Beekeeping/Apiculture

  • 3,026 views
Uploaded on

Beekeeping/Apiculture …

Beekeeping/Apiculture

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,026
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
86
Comments
1
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Beekeeping/ Apiculture OTHER LIVESTOCK TOPIC Abstract: This publication discusses various aspects of beekeeping or apiculture, including state inspection programs, beginning basics, income sources and budgets, insurance, Africanized bees, organic certification, and various bee pests and diseases. Information on educational and training opportunities and further resources are also discussed.By Lance Gegner, NCAT Agriculture SpecialistApril 2003 Introduction This publication is intended as a guide for anyone inter-ested in beginning or expanding a beekeeping enterprise.Whether the bees are kept as pollinators for crops or for theincome from their products, producers need to be aware oftheir states’ apiary laws concerning inspection, registration,and permits, as well as labeling and marketing standards.Producers also need to be aware of pesticide applicationlaws and pesticide notification laws relative to bees. Bothbeginning and experienced beekeepers need to consider li-ability insurance; the possibility of Africanized hybrid beestaking over the hives; and all the pests and diseases thatafflict bees and their colonies. To maintain a healthy hive and guard against the newpests and diseases that have been introduced in recent years,beekeepers need to continually monitor new developmentsin apiculture. The Further Resources section of this publi-cation lists many websites, USDA Research Facilities, peri-odicals, associations, and books with information on all as- ©2003www.clipart.compects of beekeeping. Related ATTRA Publications State Inspection Programs It is important that beekeepers have their bees reg-• Alternative Pollinators: Native Bees istered and inspected as required by law. The Ameri-• Phenology Web Links: (1) Sequence can Society of Beekeepers’ free on-line class, Intermedi- of Bloom, Floral Calendars, What’s in ate Beekeeping 201, suggests some excellent steps to Bloom; (2) Birds, Bees, Insects and follow when working with your state’s apiary inspec- Weeds tion programs. Lesson Five states:• Organic Farm Certification and the National Organic Program All states have laws regarding apiary inspection. The regulatory body is usually the Department of Agriculture ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information service operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology, through a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. NCAT has offices in Fayetteville, Arkansas (P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702), Butte, Montana, and Davis, California.
  • 2. Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................. 1 State Inspection Programs ............................................................................. 1 Beginning Beekeeping Basics .......................................................................... 2 Beekeeping Income Sources........................................................................... 4 Budgets ........................................................................................................ 4 Beekeeper’s Insurance ................................................................................... 5 Organic Apiculture Standards ........................................................................ 5 Africanized Hybrid Bees ................................................................................ 6 Honey Bee Pests ........................................................................................... 7 Honey Bee Diseases ....................................................................................13 Educational and Training Opportunities ........................................................14 Summary ....................................................................................................15 References .................................................................................................15 Enclosures ..................................................................................................17 Further Resources .......................................................................................18 Appendix ...................................................................................................22 and some division within it. Some states have have a right to ask that samples be taken full time staff to handle an apiary section and and sent to the Beltsville USDA lab for con- others do not. When moving bees from one firmation of the disease. (American Society state to another, inspection of bees is regu- of Beekeepers, No date–a) [See instructions lated by the receiving state. Many require on how to ship bees to Beltsville in Appen- previous inspection before arrival and will do dix: Beltsville Free Bee Diagnostic Service]. follow-up inspections once the bees are lo- An all-state (and Canadian provincial) State cated within the new state. If you are plan- Apiarist Directory, which includes state bee in- ning to make a business of selling queens, spectors, other regulatory officials with apicul- bees, or moving bees for pollination, then it tural responsibilities, and other professional api- is very important to understand the laws in the states you are dealing with.... cultural specialists, is available on-line at <http:/ /www.mda.state.mn.us/ams/apiary/directory It is important therefore to know who has the .htm>. responsibility to inspect your bees and un- Beginning Beekeeping der what conditions the inspection is done. Inspecting bees is a nice job. One must deal with all kinds of problems: First, angry bee- keepers (not their bees). Bee inspectors are Basics people just like you and me. If treated with It is usually wise to start small, learn efficient respect, they will respect you as well. Their job is to find disease. If your bees have dis- management techniques, and expand the bee- ease and you don’t know it, then they have keeping operation as time, experience, and fi- done you a good service by pointing the dis- nances permit. Initial outlay can reach $200 per ease out to you. On the other hand, they hive, and other equipment, such as a smoker, may require treatment of the bees, which you veil, gloves, feeding equipment, honey extractor, do not agree with. Make sure you under- etc., will add to the expense. stand the law before sounding off on the bee Anyone interested in becoming a beekeeper inspector — it is not his/her fault that he/she needs to study published information (see Fur- found disease in your bees. However, you ther Resources: Books, Websites, Periodicals), butPAGE 2 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 3. many beekeeping skills are best learned by work- Practices Around the Calendar provides manage-ing with an experienced beekeeper. The Alberta ment suggestions, and is also available at <http:/Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development pub- /maarec.cas.psu.edu/bkCD/Startkeeping/lication Commercial Honey Industry states: “Only Starting.html>.through hands-on experience can new entrants The Mississippi State University publicationgain the basic skills required for opening hives, Getting Started in Beekeeping provides an excel-removing frames, identifying queens, recogniz- lent summary of what is required to begin. Theing the difference between brood and honey publication suggests:cappings, and recognizing the difference between If you decided that you wanted to get startedhoney and pollen in a cell” (Dey, 2001). in beekeeping, you would need the basic com- The American Society of Beekeepers make ponents of the hive, a source of bees, pro-the following suggestions in the final lesson of tective gear, ancillary gear, and equipmenttheir Beekeeping 101 class: for handling the honey crop. The hive is the One way to find other beekeepers who can man-made structure in which the honey bee help you with problems you encounter is to colony lives. New bee equipment is gener- join a local bee club or state organization. ally unassembled when purchased. Assem- Bee Culture Magazine publishes a Who’s who bly directions furnished by bee supply deal- in beekeeping each spring. You could check ers are usually easy to follow. It is important the listing for the state in which you live and for beginners to purchase their equipment contact the individuals listed. Ask them for early so that it will be ready to use when the information about bee clubs and who you bees arrive. Some beekeepers find they can need to contact. The person listed under the save money by making their own equipment Department of Agriculture responsible for in- or purchasing used equipment. With both spection should have a good idea. They are approaches, it is important that the equip- often called upon to speak at local meetings. ment is standard size. Purchasing used equip- The State Extension service should also be ment can present problems and is not rec- a good source. If you purchase either major ommended for the beginner. Initially you may bee magazine — each carries a calendar of have problems simply in locating a source of events. You can get an idea of where the used equipment and determining its value or nearest bee meeting is to you. These are worth. In addition, secondhand equipment generally state or regional meetings. (Ameri- may be contaminated with pathogens that can Society of Beekeepers, no date–b) cause various bee diseases. Always ask for Beekeeping can be labor-intensive during cer- an inspection certificate indicating that the apiary inspector did not find any evidence oftain times of the year. Working with bees re- disease.quires a gentle touch and calm disposition. Italso requires a basic understanding of the honey There are several different ways of gettingbees’ behavior during the various seasons and started in the bee business: buying packageduring handling and moving. bees; purchasing a nucleus colony (nuc); buying established colonies; collecting Beekeeping can be undertaken by anyone who swarms; and taking bees out of trees and has enough ability and determination to look walls. Most beginners start with either a pack- after the bees properly, enough courage to age or a nuc. Packages are the preferred way. work with bees, and enough money to buy In purchasing nuclei and colonies you might bees and equipment. Please note: Before be buying other beekeeper’s problems, such you get into beekeeping, you should check as mites or disease. Collecting swarms and to make sure local zoning laws allow you to transferring bees is difficult and not recom- keep honey bees and what your reaction is mended for the beginner. The best time to to bee stings. (American Society of Beekeep- start with bees [is] in the spring or early sum- ers, no date–c) mer. Beekeeping is not a seasonal enterprise, but Ancillary equipment includes the bee smokerrequires year-round management. The beginning and hive tool, which are essential for work-beekeeper needs to consider his or her available ing bees. Bee veils should be worn at all timeslabor limitations, and keep the enterprise at an to protect the face and neck from stings. Be-easily managed size. The enclosed Mid-Atlantic ginners who fear being stung should wearApiculture Research and Extension Consortium canvas or leather gloves. Many experienced(MAAREC) publication Summary of Management beekeepers who find gloves too cumbersome //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 3
  • 4. decide to risk a few stings for the sake of honey. Prices around the country vary. In June easier handling. White or tan clothing is most 2002, the USDA/Agricultural Marketing Service/ suitable when working bees. (Collison, 1996) National Honey Report listed prices for honey Some of the many other decisions that begin- ranging from $0.83 per pound in Florida to $1.00ning and experienced beekeepers need to con- per pound in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Mon-sider are: tana (USDA/AMS, 2002) (See Further Resources:• Location of hives—Hives should not be lo- Periodicals on how to obtain these monthly re- cated near homes or areas used for recreation. ports). However, these reports reflect the price Hives need to be near nectar and pollen of honey that is being produced by large-scale sources and fresh water; protected from beekeepers and do not indicate what small bee- predators, vandals, and adverse weather con- keepers should charge for their honey (Wenning, ditions; and accessible throughout the year. 1999). The best sources of local price informa-• Processing honey and other bee products— tion will probably be other local beekeepers. And Follow state and federal regulations for pro- some consumers are willing to pay more for value- cessing, labeling, and handling food products. added products—such as flavored honeys, honey• Marketing honey and other bee products— wine, honey beer (mead), and packaged honey Types of products and marketing strategies gifts—than for plain honey. — Will you market to consumers at farmers’ markets or on-farm, to retailers, to a honey cooperative, or to honey packers? Budgets The Pennsylvania State University Coopera- Beekeeping Income tive Extension Agriculture Alternatives publica- tion Beekeeping (enclosed) contains an annual bee- Sources keeping budget that summarizes the receipts, costs, and net returns for 10 mature bee colonies. Depending on the part of the country and The publication notes that “successful side-lineother environmental factors, a typical colony of operations typically maintain 50 to 500 colonies.”bees can produce 80 to 120 pounds of surplus It also states that “There will be no receipts from(harvestable) honey and 10 to 18 pounds of pol- an operation until the second year” (Frazier etlen in an average year (Deeby, 2002d). Besides al., 1998). The sample Excel budget is availableselling honey and other bee products—such as at <http://agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/other/beeswax, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bees/index.htm>.or queens—beekeepers can also provide pollina- Several detailed commercial beekeeping bud-tion services (hive rentals) to farmers and orchard- gets for honey and pollination operations areists (ERS/NASS, no date). available in the Alberta Agriculture, Food, and In 1999, commercial beekeepers in the Pacific Rural Development Ministry publication Commer-Northwest—averaging about 2,000 hiveseach—were charging from $20 to $40 perhive for pollination services, dependingon the crop. In addition, they were trans-porting and renting these hives aboutthree different times during the year todifferent parts of the country. Those rent-als provided roughly 65% of the commer-cial beekeepers’ incomes (Burgett, 1999). On a more modest scale, keeping justa few hives can generate some income,especially with creative retailing of honey,honeycomb, wax, and pollen. In addition,a bee colony can provide valuable polli-nation on the producer’s own farm. Small-scale beekeepers often ask how ©2003www.clipart.comthey should determine a price for theirPAGE 4 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 5. cial Honey Industry. It should be remembered • Circumstantial injury caused by the unfore-that dollar amounts are stated in Canadian dol- seen results of some action the beekeeperlars (about 64 cents to the U.S. dollar at the time takes. (Scott, 2002)of this writing). The publication can be viewed The same author continues:at <http://www.agric.gov .ab.ca/agdex/600/ So you see, there may be a need for insur-616_830-1.html>. ance, especially if you are a These budgets were de- larger commercial beekeeper.signed as aids for evaluating The conventional wisdom isa beekeeping enterprise. The that if anything happens on mysample budget presents a property, my homeowner’s in- surance will cover the liabil-workable combination of in- ity. But that is incorrect. Itputs that will produce a given depends on whether the bee-output. This combination of keeping is a hobby or businessinputs probably doesn’t rep- and on the size of the claim.resent any given beekeeping Moreover, it is an easy argu-operation, and the actual costs ment to make that any rev-of inputs are likely different enue generated is a business,for each operation. While not a hobby....there may be hundreds of The decision is not an easycombinations of variable and ©2003www.clipart.com one. Every beekeeper mustfixed costs, as well as income decide what level of risk he/potentials, each budget gives she is willing to tolerate. Butonly one combination. Different production and every beekeeper should be aware that alongmanagement practices, as well as various mar- with dead hives, varroa mites, poorly layingketing opportunities, can make the beekeeper’s queens, and bad weather, he/she must also endure some exposure to liability. (Scott,actual budget quite different from these budgets. 2002) Beekeeper’s Insurance Beekeepers should check with their insurance companies to discuss their specific needs. Dif- ferent insurance companies have different con- Beekeepers need to consider insurance for cerns about the many aspects of beekeeping li-personal injury, property damage, and circum- ability. Bee and honey associations may be ablestantial liability. In an article in the American Bee to help their members with this type of protec-Journal, the author comments: tion. In the past, the American Beekeepers Fed- Insurance! The very word sends shivers down eration provided a liability insurance program for the reader’s spine. Or if not shivers, at least its members. The Federation’s website states that annoyance at putting out so much money over so many years, and getting so little in return. “Through the Federation’s master policy you can But what does insurance have to do with bee- obtain liability insurance to protect your beekeep- keeping, you ask? Only this—as a seller of ing operation in today’s litigious society” (Ameri- honey, you are liable for injuries sustained can Beekeeping Federation, 1999). Beekeepers by your customers. Moreover, as a keeper should contact their associations to see whether of bees, you incur negligent and non-negli- this type of coverage is available (see Further Re- gent risk from several different directions. sources: Associations). (Scott, 2002) He goes on to suggest these areas of con-cern: Organic Apiculture• Customer injury, such as someone getting sick (or claiming to) from eating honey or Standards other bee products, or someone injured by a Beekeepers wanting to market organic honey piece of glass or other foreign object in the or other organic bee products will need certifica- honey. tion by a USDA-accredited organic certification• Property injury, such as a child playing agency. Please refer to ATTRA’s Organic Farm around the hives, getting stung, and going Certification and the National Organic Program for into anaphylactic shock. general certification information. //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 5
  • 6. The National Organic Standards Board honey bees can live in the U.S., but they can live(NOSB) Apiculture Task Force Report was re- in the Andes of South America. The limiting fac-leased September 15, 2001. The Draft Organic tor to their spread seems to be that they don’tApiculture Standard recommendations, while store as much food as most other honey bees.serving as guidelines, are not regulations (stan- This means they may starve to death in winterdards) until formally implemented by USDA/ when there are no flowers blooming (Anon., c.National Organic Program. The NOSB recom- 2002).mendations are available at the USDA/NOP Texas A&M University has a website that listswebsite, <http://www.ams.usda.gov/nosb/ the Africanized Honey Bee Quarantined Coun-lscommRMR/reports/apiculture.html>. ties in Texas, as well as a USDA map showing The NOSB report recommends that if prod- the locations of Africanized honey bees in theucts from an apiculture operation are to be sold United States. As of July 10, 2002, Texas had 143as organic, the bees and hives have to be man- counties quarantined for Africanized honey bees.aged in compliance with the organic livestock The quarantine allows beekeepers to move beestandards for at least 270 days prior to removal hives within but not out of the zone, in an effortof products from the hive. This includes devel- to prevent the assisted spread of Africanizedoping an organic apiculture plan for your organic honey bees. For additional information oncertification agency and observing all the national Africanized honey bees, visit <http://agnews.organic provisions. For example: tamu.edu/bees/quaran.htm>.• Origin of the livestock—Hives have to be un- Africanized honey bees are impossible to der continuous organic management for no physically distinguish from regular honey bees. less than 270 days prior to removal of honey The bees have to be analyzed in a lab to deter- or other products, or hives need to be pur- mine whether they are Africanized (Anon., c. chased from organic sources. 2002). Behaviorally, Africanized bees are typi-• Supplemental feed—Organic honey and or- cally aggressive when reacting to threats that non- ganic sugar syrup are allowed up to 30 days Africanized bees would ignore. The USDA prior to honey harvest. Beltsville Bee Research Laboratory provides free• Forage area—Hives have to be located at least authoritative identification of Africanized honey 4 miles from any area using prohibited mate- bees, as well as diagnosis of bee diseases and rials listed in the standards or from any con- pests, for Federal and State regulatory agencies taminated sites. and for beekeepers worldwide [See instructions• Living conditions—Hives must be made of on how to ship bees to Beltsville in the Appen- natural materials, such as wood or metal, but dix]. Texas’s Honey Bee Identification Lab at not with treated lumber. Texas A&M University allows Texas residents to• Health care practices—Make sure all thera- have samples of honey bees identified free of peutic products are listed on the National List charge. Texas residents should contact their Ex- of Allowed and Prohibited Substances as tension agent about this service (Anon., c. 2002). NOSB approved, or are approved by your organic certification agency.• Record keeping—Necessary for document- ing movement of hive, health care, and sale of products, as well as for auditing. Africanized Hybrid Bees Since 1990, Africanized honey bees—the so-called “killer bees”—have been a threat to bee-keepers in the United States. These hybridshave invaded Texas, New Mexico, Arizona,Nevada, and California, as well as Puerto Ricoand the Virgin Islands (Information Staff, 2002).It is not known how far north the Africanized ©2003www.clipart.comPAGE 6 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 7. the menthol and that large numbers will initially Honey Bee Pests vacate the hive but eventually return. Purified menthol (from peppermint) and instructions on During the past 15 years, tracheal mites and its use are available from beekeeping supply com-varroa mites have become major bee pests that panies. Spring and fall treatments are recom-seriously threaten the industry in the United mended.States. Mites have killed more than 90% of wild Information on the next technique, using veg-honey bees and 60% of commercial bees in the etable oil and sugar, comes from Dr. Tom WebsterU.S. (Quarles, 1997). A new pest to U.S. bee- at Kentucky State University. He suggests mix-keepers—first identified in Florida in 1998—is the ing equal parts of vegetable oil and sugar into asmall hive beetle (Frazier and Steinhauer, 1999). patty, placing it on a piece of hardware cloth,The following discussion focuses on least-toxic and resting the hardware cloth on the top bars ofmethods of controlling these pests. the hive. The bees will crawl over the patty and eat some of it. In the process they will gather a TRACHEAL MITES small amount of oil on their bodies. The oil will smother the mites. The patty should be replaced Microscopic tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi) lay if it is consumed before the three-week treatmenteggs in the abdominal breathing tubes of the bee, is over. Again, spring and fall treatments areand their larvae feed on the bee after the eggs recommended.hatch. The mites came to the United States from Several researchers haveMexico in 1984 (Higgins, 2002). shown that neem can controlAlternative control methods fo- both tracheal and varroa mites.cus on cultural and chemical ma- The neem can be added to sugarnipulations and on mite-resistant water or applied directly on thebees. bees. Dr. T.P. Liu, a Canadian Dr. Eric Erickson at the Carl researcher, showed that a con-Hayden Bee Research Center in centration of 3 ml of neem ex-Tucson, Arizona, commented in tract per liter of sugar syrup sig-an electronic question-and-an- nificantly decreased numbers ofswer forum concerning tracheal tracheal mites (Quarles, 1997).mites that “Most colonies in the Dr. A. P. Melathopoulos foundUnited States are resistant to tra- that a ten-percent concentrationcheal mites. This is largely due of neem oil placed directly onto the fact that we have never bees killed more than 50% ofhad a highly effective chemical varroa mites (Grossman, 1998).treatment. Hence, susceptible Neem has also been shown tocolonies died and resistant colo- be effective against Americannies survived” (Erickson, 2002a). ©2003www.clipart.com foulbrood (Grossman, 1998). A common treatment for tra- [Nota bene: As of June, 2000,cheal mites entails mixing 50 neem is not registered as agrams of menthol with 50 grams of vegetable honey bee mite control.]shortening and spreading it thinly on cardboard There is some evidence that tracheal mitessheets that are placed on top of the frames for a prefer new combs to older ones. A study con-total of 25 days (Bosisio, 1990). Since menthol ducted in North Dakota in 1994 found that colo-has to vaporize to be effective, it must be used at nies on new combs were three to four times moretemperatures of at least 60°F. Also, an entrance likely to be infested with tracheal mites than colo-reducer should be used and set to the smallest nies on old combs (Erickson et al., 1998).opening, because the fumes are heavier than airand will tend to settle out through the hive en- VARROA MITEStrance (Tabor, 1990). With the smaller entrance,hive ventilation may become a problem during Varroa mites came to the United States in 1986hot days when bees gather at the entrance and and have spread through all 48 contiguous states.vibrate their wings to ventilate the hive. Some The mites live in the hive, attach themselves tobeekeepers report that bees have an aversion to the bees’ abdomens, and suck the bees’ vital flu- //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 7
  • 8. ids. The bees become sick, and the hive slowly only a matter of time before resistance becomesdies (Higgins, 2002). more widespread. It is also important to remem- ber that honey cannot be gathered while Apistan® How to Detect is in use. The NebGuide publication Using the Sugar The May 2000 issue of Bee Tidings, a newslet-Roll Technique to Detect Varroa Mites in Honey Bee ter published by University of Nebraska Exten-Colonies states: sion and the Nebraska Beekeepers Association, Globally, [the varroa mite] is the most impor- discussed the use of Apistan® strips: tant pest of honey bees and it has caused Apistan® strips are a highly effective control extensive losses in feral and managed colo- for susceptible mite populations, but no longer nies. Once introduced, varroa mites have provide adequate control in some beekeep- never been eradicated from any country or ing operations. Beekeepers who choose to region, [and] beekeepers must adopt an inte- use Apistan® should check to determine if grated pest management strategy to protect their colonies will respond to the treatment their colonies. Early detection and assess- prior to spending a lot of time and money on ment of infestation levels are important com- treatment. Dr. Jeff Pettis, a USDA Scientist ponents of a varroa management plan. Since at the Beltsville Bee Laboratory, described a varroa mites feed by piercing the interseg- resistance monitoring procedure in an Ameri- mental membranes on the underside of the can Bee Journal article. To conduct the Pettis bee’s abdomen, they are not easily observed test, prepare a pint wide-mouth jar by insert- on bees until the colonies are severely in- ing a sugar cube and a note card that has jured. Beekeepers need to use a detection been trimmed to fit the jar. Staple a 3/8" by technique to check their colonies for mites. 1" piece of an Apistan® strip to the card near In addition to detecting mites, beekeepers the top of the card. Prepare a two-piece can- need to accurately assess the infection lev- ning lid for the jar by replacing the center els to determine when control measures are portion with screen wire that will allow mites warranted.... to pass but not the bees (8 mesh per cm The five most commonly used detection and works well). Collect 250-300 mite infested assessment methods for varroa are: 1) ether bees in the jar and hold them for 24 hours in roll, 2) alcohol wash, 3) brood examination, a cool and dark place. Invert the jar and 4) sticky boards placed on the bottom board, shake it several times to recover any dead and 5) acaricides with sticky boards. mites on a sheet of paper. After recovering (Macedo, 2001) the mites, place the jars in an oven at low heat (about 140º F.) until the bees are dead. These five methods are discussed in the en- Then, shake the jar again to recover anyclosed section “Varroa Jacobsoni”, from Diagno- mites that were not killed by the Apistan®sis of Honey Bee Diseases (USDA), available at strip. This test will give you a good indica-<http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/bkCD/ tion of how effectively Apistan will perform inBee_Diseases/varroa.html>. your colony. Apistan® strips can be pur- The enclosed NebGuide publication discusses chased in any state and are available fromthe alternative technique of using powdered most bee supply dealers. They have a Sec-sugar to detect varroa mites, also available at tion 3, or general use, label. (University of<http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/INSECTS/ Nebraska Extension/Beekeepers, 2000)g1430.htm>. Another detection method is de- Apicure™ is a registered miticide that con-scribed in the publication Mite excreta: A new di- tains about 65% formic acid, a colorless liquidagnostic tool for detecting Varroa mites! at the with a penetrating odor that is found in ants andUSDA/Carl Hayden Bee Research Center in many plants. Formic acid controls trachealwebsite, <http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/rf/de- mites and is used for the suppression of varroatect/detect.html>. mites. It has been used for years in Canada and Europe. Apicure™ is a slow-release gel that is Chemical Treatment sealed in plastic bags that are sliced open and For years, the only control for varroa mites placed in the hives. It should be removed after(Varroa jacobsoni) has been the miticide fluvalinate 21 days and 28 days before honey flow. It should(Apistan®), a synthetic pyrethroid. However, also be used only when daytime temperaturesbeekeepers in Europe and several U.S. states have are between 45° and 95°F, with the hive entranceseen strains of mites resistant to Apistan®. It is fully open (Apicure, Inc., no date).PAGE 8 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 9. A possible option for varroa control was men- easier it was to detect one of these acids. Of thetioned in the July 2002 American Bee Journal. In essential oils, thymol was easiest to detect, fol-the article “Varroa Control with Fungal Patho- lowed by camphor and menthol.gens May Be an Option Soon,” the authors dis- More research needs to be conducted. In ancuss their research in isolating and screening sev- APIS newsletter, Dr. Tom Sanford stated, “Theeral fungi that were highly pathogenic to varroa take-home message to the would-beat temperatures similar to average hive tempera- experimenter...is that applying oils of essence andtures. They state that they hope to offer bee- related chemicals carries considerable risk andkeepers this option in the near future (Kanga and should be approached with extreme caution”James, 2002). (Sanford, 1997). Several alternative solutions to Varroa con-trol have been studied in Europe. They include Bio-technical Methods of Controllactic acid, oxalic acid, thymol, essential oils, neem One method of varroa control involves chang-oil, and several bio-technical measures. These ing the bottom board of a hive (Sanford, 1998).control measures are discussed in the Swiss Bee Often, mites fall off of bees and land on the bot-Research Center website publication at <http:// tom board. They can then crawl back up into thewww.apis.admin.ch/english/Themes/ hive and reattach themselves to bees. A “stickyVarroa.htm>. However, according to Blane board” that has been sprayed with something oilyWhite, Aviary Inspector in Minnesota, lactic acid (usually PAM™) can be placed over the hive’sand oxalic acid have not been tested in the United bottom board and covered with a screen. WhenStates and are not approved treatments. He also mites fall off the bees, they fall through the screencomments that thymol has had limited testing in and land on the sticky board and are unable tothe United States, and that it does work under get back onto the bees. (The screen prevents beessome conditions. However, there are no ap- from falling onto the sticky board.) A twist onproved thymol treatments in the U.S. at present this method is to create bottom floors made en-(White, no date). tirely of screen. Not only does this aid in varroa Using essential oils to kill both kinds of mites control, it also helps control fungal diseaseshas been researched. One of the problems with (Sanford, 1999). For more information on usingusing essential oils is that many of the com- mesh floors, go to <http://apis.ifas.ufl.edu/pounds are toxic to honey bees as well as mites. apis99/apjun99.htm#4>. Blane White, ApiarySeveral herbal extracts and essential oils have been Inspector in Minnesota, says that screen bottomstested. For the most current information on us- can reduce varroa populations by 15% to 30%,ing essential oils to control varroa mite, visit West and that once the screens are installed, no fur-Virginia University’s web site at <http:// ther labor is needed (White, no date).www.wvu.edu/~agexten/varroa.htm>. Thomas Deeby at the Carl Hayden Bee Re- One study tested thymol-based products in search Center, in an electronic question-and-an-Texas, Virginia, and Minnesota (Sanford, 1997). swer forum, made the following comments aboutThere were good results in Texas and Virginia, smoker fuel to knock varroa mites off of beesbut less mite mortality in Minnesota. One rea- and screened bottom boards to reduce mites inson given for this difference is that higher tem- the hive:peratures in the southern states helped the thy- Products that have been tried range frommol to diffuse into the colony. Another variable menthol, to tobacco, grapefruit and other cit-that may have affected the study was the num- rus leaves, and creosote leaves. High heatber of hive bodies—in Minnesota, three brood itself stuns them. Sticky boards and slotted bottom boards also seem to have some mea-chambers were used, while in Texas only one sure of success....brood chamber was used. The most effectiveblend in the study was thymol and citronella. Natural Products Smoke - Beekeepers rou- In the late 1990s, Swiss researchers tried to tinely use smoke to calm their bees beforedetermine whether organic acids and essential opening the hive. Tobacco smoke increases mite fall and has been used for both detec-oils affect the taste of honey (Bogdanov, 1999). tion and control of varroa. More recently, Dr.They found that formic acid was easiest to de- Frank Eischen, USDA bee research scien-tect, followed by oxalic and lactic acids. Also, tist, demonstrated that creosote bush andthe weaker the natural taste of the honey, the grapefruit leaves produce a smoke that can //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 9
  • 10. knock down 90% of the mites in test cages. Research indicates that smaller starter cells However, excessive exposure to natural prod- help control varroa mite infestations (Senft, 1997). uct smoke can harm bees. Also, mites are Foundation sheets (sheets of wax imprinted with not usually killed by the smoke and may re- base cell sizes) with cells 22% smaller in diam- cover if not removed from the colony by a sticky board or other mite trapping device. eter provided higher winter survival rates for Mites in brood cells are not affected by natu- bees. ral product smoke. While natural product Another cultural control method is to encour- smoke is not an approved treatment for age worker bees to make drone brooder combs. varroa, there is no legislation prohibiting their Varroa mites prefer drone brood to worker brood. use as smoker fuel. With careful attention After the drone pupae have been capped, the to bee safety, the smoke of some natural prod- drone comb is removed from the hive and dis- ucts may be helpful in retarding varroa popu- carded. Blane White, Apiary Inspector in Min- lation growth in colonies. nesota, states that removing two to three combs Anti-varroa bottom boards - A French bee- of drone brood can reduce varroa population by keeper, Jean-Pierre Le Pabic, has devised a about 50%. For more information on this bottom board that may help reduce varroa method, White recommends the website <http:/ injury. He suggests that in a standard bot- tom-board-equipped colony, mites that fall /www.xs4all.nl/~jtemp/dronemethod.html> from bees are able to easily reattach them- (White, No date). selves to another host bee. He designed a bottom board consisting of 12 tubes that run Tolerant Strains of Honey Bees lengthwise with a space between them that Since varroa mites became a major problem, permits mites to fall to the bottom, but through various strains of honey bee have been tested which bees cannot pass. He reports that and crossbred in the hope of finding bees that mite populations remain low in hives fitted are tolerant to mites—whether through selective with this bottom board due to the inability of varroa mites to climb back up to where they breeding for grooming behaviors or for cell-build- can reattach to a new host. Anyone who has ing tendencies. Currently there are at least four worked with sticky boards knows that nu- options for beekeepers to consider. They are the merous mites drop to the sticky traps when- hygienic bees, Russian bees, SMR (Suppressed ever colonies are examined or smoked. This Mite Reproduction) Smart bees, or local varroa- novel approach to varroa control may help tolerant bees. reduce beekeeper’s dependence on chemi- Hygienic bees spend more time cleaning cal treatments. (Deeby, 2002c) themselves and their hives, which promotes some For more information on the Le Pabic anti- resistance to varroa mites. Research has shownvarroa bottom board, see the enclosed article or that hygienic behavior is heritable, and research-visit <http://www.apiservices.com/happy ers Marla Spivak and Martha Gilliam have beenkeeper/index_us.htm>. building up populations of hygienic bees from Dr. Pedro Rodriguez has had success using the ten percent or so that occur naturally. Thesefood-grade mineral oil (FGMO). Test results show are now commercially available. Hygienic beesthat FGMO is highly efficient for control of varroa detect and remove diseased bees quickly, beforeinfections. It is economical, non-contaminating, the pest organisms can move to other bees. Hy-and gentle to the environment. It can be applied gienic bees are also more resistant to Americanevery two weeks or so for the entire year. It is foulbrood, European foulbrood, and chalkbroodused in conjunction with screened bottom boards (Sanford, 1998b). The publication The Hygieneto prevent mites from re-attaching themselves to Queen provides information on some of the traitsbees after falling off. Food-grade mineral oil does that are selected for and also provides the stan-not alter the quality of the honey (Arias Martinez dard quantitative test used. The publication iset al., 2001). While the use the FGMO is still available at <http://www.beekeeping.com/ar-unregulated and in a testing phase, the potential ticles/us/hygiene_queen.htm>.use of FGMO for control of varroa mites deserves Russian bees are a resistant strain of honeyto be considered. Much of the latest information bees being developed and tested by the USDAon the use of FGMO and methods of application Baton Rouge Bee Lab. These bees evolved inis located at the website <http://www. Russia’s Far East, where mites and honey beesbeesource.com/pov/rodriguez/>. have co-existed for decades. Commercial evalu-PAGE 10 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 11. ations of Russian bees have shown good mite Recipe provides information on what to do andresistance and exceptional winter hardiness. In how to do it. This publication is also available attests comparing domestic honey bees with the <http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/publ/Russian bees, the varroa mite reproduction was tolerant2.html>.two to three times lower with the Russian bees(Suszkiw, 2001). Contact Dr. Thomas E. Rinderer SMALL HIVE BEETLESat the USDA Baton Rouge Bee Lab for informa-tion on where to get Russian queen bees (see Fur- In 1998, the small hive beetle, a native of Southther Resources: USDA Research Facilities, for Africa, was found in Florida. As of October 2001,contact information). For additional information the small hive beetle had been found in 24 states,on Russian honey bee research, see the Agricul- most of them east of the Mississippi River. Mi-tural Research article “Russian Honey Bee Earn- gratory beekeepers transport bee colonies froming Its Stripes” at <http://www.ars.usda.gov/ areas known to be infested with the small hiveis/AR/archive/oct01/bee1001.htm>. beetle, and the probability that this pest is more The USDA Baton Rouge Bee Lab found a trait widespread is very real due to the migratory pol-of the honey bee that prevents the varroa mite lination demands within the United States.from reproducing and thereby provides genetic (USDA/BARC, c. 2001)resistance to it. This trait is called “suppression In an on-line question-and-answer sessionof mite reproduction” or SMR (commonly pro- about small hive beetles, Thomas Deeby stated:nounced SMART). The USDA lab has bred a line These are extremely tough beetles and veryof honey bees that carry this trait and have re- difficult to stop or control. They will eitherleased them for commercial sale with several burrow through soft mulch or crawl to a loca-queen bee producers. The SMRD Project at Ba- tion that is easier for them to access. Thereton Rouge is described in the publication Breed- are soil conditioners, soil fungus and insect predators that are being currently tested. Bying Honey Bees that Suppress Mite Reproduction at the time the beetles pupate, the larvae have<http://msa.ars.usda.gov/la/btn/hbb/jwh/ caused much damage in the hive, which willSMRD/SMRD.htm>. In this publication the au- not be cleaned up by the bees, and it justthors state: escalates from there. This is going to be a We now have varroa-resistant stocks of bees very difficult pest to deal with. Pesticides in inbred for the SMR trait, and these colonies the hive, in the soil, corrugated cardboard on greatly limit mite growth. The U.S. queen the bottom board, and other traps seem to rearing industry is geared toward the produc- be the methods of treatment to date. Keep- tion of naturally mated queens, which makes ing strong colonies will help, but not guaran- the production of commercial inbred resis- tee SHB will not pay you a visit. Moving your tant queens very unlikely (unless queens are hives to break the reproductive cycle of the mated in an isolated area such as an island). beetle may work, assuming you have alter- However, queen producers can readily pro- nate locations for your colonies. duce hybrid queens. We found mite growth to be intermediate between resistant bees These are some of the things we know about and susceptible bees when resistant queens SHB. Two weeks after decimating the comb are free-mated with susceptible drones (Fig- in a hive, the mature larvae of the small hive ure 6). Although colonies with hybrid queens (resistant x control) had intermediate popu- lations of mites, they had half the mites found in the susceptible controls. Hence, even hy- brid queens should provide beekeepers a tan- gible level of resistance. (USDA/Honey Bee Breeding, c. 2001) The Carl Hayden Bee Research Center hasdemonstrated that it is relatively easy for bee-keepers to produce varroa-tolerant bees withtheir own locally adapted bees, though it doesrequire an elevated level of hive management. ©2003www.clipart.comThe enclosed publication Producing Varroa-tol-erant Honey Bees from Locally Adapted Stock: A //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 11
  • 12. beetle seek the soil under the hive to con- tinue their life cycle. They seem to prefer sandy soil and burrow in 6–8 inches where Nature of the problem they pupate and later emerge as beetles. The small hive beetle is considered a second- Hard ground only slows the larvae down as ary pest in South Africa, attacking small or they radiate out searching for softer ground. weak hives but rarely affecting strong hives. Strong colonies of honey bees can remove The honey bees in South Africa are primarily some of the larvae in the hive but according Apis mellifera scutelata, an aggressive bee to Garth Cambray, in South Africa, the bees that has excellent housecleaning and defen- do not kill the larva and they drop them up to sive traits. In contrast, the bees kept in North 50 m from the hive, which allows them to America are predominately A. m. ligustica or continue their cycle and pupate in the ground. A. m. carnica and differ in behavior from Afri- The small hive beetle is a tough customer. can bees. The difference between races of Not only is its exoskeleton hard, providing a bees coupled with different climatic and colony solid armor of protection but also it has well- management styles between South Africa and developed wings and can fly at least 5 miles. the United States make it difficult to predict David Westevelt, state inspector in Florida the impact of this new pest on the U. S. bee- reports a beetle infestation in a colony 14 keeping industry. Reports miles from the nearest from states with SHB have apiary and he has found indicated occasional prob- beetles in feral swarms lems with beetles infesting living in trees. Cold and destroying hives in the weather has no ill effect apiary. However, more prob- as Bill Wilson, Agricul- lems have been reported tural Research Service, from damage by SHB to Weslaco Bee Labora- stored honey. tory, Texas, reports that the beetles were found Damage to colonies and in the center of clusters stored honey of honey bees in North ©2003www.clipart.com Small hive beetle larvae af- Carolina where the night fect combs of stored honey temperature was con- and pollen and will also in- sistently below freezing. Dr. Lundie who first fest brood combs. During the feeding action studied the beetle in 1940 found that adult by larvae an associated repellent sticky sub- beetles live up to 6 months. It is known that stance is laid down on the combs and this can the beetle can survive days without food so result in bees abandoning the hive. When the chance of live beetles being transported honeycombs are removed from colonies, bees in colonies or on equipment is very high. then no longer protect the combs allowing lar- There is one insecticide currently registered vae to feed uninhibited. The management for use on soil in an apiary. It is Gardstar® practice of removing honey and then storing it 40% EC, a permethrin. Beekeepers have in warehouses prior to extraction will need to used soil drenches of insecticides they might be changed with the introduction of this beetle. use on ants, such as chemicals approved Additionally, the handling of wax cappings and for fire ants. This is not a legal use. Results honey in areas known to have the small hive are variable and use of permethrin or other beetle will require increased sanitation. Our insecticides may do more harm via acciden- research has shown that reducing relative hu- tal contamination of bee equipment and/or midity below 50% where honey is stored will killing of the bees themselves. inhibit SHB eggs from hatching and thus re- duce or eliminate larval damage in honey. Please contact the USDA scientists working (USDA/BARC, c. 2001) in Beltsville and Weslaco for follow-up infor- mation. (Deeby, 2002a) The USDA/BARC Bee Research Laboratoryprovides the following information concerning the The only known chemical treatment is a prod-small hive beetle on their website <http:// uct called Bayer Bee Strips ™ or CheckMite+™,www.barc.usda.gov/psi/brl/bd-shb.htm>. which contains the organophosphate coumaphos.PAGE 12 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 13. Under the Section 18 authority of the EPA, many close all openings and seal the cracks betweenstates have been granted use of these strips for supers with masking tape. The crystals are placedcontrol of varroa mites and small hive beetles. on a paper positioned on the frame’s top bars.Maryanne Frazier and James Steinhauer in the More crystals should be added every 2 to 3News–Small Hive Beetle Pest Sheet state: weeks. DO NOT use PDB on honeycombs con- The section 18 registration for Bayer Bee taining honey intended for human use (Tew, Strips is for non-food use. There is no allow- 1997). ance for any coumaphos residue in honey or A Swiss study conducted in 1997 showed that wax. All surplus honey supers must be re- Trichogramma wasps could be used to control wax moved before treatment and not be replaced moths. In the study, five hatches of Trichogramma until after the treatment has been removed. eggs were released at 3-week intervals during Coumaphos is in a group of highly toxic ma- the summer and were effective even under heavy terials called organophosphates. The der- wax moth infestation (Trichogramma wasps are mal (absorption through the skin) toxicity of coumaphos to mammals is approximately 20 solely egg parasites, meaning that they are inef- times greater than that of Apistan. It is there- fective on any stage of wax moths except eggs) fore imperative that beekeepers follow all la- (Bollhalder, 1999). bel instructions, including wearing gloves, when using Bayer Bee Strips.... Honey Bee Diseases ...Under the section 18 registration, the sole distributor of Bayer Bee Strips is Mann Lake The two most common bee diseases are Ltd., 501 S First Street, Hackensack, MN American foulbrood (AFB) and European foul- 56452-2001, orders 1-800-233-6663, office brood (EFB). American and European foulbroods 218-675-6688. They will be required to keep kill bees during the pupal stage. The dead pupa records of the number of strips sold in each rots and begins to smell, hence the name of the state. (Frazier and Steinhauer, 2000) disease. Foulbrood is worse in high humidity. In an on-line forum, Thomas Deeby stated: WAX MOTHS Terramycin® (oxytetracycline HCL) is the only drug approved for use as a preventive Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella) are a treatment against American foulbrood. Thiscommon pest of honey bees and usually occur antibiotic does not kill Bacillus...spores, buton stored honey comb. One simple and effective prevents or delays their growth when presentway to rid a comb of all stages of wax moths is to in low concentrations in the food fed by work-freeze it. Freezing the comb at 20°F for a mini- ers to susceptible larvae. While this treat-mum of 4.5 hours or 5°F for 2 hours is recom- ment allows individual larvae to survive, itmended. After freezing, the comb needs to be does absolutely nothing about the virulentstored where no adult wax worm moths can get spores in the contaminated equipment. Thusto it, but the beekeeper will still need to check the disease usually reappears once drugthe comb at least monthly for any signs of re- feeding stops. There has been recent evi-infestation (Tew, 1997). dence in this country for bacterial resistance Heat can also kill all stages of wax moths. to Terramycin. One of the suspected causes for this development is the sharp increase inThe combs need to be heated to 115°F for 80 min- use by beekeepers of the medicated veg-utes or 120°F for 40 minutes, but never hotter etable oil extender patty. Bees do not al-than 120°F. Make sure all combs reach the re- ways consume the patties rapidly which leadsquired temperature before starting to time them. to a situation in which antibiotic lingers in theAdequate air circulation is important to evenly hive for weeks or even months. Resistanceheat the combs. Remember that combs are soft- was not a problem in this country prior to theened by high temperatures and may sag and be- widespread use of extender patties in thecome distorted. Heat treat only combs with no 1990s. For these reasons it is recommendedhoney in them (Tew, 1997). that beekeepers remove all uneaten portions A chemical method for control of wax moths of medicated extender patties after pattiesis paradichlorobenzene (PDB or mothballs). The have been in the hive for one month.treatment procedure is to place 6 tablespoons or There are alternative treatments to AFB with-3 ounces of PDG crystals on stacks of 5 supers. out using TM [Terramycin ®]. Queens areThe stack should be as air tight as possible, so being bred that create more resistan[ce] to //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 13
  • 14. brood diseases in the introduced hives. neath.” An addition warning is also included: Check the Journals for these Hygienic “IMPORTANT SAFETY TIP: DO NOT ADD LYE Queens. Lincomycin Hydrochloride is a pos- TO HOT WATER!” (Sollenberger, 2002). sible alternative antibiotic to TM, but is still Educational and Training awaiting FDA approval. Essential oils like rosemary and tea tree oils have been tried Opportunities with some limited success. Sulfa and Ethyl- ene Oxide Gas (ETO) have been used suc- cessfully in the past, although I am not sure if you can find them or in which states they Educational and training opportunities are are allowed. Keeping your equipment clean, available from some state universities. Some of sanitizing your extracting equipment looking these universities sponsor beekeeping workshops for scale and destroying those frames, not or specialized training for both beginning and mas- allowing bees to rob a dead colony and not ter beekeepers. Check with your local Extension feeding honey to colonies other than those office or your state Apiarist. producing it are some of the ways you can Pennsylvania State University’s Department prevent the spread of AFB to your other colo- of Distance Education offers a correspondence nies. Please contact our Beltsville Bee Lab for follow-up information. (Deeby, 2002b) course entitled “AG 5126—Introductory Beekeep- ing.” It provides basic information needed to In most states, if a colony is stricken with AFB manage a small number of honey bee colonies.or EFB, it must be killed and burned. This is It has 10 lessons, with no examination, and costsdone to prevent further infections in nearby colo- $74.00, including materials and tuition. For in-nies. In an on-line forum, Dr. Eric H. Erickson, formation and registration procedures, contact:commenting on whether soaking frames andboxes infected with AFB with a bleach solution The Pennsylvania State Universitywould sterilize them, stated: Department of Distance Education Unfortunately, bleach will not kill Independent Learning Center the spores of afb. They have 207 Mitchell Building outer ‘shells’ that are impervious University Park, PA 16802 to almost all chemicals unless (800) 252–3592 they are applied using heat and pressure. You should consider The American Society of Bee- rendering the wax and selling it, keepers provides free on-line and burning the equipment. Al- classes including Beginning Bee- ternatively, you could reinstall keeping 101, Intermediate Bee- bees in the equipment and treat keeping 201, and Advanced Bee- with antibiotics if your state regu- keeping 301. Each class has les- lations allow this procedure. sons in different aspects of bee- (Erickson, 2002b) keeping. The classes are all free, ©2003www.clipart.com According to an article in the but anyone interested in gettingAmerican Bee Journal, cleaning bee a certificate of achievement willboxes and frames in boiling lye wa- need to pay $25.00 to take a test.ter is an effective method of removing the wax For additional information on any of these classes,and propolis, as well as stripping the old paint. visit <http://www.gobeekeeping.com/>.The article states that boiling lye water “remains Three specialized beekeeping short coursesan inexpensive treatment for destroying Ameri- devoted to stock improvement are offered everycan Foulbrood spores by subjecting them to the summer at The Ohio State Universityscarification necessary to breakdown the spore’s Rothenbuhler Honey Bee Laboratory, in Colum-seed coat as the heat of 212°F alone is inadequate bus, Ohio. The classes are the Art of Queen Rear-to do this.” The article calls this a dangerous ing, Instrumental Insemination & Breeding, andenterprise that requires safety equipment because Advanced Insemination Instruction. These“lye is a caustic chemical, which will eat through courses are designed to advance the beekeepingclothing, chemically burning the skin under- industry as well as provide training for researchPAGE 14 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 15. personnel. For additional information about these rent with all the new research and products avail-annual classes, contact: able to assist beekeepers (see Further Resources: Susan W. Cobey Periodicals). Rothenbuhler Honey Bee Lab 1735 Neil Avenue References Columbus, OH 43210 (614) 292–7928, Fax: (614) 292–5237 American Beekeeping Federation. 1999. Mem- Email: Cobey.1@osu.edu bership benefits. 2 p. <http:// http://www174.pair.com/birdland/ www.abfnet.org/Membership/ Breeding/classmain.html benefits.html>. American Society of Beekeepers. No date–a. Summary Bee law and what you should know. Intermediate Beekeeping 201—Lesson Fortunately, bee diseases are not as wide- Five. 6 p. <http://spread as the tracheal and varroa mites are, but www.gobeekeeping.com/>.beekeepers should be aware of the symptoms of American Society of Beekeepers. No date–b.the various diseases and pests and be prepared Final thoughts. Beginning Beekeepingto act accordingly. The pests and diseases men- 101—Lesson Ten. 2 p. <http://tioned above, and other diseases such as nosema, www.gobeekeeping.com/>.chalkbrood, and stonebrood, are covered in mostgood bee books (see Further Resources: Books). American Society of Beekeepers. No Date–c.Beekeepers need to remember that the USDA Getting started. Beginning BeekeepingBeltsville Bee Research Laboratory provides free 101—Lesson Two. 3p. <http://authoritative diagnosis of bee diseases and pests, www.gobeekeeping.com/>.as well as identification of Africanized honey bees Anon., c.2002. Downloaded August 2002.[See instructions on how to ship bees to Beltsville Frequently asked questions. AgNews.in the Appendix]. Texas A&M University. 8 p. <http:// Anyone interested in keeping bees for polli- agnews.tamu.edu/bees/FAQ.htm>.nating plants or for producing additional incomefrom bee products should first investigate all Apicure, Inc. No date. Formic Acid Gel label.available sources of information. County Coop- Midnight Bee Keepers Home. 3 p.erative Extension offices are a good source of in- <http://www.mainebee.com/tips/formation on beekeeping, as are entomologists formicacid.php>.and apiculturists at your local land-grant univer- Arias Martinex, Agustin et al. 2001. Use ofsity. State apicultural inspectors, usually with food grade mineral oil and integratedthe Department of Agriculture, are another good beekeeping practices in the control ofsource of information. These sources should be varroa infections in Apis mellifera colo-able to provide contact information to local bee- nies. Beesource.com. 14 p. <http://keepers. www.beesource.com/pov/ Hobbyists are often very willing rodriguez/fgmo2001report.to discuss their management tech- htm>.niques, problems, and solutions. Bogdanov, Stefan et al. 1999. Influ-These contacts will indicate success- ence of organic acids andful techniques that have been used in components of essential oils ona specific climatic or geographic area. honey taste. American Bee It would also be a good idea to Journal. January. p. 61–63.visit several different websites andstudy the on-line publications (see Bollhalder, Franz. 1999.Further Resources: Websites) on be- Trichogramma for wax mothginning beekeeping to learn about bee control. American Bee Journal.morphology, strains, pests, and bee- September. p. 711–712.keeping equipment. Periodicals are ©2003www.clipart.coman excellent method for keeping cur- //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 15
  • 16. Bosisio, Matt. 1990. Faster-acting menthol for Erickson, Eric H. 2002b. Expert Forum on bees. Agricultural Research. January. p. Honey Bee reply on AFB. Carl Hayden 22. Bee Research Center website. July 6. 1 p. <http://gears.tucson.ars.ag. gov/Burgett, Michael. 1999. 1999 Pacific Northwest expertforum/index.html>. honey bee pollination survey. Oregon State University Bee Lab. 6p. <http:// Erickson, Eric, Anita Atmowidjojo, Alan King, members.aol.com/beetools/99polin.htm>. and Joanne King. 1998. Effect of “new” vs. “old” wax brood combs on honey beeCollison, Clarence H. 1996. Getting started in tracheal mite populations in North Da- beekeeping. Mississippi State University, kota. American Bee Journal. September. Beekeeping Tips. 2 p. <http://www. p. 672–673. msstate.edu/Entomology/Beekeeping/ Beekeeping001.html>. ERS/NASS. No date. A look at the U.S. beekeeping industry. Economic ResearchDeeby, Thomas. 2002a. Expert Forum on Service/National Agricultural Statistics Honey Bee reply on small hive beetle. Service. 6 p. <http://gears.tucson. Carl Hayden Bee Research Center website. ars.ag.gov/dept/abf.html>. March 8. 1 p. <http://gears.tucson. ars.ag.gov/expertforum/index.html>. Frazier, Maryann, and James Steinhauer. 1999. News–Small hive beetle pest sheet. Mid–Deeby, Thomas. 2002b. Expert Forum on Atlantic Apiculture Research and Exten- Honey Bee reply on American foulbrood. sion Consortium. 5 p. <http:// Carl Hayden Bee Research Center website. maarec.cas.psu.edu/ February 12. 1 p. <http://gears.tucson. BeetlePestSheet.html>. ars.ag.gov/expertforum/index.html>. Frazier, Maryann, George Greaser, TimothyDeeby, Thomas. 2002c. Expert Forum on Kelsey, and Jayson Harper. 1998. Bee- Honey Bee reply on smoker fuel for keeping. Agricultural Alternatives, Penn varroa. Carl Hayden Bee Research Center State Cooperative Extension. 6 p. <http:/ website. February 9. 1 p. <http://gears. /agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/other/bees/ tucson.ars.ag.gov/expertforum/ bees.pdf>. index.html>. Frazier, Maryanne, and James Steinhauer. 2000.Deeby, Thomas. 2002d. Expert Forum on News – Small Hive Beetle Pest sheet. Honey Bee reply on amount of surplus Mid–Atlantic Apiculture Research and pollen from colony in 1 season. Carl Extension Consortium. February. <http:/ Hayden Bee Research Center website. /maarec.cas.psu.edu/BeetlePestSheet. January 3. 1 p. <http://gears.tucson. html>. ars.ag.gov/expertforum/index.html>. Grossman, Joel. 1998. Neem for honeybeeDey, Dennis, revised by Lori-Jo Graham. 2001. pests. The IPM Practitioner. September. Commercial honey industry. Alberta p. 10–11. Agriculture, Food, and Rural Develop- ment Ministry. 23 p. <http:// Higgins, Adrian. 2002. Honeybees in a mite www.agric.gov.ab.ca/agdex/600/ more than trouble—Parasites, an exodus 616_830-1.html>. of apiarists and budget cuts imperil vital insect. Washington Post. May 14. p. A1.Erickson, Eric H. 2002a. Expert Forum on Honey Bee reply on tracheal mites. Carl Information Staff. 2002. Locations of Hayden Bee Research Center website. Africanized honey bees in U.S. USDA/ July 9. 1 p. <http://gears.tucson.ars. Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, ag.gov/expertforum/index.html>. Maryland. February. 2 p. <http:// agnews.tamu.edu/bees/quaran.htm>.PAGE 16 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 17. Kanga, Lambert H. B., and Rosalind R. James. Tidings. May. p. 1–2. <http:// 2002. Varroa control with fungal patho- entomology.unl.edu/beekpg/tidings/ gens may be an option soon. American btid2000/btdmay00.htm>. Bee Journal. July. p. 519. USDA/AMS. 2002. Honey market for theMacedo, Paula A., and Marion D. Ellis. 2001. month of June 2002. National Honey Using the sugar roll technique to detect Report. July 10. 8 p. varroa mites in honey bee colonies. USDA/BARC Bee Research Laboratory. c.2001. NebGuide. University of Nebraska– Downloaded July 2002. The small hive Lincoln. G01-1430-A. June. 4 p. <http:// beetle. 1 p. <http:// www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/INSECTS/ www.barc.usda.gov/psi/brl/bd- g1430.htm>. shb.htm>.Quarles, Bill. 1997. Neem controls bee mites. USDA/BARC Bee Research Laboratory. No Common Sense Pest Control. Winter. p. 4. date. How to submit samples for diagno- sis. 1 p. <http://www.barc.usda.gov/Sanford, M. T. 1998. The “sticky board”: A psi/brl/directs.htm>. new apicultural tool. APIS. May. p. 3. USDA/Honey Bee Breeding. c.2001. Down-Sanford, M. T. 1998b. The case for hygienic loaded August 2002. Breeding honey bees bees: A little-used technology. APIS. that suppress mite reproduction. Honey September. p. 1–2. Bee Breeding, Genetics & PhysiologySanford, M. T. 1999. More on open mesh Laboratory SMRD Project. 7 p. <http:// floors for varroa control. APIS. August. msa.ars.usda.gov/la/btn/hbb/jwh/ p. 1–3. SMRD/SMRD.htm>.Sanford, Malcolm T. 1997. More on oils of Wenning, Carl J. 1999. What price honey? essence in mite control. APIS. November. American Bee Journal. August. p. 597– p. 4. 601.Scott, Howard. 2002. Do you need beekeeper’s White, Blane. No date. Varroa mite detection. insurance. American Bee Journal. July. p. Minnesota Department of Agriculture. 2 484–485. p. <http://www.mda.state.mn.us/ams/Senft, Dennis. 1997. Helping honey bees fight apiary/varroa.htm>. mites. Agricultural Research. May. p. 22.Sollenberger, T’Lee. 2002. Bathing, buying, Enclosures building—Ingredients for better beeware. Erickson, E. H., L. H. Hines, and A. H. American Bee Journal. August. p. 581– Atmowidjojjo. c.2000. Downloaded July 584. 2002. Producing varroa-tolerant honeySuszkiw, Jan. 2001. Mite-resistant Russian bees from locally adapted stock: A recipe. bees also have winter hardiness. ATS Carl Hayden Bee Research Center. News & Information. June 15. 2 p. <http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/publ/ <http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2001/ tolerant2.html>. 010615.htm>. Frazier, Maryann, George Greaser, TimothyTabor, J. 1990. Combating tracheal mites. Kelsey, and Jayson Harper. 1998. Bee- Maine Organic Farmer and Gardener. keeping. Agricultural Alternatives, Penn July–August. p. 22. State Cooperative Extension. 6 p. <http:/Tew, James E. 1997. Wax moth control in bee /agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/other/bees/ hives. Ohio State University Horticulture bees.pdf>. and Crop Science. HYG-2165-97. 3 p. Le Pablic, Jean-Pierre. 2002. Happykeeper. <http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/ Anti-Varroa bottom board. Virtual Bee- 2165.html>. keeping Gallery. 5 p. <http://University of Nebraska Extension/Beekeepers. www.apiservices.com/happykeeper/ 2000. Varroa control options for 2000. Bee index_us.htm>. //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 17
  • 18. Macedo, Paula A., and Marion D. Ellis. 2001. Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Using the sugar roll technique to detect Consortium (MAAREC) varroa mites in honey bee colonies. http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/index.html NebGuide. University of Nebraska– A regional effort to address the pest management Lincoln. G01-1430-A. June. 4 p. <http:// crisis facing the beekeeping industry in the Mid- www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/INSECTS/ Atlantic Region. On-line newsletter and many g1430.htm>. excellent publications on all aspects of beekeep- ing, including pests and diseases.Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Exten- sion Consortium. No date. Summary of The Bee Works management practices around the calen- http://www.beeworks.com/index.htm dar. 2 p. <http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/ Canadian website with a good information bkCD/management/summary_mangt. center on various aspects of beekeeping. html>. George Imirie Certified Master BeekeeperUSDA. No date. Varroa Jacobsoni. Diagnosis http://www.beekeeper.org/george_imirie/ of Honey Bee Diseases. <http:// index.html maarec.cas.psu.edu/bkCD/ On-line monthly “pink pages” on many aspects Bee_Diseases/varroa.html>. of beekeeping. The Pollinator Home Page Further Resources http://www.pollinator.com/index.htm List of beekeepers who provide pollination service, and good information on pollination. Websites World’s Beekeeping DirectoryBeeCulture Magazine http://www.beehoo.com/http://bee.airoot.com/beeculture/index.htm Worldwide listings of sources of information, On-line listing of Who’s Who in the Beeyard for training, and many other items of interest to each state. On-line publication Insect Pollina- beekeepers. tion of Cultivated Crop Plants. On-line monthly column Beekeeping in the Digital Age Top Bar Hive Beekeeping describing how communications in the digital http://www.gsu.edu/~biojdsx/main.htm age affect production and dissemination of Website devoted exclusively to collecting and beekeeping information, by Dr. Malcolm T. distributing information about beekeeping with Sanford, Former Extension Beekeeping Specialist top-bar hives. at the University of Florida. Weekly updated Pennsylvania State University Catch the Buzz with the very latest information http://agalternatives.aers.psu.edu/other/ from the world of beekeeping. Also provides bees/bees.pdf many excellent links to other sources of informa- Publication Beekeeping and sample bee budget. tion, as well as some articles from BeeCulture Texas A&M University Magazine. http://agnews.tamu.edu/bees/quaran.htmThe American Society of Beekeepers Map of areas of known African honeybee quar-http://www.gobeekeeping.com/ antine. Three free on-line beekeeping classes, a listing of Food and Agriculture Organization of the National and regional bee organizations, a United Nations Rome monthly newsletter, and additional beekeeping http://www.fao.org/docrep/w0076e/ information. w0076e00.htmBeekeeping: The Beekeeper’s Home Pages On-line publication Value-Added Products fromhttp://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ Beekeeping. beekeeping/ Beekeeping website links with hundreds of other beekeeping resources. It also has an extensive listing of companies that sell bee equipment.PAGE 18 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 19. University of California Small Farm Center of Africanized honeybees. They also have Experthttp://www.sfc.ucdavis.edu/pubs/SFNews/ Forum on Honey Bees, a state-of-the-art, user- archive/94032.htm friendly, Internet question-and-answer informa- On-line publication Starting a Small Beekeeping tion resource available at no cost. Anyone can Operation. use this service to ask any and all questions about bees and get answers directly from theUniversity of Nebraska—Lincoln experts at the Carl Hayden Bee Research Center.http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/insects/ g1104.htm Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics, and Physiology On-line publication Getting Started in Beekeep- Research ing. 1157 Ben Hur Road Baton Rouge, LA 70820–5502University of Tennessee—Knoxville (225) 767–9280, Fax: (225) 766–9212http://web.utk.edu/~extepp/redbook/ http://msa.ars.usda.gov/la/btn/hbb/ bee2000.pdf Research on breeding honeybees that tolerate On-line publication Apiculture harsh climate, disease, insects, and other haz-University of Missouri—Columbia ards.http://muextension.missouri.edu/xplor/ Bee Biology and Systematic Laboratory agguides/pests/g07600.htm Utah State University On-line publication Beekeeping Tips for Begin- 5310 Old Main Hill ners. Logan, UT 84322–5310University of Georgia (435) 797–2524, Fax: (435) 797–0461http://www.ces.uga.edu/pubcd/b1045-w.html http://www.loganbeelab.usu.edu/ On-line publication Honey Bees and Beekeeping. Research involves alternatives to honey bees asEducational Concerns for Hunger Organization pollinators, and wild bees. (ECHO) USDA/ARS Beneficial Insects Research Unithttp://www.echonet.org/tropicalag/ 2413 E. Highway 83 technotes/BeehiveD.pdf Weslaco, TX 78596 On-line Tech Note Beehive Designs for the (956) 969–4852 Tropics. http://weslaco.ars.usda.gov Studies mites that infest breathing tubes (tra- USDA Research Facilities chea) of honeybees. Designs mite control measures and tracks spread of mites. Five USDA laboratories are studying breed-ing, behavior, and benefits of wild and domesti-cated bees. Check these sites regularly to moni- Computer Softwaretor current research into controlling many of the Carl Hayden Bee Research Centerhoneybee’s parasites and diseases. http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/soft/bke/ index.htmlUSDA/BARC Bee Research Laboratory The new release: BK-Economics 1.34 is availableBuilding 476, BARC-EAST for Windows and Macintosh. BK-Economics isBeltsville, MD 20705 a software package that was developed by a team(301) 504–8205, Fax: (301) 504–8736 of scientists at the Carl Hayden Bee Researchhttp://www.barc.usda.gov/psi/brl/brl- Center in Tucson, Arizona, to assist commercialpage.html beekeepers in streamlining their business Studies bee diseases, pests, and nutritional practices. This software allows beekeepers to needs. Provides bee diagnostic services. simulate years of business, taking into account factors like equipment purchases, labor force,Carl Hayden Bee Research Center transportation, marketing strategies, loans,2000 E. Allen Road honey flow, and other hive products. ThisTucson, AZ 85719 software, when used in combination with the(520) 670–6380, Fax: (520) 670–6493 marketing strategy information in the publica-http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov/ tion, can help beekeepers formulate a successful Research explores pollination, mites, and control business plan. //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 19
  • 20. This software is downloadable on-line in “net Members include commercial beekeepers, re- installer” versions. If downloading BK-Econom- searchers, and hobbyists. Encourages develop- ics off the web is not a viable option, you may ment of better bees through better queens. Seeks choose to receive a copy by mail. This software is to maintain uniform trade practices and prin- a product of USDA research and is offered AT ciples in production/sale of packaged bees and NO COST to anyone. Address and phone queens. Annual meeting. numbers for Carl Hayden Bee Research Center Apiary Inspectors of America are listed above in the USDA Research Facili- Blane White ties. (651) 296–0591 http://www.mda.state.mn.us/ams/apiary/ Periodicals aiahome.htmAmerican Bee Journal Members include state/provincial apiarists,Dadant & Sons, Inc. inspectors, researchers, and individuals. Active51 South Second Street in research meetings and publishes a newsletter.Hamilton, IL 62341 Has an on-line directory of all state and provin-(217) 847–3324, Fax: (217) 847–3660 cial apiarists.http://www.dadant.com/journal/index.html National Honey Board Monthly magazine for hobbyists and profes- 390 Lashley Street sional beekeepers. Subscription: $20.95 per Longmont, CO 80501–6045 year. (303) 776–2337, Fax: (303) 776–1177Bee Culture http://www.nhb.orgA. I. Root Company The National Honey Board administers anSubscription Dept., Dept. W industry-funded national research, promotion,623 W. Liberty Street and consumer information program to increaseMedina, OH 44256 honey consumption in the United States and(800) 289–7668, ext. 3255 abroad. Excellent website with many marketinghttp://bee.airoot.com/beeculture/ ideas and suggestions. Monthly apiculture magazine. Subscription: American Honey Producers Association $21.50 per year. 536 Ashmont RoadThe Speedy Bee Madison, SD 57042P.O. Box 1317 (605) 485–2221Jesup, GA 31545–1317 http://www.americanhoneyproducers.org(912) 427–4018, Fax: (912) 427–8447 Membership is mostly for commercial honey Monthly newspaper for the beekeeping and producers, but membership ranges in scale from honey industry. Subscription: $17.25 per year. 1 to 40,000 hives owned. They hold an annual convention and publish a quarterly newsletter.National Honey Market News They have a varying dues structure according toUSDA/AMS/Fruit and Vegetable Division size of honey operation.21 N. First Avenue, Suite 224Yakima, WA 98902–2663 Eastern Apicultural Society of North America, Inc.(800) 487–8796 John Tullochhttp://www.ams.usda.gov/search/index.htm EAS Treasurer Search for “National Honey Report” for the P.O. Box 473 latest reports. Catalogs monthly honey prices Odessa, DE 19730 for the country. Subscription: $36 for 12 issues. (302) 378–1917 http://www.easternapiculture.org Associations The largest non-commercial beekeeping organi-American Beekeepers Federation zation in the U.S. Has an annual conferenceP.O. Box 1038 every summer with lectures, workshops, vendorJesup, GA 31598–1038 displays, and short courses for beginning and(912) 427–8447 advanced beekeepers in one of its 26 memberhttp://www.abfnet.org states or provinces in the eastern U.S. andPAGE 20 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE
  • 21. Canada. EAS also publishes a quarterly news- through an on-line used-book search site, such letter, The EAS Journal. as <http://www.bookfinder.com/>. Books The ABC and XYZ of Bee Culture. 1990. By Roger Morse. 516 p. $32.00.Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization(ECHO) on-line Book Store: The Beekeepers Handbook. 1998. By Diana Sammataro, Alphonse Avitabile, and Roger Beekeeping: A Practical Guide. 1993. By Morse. 224 p. $24.95. Richard E. Bonney. 192 p. $18.95. Beekeeping for Dummies. 2002. By Howard Keeping Bees. 1986. By John Vivan. 238 p. Blackiston and Kim Flottum. 336 p. $19.99. $10.95. Beeswax: Production, Harvesting, Process- Golden Insect. 1989. By Stephen Adjare. ing, and Products. 1982. By William L. 103 p. $14.50. Coggeshall and Roger A. Morse. 192 p. Out of Print. Hive Management: A Seasonal Guide for Beekeepers. 1990. By Richard Bonney. 145 The Hive and the Honey Bee. 1992. Joe M. p. $14.95. Graham, editor. 1324 p. $36.00. Order from: Honey Bee Pests, Predators and Diseases. Educational Concerns for Hunger Organiza- 1997. Roger Morse and Kim Flottum (edi- tion (ECHO) tors). 575 p. $40.00. 17391 Durrance Road How to Keep Bees and Sell Honey. 1993. North Fort Myers, FL 33917 By Walter T. Kelley. 144 p. $9.00. (239) 543–3246, Fax: (239) 543–5317 http://echonet.org/shopsite_sc/store/ The New Complete Guide to Beekeeping. html/foodprocessing.html 1994. By Roger A Morse. 207 p. $17.00. The New Starting Right with Bees. 1990.Volunteers in Technical Assistance (VITA) publica- By Kim Flottum and Diana Sammataro. 136tions (see their complete catalog at http:// p. $7.99.www.vita.org/publications/pubcat.htm). Rearing Queen Honey Bees. 1997. By Roger A Beekeeping Guide. 1989. By Harlan A. Morse. 128 p. $14.95. Attfield. VITA Technical Bulletin #9. 45 p. $7.25. By Lance Gegner Centrifugal Honey Extractor. No date. VITA NCAT Agriculture Specialist Technical Bulletin. VIT009-1. 9 p. $5.25. Edited by Paul Williams Order from: Formatted by Gail Hardy PACT Publications 1200 18th Street, NW April 2003 Washington, DC 20036 (202) 466–5666, Fax: (202) 466–5669 Email: pubs@vita.org IP229/24 http://www.pactpublications.com The electronic version of Beekeeping/ApicultureOther Books: is located at: HTMLThe following books are available from book- http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/beekeeping.htmlstores and on-line booksellers. If a book is listedas out-of-print, you may be able to obtain it PDFthrough Interlibrary Loan; check with your local http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/librarian. You may also be able to buy a copy beekeeping.pdf //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE PAGE 21
  • 22. Appendix Beltsville Free Bee Diagnostic Services The USDA/BARC Bee Research Laboratory staff at Beltsville, Maryland provides free authorita- tive identification of Africanized honey bees and diagnosis of bee diseases and pests for Federal and State regulatory agencies and for beekeepers worldwide. HOW TO SUBMIT SAMPLES FOR DIAGNOSIS Samples of Adult Honey Bees Send at least 100 bees. If possible, select bees that are dying or have died recently. Decayed bees are not satisfactory for examination. Bees should be placed in 70% ethyl or methyl alcohol as soon as possible after collection and carefully packed in leak-proof containers. Alternatively, bees can be placed in a paper bag or loosely wrapped in a paper towel, newspaper, etc. and sent in a mailing tube or heavy cardboard box. AVOID using plastic bags, aluminum foil, waxed paper, tin, glass, etc. because they promote decomposition. Samples of Brood The sample of comb should be at least 2 X 2 inches and contain as much of the dead or discolored brood as possible. NO HONEY SHOULD BE PRESENT IN THE SAMPLE. The comb can be in a paper bag or loosely wrapped in a paper towel, newspaper, etc. and sent in a heavy cardboard box. AVOID wrappings such as plastic, aluminum foil, waxed paper, tin, glass, etc. because they promote decomposition. If a comb cannot be sent, the probe used to examine a diseased larva in the cell may contain enough material for tests. The probe can be wrapped in paper and sent to the laboratory in an envelope. How to Address Samples Send all samples to: Bee Disease Diagnosis Bee Research Laboratory Bldg. 476, BARC-East Beltsville, MD 20705 (301) 504-8173 Include a short description of the problem along with your name and address. There is no charge for this service. Email: KnoxD@ba.ars.usda.gov Please Note: All incoming mail is now being opened by a private contractor and examined before being forwarded to the BRL. Also, there is a possibility that some of this mail will be irradiated. Therefore, time-sensitive samples or samples requiring culturing (AFB Resis- tance Test) should be sent by UPS or FedX. Source: USDA/BARC Bee Research Laboratory, No date.PAGE 22 //BEEKEEPING/APICULTURE