,000 children and, combined with gardening activities, is integrated into the curriculum. Schools have complete kitch- ens and use parent volunteers for non-food preparation activities. Local vendors have agreed to buy from local farmers “whenever possible.” Some fruit and other food items Continued on page 20 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 19
  • 20. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d California cont’d are bought directly from farmers. Start-up funds for this project came from a combina- tion of tobacco settlement money, PTA funds, and grant monies obtained by a non- profit. Ms. Godfree notes that kids using the salad bar throw away much less food compared to the hot lunch. Occidental College The Center for Community-Based Learning Center for Community-Based Learning (CCBL) at Occidental College runs the “Market 323-259-2904 Basket Program” in which students sub- ccbl@oxy.edu scribe to the program and receive weekly boxes of produce from the farmers’ market. Center for Food and Justice The College’s Center for Food and Jus- Maggie Haase, Director tice is the lead organization for both the 323-341-5096 National Farm to School Program and the http://www.farmtoschool.org California Farm to School Program. University of California, Santa Barbara UCSB contracts with a local food service Bonnie Crouse, Coordinator vendor (The Berry Man), who buys part of Residential Dining Services, Systems and their produce from local farmers. While Procurement UCSB is willing to contract directly with University of California, Santa Barbara local farmers, it has not done so yet. For 1501 Residential Services contracting information, contact the local Santa Barbara CA 93106 representative for The Berry Man, Les 805-893-3315 Clark, at 805-963-6184. Fax: 805-893-4766 E-mail: bcrouse@housing.ucsb.edu http://www.housing.ucsb.edu Connecticut Connecticut Department of The DOC may be the single largest buyer of Corrections food in Connecticut. DOC began buying Con- Robert Frank necticut-grown in July 2002 and completed the Director of Nutritional Services first season in November. Twenty farmers 201 West Main Street participated, and the program will continue in Niantic, CT 06357 2003 and is considered a success. DOC 860-691-6989 would place their weekly order with the US Fax: 860-691-6874 Food Service USF), which holds the master h t t p : / / w w w. d o c . s ta t e . c t . u s / o r g / contract with the state for all institutional food AdmFood.htm purchasing (except U. Conn.). USF would then place their produce order with M&M Produce. Whenever available and when the price was “close,” M&M would buy as much of the fresh produce as possible from the CT farmers. “Close” meant the buyers were generally will- ing to grant CT farmers up to a 5% premium. Continued on page 21PAGE 20 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 21. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d FloridaNew North Florida Cooperative Program This program is facilitated by the Natural Re-Glyen Holmes, NRCS/USDA source Conservation Service (NRCS), which215 Perry Paite Bldg. S. FAMU helped organize a group of North Florida farm-Tallahassee, FL 32307 ers to supply local schools with fresh produce.859-599-3546 This project is now operating in 15 school dis-E-mail: nnfc@digitalexp.com tricts with 300,000 children in three states (FL,http://www.ams.usda.gov/directmarketing/ SC, and AL). Several publications about thispublications.htm program are available on the NRCS Farmer Direct Marketing Web page under Farm-to- School Programs. IllinoisIllinois Farm-to-School Initiative Generation Green is initiating a process toRhonda Williams connect farmers and small farm co-ops withGeneration Green interested school districts through educa-P.O. Box 7027 tional programs and interactions with foodEvanston, IL 60201 service directors and state policy makers.312-419-1810 They are participaring in the U.S. Depart-E-mail: rhonda@generagiongreen.org ment of Agriculture/Department of Defensehttp://www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/ Commodity Program.school-food.htmTownship High School District 211 Jonen has been buying produce for theRuth Jonen school lunch program from the SchamburgDistrict 211 Director of Food Services Farmers’ Market for more than 15 years.Towns of Palatine and Schaumburg in NW Purchases run from August through OctoberCook County, IL and serve approximately 2,500 students.847-755-1600http://www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/story-jonen.htm IowaSunflower Fields Farm and CSA Michael is a member of a growers co-op thatMichael Nash distributes food to schools and other institu-776 Old Stage Road tions.Postville, IA 52162563-864-3847Fax: 563-864-3837Practical Farmers of Iowa Primary buyers from PFI are Iowa State Uni-Rick Hartmann, Food Systems Program Staff versity and Grinnell College. The InstitutionalRobert Karp, Gary Huber Buying and Producer Cooperation project of300 Main St. # 1 the Practical Farmers of Iowa began in 2001Ames, IA 50010 as a two year in-depth feasibility study of vari-515-232-5661(phone & Fax) ous approaches for linking Iowa farmers prac-E-mail: rick@isunet.net ticing sustainable agriculture to hotel, restau-http://www.pfi.iastate.edu rant, and institutional (HRI) markets. Continued on page 22 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 21
  • 22. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d Iowa cont’dUniversity of Northern Iowa Local Food The Leopold Center for Sustainable Agricul-Project ture provided funding for this project, whichProf. Kamyar Enshayan and Scott Cooley, works with institutional food buyers (hospitals,Adjunct Faculty nursing homes, restaurants, and groceries) toDepartment of Physics explore ways to purchase a greater portion ofUniversity of Northern Iowa their food from local/regional farmers and foodCedar Falls, IA 50614-0150 processors. In this way, they seek to increase319-273-7575 or 319-273-6895 investment of food dollars in the local commu-Fax: 319-273-7136 nity.E-mail: kamyar.enshayan@uni.eduhttp://www.uni.edu/ceee/foodproject KansasCommunity Mercantile Education Founda- The Community Mercantile Education Foun-tion dation (CMEF) and area farmers initiated thisNancy O’Connor, Executive Director program in northeast Kansas to help create901 Iowa Street understanding and support of regionally andLawrence, KS 66044 sustainably grown agricultural products. The785-843-8544 CMEF is the not-for-profit arm of the Commu-E-mail: cmef@sunflower.com nity Mercantile Co-op, a natural foods store in Lawrence. Maine Bates College A member of the Maine Organic Farmers Nelson Pray, Buyer for Dining Services and Growers Association (MOFGA), Bates 56 Campus Avenue, Chase Hall has bought organic produce from local Lewiston, ME 04240 farmers since 1996. Bates buys turkeys, 207-786-6300 potatoes, and tomatoes from MOFGA. The Fax: 207-786-6302 college food service also composts E-mail: npray@bates.edu preconsumer wastes and collects http://www.bates.edu/dining.xml postconsumer wastes as feed for a local hog farmer. Bowdoin College Bowdoin College dining service purchases Michele Gaillard, Purchasing Manager local foods for several special events 3700 College Station throughout the year, notably a “return to Brunswick, ME 04011-8428 school” lobsterbake. In the spring of 2001 a 207-725-3000 dining service oversight team was formed to Fax: 207-725-3974 develop new sustainability programs within E-mail: mgaillar@bowdoin.edu the department and oversee programs http://www.bowdoin.edu/dining/information/ already in place. Bowdoin has a pre-con- environmental.shtml sumer waste composting program and has also established a refillable mug program. Continued on page 23PAGE 22 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 23. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d MassachusettsTufts University The Tufts Dining Services Department feels itPatti Lee Klos is important to source foods locally, which in-Director of Dining & Business Services cludes produce and locally produced food89-91 Curtis Street items. During the fall they promote locallyMedford, MA 02155 grown apples, and throughout the year they617-627-3751 seek first to provide produce, that is grown inFax: 617-627-3902 Massachusetts and the New England states.E-mail: patti.lee@tufts.edu When searching for new suppliers, TDSD firsthttp://www.tufts.edu/dining/ seeks to support the immediate communities of Medford and Somerville, and then the greater Boston area. TDSD recycles corrugated card- board, tin cans, glass, and plastics. More than two tons of food waste is diverted from the waste stream each week during the school year.Williams College With the efforts of student organizations,Robert Volpi, Director, Dining Services CEAC (Campus Environmental Advisory Com-413-597-2051 mittee), Greensense, and SSJ (Students forE-mail: Robert.P.Volpi@williams.edu Social Justice), along with Administrators andhttp://www.williams.edu/admin/dining/ Dining Services, the Eco-Café, located in the Science Building atrium, opened on April 1, 2002. The Café features organic fair- trade coffee, organic teas, and bottled water, all natu- ral tea breads, cookies, and biscotti from local bakeries.St John’s University St. John’s University is a Benedictine Univer-Dave Schoenberg sity and has an overall philosophy of goodExecutive Director of Dining and Events stewardship, not only in food purchasing. St.PO Box 2000 John’s does not have targets for local foodCollegeville, MN 56321 purchases, but purchases local honey, maple320-363-3490 syrup, apples, and some flour, in addition toFax: 320-363-2658 running a community garden from which theyE-mail: dschoenberg@csbsju.edu purchase some of the extra food available. St. John’s also purchases some cheese products from a local (within state) cooperative. MinnesotaSaint Olaf College St. Olaf College had a three year programGene Bakko about 10 years ago (1989-1991, funded by theProfessor of Biology McKnight Foundation). Carlton College alsoBiology Dept. participated (five students at each college).St. Olaf College The students examined the orgins of campus-1520 St. Olaf Avenue served food, which in turn spawned an effortNorthfield, MN 55057-1098 by the dining services to procure local food.507-646-3399Fax: 507-646-3968E-mail: bakko@stolaf.edu Continued on page 24 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 23
  • 24. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d Minnesota cont’d Local growers supply apples to campus, but all other produce purchase efforts eventually fell through because local growers are small and could not, or were not willing to, plant for the College market. In 2002, St. John’s did a week long “buy local” educational campaign, expos- ing students to local foods and transporting them to local farms. New Mexico Cooking with Kids Cooking with Kids is a multicultural food educa- Lynn Walters tion program that works to improve children’s Program Coordinator nutrition by involving public school students in 3508 Camino Jalisco hands-on learning about culturally diverse foods Santa Fe, NM 87505 that are healthy and appealing. Cooking with 505-473-4703 Kids’ activities use an integrated curriculum for- Fax: 505-473-4703 mat that provides opportunities for interdiscipli- E-mail: lwalters@unm.edu nary learning, including math, science, social studies, language arts, music, and art. Cook- ing with Kids models healthy food choices in elementary school classrooms and school din- ing rooms. New York From Farm to School: Improving Small New York is a partner in a new multi-state Farm Viability and School Meals project funded by the USDA Initiative for Jennifer Wilkins, Program Director Future Agriculture and Food Systems Division of Nutritional Sciences (IFAFS). The New York portion of this project, 305 MVR Hall From Farm to School: Improving Small Farm Cornell University Viability and School Meals, will follow the Ithaca, NY 14853-4401 development of farm-to-school connections in 607-255-2730 four pilot school districts in different regions of Fax: 607-255-0178 the state. E-mail: jlw15@cornell.edu <http://www.cals.cornell.edu/ agfoodcommunity/ afs_temp3.cfm?topicID=81> Cornell University Dining Services The Cornell University Dining Service pur- Coleen Wright-Riva chases one-third of its food from New York Acting Director farmers, processors, and vendors, and has Dining Office implemented farm-to-school educational 233 Day Hall programs about the importance of using local Ithaca, NY 14853-6006 foods. They also work with students, faculty, 607-255-5952 and staff to offer ethnic and multi-cultural E-mail: dining@cornell.edu Continued on page 25PAGE 24 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 25. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d New York cont’d cuisine, including kosher foods. The dining service has an internship program with the Culinary Institute of America and has won several national “Best of Show” awards.NY Farms! NY Farms! coordinates an effort to increase125 Williams Road awareness of opportunities for schools toCandor, NY 13743 connect with local food producers. As a taskhttp://www.human-services.org/agencies/ force of the New York State School Foodn0012nyfarms.html Service Association, they are talking with the NY state legislature to ease the bidding require- ments for contracts with school lunch pro- grams, making the process easier for school food service directors. North CarolinaNorth Carolina Direct Vendor Delivery The state of North Carolina distributes the pro-Program duce, but the Department of Defense does theGerald German, Produce Office buying. This program allows school districtsP.O. Box 471 to buy more fresh produce without the schoolWicomico, VA 23184-0471 food service fund footing the bill. All invoices804-642-1902 are sent to the state’s Commodity Food Pro-Fax: 804-642-1903 grams, which retrieves money from the DODE-mail: Ggerman@dscp.dla.mil food fund to pay the local produce bills. OhioOberlin College Oberlin College Dining Service makes exten-Brad Masi, Executive Director sive use of locally grown organic foods thatEcological Design Innovation Center are minimally processed. The Food ServiceLewis Center for Envir. Studies purchases foods from local producers and122 Elm Street use only food suppliers who support the rightsOberlin, OH 44074 of farm workers. Oberlin College has pur-440-775-8409 chased directly from local farmers since 2000.Fax: 440-775-8946E-mail: brad.masi@oberlin.eduhttp://www.oberlin.edu/cds/Ohio University The O.U. Food Service goal is to supply 10%Randy Shelton of direct local produce within 4-5 years. InDirector of Housing and Food Service 2002 it purchased pork, organic dairy, fruit, and1 Riverside Dr. veggies from eight farmers. Randy Shelton isOhio University working with farmer to develop a signatureAthens, OH 45701 (Ohio University) brand of sausage that can be740-593-4094 used as a marketing tool by farmers.E-mail: shelton@ohio.edu orshelton@filesrv.facilities.ohio.eduhttp://www.ohiou.edu/food/contacts.htm#buy Continued on page 26 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 25
  • 26. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d PennsylvaniaPennsylvania College of Technology Mike Ditchfield started this program in 1995 andMike Ditchfield facilitated the process of connecting local sus-Faculty Instructor in the School of tainable farmers with the School of HospitalityHospitality and with the Penn College food service. Local1 College Ave DIF#AD purchases include milk and cheese from grass-Williamsport, PA 17701 fed cows, pastured poultry, and some elk from570-326-3761, ext. 7813 about a dozen local farmers. The school is aFax: 570-320-5260 member of the Pennsylvania Association ofE-mail: mditchfi@pct.edu Sustainable Agriculture (PASA). This efforthttp://www.pct.edu/schools/hos/ helps the School of Hospitality teach about qual- ity as an important component of food service. SoH students also visit organic farms to see and harvest the produce.School Market Program Students create, own, and operate farmers’Katrima Rose markets in their schools, where they sell fruitSchool Market Program Partners and vegetable products to fellow students andCoordinator teachers during the school year. Through a215-568-0830, ext. 27 grant from SARE, the Food Trust is workingDonna Pitz, Ag Market Developer with farmers and buyers to increase sales and215-568-0830, ext. 25 demand for sustainable and locally grown farmE-mail: contact@thefoodtrust.org products in urban communities throughout the<http://www.thefoodtrust.org/schools.html> region.Slippery Rock University This project is working to require food serviceDebra Pincek contracts to purchase a minimum of 10% ofDirector of Auxillary Student Services the food used from local producers. “Local” inUniversity Food Services Office this sense is tentatively identified as one hour’sWeisenfluh Hall driving time. A full time graduate assistanceshipSlippery Rock Universtiy (20 hrs/wk) is funded to implement the project724-738-2038 using money from Slippery Rock U andE-mail: debra.pincek@sru.edu Aramark (the present food service contractor). PASA (PA Association for Sustainable Ag) pro- vided funding for a trial run of this concept with local farmers in the summer of 2002. TexasHealthy Food for Healthy Kids Nutrition campaign for children to promote con-Susan Combs sumption of Texas fruits and vegetables. In-Allen Spelce cludes summer workshops for school districtTexas Agricultural Commissioner food service purchasers on the availability of512-463-7664 local fresh fruits and vegetables. Continued on page 27PAGE 26 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS
  • 27. Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d VermontMiddlebury College Middlebury purchases about 75% of their foodConnie Leach Bisson through Burlington Food Service (BFS), aSustainable Campus Coordinator private distributor based in Burlington, VT.Farrell House Middlebury is BFS’s largest customer. BFSMiddlebury, VT 05753 buys from local farms when in season.802-443-5043 Middlebury purchases about $1.5 million worthFax: 802-443-2458 of food from BFS annually. Middlebury encour-E-mail: cbisson@middlebury.edu ages local organic growers to work throughhttp://community.middlebury.edu/%7Eenviroc/ distributors in order to establish a reliabledi.html supply. Middlebury has been composting since 1993, diverting 75% (300 tons/year) of college food waste from the landfill. It turns food re- siduals into compost for soil amendments in campus landscaping and vegetable production. The food composting operation is also used as a vehicle for education and research within the college. WashingtonEvergreen State College Evergreen State College uses seasonalJennifer Hall, General Manager ingredients, organic fruits, vegetables, andBon Appetit c/o Nordstrom meats to supply their food service. Bon500 Pine Street, Suite 500 Appétit Onsite Custom Restaurants runsSeattle, WA 98109 Evergreen’s food service. Bon Appétit em-206-628-1669 phasizes local produce and partners with theE-mail: cafegm@evergreen.edu campus Organic Farm in supplying a “madeor with organic” menu, which by Federal stan-Piper Kapin dards equates to a 75% minimum organicFarm to College Project Manager content.Housing A 322-J2700 Evergreen Parkway NWOlympia, WA 98505360-867-6501Fax: 360-866-6681E-mail: kapinp@evergreen.eduhttp://bamconw.com/evergreen/index.htmBastyr University Bastyr University grows some food in theirPete Soucy, Food Services Manager own garden and also buys unsold produce14500 Juanita Dr. NE from a local weekend farmers’ market. InKenmore, WA 98028-4966 addition to fresh produce, B.U. also buys local425-602-3018 value-added products, such as pickled pep-Fax: 425-823-6222 pers and energy bars, for their cafeteria. ThisE-mail: psoucy@bastyr.edu school plans to host a CSA pickup for a localhttp://www.bastyr.org/tour/cafeteria/ farmer starting in the spring of 2003 that will take advantage of B.U.’s walk-in cooler. The B.U. kitchen composts all their pre-consumer waste. Continued on page 28 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS PAGE 27
  • 28. Copyright©2003 NCAT Table 6. Farm-to-School and Farm-to-Institution Programs, cont’d Wisconsin University of Wisconsin, The College Six campuses in Wisconsin buy food for their Food Project dining services directly from local Wisconsin Margaret Monahan farms and farmer cooperatives. Four of them Assistant Food Service Director are buying from local farms and cooperatives Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems that use organic and sustainable farming prac- 1450 Linden Drive tices. The UW-Madison’s Center for Integrated Madison, WI 53706 Agricultural Systems is helping to connect 608-262-5200 or 608-262-9619 farmers with campus dining services. Fax: 608-265-3020 E-mail: phaza@facstaff.wisc.edu, or margaret.monahan@mail.housing.wisc.edu, http://www.wisc.edu/cias/index.html Northland College In addition to purchasing locally grown organic Tom Wojciechowski, Adjunct Instructor produce for the dining hall, current campus Environmental Studies sustainability efforts include switching to more Northland College environmentally safe cleaning supplies, install- 1411 Ellis Avenue ing and using energy-and water-saving de- Ashland, WI 54806 vices, increased recycling and reuse efforts, 715-682-1261 and working with renewable energy sources. Fax: 715-682-1690 E-mail: TWojo@northland.edu http://www.northland.edu Copyright©2003 NCAT National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service www.attra.ncat.orgPAGE 28 //BRINGING LOCAL FOOD TO LOCAL INSTITUTIONS