Aquaponics - Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
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  • If we are going to continue to consume fish in our diets, we must be vigilant of transgenic fishes being released in the wild. Some biochemists, researchers, and health care professionals have huge public health concerns about these GM (Genetically Modified) fishes. Until more research is done on the safety of this product, we might need to turn our attention to Aquaponic fish production. Please go sign up for my free quarterly newsletter for more details about transgenic fish production at www.themedicineinyourkitchen.com

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  • 1. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture A Publication of ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service • 1-800-346-9140 • www.attra.ncat.orgBy Steve Diver Aquaponics is a bio-integrated system that links recirculating aquaculture with hydroponicNCAT Agriculture vegetable, flower, and/or herb production. Recent advances by researchers and growers alikeSpecialist have turned aquaponics into a working model of sustainable food production. This publicationPublished 2006 provides an introduction to aquaponics with brief profiles of working units around the country.Updated by An extensive list of resources points the reader to print and Web-based educational materials forLee Rinehart, NCAT further technical assistance.Agriculture Specialist© 2010 NCAT IntroductionContents A quaponics, also known as the integra-Introduction ..................... 1 tion of hydroponics with aquaculture,Aquaponics: is gaining increased attention as aKey Elements and bio-integrated food production system.Considerations ............... 2Aquaponic Systems ...... 3 Aquaponics serves as a model of sustain-Organic able food production by fol low ingAquaculture .................. 11 certain principles:Evaluatingan Aquaponic • The waste products of one biologicalEnterprise ........................ 12 system serve as nutrients for a second Aquaponic vegetable bed in Australia. Photo by Joel Malcolm, Backyard Aquaponics.References ...................... 13 biological system. www.backyardaquaponics.comResources ....................... 13 • The integration of fish and plantsAppendix I: results in a polyculture that increases into the fish tanks. The nitrifying bacteriaBibliography diversity and yields multiple products.on Aquaponics ............. 20 living in the gravel and in association withAppendix II: • Water is re-used through biological the plant roots play a critical role in nutrientDissertations ................. 25 filtration and recirculation. cycling; without these microorganisms the whole system would stop functioning. • Local food production provides access to healthy foods and enhances Greenhouse growers and farmers are taking the local economy. note of aquaponics for several reasons: In aquaponics, nutrient-rich effluent from • Hydroponic growers view fish- fish tanks is used to fertigate hydroponic manured irrigation water as a source production beds. Th is is good for the fish of organic fertilizer that enables because plant roots and rhizobacteria remove plants to grow well. nutrients from the water. These nutrientsATTRA—National Sustainable • Fish farmers view hydroponics asAgriculture Information Service – generated from fish manure, algae, and(www.attra.ncat.org) is managed decomposing fish feed – are contaminants a biofi ltration method to facilitateby the National Center for Appro-priate Technology (NCAT) and is that would otherwise build up to toxic levels intensive recirculating aquaculture.funded under a grant from the • Greenhouse growers view aquapon-United States Department of in the fish tanks, but instead serve as liquidAgriculture’s Rural Business- fertilizer to hydroponically grown plants. ics as a way to introduce organicCooperative Service. Visit theNCAT website (www.ncat.org/ In turn, the hydroponic beds function as a hydroponic produce into the market-sarc_current.php) for biofilter – stripping off ammonia, nitrates, place, since the only fertility input ismore information onour sustainable agri- nitrites, and phosphorus – so the freshly fish feed and all of the nutrients passculture projects. cleansed water can then be recirculated back through a biological process.
  • 2. • Food-producing greenhouses – yield- all of the nutrients supplied to the crop are ing two products from one produc- dissolved in water. Liquid hydroponic sys- tion unit – are naturally appealing for tems employ the nutrient film technique niche marketing and green labeling. (NFT), f loating rafts, and noncirculat- • Aquaponics can enable the produc- ing water culture. Aggregate hydroponic tion of fresh vegetables and fish pro- systems employ inert, organic, and mixed tein in arid regions and on water- media contained in bag, trough, trench, limited farms, since it is a water pipe, or bench setups. Aggregate media used re-use system. in these systems include perlite, vermiculite, gravel, sand, expanded clay, peat, and saw-Related ATTRA • Aquaponics is a working model of dust. Normally, hydroponic plants are ferti-Publications sustainable food production wherein gated (soluble fertilizers injected into irriga-Aquaculture Enterprises: plant and animal agriculture are tion water) on a periodical cycle to maintainConsiderations and integrated and recycling of nutrients moist roots and provide a constant supplyStrategies and water filtration are linked. of nutrients. These hydroponic nutrients areAgricultural Business • In addition to commercial applica- usually derived from synthetic commercialPlanning Templates tion, aquaponics has become a popular fertilizers, such as calcium nitrate, that areand Resources training aid on integrated bio-systems highly soluble in water. However, hydro- with vocational agriculture programs organics – based on soluble organic fertiliz- and high school biology classes. ers such as fish hydrosylate – is an emerg- The technology associated with aquaponics is ing practice. Hydroponic recipes are based complex. It requires the ability to simultane- on chemical formulations that deliver precise ously manage the production and marketing concentrations of mineral elements. The con- of two different agricultural products. Until trolled delivery of nutrients, water, and envi- the 1980s, most attempts at integrated hydro- ronmental modifications under greenhouse ponics and aquaculture had limited success. conditions is a major reason why hydropon- However, innovations since the 1980s have ics is so successful. transformed aquaponics technology into a Nutrients in Aquaculture Effluent: Green- viable system of food production. Modern house growers normally control the delivery aquaponic systems can be highly successful, of precise quantities of mineral elements to but they require intensive management and hydroponic plants. However, in aquapon- they have special considerations. ics, nutrients are delivered via aquacultural This publication provides an introduction effluent. Fish effluent contains sufficient lev- to aquaponics, it profi les successful aqua- els of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, ponic greenhouses, and it provides extensive potassium, and other secondary and micro- resources. It does not attempt to describe nutrients to produce hydroponic plants. Nat- production methods in comprehensive tech- urally, some plant species are better adapted nical detail, but it does provide a summary to this system than others. The technical of key elements and considerations. literature on aquaponics provides greater detail on hydroponic nutrient delivery; espe- cially see papers cited in the Bibliography by Aquaponics: Key Elements James Rakocy, Ph.D. and Considerations Plants Adapted to Aquaponics: The selec- A successful aquaponics enterprise requires tion of plant species adapted to hydroponic special training, skills, and management. culture in aquaponic greenhouses is related The following items point to key elements to stocking density of fish tanks and subse- and considerations to help prospective grow- quent nutrient concentration of aquacultural ers evaluate the integration of hydroponics effluent. Lettuce, herbs, and specialty greens with aquaculture. (spinach, chives, basil, and watercress) have Hydroponics: Hydroponics is the produc- low to medium nutritional requirements tion of plants in a soilless medium whereby and are well adapted to aquaponic systems.Page 2 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 3. Plants yielding fruit (tomatoes, bell peppers, nitrifying bacteria involved in nutrient con-and cucumbers) have a higher nutritional versions. The design manuals and technicaldemand and perform better in a heavily documentation available in the Resourcesstocked, well established aquaponic system. section can help growers decide which sys-Greenhouse varieties of tomatoes are better tem is most appropriate.adapted to low light, high humidity condi- Component Ratio: Matching the volumetions in greenhouses than field varieties. of fish tank water to volume of hydroponicFish Species: Several warm-water and cold- media is known as component ratio. Earlywater fish species are adapted to recirculat- aquaponics systems were based on a ratioing aquaculture systems, including tilapia, of 1:1, but 1:2 is now common and tank:trout, perch, Arctic char, and bass. How- bed ratios as high as 1:4 are employed. Theever, most commercial aquaponic systems in variation in range depends on type of hydro-North America are based on tilapia. Tilapia ponic system (gravel vs. raft), fish species,is a warm-water species that grows well in fish density, feeding rate, plant species, etc.a recirculating tank culture. Furthermore, For example, the Speraneo system describedtilapia is tolerant of fluctuating water condi- below is designed for one cubic foot of watertions such as pH, temperature, oxygen, and to two cubic feet of grow bed media (pea T ilapia is adissolved solids. Tilapia produces a white- gravel). Further, when shallow bed systems warm-waterfleshed meat suitable to local and wholesale only three inches in depth are employed formarkets. The literature on tilapia contains the production of specialty greens such as species thatextensive technical documentation and cul- lettuce and basil, the square footage of grow grows well in atural procedures. Barramundi and Murray space will increase four times. Depending on recirculating tankcod fish species are raised in recirculating the system design, the component ratio can culture.aquaponic systems in Australia. favor greater outputs of either hydroponic produce or fish protein. A “node” is a con-Water Quality Characteristics: Fish raised figuration that links one fish tank to a cer-in recirculating tank culture require good tain number of hydroponic beds. Thus, onewater quality conditions. Water quality test- greenhouse may contain a multiple numbering kits from aquacultural supply compa- of fish tanks and associated growing beds,nies are fundamental. Critical water quality each arranged in a separate node.parameters include dissolved oxygen, carbondioxide, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, pH, chlo-rine, and other characteristics. The stocking Aquaponic Systemsdensity of fish, growth rate of fish, feeding Profiles of several aquaponic greenhouses arerate and volume, and related environmental highlighted below as models of commerciallyfluctuations can elicit rapid changes in water viable systems. Most of these operations arequality; constant and vigilant water quality featured in magazine articles and conferencemonitoring is essential. proceedings. Some operations offer techni- cal assistance through short courses, designBiofiltration and Suspended Solids: Aqua- manuals, and on-site tours. Please refer toculture effluent contains nutrients, dissolved articles in the Resources section, and thesolids, and waste byproducts. Some aquaponic Bibliography, for in-depth descriptions andsystems are designed with intermediate filters technical details.and cartridges to collect suspended solids infish effluent, and to facilitate conversion ofammonia and other waste products to forms The North Carolina Statemore available to plants prior to delivery to University Systemhydroponic vegetable beds. Other systems Water consumption in an integrated aqua-deliver fish effluent directly to gravel-cultured vegeculture system amounts to 1 percenthydroponic vegetable beds. The gravel func- of that required in pond culture to pro-tions as a “fluidized bed bioreactor,” remov- duce equivalent tilapia yields. In the 1980sing dissolved solids and providing habitat for Mark McMurtry (former graduate student)www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 3
  • 4. and the late Doug Sanders (professor) at with benefits to both nitrifying North Carolina State University developed bacteria and plant roots. an aqua-vegeculture system based on tilapia • Dissolved and suspended organic fish tanks sunk below the greenhouse floor. materials accumulate rapidly in aqua- Effluent from the fish tanks was trickle-irri- culture systems and must be removed gated onto sand-cultured hydroponic vege- for efficient fish production. table beds located at ground level. The nutri- ents in the irrigation water fed tomato and • Previous integrated fish-vegetable cucumber crops, and the sand beds and systems removed suspended solids plant roots functioned as a biofi lter. After from the water by sedimentation in draining from the beds, the water recircu- clarifiers prior to plant application. lated back into the fish tanks. The only fer- Removal of the solid wastes resulted tility input to the system was fish feed (32 in insufficient residual nutrients for percent protein). good plant growth; acceptable fruit yields had previously only been Some f i nd ing s a nd h ig h l ig ht s of achieved with substantial supple- McMurtry’s research: mentation of plant nutrients.B iofilters • Benefits of integrating aquaculture • Aqueous nitrate concentrations in (sand beds and vegetable production are: recirculating aquaculture can be with 1. conservation of water resources adequately regulated when fish and vegetable production are linked viavegetables) that are and plant nutrients reciprocating biofilters.alternately flooded 2. intensive production of fish protein • Tomatoes may have also assimi-and drained with lated nitrogen in organic amino acid 3. reduced operating costs relative tonutrient-laden either system in isolation. forms. In 1950 Gosh and Burrisfish tank water are (Utilization of Nitrogenous Com- • Water consumption in an integrated pounds by Plants. Soil Science. Vol.called reciprocating aqua-vegeculture system amounts 70: 187-203) found that tomatoesbiofilters. to 1 percent of that required in utilize alanine, glutamic acid, his- pond culture to produce equivalent tidine, and leucine as effectively as tilapia yields. inorganic nitrogen sources. • Such low-water-use symbiotic • Research to determine the optimum systems are applicable to the needs ratio of fish tank to biofilter volume of arid or semi-arid regions where on fish growth rate and water quality fish and fresh vegetables are in found that stocking density of fish high demand. and plants can vary depending on • Organic vine-ripened, pesticide-free desired goal. The component ratios produce and “fresh-daily” fish can of the system may be manipulated bring premium prices, particularly to favor fish or vegetable production during winter months in urban areas. according to local market trends or • Biofilters (sand beds with vegetables) dietary needs. Fish stocking den- that are alternately flooded and drained sity and feeding rates are adjusted to with nutrient-laden fish tank water are optimize water quality as influenced called reciprocating biofilters. by plant growth rate. • Reciprocating biofilters provide See the Bibliography on Aquaponics in the uniform distribution of nutrient- appendix for a of list articles that resulted laden water within the filtration from the North Carolina research. medium during the flood cycle, and Aqua-vegeculture research at NCSU has improved aeration from atmospheric been discontinued because the technology exchange during each dewatering had evolved to the point where it is readyPage 4 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 5. for grower application. The Department of methods were designed by Tom and Paula toHorticulture and the Cooperative Exten- match their system.sion Service at NCSU provide technical For years, Purina® fish chow at 40 percentassistance to aquaponic greenhouse growers protein was the primary fertility input, sup-in North Carolina. plemented with tank-cultured algae. Tilapia in the Speraneo system are raised for 7 to 12The Speraneo System months, then harvested at one to one-and-a-In the early 1990s, Tom and Paula Speraneo half pounds in size. Later, Tom started adding– owners of S & S Aqua Farm near West small amounts of Planters 2® rock dust on topPlains, Missouri – modified the North Car- of the gravel as a trace element supplement.olina State method by raising tilapia in a S & S Aqua Farm has grown fresh basil,500-gallon tank, with fish effluent linked tomatoes, cucumbers, mixed salad greens,to gravel-cultured hydroponic vegetable and an assortment of vegetable, herb, andbeds inside an attached solar greenhouse. ornamental bedding plants in the aquaponicLater, they expanded to a full-size commer- greenhouse. In the early 1990s, Tom andcial greenhouse. The Speraneo system was Paula were raising and selling basil for $12practical, productive, and wildly successful. a pound to gourmet restaurants about fourIt became the model for dozens of commer- hours away in St. Louis, Missouri. Followingcial aquaponic greenhouses and high school passage of the North American Free Tradebiology programs. Agreement (NAFTA), however, MexicanSadly, Tom Speraneo died in February 2004. imports of basil resulted in a market crashTom was a true pioneer in aquaponics, and to $4 per pound, so they dropped the St.he was unfailingly generous and helpful to Louis market. S & S Aqua Farm now grows aothers. Paula Speraneo and her family con- diverse variety of vegetable and herbs, sellingtinue to run the greenhouse and actively locally at a farmers market combined withparticipate in aquaponics technology trans- direct sales out of their greenhouse.fer. The following notes describe the Spera- Tom once calculated the farm produces 45neo system and available resources. to 70 pounds of produce for every pound ofThe commercial-scale solar greenhouse at tilapia, an impressive yield. However, PaulaS & S Aqua Farm is 50 feet by 80 feet, ori- explained this figure takes into account theented East-West to create a south-facing cumulative yields of multiple vegetable cropsslope. It contains six 1,200 gallon fish tanks. raised during the 7- to 12-month time periodEach tank is linked to six one-foot-deep required to raise fish to harvest.hydroponic beds filled with river gravel. Tom The component ratio favors vegetables overreferred to each tank-plus-hydroponic bed fish yields in the Speraneo system.setup as a “node.” This way, each node canoperate independently of one another. Interest in the Speraneo system resulted in more than 10,000 visitors to the small farmSome aspects of the Speraneo system were in Missouri, including school children, farm-modeled after the aquaponics research at ers, researchers, and government officials. ToNorth Carolina State University, while oth- handle requests for assistance, the Speraneosers are modified. The Speraneos employ compiled a resource packet and design man-hydroponic vegetable beds as “fluidized bed ual with technical specifications to establishreactors,” but they use pea-grade river gravel an S & S Aqua Farm-style aquaponic system.instead of sand. Tilapia are raised in fish The resource packet includes a 10-minutetanks, but the tanks are more conveniently video and a list of supplies. Response fromlocated above ground and tilapia hybrids growers to a practical design manual such asadapted to cooler water temperatures are this was tremendous. The Speraneo system isgrown. The reciprocating water cycle, PVC now in use worldwide. The resource packetpiping, and return-flow water pumping is available through:www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 5
  • 6. Aquaponic greenhouse at S & S Aqua Farms, West Plains, Missouri. Photos by Steve Diver, NCAT.Page 6 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 7. S & S A qua F arm Tilapia are stocked at a rate of 77 fish per[Contact: Paula Speraneo] cubic meter for Nile tilapia, or 154 fish per8386 County Rd. 8820 cubic meter for red tilapia and cultured forWest Plains, MO 65775 24 weeks. The production schedule is stag-417-256-5124 gered so that one tank is harvested every six weeks. After harvest, the fish tank is imme-Especially see: diately restocked. The fish are fed three timesMaturing Marvel (PDF/282K) by Vern daily with a complete, floating fish pellet atModeland, The Growing Edge, May-June 32 percent protein. Projected annual fish1998, www.growingedge.com/magazine/back_ production is 4.16 metric tons for Nile tila-issues/view_article.php3?AID=90535> pia and 4.78 metric tons for red tilapia.The Genius of Simplicity (PDF/30K) In one notable experiment the UVI research-by John Wesley Smith, The Growing ers compared the yields of a leafy herb (basil)Edge, Winter 1993-94, www.growingedge. and a fruiting vegetable (okra) grown incom/magazine/back_issues/view_article. aquaponic vs. field production systems. Basilphp3?AID=50240 and okra were raised in raft hydroponics. Yields of aquaponic basil were three times JBioponics – Revolution in Food Growing: ames Rakocy, greater than field-grown, while yields ofMissouri Aquafarmer Discovers Huge Ben- aquaponic okra were 18 times greater than Ph.D., andefits in Trace Elements by David Yarrow field-grown. Based on a market price in the associates atRemineralize the Earth, December 1997. U.S. Virgin Islands of $22 per kg for fresh the University of basil with stems, researchers calculated gross the Virgin IslandsThe University of the Virgin income potential. The aquaponic method would result in $515 per cubic meter per (UVI) developed aIslands System year or $110,210 per system per year. Th is commercial-scaleJames Rakocy, Ph.D., and associates at the Uni- compares to field-produced basil at $172 per aquaponic systemversity of the Virgin Islands (UVI) developed cubic meter per year or $36,808 per year for that has runa commercial-scale aquaponic system that has the same production area. When fish sales continuously forrun continuously for more than five years. Nile are included, the aquaponic system yieldsand red tilapia are raised in fish rearing tanks, $134,245 (Rakocy, et al, 2004). more than five years.and the aquacultural effluent is linked to float-ing raft hydroponics. Basil, lettuce, okra, and Like McMurtry, researcher Rakocy sees inte-other crops have been raised successfully, grated water reuse systems as a viable solutionwith outstanding quality and yields. to sustainable food production in developing countries and arid regions – such as the Carib-The system components include: Four fish bean Islands – where fresh water is scarce.rearing tanks at 7,800 liters each, clarifi-ers, filter and degassing tanks, air diffusers, To provide in-depth technical support, thesump, base addition tank, pipes and pumps, UVI research team offers a week-long shortand six 400-square foot hydroponic troughs course on aquaponics each year at the UVItotaling 2,400 sq. ft. The pH is monitored agricultural experiment station. The UVIdaily and maintained at 7.0 to 7.5 by alter- short course is the premier educationalnately adding calcium hydroxide and potas- training program available to farmers in thesium hydroxide to the base addition tank, world. In addition to aquaponics, UVI spe-which buffers the aquatic system and sup- cializes in greenwater tank culture, a recircu-plements calcium and potassium ions at the lating aquaculture system.same time. The only other supplemental Rakocy has published extensive researchnutrient required is iron, which is added in a reports and several Extension Service bulletinschelated form once every three weeks. on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 7
  • 8. See the Bibliography in the appendix for cita- organization – specializes in aquaculture tions to articles and papers by Rakocy. research and education. Fresh spring water is an abundant resource in the Appalachian Contact: region. However, protection of spring water James Rakocy, Ph.D. quality as it relates to aquaculture effluent is University of the Virgin Islands viewed as a vital component of this technology. Agriculture Experiment Station RR 1, Box 10,000 For years, the institute has specialized in Kingshill, St. Croix cold-water recirculating aquaculture systems U.S. Virgin Islands 00850-9781 raising trout and arctic char. The institute 340-692-4031 helps Appalachian farmers set up two types (340) 692-4035 FAX of aquaculture systems: (a) an indoor, high- jrakocy@uvi.edu tech recirculating tank method and (b) an outdoor, low-tech recirculating tank method. Aquaculture Program Treatment of aquaculture effluent prior to www.uvi.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ its return to the natural stream flow led to AES-Aquaculture-Home.aspx?s=RE collaborative research with USDA-ARS sci- entists in Kearneysville, West Virginia, onT rials at the Aquaponics www.uvi.edu/sites/uvi/Pages/ integrated hydroponic-fish culture systems. Freshwater AES-Aquaculture-Aquaponic_Systems. Trials at the institute’s greenhouses showed Institute’s that nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutri- aspx?s=REgreenhouses showed ents in aquaculture effluent can be effectivelythat nitrogen, Especially see: removed by plants grown in NFT hydropon-phosphorus, and Update on Tilapia and Vegetable Production ics or constructed wetland systems.other nutrients in the UVI Aquaponic System In the mid-1990s, the institute implementedin aquaculture James E. Rakocy, Donald S. Bailey, R. an aquaponic demonstration program based Charlie Shultz and Eric S. Thoman. Page 676- on a Speraneo-style gravel-cultured system.effluent can be 690. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Tila- Tilapia is raised as a warm-water fish species.effectively removed pia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Hydroponic crops include basil, lettuce, andby plants grown Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, held wetland plants.in NFT hydroponics September 12-16, 2004 in Manila, Philippines.or constructed Proceedings paper: 15 pages (PDF/254 K) To provide technical assistance to farm- http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ ers and high school biology teachers, thewetland systems. institute published a series of publications ista6web/pdf/676.pdf, PDF Presentation: 49 pages (PDF/1.47 MB) http://ag.arizona. on recirculating aquaculture and aquaponics. edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/presentation/ The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Powered p676.pdf Aquaponic System – Design Manual is a 37- page manual published by the institute in Aquaponics: Integrated Technology for Fish 1997. Included are diagrams and photos, and Vegetable Production in Recirculating details on greenhouse layout and aquaponic Systems, James Rakocy, University of the production, parts list with suppliers and Virgin Islands USDA Ministerial Confer- cost, estimated operating expense, and fur- ence and Expo on Agricultural Science and ther informational resources. Technology. PowerPoint Presentation; 69 slides, www.fas.usda.gov/icd/stconf/session2/ Please note the institute no longer provides session%202d/02-rakocy_j-2D%202nd_files/ direct technical assistance to farmers on frame.htm aquaponics. Instead, it has made some of their publications on recirculating aquacul- The Freshwater Institute System ture and aquaponics available online. Contact The Freshwater Institute in Shepherdstown, The Freshwater Institute for information West Virginia – a program of The Conser- on obtaining design manuals and other pub- vation Fund, an environmental non-profit lications not available as Web downloads.Page 8 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 9. The Freshwater Institute The New Alchemy Institute1098 Turner Road The New Alchemy Institute in East Falmouth,Shepherdstown, WV 25443-4228 Massachusetts, conducted research on inte-Phone (304) 876-2815 grated aquaculture systems during the 1970swww.freshwaterinstitute.org and 1980s. Although the institute closed inSelected Publications from The Freshwater 1991, New Alchemy publications on green-Institute: house production and aquaponics provide historical insight to the emerging bioshelter • Suggested Management Guidelines (ecosystem greenhouses) concept and are still for An Integrated Recycle Aquacul- a valuable resource for technical information. ture – Hydroponic System The Green Center, formed by a group of for- mer New Alchemists, is again making these • The Freshwater Institute Natural publications available for sale. The website has Gas Powered Aquaponic System – a section featuring for-sale articles on aqua- Design Manual culture and bioshelters (integrated systems). A • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture selection of past articles is available online. Contact: I System Installation Guide n warm climates, The Green Center hydroponic • Linking Hydroponics to a 880 28 Common Way, Hatchville, MA 02536 vegetable beds Gallon Recycle Fish Rearing System www.thegreencenter.net may be located • Operators Manua l for 880 – Especially see: outside. Recycle System An Integrated Fish Culture Hydroponic Veg- etable Production System (PDF/6.57 MB)The Cabbage Hill Farm System by Ronald D. Zweig, Aquaculture Magazine,Cabbage Hill Farm is a non-profit organi- May-June 1986. www.thegreencenter.netzation located about 30 miles north of New Listed under the heading: New Alchemy InstituteYork City. The foundation is dedicated to the Publications Onlinepreservation of rare breeds of farm animals, Summary of Fish Culture Techniques insustainable agriculture and local food sys- Solar Aquatic Ponds (PDF/815K) by Johntems, and aquaponic greenhouse production. Wolfe and Ron Zweig. Journal of The NewCabbage Hill Farm designed and continues Alchemists, 1977. www.thegreencenter.netto operate a simple recirculating aquaponic Listed under the heading: New Alchemy Institutesystem. Cabbage Hill Farm promotes edu- Publications Onlinecation on aquaponics and hosts greenhouseinterns. Tours are available. Miscellaneous Systems Instead of locating the fish and vegetableTilapia fish and leaf lettuce are the main components in separate containers inside aproducts of the Cabbage Hill Farm system, greenhouse, fish production can be locatedthough basil and watercress are also grown in outdoor tanks or adjacent buildings.in smaller quantities. In addition to hydro- The effluent simply needs to be delivered toponics, water passes through a constructed hydroponic vegetable beds.reed bed outside the greenhouse for addi-tional nutrient removal. In warm climates, hydroponic vegetable beds may be located outside. As an example,Cabbage Hill Farm the Center for Regenerative Studies at Cali-115 Crow Hill Road fornia State Polytechnic University - PomonaMount Kisco, NY 10549 implemented an outdoor integrated bio-sys-914-241-2658 tem that links: (a) a pond containing treated914-241-8264 FAX sewage wastewater stocked with tilapia andwww.cabbagehillfarm.org carp; (b) water hyacinth – an aquatic plantwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 9
  • 10. Backyard Aquaponicsin Western Australia.Photos by Joel Malcolm,Backyard Aquaponics.(with permission)www.backyardaquaponics.comPage 10 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 11. very efficient at sucking up nutrients – cov- (for more information see The IFOAM Normsering 50 percent of the water surface area; for Organic Production and Processing,the plant biomass generated by water hya- Version 2005 and updated in 2009 at www.cinth is used as feedstock for compost heaps; ifoam.org/about_ifoam/standards/norms/(c) nearby vegetable gardens irrigated with norm_documents_library/Norms_ENG_V4_nutrient-laden pond water. 20090113.pdf ). However, organic aquacul- ture was not clearly defined in the NOP andIn addition to locating the fish and vegetable the lack of organic aquaculture guidelines hascomponents in separate containers, fish and hampered the growth of a domestic organicplants can be placed in the same container aquaculture industry in the United States.to function as a polyculture. For example,plants sit on top of floating polystyrene pan- The ATTRA publication Aquaculture Enter-els with their roots hanging down into the prises: Considerations and Strategies containswater that fish swim around in. Models a section on organic aquaculture. It statesinclude the Rakocy system, solar-algae ponds that accredited organic certifying agencies(see literature by Zweig and Kleinholz), and can certify organic aquaculture operations,the solar-aquatic ponds, or Living Machines, but the products are not allowed to carry themade popular by John Todd at Ocean Arks USDA organic label. rganicInternational.In Australia, barramundi (Lates calcarifer)and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) In fact, Quality Certification Services in Florida has certified three organic aquacul- ture operations in the U.S. and abroad under O certifying agencies can certify organicfish species have been adapted to recircu- a private label. AquaRanch (www.aquaranch. aquaculturelating aquaculture and aquaponics systems. com/index.html) an aquaponic greenhouse in operations, but theThe stocking densities for these fish species Illinois, set a precedent for the aquaponics products are notis higher than tilapia, which in turn results industry by obtaining organic certification allowed to carry thein greater hydroponic surface under produc- for its hydroponic produce through Indiana USDA organic label.tion. Several references are provided on these Certified Organic. Meanwhile, AquaRanchfish species and aquaponic systems in the markets its greenhouse-raised tilapia as “nat-Resources and Bibliography sections. urally grown.” To address the issue of organic aquacul-Organic Aquaculture ture, the National Organic Standards BoardOrganic production of crops and livestock in (NOSB) established an Aquatic Animalsthe United States is regulated by the Depart- Task Force in June 2000. In 2003, a sec-ment of Agriculture’s National Organic Pro- ond group – The National Organic Aqua-gram, or NOP. The NOP is an organic certi- culture Working Group (NOAWG), com-fication and marketing program that ensures prised of 80 aquaculture professionals andfoods and food products labeled as “organic” related stakeholders – formed to providemeet universal standards and guidelines for further guidance and clarification to theorganic production. Production inputs used NOSB. The interim final report publishedin organic production – such as feed and fer- by NOAWG in January 2006 provides pro-tilizers – must be of natural origin and free posed recommendations on organic aquacul-of synthetic materials. A farm plan, docu- ture to NOSB, accessible at www.ams.usda.mentation of inputs and production meth- gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDods, and farm inspection are required to C5062436&acct=nopgeninfo.obtain “certified organic” status. This pro- To provide access to the large volume ofcess allows farm products to be labeled and documents, reports, and organic productionsold as organic. standards surrounding the issue of organicOrganic trout, tilapia, salmon and other fish aquaculture, the National Agriculturalspecies are raised in Europe, Australia, and Library published an 80-page bibliography,Israel using production standards developed Organic Aquaculture, through the Alternativeby international organic certification agencies Farming Systems Information Center.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 11
  • 12. Organic Aquaculture: AFSIC Notes #5 by with compost-based potting mixes – is a Stephanie Boehmer, Mary Gold, Stephanie simple and productive way to get started Hauser, Bill Thomas, and Ann Young. in greenhouse vegetable production. You Alternative Farming Systems Informa- may quickly find that your biggest chal- tion Center, National Agricultural Library, lenge is weekly marketing of fresh pro- USDA. www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/AFSIC_pubs/ duce rather than successful production afnotes5.htm of vegetables. This includes labor to har- vest vegetables, grading and packing with Evaluating an Aquaponic brand name labels, post-harvest handling Enterprise methods to maintain superior quality, Due to the highly technical nature of aqua- and quick delivery of perishable produce ponics and the expense associated with to established markets. greenhouse production, prospective growers 3. Read technical and popular literature on are advised to thoroughly investigate pro- recirculating aquaculture and aquapon- duction methods and market potential. ics to become familiar with production For general information and supplies asso- methods, yields, and market prices for ciated with greenhouse vegetable produc- fresh fish and hydroponic vegetables. The quaponicsA is one method ofhydroponics, and tion, see the ATTRA resource list Green- house and Hydroponic Vegetable Production Resources on the Internet. Complementary ATTRA publications include Organic Green- Web Resources listed below provide quick access to reading material, diagrams and images, and related details. The Bibliog- raphy in the appendix provides access tohydroponics isone method of house Vegetable Production and Integrated Pest in-depth research and technical data.greenhouse Management for Greenhouse Crops. 4. Visit an aquaponic greenhouse to gain first-production. Building and equipping a commercial-sized hand observations. Take lots of pictures to aquaponic greenhouse can cost $10,000 to document the system components and how $30,000, depending on the system design they relate to one another. Keep in mind and choice of components. Due to the that aquaponic growers are busy people highly technical nature of aquaponics and with a considerable investment in time and the expense associated with greenhouse pro- resources to establish their businesses. duction, prospective growers are advised to 5. Attend a short course. There are three thoroughly investigate production methods prominent aquaponic short courses in and market potential. A sequence of consid- North America, offered by University of erations and learning opportunities geared to the Virgin Islands, (University of the Vir- evaluating an aquaponic greenhouse enter- gin Islands, No date) Aquaculture Inter- prise are listed below. national (Aquaculture International, 1. Aquaponic greenhouses yield two food No date) in North Carolina, and Grow- products. To evaluate greenhouse profit- ing Power (Growing Power, No date) ability, obtain typical yields and market in Wisconsin. Cornell University co- prices for hydroponic vegetables and fish, hosts a recirculating aquaculture short and investigate local and regional mar- course in association with The Freshwater kets and related point of sales. Retail sales Institute (Cornell University, No date). directly out of your greenhouse or road- In addition, Nelson and Pade, Inc. has side stand might be an ideal situation, but a list of training courses on their web- this will depend on your location. site accessible at www.aquaponics.com/ infoCourses.htm. 2. Aquaponics is one method of hydropon- ics, and hydroponics is one method of 6. Obtain one or two aquaponic training greenhouse production. Consider lower- manuals to acquire detailed technical cost and simpler alternatives. Bag cul- specifications. The book Aquaponic Food ture of greenhouse vegetables – raising Production: raising fish and plants for food plants in polyethylene grow bags fi lled and profit; the Desktop Aquaponics Booklet;Page 12 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 13. and the Introduction to Aquaponics DVD have become the modern town square. from Nelson and Pade, Inc. are good start- This is where practitioners, scientists, ing points. When you are ready to explore specialists, and business people all share a commercial system, the design manuals resources, supplies, and production meth- from S&S Aqua Farm in Missouri and ods. The e-mail list is hosted by Paula Joel Malcolm’s Backyard Aquaponics in Speraneo with S&S Aqua Farms. The Western Australia contain in-depth tech- archives are publicly accessible, and serve nical specifications, illustrations, and parts as a treasure trove of technical informa- lists (S&S Aqua Farm, Joel Malcolm, tion and farmer-to-farmer exchange. no dates). The Web Resources section lists additional training manuals and 9. Lastly, avoid the “inventor’s urge” to re- technical documentation. invent the wheel. Successful aquaponic7. Hire an agricultural consultant to acquire greenhouse operators have already figured expert advice and consultation, and to out the system components and methods of shorten the time and risk involved getting production, based on years of research and started. A few consultants with expertise experience. Pick one of the existing models in aquaponics are listed in the Agriculture and duplicate it insofar as possible. The old Consultants section below. saying, “Get the engine running first, then8. Participate on the Aquaponics E-mail adjust the carburetor,” can be aptly applied Discussion Group. E-mail discussion lists to aquaponic start-up greenhouses.References1. Rakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, R. Charlie 7. Joel Malcolm – Backyard Aquaponics Design Manual Shultz and Eric S. Thoman. 2004. Update on Western Australia joel@backyardaquaponics.com, tilapia and vegetable production in the UVI www.backyardaquaponics.com aquaponic system. p. 676-690. In: New Dimen- sions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Tilapia in Resources Aquaculture, Held September 12-16, 2004 in E-mail Discussion Lists for Manila, Philippines. Aquaponics - Hydroponics - Aquaculture2. University of the Virgin Islands – International Aquaponics and Tilapia Aquaculture www.uvi. Aquaponic E-Mail List edu/sites/uvi/Pages/AES-Aquaculture- Paula Speraneo of S & S Aqua Farm in Missouri International_Aquaponics.aspx?s=RE hosts the Aquaponics E-Mail list on the Internet. Th e Aquaponics List is a prominent source of technology3. Aquaculture International – Short Course on transfer and resource sharing on all aspects of Aquaponics www.aquacultureinternational.org aquaponics: hydroponics, aquaculture, fi sh species,4. Growing Power – Short Course on Aquaponics supplies, practical solutions, and resources. The www.growingpower.org e-mail archives are a key source of information.5. Cornell University – Short Course on Recirculating To subscribe, send an email request to: Aquaculture www.bee.cornell.edu/cals/bee/ snsaquasys@townsqr.com outreach/aquaculture/short-course/index.cfm To view Web e-mail archives, go to:6. S&S Aqua Farm – Design Manual www.jaggartech. Aquaponics List – Before 2002 com/snsaqua www.i55mall.com/aquaponicswww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 13
  • 14. Hydroponics and Aquaculture E-Mail List Ball Publishing A number of e-mail lists on hydroponics and aquacul- 622 Town Road ture are scattered among the Internet hosting sites like P.O. Box 1660 YahooGroups.com, MSN.com, and Topica.com. West Chicago, IL 60186 Tel: (630) 231-3675Aquaculture and Aquaponic Trade Toll Free (888) 888-0013Magazines, Organizations, and Journals Fax: (630) 231-5254Aquaponics Journal email: info@ballpublishing.comNelson and Pade, Inc. Greenhouse GrowerPO Box 761 www.greenhousegrower.comMontello, WI 53949, USAphone 608-297-8708 Greenhouse Product NewsToll-free Fax: 866-815-9734 www.gpnmag.cominfo@aquaponics.com Scranton Gillette Communications, Inc.www.aquaponicsjournal.com 3030 W. Salt Creek Lane, Suite 201 Aquaponics Journal is the quarterly journal from Nelson Arlington Heights, Illinois 60005-5025 USA and Pade, Inc. It has become a prominent source for 847-391-1000 articles, reports, news, and supplies for the aquaponics 847-390-0408 industry. Back issues are a valuable resource, available in print or as e-files. World Aquaculture www.was.org/main/summaryasp?page=magazineThe Growing Edge Magazine Carol Mendoza, DirectorNew Moon Publishing WAS Home OfficeP.O. Box 1027 143 J. M. Parker ColiseumCorvallis, OR 97339-1027 Louisiana State University800-888-6785; 541-757-8477 Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (USA)541-757-0028 Fax 1-225-578-3137www.growingedge.com The Growing Edge is a bi-monthly trade magazine on FAX: 1-225-578-3493 high-tech gardening systems like hydroponics, bioponics, carolm@was.org aquaponics, and ecologically based pest management. Aquafeed.com Past articles are an important source of technical informa- http://aquafeed.com tion on aquaponics, bioponics, and organic hydroponics. editor@aquafeed.comPractical Hydroponics & Greenhouses Austasia AquacultureP.O. Box 225 www.austasiaaquaculture.com.auNarrabeen, NSW 2101 Australia Unit 2, Level 2, Bellerive Quay,Phone: +61 (02) 9905 9933 31 Cambridge Rd, BelleriveFax: +61 (02) 9905 9030 Tasmania, Australiainfo@hydroponics.com.au 701803 6245 0064www.hydroponics.com.au Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses is a bimonthly Aquanews Archives magazine dedicated to soilless culture and greenhouse http://pdacrsp.oregonstate.edu/aquanews/archive.html production. Articles profile soilless culture and green- Aquaculture articles. Permaculture Activist #52 (maga- house enterprises from around the world. It also reports zine). Summer 2004. www.permacultureactivist.net on new products, research and development, and industry news. Back issues are a valuable resource. The award- Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program, winning magazine is now online as an exact digital copy Oregon State University. of the print edition, using DjVu technology. http://pdacrsp.oregonstate.eduGrower Talks NOAA Aquaculture Programwww.ballpublishing.com http://aquaculture.noaa.govPage 14 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 15. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) The Aquaponics Guidebookwww.aquanic.org http://accesstoaquaponics.com/book.htmlEcotao’s Aquaculture Linkswww.ecotao.com/holism/agric/aqua.htm Agricultural Consultants for Integrated Hydroponics and AquacultureAmerican Fisheries Society Online Journals AquaRanch Industries, LLChttp://afs.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-archive [Contact: Myles Harston] 404 D. East Lincoln St.Scientific Journals on Aquaculture (Elsevier journal) P.O. Box 658www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486 Flanagan, IL 61740Aquacultural Engineering (Elsevier journal) 815-796-2978www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01448609 (815)796-4485 FAX kat@aquaranch.comAquaculture International (Springer journal) www.aquaranch.comwww.springerlink.com/content/1573-143X/?p=d6dfe772b59245f287cad843d6809276&pi=107 Fisheries Technology Associates, Inc. [Contact: Bill Manci]Aquaculture Research (Blackwell journal) 506 Wabash Streetwww.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=1355-557X Fort Collins, CO 80522-3245 970-225-0150Aquaponic Books and Videos info@ftai.comNelson and Pade, Inc., publisher of Aquaponics Journal, www.ftai.comoffers booklets, DVDs, videos, and educational curri- Global Aquatics USA, Inc.cula on aquaponics, hydroponics, and aquaculture. 505 Aldino Stepney Rd.See their Web page for details. Contact: Aberdeen, MD 21001Nelson and Pade, Inc. 443-243-8840 410-734-7473 FAXPO Box 761 aquatic@iximd.comMontello, Wisconsin www.growfish.com53949 USA608-297-8708 Gordon Creaser866-815-9734 FAX 4886-115 Garfield StreetPinfo@aquaponics.com Sumas, Wa 98295 USAwww.aquaponics.com Phone: (407) 421-9816 www.gordoncreaser.comRebecca L. Nelson and John S. Pade. 2008. AquaponicFood Production: raising fish and plants for food and Mark R. McMurtryprofit. www.aquaponics.com/ShopAFPBook.htm PMB 267 1627 W. Main St.Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: A primer. FAO/ Bozeman, MT 59715-4011IIRR/WorldFish Center 2001. www.fao.org/docrep/005/ (406) 585-8000y1187e/y1187e00.htm mcmurtry@avicom.netHutchinson, Laurence. 2005. Ecological Aquaculture: Nelson and Pade, Inc.A Sustainable Solution. Hampshire, England: PO Box 761Permanent Publications. www.amazon.com/ Montello, WisconsinEcological-Aquaculture-Sustainable-Laurence- 53949 USAHutchinson/dp/1856230325 608-297-8708Van Gorder, Steven D. 2000. Small Scale Aquaculture: 866-815-9734 FAX kat@aquaponics.comA hobbyist’s guide to growing fish in greenhouses, www.aquaponics.comrecirculating systems, cages, and flowing water.Breinigsville, PA: Alternative Aquaculture Association, S&S Aqua FarmsInc. www.altaqua.com [Contact: Paula Speraneo]www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 15
  • 16. 407 Pennsylvania Ave AFSIC, NAL, USDA-ARSWest Plains, MO 65775 10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 132417-256-5124 Beltsville, MD 20705-2351snsaquasys@townsqr.com 301-504-6559www.jaggartech.com/snsaqua 301-504-6927 Fax afsic@nal.usda.govAquaculture Associations http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?tax_Aquacultural Engineering Society level=1&info_center=2www.aesweb.orgAmerican Tilapia Association Other Aquaculture Resourceshttp://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ata.html Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) http://aquanic.orgThe Alternative Aquaculture Association AquaNIC is the gateway to the world’s electronicwww.altaqua.com resources for aquaculture information. Especially see theDirectory of Aquaculture Associations extensive resource listing on recirculating aquacultureAquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC) systems, and the complete listing of publications from thehttp://aquanic.org/publicat/govagen/nal/associat.htm Regional Aquaculture Centers.Texas Aquaculture Association Recirculating Aquaculture Systems – Index, Aquacul-www.texasaquaculture.org ture Network Information Center (AquaNIC)Miami Aqua-culture, Inc. http://aquanic.org/systems/recycle/documents/www.miami-aquaculture.com recirculatingoklahoma.pdf Regional Aquaculture Center Publications – Index,Aquaculture Directories and Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC)Resource Collections http://aquanic.org/publicat/usda_rac/fact.htmNational Agricultural Library – Alternative Farming Environmentally Friendly Aquaculture Digital LibrarySystems Information Center National Sea Grant Library The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center http://nsgd.gso.uri.edu/aquadig.html (AFSIC) at the National Agricultural Library, a pro- The National Sea Grant Library (NSGL) contains gram of USDA-ARS, provides extensive aquaculture a complete collection of Sea Grant funded work. The resource listings. Organic Aquaculture (AFSIC Notes NSGL maintains a bibliographical database contain- No. 5), published in January 2005, is an important ing over 36,000 records that can be searched by author- new publication from AFSIC that addresses the poten- keyword or browsed by topic. Selected items include tial of organic aquacultural products; it also contains a proceedings from recirculating aquaculture conferences section on recirculating aquaculture. and related documents. The Environmentally FriendlyAquaculture Resources Aquaculture Digital Library is a topic-oriented portal to NSGL, organized by subject category.http://afsic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=2&tax_level=2&tax_subject=295&level3_id=0&level4_id=0&level5_id=0&topic_ Aquaponic Resources on the Webid=1410&&placement_default=0 Selected Publications from SouthernOrganic Aquaculture Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) • Aquaculture-Related Internet Sites and Documents Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: • Directory of Aquaculture Related Associations Integrating Fish and Plant Culture and Trade Organizations SRAC Publication No. 454 (PDF/314K) • Directory of State Aquaculture Coordinators http://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/504545-SRAC454.pdf?CFI and Contacts D=504545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c • Automated Searches on General Aquaculture Topics 91b4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51Page 16 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 17. Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: • Suggested Management Guidelines for An Inte-An Overview of Critical Considerations SRAC grated Recycle Aquaculture – Hydroponic SystemPublication No. 451 (PDF/142K) • The Freshwater Institute Natural Gas Poweredhttp://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/504545-451fs.pdf?CFID=504545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b Aquaponic System - Design Manual4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 • 880 Gallon Recycle Aquaculture System Installa-Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: tion GuideManagement of Recirculating Systems SRAC • Linking Hydroponics to an 880 Gallon RecyclePublication No. 452 (PDF/115K) Fish Rearing Systemhttp://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/504545-452fs.pdf?CFID=504545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b • Operators Manual for 880 - Recycle System4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 Aquaculture on Cat BeachRecirculating Aquaculture Tank Production Systems: www.rainbowfish.se/english/f89.htmComponent Options www.rainbowfish.se/bilder/education_short.docSRAC Publication No. 453 (PDF/378K) A 10-page booklet with directions on establishing a smallhttp://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/504545-453fs.pdf?CFID=5 aquaponic system, including a parts list. Th e HTML04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b version contains additional photos that illustrate system4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 components and greenhouse production.Tank Culture of Tilapia Barrel-Ponic (aka Aquaponics in a Barrel)SRAC Publication No. 282 (PDF/49K) (PDF/3.09MB) by Travis W. Hugheyhttp://srac.tamu.edu/tmppdfs/504545-282fs.pdf?CFID=5 www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/education/documents/04545&CFTOKEN=21206104&jsessionid=90308c91b barrel-ponics.pdf4fe7d1ee6e016a4c5e6e4a61c51 General Aquaponic Resources on the WebSelected Aquaponic Training Materials The Essence of Aquaponics – Index to Aquaponicsand Design Manuals Mail Group TopicsS&S Aqua Farm www.rainbowfish.se/mailgroup/index.htmlwww.jaggartech.com/snsaqua The Essence of Aquaponics website of Pekka Nygard and Design manual with specifications Stefan Goës in Sweden provides an index to key top- ics (aquaponics, fish, fish feed, plants, plant nutrition,Backyard Aquaponics water, biofilters, greenhouses, maintenance, economics,http://www.backyardaquaponics.com Design manual with specifications links, literature) posted on the Aquaponics Mail Group (see e-mail resources above).A Prototype Recirculating Aquaculture-Hydroponic System (PDF/94K) Aquaponics LibraryBy Donald Johnson and George Wardlow http://aquaponicslibrary.20megsfree.com/Index.htmUniversity of Arkansas, Department of Agricultural Enhancing Student Interests in the Agriculturaland Extension Education Sciences through Aquaponics (PDF/725K) by G.W.AgriScience Project Wardlow and D.M. Johnsonwww.uark.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart2.pdf University of Arkansas, Department of Agricultural A 10-page reprint article, originally published in Jour- and Extension Education. nal of Agricultural Mechanization (1997). It describes www.uark.edu/depts/aeedhp/agscience/aquart.pdf a low cost (less than $600) recirculating aquaculture- hydroponic system suitable for use in laboratory settings, Free Articles on Hydroponics, Practical Hydroponics including a materials list with approximate cost of mate- and Greenhouses rials to set up a 350-gallon aquaponic unit. http://hydroponics.com.au/php/viewforum.php?f=3The Freshwater Institute Publications Index, Aquaponics Proves Profitable in Australia, AquaponicsShepherdstown, West Virginia Journal, First Quarter, 2002.www.freshwaterinstitute.org/publications www.aquaponicsjournal.com/articleaustralia.htmwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 17
  • 18. Integrated Systems of Agriculture and Aquaculture download from their website. The budgets includeAquaculture in the Classroom, • Channel catfish pond farmUniversity of Arizona • Hybrid striped bass pond farmhttp://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/extension/Classroom/ • Rainbow trout raceway farmAquaponics.htm • Water recirculating fish farmAquaponics Pty Ltd Aquaculture Budgets, Universities of Illinois and Indi-www.aquaponics.com.au/index.htm ana Sea Grant www.agecon.purdue.edu/AQUABUSINESS/budgets.htmlAquaponics Combine Fish, Tomatoes, and IngenuityUniversity of Illinois Extension Aquaculture Publicationshttp://web.extension.uiuc.edu/smallfarm/pdf/oursare/aquaponics.pdf Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publications. http://srac.tamu.eduHydroponics Integration with Aquaculture The Southern Regional Aquaculture Center has an(powerpoint) online library of very helpful publications on all aspectswww.texasaquaculture.org/Presentations/ of aquaculture, from pond and cage construction to spe-Masser%20Aquaponics.pdf cies and disease to marketing and promotion.Aquaculture Resources on the Web Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www.nrac.umd.eduGreenhouse Tilapia Production in Louisiana NRAC is a principal public forum for the advancementLouisiana State University and dissemination of science and technology needed bywww.lsuagcenter.com/en/communications/ Northeastern aquacultural producers and support indus-publications/Publications+Catalog/Environment/ tries. Publications are located here www.nrac.umd.edu/Aquaculture++Fisheries/Greenhouse+Tilapia+Production publications/factSheets.cfm.+in+Louisiana.htm ALabama Education in aquatic sciences, Aquaculture,Recirculating Aquaculture Systems -- Teacher’s Recreational fisheries and Natural resource conserva-Resource Website. Auburn University tion (ALEARN)www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/education/ www.aces.edu/dept/fisheriesrecirculatingaquaculture.php Mississippi State University Aquaculture PublicationsThe Urban Aquaculture Manual by Jonathan Woods http://msucares.com/aquaculturewww.webofcreation.org/BuildingGrounds/aqua/TOC.html University of Arkansas Aquaculture/Fisheries CenterNorthernAquaFarms.com Publicationswww.northernaquafarms.com www.uaex.edu/aqfi/extension/publications/factsheetNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ag Law Center – AquacultureAquaculture Program http://nationalaglawcenter.org/readingrooms/aquaculturehttp://aquaculture.noaa.govFlorida Division of Aquaculture Water Engineeringwww.floridaaquaculture.com Bocek, Alex. Water Harvesting and Aquaculture forWest Virginia University Extension Service Rural Development. Auburn University: InternationalAquaculture Center for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments.www.wvu.edu/~agexten/aquaculture www.ag.auburn.edu/fish/international// waterharvestingpubs.phpAquaculture Budgets Alberta Agriculture. 2002. Spring Development,Aquaculture Enterprise Budget Spreadsheets. Auburn Agdex 716 (A15). Technical Services Division. http://University Marine Extension & Research Center. www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/aquaculture/budgets.php agdex4595 The Extension specialists at Auburn have developed USDA. 1984. National Engineering Handbook - Part four Excel spreadsheets and are available as a free 650, Engineering Field Handbook, Chapter 12, SpringsPage 18 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 19. and Wells. http://directives.sc.egov.usda.gov/OpenNon DukeFish, a Durham-based community-supportedWebContent.aspx?content=17550.wba fishery. Duke University’s student chapter of the American Fishery SocietyAquaculture and Aquaponic Farms www.walking-fish.orgSweet Water Organics. Carteret Catch, Project Green Leaf, Carteret County, NChttp://sweetwater-organic.com/blog http://greenleaf.uncg.edu/carteretcatch/Index3.html Sweet Water Organics will be the first major commer- Information for fishermen and consumers. http:// cial upgrading of MacArthur genius Will Allen’s aqua- greenleaf.uncg.edu/carteretcatch/CommSuppFish1.html culture methodologies, i.e. a three-tiered, aquaponic, Catch a Piece of Maine, Lobster Community bio-intensive fish-vegetable garden. Sweet Water will be Supported Fishery the anchor project in the transformation of a massive www.catchapieceofmaine.com industrial building in an “ industrial slum” into a show- case of the potential of living technologies and high-value Aquacultural and Maricultural added urban agriculture. Sweet Water’s sustainable Business Development aquaculture system harvests urban waste streams, e.g. Aquacopia wood chips, cardboard, veggie residues, coffee grounds, www.aquacopia.com and brewers mash, along vermiculture lines, yielding the richest possible soil. This soil in hundreds of potted Aquaculture Investment: Lowering the Risks, Western plants on the simulated wetland tiers is key to the trans- Regional Aquaculture Center formation of fish wastes into natural nitrate for plant http://aqua.ucdavis.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/WRAC-103.PDF growth and water filtration.Eli Rogosa. Organic Aquaponics. Regional Aquaculture Centers sponsoredwww.growseed.org/growingpower.html by the Extension Service Photographic tour of a Growing Power aquaponic system. Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center (NRAC) www.nrac.umd.eduBioshelters.www.bioshelters.com North Central Regional Aquaculture Center (NCRAC) Bioshelters is a recirculating aquaponics facility located in www.ncrac.org Amherst, Massachusetts. Our entire system is contained in Southern Regional Aquaculture Center (SRAC) a large solar-heated greenhouse called a Bioshelter. Solar www.msstate.edu/dept/srac structures create the least expensive and best natural envi- ronment for plants, animals and people. To learn more Western Regional Aquaculture Center (WRAC) about our greenhouse system please follow the link below. www.fish.washington.edu/wrac Because the fish, plant and human systems are linked, no Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture pesticides can be used on our produce. www.ctsa.orgBackyard Aquafarms Aquaculture Network Information Centerhttp://backyardaquafarms.com www.aquanic.orgCommunity Supported Fisheries Integrated Bio-Systems on the WebMuch like community supported agriculture, com- Integrated Biosystems, Paul Harris, The Universitymunity supported fisheries are cooperatives of family of Adelaidefishermen who market their catch directly to custom- www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas/website/integratedbiosys.pdfers usually through a subscription mechanism, whereby World Fish Centercustomers receive a certain amount of product per week www.worldfishcenter.org/wfcms/HQ/Default.aspx(a share) for a yearly share price. Four innovative proj-ects are listed below: Ecological Engineering (Elsevier journal) www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09258574Port Clyde Fresh Catch CSF Ecological engineering has been defined as the design ofwww.portclydefreshcatch.com ecosystems for the mutual benefit of humans and nature.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 19
  • 20. Specific topics covered in the journal include: ecotechnology; McMurtry, Mark Richard. 1992. Integrated Aquacul- synthetic ecology; bioengineering; sustainable agroecology; ture- Olericulture System as Influenced by Component habitat reconstruction; restoration ecology; ecosystem Ratio. PhD. Dissertation, North Carolina State Univer- conservation; ecosystem rehabilitation; stream and river sity. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 78 p. restoration; wetland restoration and construction; recla- McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, and P.V. Nelson. 1993. mation ecology; non-renewable resource conservation. Mineral nutrient concentration and uptake by tomatoWastewater-fed Aquaculture in Temperate Climates - irrigated with recirculating aquaculture water as influ-Nutrient recycling with Daphnia and Fish (PDF/97K), enced by quantity of fish waste products supplied. Jour-4th International Conference on Ecological Engineer- nal of Plant Nutrition. Vol. 16, No. 3. p. 407–409.ing for Wastewater Treatment, June 1999, Aas, Norway McMurtry, M.R., et al. 1993. Yield of tomato irrigatedwww.hortikultur.ch/pub/files/15.pdf with recirculating aquacultural water. Journal of Pro- duction Agriculture. Vol. 6, No. 3. (July-September).Appendix I: p. 428–432.Bibliography on Aquaponics McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, and R.G. Hodson. 1997. Effects of biofilter/culture tank volume ratios onThe following bibliography contains selected literature productivity of a recirculating fish/vegetable co-culturecitations on aquaponics and integrated hydroponics- system. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. Vol. 7, No. 4.aquaculture published in trade magazines and scientific p. 33–51.journals. Collectively, these articles provide an instantlibrary on aquaponics. They are provided here as an McMurtry, M.R., D.C. Sanders, J.D. Cure, R.G. Hod-important time saver to those seeking technical and son, B.C. Haning, and P.C.S. Amand. 1997. Efficiencypopular information on this topic. University librar- of water use of an integrated fish/vegetable co-cultureies carry scientific journals (e.g., Aquaculture Interna- system. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. Vol.tional, Aquacultural Engineering) and trade magazines 28, No. 4. p. 420–428.(Aquaculture, Greenhouse Management and Produc- Sanders, Doug, and Mark McMurtry. 1988. Fishtion), and they offer on-site photocopying services to increase greenhouse profits. American Vegetablelibrary visitors. Inter-Library Loan is a service available Grower. February. p. 32–33.through most local libraries, and can provide photocop-ies of articles for a small fee. Watanabe, Wade O., Thomas M. Losordo, Kevin Fitzsimmons, and Fred Hanley. 2002.Please note The Growing Edge, Aquaponics Journal,and Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses are the most Tilapia Production Systems in the Americas: Techno-relevant trade magazines for aquaponics, recirculating logical Advances, Trends, and Challenges. Reviews inaquaculture, hydroponics, and related topics, including Fisheries Science, 10(3&4): 465–498.farmer profiles. However, they are relatively new and less http://aquanic.org/species/tilapia/documents/s6.pdfwidely distributed in university libraries. For a completelist of articles and back issues available through these The Speraneo Systemtrade magazines, see the publisher’s websites: Durham, Deni. 1992. Low-tech polycultural yields,The Growing Edge high profit. Small Farm Today. June. p. 23–25.www.growingedge.com/magazine/compindex.html Modeland, Vern. 1993. Aquafarming on a budget.Aquaponics Journal BackHome. Summer. p. 28–31.www.aquaponicsjournal.com/BackIssues.htm Modeland, Vern. 1998. The Ozarks’ S&S aqua farm.Practical Hydroponics & Greenhouses The Ozarks Mountaineer. June-July. p. 42–44.www.hydroponics.com.au Modeland, Vern. 1998. Maturing marvel: S&S Aqua Farm. The Growing Edge. Vol. 9, No. 5 (May- June).North Carolina State University p. 35–38.McMurtry, M.R., et al. 1990. Sand culture of vegetables Rich, Doug. 1998. Closed system opens markets.using recirculating aquacultural effluents. Applied Agri- The High Plains Journal. Vol. 115, No. 34. August 24.cultural Research. Vol. 5, No. 4. (Fall). p. 280–284. p. 1–A.Page 20 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 21. Smith, John Wesley. 1993. The genius of simplicity. The Rakocy, James. 1999. The status of aquaponics, Part II.Growing Edge. Vol. 5, No. 2. (Fall). p. 40–44, 70. Aquaculture Magazine. September-October. p. 64-70.Thompson, Nina. 1993. Fish + plants = food. Missouri Rakocy, J.E., D.S. Bailey, K.A. Shultz and W.M. Cole.Conservationist. August. p. 28. 1997. Evaluation of a commercial-scale aquaponic unit for the production of tilapia and lettuce. p. 357-372.Yarrow, David. 1998. A food production revolution: In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from the FourthMissouri aquafarmers discover huge benefits in trace International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture.elements integrated with hydroponics. Remineralize the Orlando, FL.Earth. Spring-Fall, No. 12-13. p. 38–43. Rakocy, J.E. 1997. Integrating tilapia culture with veg- etable hydroponics in recirculating systems. p. 163-184.The Rakocy System and Related Papers In B.A. Costa Pierce and J.E. Rakocy (eds.) TilapiaRakocy, J., R.C. Shultz, D.S. Bailey, E.S. and Thoman. Aquaculture in the Americas. Vol. 1. World Aquaculture2004. Aquaponic production of tilapia and basil: com- Society, Baton Rouge, LA. 258 p.paring a batch and staggered cropping system. ActaHorticulturae. Vol. 648. p. 63–69. Rakocy, J.E. and J.A. Hargreaves. 1993. Integration ofwww.actahort.org/books/648/648_8.htm vegetable hydroponics with fish culture: A review, p. 112-136. In: J.K. Wang (ed.) Techniques for ModernRakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, R. Charlie Shultz Aquaculture, Proceedings Aquacultural Engineeringand Eric S. Thoman. 2004. Update on tilapia and veg- Conference. American Society for Agriculturaletable production in the UVI aquaponic system. (PDF/ Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.251K). p. 676–690. In: New Dimensions on Farmed Rakocy, J.E., J.A. Hargreaves, and D.S. Bailey. 1993.Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Sympo- Nutrient accumulation in a recirculating aquaculturesium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Manila, Philippines. system integrated with hydroponic vegetable gardening,http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/676.pdf p. 148-158. In: J.K. Wang (ed.) Techniques for ModernRakocy, James E., Donald S. Bailey, Eric. S. Thoman Aquaculture, Proceedings Aquacultural Engineeringand R. Charlie Shultz. 2004. Intensive tank culture Conference. American Society for Agriculturalof tilapia with a suspended, bacterial-based, treatment Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.process. (PDF/368K). p. 584–596. In: New Dimen- Rakocy, James E., Thomas M. Losordo, and Michaelsions on Farmed Tilapia: Proceedings of the Sixth P. Masser. 1992. Recirculating Aquaculture Tank Pro-International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. duction Systems: Integrating Fish and Plant Culture.http://ag.arizona.edu/azaqua/ista/ista6/ista6web/pdf/584.pdf SRAC Publication No. 454. Southern Region Aquacul-Rakocy, J.E., D.S. Bailey, J.M. Martin and R.C. ture Center, Mississippi State University. 6p.Shultz. 2003. Tilapia production systems for the Lesser Rakocy, J.E., and A. Nair. 1987. Integrating fishAntilles and other resource-limited, tropical areas. In: culture and vegetable hydroponics: Problems andReport of the Subregional Workshop to Promote Sus- prospects. Virgin Islands Perspectives, University oftainable Aquaculture Development in the Small Island the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station,Developing States of the Lesser Antilles. FAO Fisheries St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Vol. 1, No. 1. (Winter/Report No. 704 Spring 1987). p. 19-23.www.fao.org/docrep/006/Y4921E/y4921e07.htm#bm7.3 Rakocy, James E. 1984. A recirculating system for tilapiaRakocy, James E. 1998. Integrating hydroponic plant culture and vegetable hydroponics in the Caribbean.production with recirculating system aquaculture: Presented at the Auburn Fisheries and AquacultureSome factors to consider. p. 392-394. In: Proceedings Symposium, September 20-22, Auburn University,of Second International Conference on Recirculating Alabama. 30 p.Aquaculture, Held July 16-19, Roanoke, VA. Rakocy, James E. 1989. Vegetable hydroponics and fishhttp://nsgd.gso.uri.edu/vsgcp/vsgcpc98001/ culture: A productive interface. World Aquaculture.vsgcpc98001index.html September. p. 42-47.Rakocy, James. 1999. The status of aquaponics, Part I. Bailey, D.S., J.E. Rakocy, W.M. Cole and K.A. Shultz.Aquaculture Magazine. July-August. p. 83-88. 1997. Economic analysis of a commercial-scale aquaponicwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 21
  • 22. system for the production of tilapia and lettuce. production strategy on lettuce and basil productivity andp. 603-612. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Proceedings from phosphorus removal from aquaculture wastewater. Envi-the Fourth International Symposium on Tilapia in ronmental Research Forum. Vols. 5–6. p. 131–136.Aquaculture, Orlando, FL. Brown, Robert H. 1993. Scientists seek better ways ofCole, W.M., J.E. Rakocy, K.A. Shultz and D.S. utilizing effluent from fish. Feedstuffs. May 31. Vol. 65,Bailey. 1997. Effects of solids removal on tilapia No. 22. p. 10.production and water quality in continuously aerated,outdoor tanks. p. 373-384. In: Tilapia Aquaculture: Jenkins, M.R., Jr. and S.T. Summerfelt. 2000. A natu-Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium ral gas-powered small-scale: aquaponic demonstrationon Tilapia in Aquaculture, Orlando, FL. project. Small Farm Today. Vol. 17, No. 4. (July-Aug). p. 45–46.Nair, Ayyappan, James E. Rakocy, and John A.Hargreaves. 1985. Water quality characteristics of a Jenkins, M. R., and S.T. Summerfelt. 1999. Demon-closed recirculating system for tilapia culture and tomato strating aquaponics. Practical Hydroponics & Green-hydroponics. p. 223-254. In: Randy Day and Thomas L. houses. Vol. 44. January-February. p. 48–51.Richards (ed). Proceedings of the Second InternationalConference on Warm Water Aquaculture – Stanley, Doris. 1993. Aquaculture springs up in WestFin-fish. Brigham Young University Hawaii Campus, Virginia. Agricultural Research. March. p. 4–8.February 5-8, 1985. Takeda, F., P. Adler, and D.M. Glenn. 1993. GrowingBioshelters, Inc. greenhouse strawberries with aquaculture effluent. ActaDinda, Kara. 1997. Hydroponics & aquaculture Horticulturae. Vol. 348. p. 264–267.working together: A case study. The Growing Edge. Takeda, F., P.R. Adler, and D.M. Glenn. 1997. Straw-September-October. p. 56-59. berry production linked to aquaculture wastewaterSpencer, Robert. 1990. Investing in an ecosystem. In treatment. Acta Horticulturae. Vol. 439. p. 673–678.Business. July-August. p. 40-42. www.actahort.org/books/439/439_113.htm Williams, Greg, and Pat Williams (ed.) 1992. FishpondThe Freshwater Institute/USDA-ARS effluent + iron=good crop nutrition. HortIdeas. Vol. 9,Adler, Paul R., Steven T. Summerfelt, D. Michael No. 11. p. 130.Glenn and Fumiomi Takeda. 2003. Mechanisticapproach to phytoremediation of water. EcologicalEngineering. Vol. 20, No. 3. p. 251–264. Inslee’s Fish Farm Nelson, R.L. 1999. Inslee’s aquaponics. AgVentures.Adler, P.R. 2001. Overview of economic evaluation of Vol. 3, No. 5. (October-November). p. 57–61.phosphorus removal by plants. Aquaponics Journal.Vol. 5, No. 4. p. 15–18. Watkins, Gordon. 1999. Inslee fish farm: A family run aquaponic operation produces chives and fish. TheAdler, P.R., J.K. Harper, E.W. Wade, F. Takeda, and Growing Edge. Vol. 10, No. 5. (May-June). p. 35–40.S.T. Summerfelt. 2000. Economic analysis of an aqua-ponic system for the integrated production of rainbowtrout and plants. International Journal of Recirculating Gordon Watkins’ SystemAquaculture. Vol. 1, No. 1. p. 15–34. Watkins, Gordon. 1993. Aqua-vegeculture: more foodAdler, P.R., J.K. Harper, F. Takeda, E.M. Wade, and from our water. Farmer to Farmer: Better Farming in theS.T. Summerfelt. 2000. Economic evaluation of hydro- Ozarks. Vol. 3, No. 4. (Winter 1992–1993). p. 1–3, 12.ponics and other treatment options for phosphorus Watkins, Gordon. 1998. Integrating aquaculture andremoval in aquaculture effluent. HortScience. Vol. 35, hydroponics on the small farm. The Growing Edge.No. 6. p. 993–999. Vol. 9, No. 5. (May-June) p. 17–21, 23.Adler, P.R. 1998. Phytoremediation of aquacultureeffluents. Aquaponics Journal. Vol. 4, No. 4. p. 10–15. New AlchemyAdler, P. R., S.T. Summerfelt, D.M. Glenn, and F. Anon. 1982. Hydroponics in the Ark. Journal of theTakeda. 1996. Evaluation of the effect of a conveyor New Alchemists. No. 8. (Spring). p. 10.Page 22 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 23. Baum, Carl. 1981. Gardening in fertile waters. New Aquaculture Economics & Management. Vol. 3, No. 1Alchemy Quarterly. Summer. p. 2–8. (March). p. 83–91.Burgoon, P.S., and C. Baum. 1984. Year round fish Clarkson, R. and S.D. Lane. 1991. Use of small-scaleand vegetable production in a passive solar greenhouse. nutrient film hydroponic technique to reduce min-International Society for Soilless Culture (ISOSC) eral accumulation in aquarium water. Aquaculture andProceedings. p. 151–171. Fisheries Management. Vol. 22. p. 37–45.McLarney, Bill. 1983. Integration of aquaculture Costa-Pierce, B.A. 1998. Preliminary investigation ofand agriculture, in the Northern United States. New an integrated aquaculture-wetland ecosystem usingAlchemy Quarterly. No. 11. (Spring). p. 7–14. tertiary-treated municipal wastewater in Los Angeles County, California. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 10,Sardinsky, Robert. 1985. Water farms: Integrated No. 4. p. 341–354. www.sciencedirect.comhydroponics in Maine. New Alchemy Quarterly.Spring. p. 13–4. Dontje, J.H. and C.J. Clanton. 1999. Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment. TransactionsZweig, Ronald D. 1986. An integrated fish culture of the ASAE. Vol. 42, No. 4. p. 1073–1085.hydroponic vegetable production system. AquacultureMagazine. Vol. 12, No. 3. (May- June). p. 34, 36–40. Creaser, Gordon. 1997. Aquaponics – combining aquaculture with hydroponics. The Growing Edge. Vol. 1, No. 9.Barramundi and Murray Cod Systems Ghaly, A.E., M. Kamal, and N. S. Mahmoud. 2005.Lennard, Wilson A. and Brian V. Leonard. 2005. A Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater for watercomparison of reciprocating flow versus constant flow recycling and production of fish feed. Environmentin an integrated, gravel bed, aquaponic test system. International. Vol. 31, No. 1 (January). p. 1–13.Aquaculture International. Volume 12, Number 6. p. www.sciencedirect.com539–553. Guterstam, B. 1996. Demonstrating ecological engi-Wilson, Geoff. 2005. Australian barramundi farm neering for wastewater treatment in a Nordic climategoes aquaponic. Aquaponics Journal. Issue No. 37, 2nd using aquaculture principles in a greenhouse meso-Quarter. p. 12–16. cosm. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 6. p. 73–97. Head, William, and Jon Splane. 1980. Fish FarmingMiscellaneous in Your Solar Greenhouse. Amity Foundation, Eugene,Bender, Judith. 1984. An integrated system of aqua- OR. 43 p.culture, vegetable production and solar heating in an Kleinholz, Conrad, Glen Gebhart, and Ken Williams.urban environment. Aquacultural Engineering. Vol. 3, 1987. Hydroponic/Aquaculture and Aquaculture/No. 2. p. 141–152. www.sciencedirect.com Irrigation Systems: Fish Waste as a Plant Fertilizer. U.S.Belusz, Larry. 1993. Recirculating aquaculture: Is it for Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation Researchyou? Small Farm Today. June. p. 23–24. Report. Langston University, Langston, OK. 65 p.Bird, Kimon T. 1993. Aquatic plants for treatment Kubiak, Jan. 1998. Cape Cod Aquafarm: Combiningof aquaculture wastewater. Aquaculture Magazine. Ingenuity and Enterprise. The Growing Edge. July-January-February. p. 39–42. August. p. 36–37, 39-41.Burgoon, P.S. and C. Baum. 1984. Year round fish Langford, Norma Jane. 1998. Cell fish and plantand vegetable production in a passive solar greenhouse. pipes and young moms. Maine Organic Farmer andp. 151–171. In. Proceedings of the 6th International Gardener. Vol. 24, No. 4. (December). p. 24–26.Congress on Soilless Culture. Held April 28–May 5, Letterman, Gordon R., and Ellen F. Letterman. 1985.Luntern, The Netherlands. ISOSC, Wageningen, The Propagation of prawns and plants in the same environment.Netherlands. Combined Proceedings International Plant Propagator’sChaves, P.A., R.M. Sutherland, and L.M. Laird. 1999. Society. Vol. 34. p. 185–188.An economic and technical evaluation of integrating Lewis, W.M., J.H. Yopp, H. L. Schramm Jr., and A.hydroponics in a recirculation fish production system. M. Brandenburg. 1978. Use of hydroponics to maintainwww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 23
  • 24. quality of recirculated water in a fish culture sys- aquaculture system. Aquaculture. Vol. 244, No. 1-4. p.tem. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 109–118. www.sciencedirect.comVol. 107, No. 1. p. 92–99. http://afsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1577/1548-8659(1978)107%3C92%3AUOHTM Rennert, B. and M. Drews. 1989. The possibility ofQ%3E2.0.CO%3B2 combined fish and vegetable production in green- houses. Advanced Fish Science. Vol. 8. p. 19–27.Lewis, W.M., J.H. Yopp, A.M. Brandenburg, and K.D.Schnoor. 1981. On the maintenance of water quality for Rivera, Gregg, and Bruce Isaacs. 1990. Final Report: Aclosed fish production systems by means of hydroponically Demonstration of an Integrated Hydroponics and Fishgrown vegetable crops. p. 121–130. In: K. Tiews and H. Culture System. Submitted to: New York State Depart-Heenemann (ed.) Aquaculture in Heated Effluents and ment of Agriculture & Markets, Agricultural ResearchRecirculation Systems. Volume 1. Berlin, Germany. and Development Grants Program. 15 p.Mathieu, Jennifer J., and Jaw-Kai Wang. 1995. The Seawright, D.E., R.R. Stickney, and R.B. Walker.effect of water velocity and nutrient concentration on 1998. Nutrient dynamics in integrated aquaculture-plant nutrient uptake; A literature review. p. 187–211. hydroponics systems. Aquaculture. Vol. 160, No. 34In: Aquacultural Engineering and Waste Management. (January). p. 215–237. www.sciencedirect.comProceedings from Aquaculture Expo VIII and Aquacul-ture in the Mid-Atlantic Conference. Seawright, D.E. 1993. A method for investigating nutrient dynamics in integrated aquaculture-hydroponicsMcClintic, Dennis. 1994. Double-duty greenhouse. systems, p. 137–47. In: J.K. Wang (ed.) Techniques forThe Furrow. March-April. p. 41–42. Naegel, L.C.A. Modern Aquaculture. American Society for Agricul-1977. Combined production of fish and plants in recir- tural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.culating water. Aquaculture. Vol. 10, No. 1. p. 17–24. Sneed, K. 1975. Fish farming and hydroponics. Aqua-Newton, Scott and Jimmy Mullins. 1990. Hydroponic culture and the Fish Farmer. Vol. 2, No. 1. p. 11, 18–20.Tomato Production Using Fish Pond Water. VirginiaCooperative Extension Service. Fact Sheet No. 31. 3 p. Spencer, Robert. 1990. Wastewater recycling for fishPierce, Barry A. 1980. Water reuse aquaculture systems farmers. BioCycle. April. p. 73–74, 76.in two solar greenhouses in Northern Vermont. Pro- Sutton, R.J. and W.M. Lewis. 1982. Further observa-ceedings of the Annual Meeting of the World Maricul- tions on a fish production system that incorporatesture Society. Vol. 11. p. 118–127. hydroponically grown plants. Progressive Fish Culturist.Przybylowicz, Paul. 1991. Surfless and turfless: A new Vol. 44, No. 1. p. 55–59.wave in integrated food production. The Growing Thomas, Luther. 1992. Going for gold. The GrowingEdge. Vol. 2, No. 3. (Spring). p. 28–34, 60–61. Edge. Vol. 3, No. 4. (Summer). p. 23–29, 40.Quillere, I., D. Marie, L. Roux, F. Gosse, J.F. Morot- University of California-Los Angeles. 1975. WasteGaudry. 1993. An artificial productive ecosystem based nutrient recycling using hydroponic and aquaculturalon a fish/bacteria/plant association. 1. Design and man- methods. Institute of Evolutionary and Environmentalagement. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment.Vol. 47, No. 1. (October). p. 13–30. Biology, Environmental Science and Engineering, University of California- Los Angeles. 177 p.Quillere, I., D. Marie, L. Roux, F. Gosse, J.F. Morot-Gaudry. 1995. An artificial productive ecosystem based Watten, Barnaby J., and Robert L. Busch. 1984.on a fish/bacteria/plant association. 2. Performance. Tropical production of tilapia (Sarotherodon aurea) andAgriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Vol. 53, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in a small-scaleNo. 1. (March). p. 19–30. recirculating water system. Aquaculture. Vol. 41, No. 3. (October). p. 271–283. www.sciencedirect.comRafiee, Gholamreza and Che Roos Saad. 2005. Nutri-ent cycle and sludge production during different stages Youth, Howard. 1992. Farming in a fish tank. Worldof red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) growth in a recirculating Watch. May-June. p. 5–7.Page 24 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 25. Appendix II: DissertationsDissertations (PhD) and theses (Masters degree) on Khan, Masud A. 1996. Utilization of Aquacul-integrated aquaculture-hydroponic systems can provide ture Effluent to Supplement Water and Nutrient Usecritical access to research data and literature reviews. of Turfgrasses and Native Plants (Ephedra viridis,For example, the Speraneos in Missouri and Gordon Artemesia tridentata, Atriplex canescens, CeratoidesWatkins in Arkansas used Mark McMurtry’s disserta- lanata, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, and Cercocarpustion from North Carolina State University as a guide in montanus). PhD Dissertation, New Mexico Statethe design of their systems. The UMI ProQuest Digital University. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 218 p.Dissertations database (see below) provides public Webaccess to titles and abstracts, via keyword and author King, Chad Eric. 2005. Integrated Agriculture andsearch. Print copies are available for sale. Land-grant Aquaculture for Sustainable Food Production. PhDuniversity libraries – through fee-based subscription– Dissertation, The University of Arizona. UMI, Annprovide full-text access to recent documents via the Harbor, MI. 87 p.ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. Selectedtitles on aquaponic systems are listed below. The thesis MacQuarrie, Carla Dawn. 2002. Computationalby Carla MacQuarrie contains a detailed description Model of an Integrated Aquaculture- Hydroponicof an aquaponics facility, including parts and pump- System. MS Thesis, Daltech-Dalhousie University.ing equipment, for example. There are numerous other UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 127 p.titles in hydroponics, aquaculture, recirculating aqua-culture, tilapia, tank culture, and wastewater effluent McMurtry, Mark Richard. 1992. Integrated Aquaculture-for those who wish to explore further. Contact: Olericulture System as Influenced by Component Ratio.UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations PhD Dissertation, North Carolina State University. UMI,789 E. Eisenhower Parkway Ann Harbor, MI. 78 p.P.O. Box 1346 Rakocy, James Edward. 1980. Evaluation of a ClosedAnn Arbor, MI 48106-1346 Recirculating System for Tilapia Culture. PhD Disserta-734-761-4700 tion, Auburn University. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 129 p.800-521-0600 http://proquest.com/en-US/default.shtml Seawright, Damon Eurgene. 1995. Integrated Aqua-Faucette, Raymond Frank, Jr. 1997. Evaluation of a culture-Hydroponic Systems: Nutrient Dynamics andRecirculating Aquaculture-Hydroponics System. PhD Designer Diet Development. PhD Dissertation, Uni-Dissertation, Oklahoma State University. UMI, Ann versity of Mexico. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 274 p.Harbor, MI. 69 p. Singh, Sahdev. 1996. A Computer Simulation ModelHead, William. 1986. An Assessment of a Closed for Wastewater Management in an Integrated (FishGreenhouse Aquaculture and Hydroponic System Production-Hydroponics) System. PhD Dissertation,(Tilapia Diets). PhD. Dissertation, Oregon State Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.University. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 127 p. UMI, Ann Harbor, MI. 150 p.www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 25
  • 26. NotesPage 26 ATTRA Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture
  • 27. Noteswww.attra.ncat.org ATTRA Page 27
  • 28. Aquaponics—Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture By Steve Diver, NCAT Agriculture Specialist Published 2006 Updated by Lee Rinehart, NCAT Agriculture Specialist © 2010 NCAT Holly Michels, Editor Amy Smith, Production This publication is available on the Web at: www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/aquaponic.html or www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/aquaponic.pdf IP163 Slot 54 Version 033010Page 28 ATTRA