Agroforestry Overview
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Agroforestry Overview

Agroforestry Overview

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Agroforestry Overview Document Transcript

  • 1. AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW HORTICULTURE SYSTEMS GUIDEAbstract: Integrating trees and shrubs with the other enterprises on a farm can create additional sources of income,spread farm labor throughout the year, and increase the productivity of the other enterprises, while protecting soil, water,and wildlife. Agroforestry systems include alleycropping, silvopasture, windbreaks, riparian buffer strips, and forestfarming for non-timber forest products. While they clearly offer economic and ecological advantages, these systems alsoinvolve complex interactions, which complicate their management. When designing an agroforestry enterprise, oneshould research the marketing possibilities and include the agroforestry system in the complete business plan for the farm.This publication presents the principles of agroforestry, an overview of common practices, marketing considerations,several case studies, and an extensive list of further resources.By Alice Beetz A traditional tree farm or nut plantation man-NCAT Agriculture Specialist aged as a single-purpose monocrop is not anJune 2002 agroforestry system. Neither is a woodlot when it’s managed for wood products only. Agroforestry involves combining a tree planting with another enterprise—such as grazing ani- mals or producing mushrooms—or managing a woodlot for a diversity of special forest products. For example, an agroforestry system might pro- duce firewood, biomass feedstocks, pine-straw mulch, fodder for grazing animals, and other tra- ditional forestry products. At the same time, the trees are sheltering livestock from wind or sun, providing wildlife habitat, controlling soil ero- sion, and—in the case of most leguminous spe- cies—fixing nitrogen to improve soil fertility. Trees add beauty and serve as a windbreak. Table of ContentsINTRODUCTIONAgroforestry is a farming system that integrates Introduction ........................ 1 Introductioncrops and/or livestock with trees and shrubs. Agrofor orestry Practices Agroforestry Practices ........ 2The resulting biological interactions providemultiple benefits, including diversified income The Business ofsources, increased biological production, better Agrofor orestry Agroforestry .................. 6water quality, and improved habitat for both Where for More Where to Look for Morehumans and wildlife. Farmers adopt Information .................. 10 Informa ormationagroforestry practices for two reasons. Theywant to increase their economic stability and they efer erences References ....................... 10want to improve the management of natural re- Further Resour esources Further Resources ............ 11sources under their care.ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information service operated by the National Centerfor Appropriate Technology under a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S.Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products,companies, or individuals. ATTRA is headquartered in Fayetteville, Arkansas (P.O. Box 3657,Fayetteville, AR 72702), with offices in Butte, Montana and Davis, California.
  • 2. Agroforestry practices in use in the United States that sometimes necessitate trade-offs betweeninclude alleycropping, silvopasture, windbreaks them. The design must allow sufficient room forand shelterbelts, riparian buffer strips, and for- the equipment needed to service each enterprise.est farming (special forest products). An over- If either crop requires chemical herbicides or in-view of each of these major systems is presented secticides, the other must be tolerant of thesebelow. treatments. In the case of livestock, there may be periods during and after chemical use whenAGROFORESTRY PRACTICES animals must be withdrawn from the area. Live- stock can cause damage, even when the trees are1. Alleycropping fully grown; roots injured by livestock hooves are susceptible to disease. Soil compaction is aAlleycropping involves growing crops (grains, danger in wet weather. These examples indicateforages, vegetables, etc.) between trees planted how crucial planning is to the ultimate successin rows. The spacing between the rows is de- of an agroforestry system.signed to accommodate the mature size of thetrees while leaving room for the planned alley In most alleycropping systems, trees are plantedcrops. When sun-loving plants like corn or some in straight rows, sometimes with no regard forherbs will be alleycropped, the alleyways need Bob Carruthers, a crop farmer in Morrilton, Ar-to be wide enough to let in plenty of light even kansas, faced the choices of getting bigger, get- ting out of commodity crop farming, or wait- ing to be pushed out. He decided to plant pe- cans on his laser-leveled fields and to continue cropping in the alleys while the trees grow. He chose several pecan varieties that are in demand on the market and have an extended ripening season. He planted them 35 feet apart with 60-foot alleyways, installed micro-sprin- klers for irrigation, and fertilized, based on soil and leaf-tissue tests, for several years. Four years after establishment, he is already har- vesting a few pecans and selling them retail for $1.50 per pound. He plans to buy a me- chanical sheller so that he can add more value to his product and continue to sell direct with- While trees mature, crops provide income. out depending on a wholesaler. In the 60-foot alleys, Carruthers plants no-tillwhen the trees have matured. Alternatively, the wheat and soybeans, with a 17% reduction incropping sequence can be planned to change as yield as compared to his former monocroppedthe trees’ growth decreases the available light. fields. He has planned for the change in lightFor example, soybeans or corn could be grown availability as the trees mature; when sunlightwhen the trees are very small; then, as the tree limits soybean production, he will grow onlycanopy closes, forages could be harvested for hay; wheat in the alleys. At year 22 or thereabouts,finally, when the trees are fully grown and the he will take out every other tree in the row,ground is more shaded, grazing livestock or leaving a 60-foot by 70-foot spacing. Havingshade-tolerant crops like mushrooms or orna- originally estimated that he would regain themental ferns could occupy the alleyways. establishment costs in 13 years, he now expects to do so in 10 or 11 years. Meanwhile, the crop-Like all integrated systems, alleycropping re- ping system contributes cash flow in thesequires skillful management and careful planning. early years when tree revenue is minimal.Both the crop and the trees have requirementsPAGE 2 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW
  • 3. slope or contour. There are, however, advan- Tom Frantzen and his family are innovativetages to planting the trees in curves or on the farmers in northeastern Iowa. In 1992, they be-contour. These include the slowing of surface- gan an intercropping experiment by plantingwater movement and the reduction of soil ero- double rows of hybrid cottonwood trees at evension. The trees can be planted in single rows or spacings across one of their fields, with alter-in blocks of multiple rows between alleys. The nating strips of corn and oats in the alleys. Thefirst row in a block is planted on the contour line; oats are underseeded with red clover, and ev-subsequent rows are planted below the original ery third alley strip is a second-year stand ofline according to the slope of the land. The final red clover. From a distance the field has anrow of trees in one block is planted parallel to attractive striped pattern. Each year the oatsthe contour line on which the next block of trees are combined and the straw is baled. The redwill begin. The width of the tree blocks varies, clover underseeded in the oats is lightly grazedbut the cropping alleyways between them have as a new seeding, and then used as pasture inparallel edges. This design avoids creating point the second year.rows within the alleys, thus simplifying cropequipment maneuvers. The width of the alleys Every year, a farrowing hut is placed on eachis determined by the size of this equipment. second-year clover strip. Bred gilts graze on clover (or alfalfa) while the adjacent crops andIf planting on the contour is impractical, another trees are protected from damage with twooption is to plant trees in curved zigzags so that strands of portable electric wire. Six poundswater running downhill is captured or at least of ground corn and minerals per gilt supple-slowed. Islands of trees can offer some of the ment the pasture to ensure proper nutritionsame advantages if they don’t interfere with prior to farrowing. In the fall, the growing pigscropping operations. and lactating sows harvest the corn strips. Grazing both the corn and the red clover keepsIn large plantings, fast-growing hardwoods or harvest costs to a minimum. The corn and treespines are interplanted as trainers to ensure that separate the groups of sows and pigs, providethe crop trees develop upright, unbranched a windbreak, and offer shade in the heat (1).trunks. Alternatively, the crop trees can beplanted close together in the rows, to be thinnedand pruned several times as they grow. Al- from the planting. Grazing generally begins af-though these early-harvested trees may have ter two or three years, when the trees are largelittle market value, their presence during the first enough that the livestock can’t damage them. Inyears of growth has increased the main crop’s other instances, tree tubes and electric fencingvalue. The goal is to produce long, straight protect the young trees, and grazing begins im-sawlogs with few lower branches, for maximum mediately.profit at final harvest. Whatever the plantingdesign, trees on the outside edge of a group will Grazing livestock on silvopasture eliminatesgrow more side branches, or even a lopsided some of the costs of tree maintenance. With goodtrunk, resulting in lower-value sawlogs. grazing management, for example, herbicides and mowing may become unnecessary. Graz-2. Silvopasture ing also enhances nutrient cycling and reduces commercial fertilizer costs; the animals removeTree and pasture combinations are called few nutrients, and their waste is a valuable in-silvopastoral agroforestry. Hardwoods (sometimes put for the trees. Well-managed grazing will in-nut trees) and/or pines are planted in single or crease organic matter and improve soil condi-multiple rows, and livestock graze between them. tions. However, controlling the number of ani-Although both the trees and the livestock must mals per acre, limiting the number of days thosebe managed for production, some systems em- animals remain on each site, and avoiding com-phasize one over the other. Usually, in the early paction are critical for a successful silvopastureyears of establishment, crops or hay are harvested system. //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW PAGE 3
  • 4. Competition for water between the pasture andthe trees may be a concern. In a silvopasture withnut trees, for example, seasonal water shortagesduring late summer can negatively affect nutfilland the production of fruit buds for next year’sharvest. Irrigation is justified in such a situationif the trees are being managed for nut produc-tion. Water competition may not be as criticalfor timber silvopastures.Further information about silvopastoral systemsis available from the National Agroforestry Cen-ter and other resources listed at the end of thispublication. A windbreak protects Iowa crops. Although the trees compete for available water along the edges between the windbreak and the crop rows, potentially reducing crop yield near the windbreak, the net effect on productivity is positive. In fact, even on land that’s well suited for high-value crops, a windbreak can increase the crop yield of the entire downwind field by as much as 20%, even when the windbreak area Grazing sheep replace the mower in Christmas trees. is included in the acreage total (2). Windbreaks can be designed specifically for shel-3. Windbreaks or Shelterbelts tering livestock. Studies have shown the eco- nomic advantages of providing protection fromExtensive research on windbreaks, also called windchill, a major stress on animals that liveshelterbelts, has been carried out in the U.S. Trees outside in the winter. Reduced feed bills, in-are planted in single or multiple rows along the creases in milk production, and improved calv-edge of a field to reduce wind effects on crops or ing success have resulted from the use of wind-livestock. Windbreaks have been shown to re- breaks. The National Agroforestry Center (seeduce wind impact over a horizontal distance Further Resources) offers a series of booklets onequalling at least ten times the height of the trees. windbreak technology as well as a publicationWind and water erosion are reduced, creating a entitled Outdoor Living Barns. Another resource,moist, more favorable microclimate for the crop. focused specifically on incorporating trees intoIn the winter the windbreak traps snow, and any family farms, is Shelter and Shade by John andwinter crops or livestock are protected from chill- Bunny Mortimer (3).ing winds. Beneficial insects find permanenthabitat in windbreaks, enhancing crop protec- Besides providing protection to crops and live-tion. stock, windbreaks offer other advantages. TheyPAGE 4 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW
  • 5. benefit wildlife, especially by serving as continu-ous corridors along which animals can safelymove. Farmers can even develop windbreaksinto additional profit centers for the farm—hunt-ing leases, selective timber harvests, firewoodsales, and special forest products are some of thepossibilities (these marketing options are dis-cussed below).Any tree species can be used in a windbreak.However, deciduous species, even in multiplerows, will lose effectiveness when they lose theirleaves. For year-round use, some of the speciesselected should be evergreen. Fast-growing treesshould be included; it’s best to plant deep-rooted,non-competitive species along the edges. Regu-lar deep chisel-plowing along the edges will keeproots from spreading into the crop rows. If someof the trees are harvested periodically, replace-ments can be planted, establishing a long-termrotation within the windbreak. Buffers protect water quality.Farmers in the upper Midwest are investing in stabilize streambanks. On cropland that is tiledhybrid hazelnut or poplar plantings as part of to improve drainage, polluted water can flowtheir crop and livestock systems. They are in- directly into streams; constructed wetlands in-tegrating them into the farm to provide benefits stalled in the buffers can capture and clean thissuch as windbreaks, terraces, or riparian buff- drainage water before it enters the stream.ers. Using livestock wastes as a part of the fer-tility program is being investigated. Forested areas along streams fulfill other needs of the community at large by storing water andThe newly introduced hybrid hazelnut takes the by helping to prevent streambank erosion,form of a bush (most hazelnuts have been raised which in turn decreases sedimentation down-as small trees in the northwestern U.S.). These stream. These areas protect and enhance theplants are resistant or tolerant to eastern filbert aquatic environment as well. Shading the wa-blight, which is a serious threat to the industry ter keeps it cooler, an essential condition forin the Northwest. The demand for the nut is many desirable aquatic species. Buffer stripslarge and established. Midwestern farmers are also provide wildlife habitat and can be man-exploring cooperative marketing options. Har- aged for special forest products.vesting equipment appropriate for theseplantings is being developed. Crop and livestock farmers, as well as local communities, have become aware of the threat that agricultural practices can pose to pure drinking water. Consequently, there are fed-4. Riparian Buffer Strips eral, state, and local government programs to assist in the design and planting of riparianTrees, grasses, and/or shrubs planted in areas buffer strips. The federal Continuous Conser-along streams or rivers are called riparian buffers vation Reserve Program can be used for thisor filter strips. These plantings are designed to purpose. The local Farm Services Administra-catch soil, excess nutrients, and chemical pesti- tion office can advise on this program and othercides moving over the land’s surface before they options. Conservation organizations are an-enter waterways. Such plantings also physically other potential resource. Some offer conserva- //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW PAGE 5
  • 6. tion easements or trusts when land is perma-nently withdrawn from agricultural production.5. Forest Farming and Special Forest ProductsWhen a natural forested area is managed for bothwood products and an additional enterprise, itbecomes an agroforestry system. For help withthe management of timber, county Extensionagents can refer farmers to Extension forestryspecialists. These specialists are qualified to giveadvice on thinning, pruning, and harvestingpractices, as well as on marketing options. Theymay or may not be able to visit the farm for on-site consultation. The Association of Consulting Ginseng thrives under mature forest.Foresters of America (See Further Resources be-low) can refer you to private forestry consultants naturally occurring patches of berries or bitter-in your area. sweet. Or they might plant understory crops adapted to the forest type and climate. GrowingBesides producing saw timber and pulpwood, mushrooms on logs is another, more labor-intenwoodlands can generate income from many sive, possibility; a canopy of either hardwoodsother products. Established forests offer many or pine will provide the shade needed to main-non-timber ”special forest products” that contrib- tain moisture for fruiting. See the ATTRA publi-ute to cash flow without requiring the one-time cation Mushroom Cultivation and Marketing forharvest of old trees. For example, landowners more information.can manage established woods to encourage Berries and vines for crafts or basketry are ex- amples of products that can be harvested and The number of products that a woodland can marketed without any costs of establishment; on contribute is limited only by the owners’ the production end, they may require only that imaginations and their ability to identify and the canopy be managed for optimal light condi- exploit a profitable market. Here are a few tions. Some other examples of non-timber forest examples: products are listed in the box on this page. For • fruits, nuts, berries more information on special forest products, re- • honey and other hive products quest the new ATTRA publication Woodlot En- • mushrooms terprises, and visit the Web sites listed below un- • herbs and medicinal plants der Further Resources. • materials for basket-making or chair-caning THE BUSINESS OF AGROFORESTRY • pine straw, boughs, pinecones • plant materials as dried or fresh 1. Establishment Costs and Interim Income ornamentals • bamboo Effort spent at the beginning of an agroforestry • aromatics project on properly preparing the site and fol- • fenceposts, firewood, smokewood lowing the recommended planting procedures • decorative or odd wood, e.g. burls will pay off well later on. Depending on the type • dye materials of project, establishment costs can be consider- • tree and shrub seeds, seedlings, and able. For an alleycropping system—or even a cuttings windbreak—destruction of existing vegetation • charcoal and deep chiseling or ripping of the soil are mini-PAGE 6 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW
  • 7. mal requirements. A season of growing a cover Nut trees produce income from the nuts longcrop before planting the trees, and use of mulch before the timber can be harvested. In fact, overor landscape cloth to reduce early competition the life of the planting, the value of the nut har-for water and nutrients, will increase the chances vest of improved varieties is liable to surpass theof quick, healthy growth. Lending institutions value of the wood at final harvest. Black walnutwill likely require a good business plan in order is a valuable timber and nut tree, but it requiresto fund such a project, especially for a beginner. a good site and takes a long time (often eightyHowever, government support programs such years) before timber harvest can begin. Earlyas the continuous CRP (Conservation Reserve training and pruning, as well as managing fer-Program) or other program payments will helpto defray these costs in some areas of the coun-try. Consult with your local Farm Services Short-rotation Woody CropsAgency about whether such programs wouldapply to your acreage. Several of the agroforestry practices described here can incorporate fast-growing trees such as poplar and willow. Called short-rotation woody crops, they are used in riparian buff- ers, windbreaks, or alleycrops. Harvested for biomass, fiber, or other products, such trees can produce a marketable crop in as few as ten years when managed intensively. Rapid ini- tial growth requires a prepared site, adequate fertility and water, and competition controls (e.g., mulch, herbicide, weed barriers). In some systems, after a tree is cut, one of the sprouts that grows from the stump is chosen as the replacement stem. After it has grown for several years, it is harvested and the pro- cess is repeated. This practice of repeatedly cutting and re-sprouting trees from an estab- lished root system is called coppicing. Alter- natively, trees are simply harvested once, and Raspberries between young pecan trees. new trees planted as replacements. Since new hybrids are continually being developed forThe delay until the income from a new planting use as short-rotation woody crops, producersbegins to pay back these initial costs is a key con- might choose to completely re-plant in ordersideration for most landowners. Alley crops and to take advantage of newer genetic lines.silvopastures provide income from the area be-tween tree rows in this early stage. In addition, Short-rotation woody crops are of increasingas a stand of same-age trees matures, some trees interest to the energy and fiber industries. Forwill be harvested in order to reduce competition example, in Minnesota, as native aspen forestsas the trees begin to require more space. Al- are exhausted, the pulp industry has turned tothough the early thinnings are not likely to be hybrid poplars. They are being monocroppedworth very much, the later ones may have some in plantations or included in farm agroforestrymarket value. It pays to investigate all the op- systems. In this case, the demand is establishedtions, including marketing value-added products and so is the infrastructure to harvest and pro-directly. Hardwood chips could be sold to a land- cess the crop. These fast-growing trees are of-scaping firm, for instance, or firewood may have ten planted in rotation for regular income.nearby customers. Consider some of the “spe- However, an all-in, all-out system can also becial forest products” mentioned above. successful. //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW PAGE 7
  • 8. tility and pests, will maximize the value of both tree products, new markets will develop in othercrops. Pecans, either native or improved variet- regions. It is, of course, difficult to predict where,ies, have some of the same advantages and dis- especially when planning for harvests twentyadvantages. However, pecan trees are seldom years or more in the future.harvested for timber while they are still produc-ing because of the high value of the nut. Careful consideration must be given not only to the marketing plan, but to the harvest plan asIn the case of pines, boughs for the ornamental well. The planting design must accommodatemarket and pine needles for landscaping mulch harvest equipment and leave room for mainte-provide early income potential. Again, the total nance operations. Young trees are easilyvalue of these products over the life of the stand wounded, and these wounds provide entrancecan be more than that of the timber. The advan- to pest organisms.tage of providing income while trees grow to ma-turity, however, can be critical to the cash-flow Thinning and pruning may generate sales ifsituation of the farm. In every system, the wisely marketed. This part of the planning pro-amount and type of management and labor re- cess requires the advice of a forestry professional,quired for interim and final products must be whether a government agent or a private con-carefully weighed during the design stage. sultant. Remember that loggers and timber buy- ers are likely to have their own best interests inLarry Godsey at the University of Missouri’s mind.Center for Agroforestry wrote an excellent pub-lication on developing a budget that combines Landowners who want to add value to their for-multiple enterprise budgets over the life of an est products have some choices. One way is toagroforestry planting. Economic Budgeting for certify that the forest and its harvest have beenAgroforestry Practices is available from The Mis- managed according to specified ecological stan-souri Agroforestry Center (See Further Re- dards. There are currently several “eco-label”sources below). An on-line version can be down- certification programs. Eco-labeling has caughtloaded from the Center’s website. on in Europe where consumer recognition is high, but has not consistently earned premium2. Marketing prices in the U.S. Contact ATTRA for more in- formation about forest certification programs.Thorough research into the markets available foreach type of tree product is absolutely essential In some cases, landowners can add value them-before committing to any forestry enterprise. For selves, for example by cutting and selling fire-most forestry products, the buyer must be rela- wood. Access to a portable sawmill can enabletively close to the site. Otherwise, the transpor- landowners to saw their own logs into lumber,tation costs will eat up potential profits. Al- air dry it, and sell it directly to specialty wood-though short-rotation woody crops are a rela- workers. Other options, like selling pinetively new type of forestry without established thinnings as Christmas decorations, requiremarkets, it is likely that regional markets will imagination and marketing know-how. Feedevelop over time where there are customers hunting or wildlife photography, possibly com-such as ethanol producers, electric power pro- bined with camping or bed-and-breakfast facili-ducers, and the fiber industry. ties, might also be considered.Regions where forestry is a longstanding tradi- 3. Evaluating Agroforestry Optionstion are likely to have markets for all types ofwood products (e.g., saw timber, chip and saw, Agroforestry systems are much more complexpulpwood). Without such a forestry infrastruc- than single-purpose farm or forestry enterprises.ture already in place, it is risky to commit to an Each component of the system—the trees as wellagroforestry system. However, because private as the crops or livestock—must undergo a serieslands are becoming a more important source of of evaluation procedures: testing against thePAGE 8 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW
  • 9. farm or family goals, evaluating resources, in- Enterprise can be accessed on the Web at <http:/vestigating promising options from a longer list /www.attra.org> or obtained in print form byof possibilities, making the choice, planning, and calling ATTRA.then implementing the plan and monitoringprogress. Integrating several enterprises necessarily in- volves multiple interactions. How will each com-Evaluation of an agroforestry system requires ponent affect the other—for better or worse?collecting the following information (4): How can all operations be managed without damage to other parts of the system? Despite• Farm Accounts—Income and expenditures for every effort to predict, there will be unforeseen existing enterprises and potential ones, in- consequences. Advantages and disadvantages cluding fixed and variable costs. will become apparent. It is therefore more criti-• Planting and Felling Areas—The program of cal than usual to continually observe what’s hap- harvest and planting for each year of the pening on the site. If, during planning, certain project. indicators can be identified as early warning• Labor and Materials—Includes the costs of signs, better monitoring will result. An alert seedlings, fertilizer, herbicides, and insur- manager can avoid losses by quickly noticing ance, as well as planting, pruning, and thin- problems as they occur. ning expenses.• Wood Yields—Predicted wood-product values by log grade, including cost of harvest and transport.• Understory Profiles—Crop or livestock prod- ucts, including harvested tree products (nuts, pinestraw), and how production will change through the tree rotation; effects of canopy closure and windbreak benefits.• Environmental Impacts—Water yield, erosion reduction, carbon sequestration, wildlife.• Social Effects—Family and farm goals, support of the rural community, improved visual aes- thetics.Since agroforestry systems in temperate climateshave not been studied through several completerotations, landowners will work with incomplete Cattle profits offset walnut establishment costs.data during the evaluation process. Yield datafrom same-age tree plantations must be adjustedfor an agroforestry system. Understory compe- Agroforestry systems, especially for temperatetition for water and nutrients, as well as light ef- climates, have not traditionally received muchfects on both understory and tree edges, should attention from either the agricultural or the for-be taken into account when projecting yields and estry research communities. Nevertheless,expected market values. implementing designs using trees and bushes to enhance crop or livestock production, wasteThe Missouri Agroforestry Center’s excellent management, and natural resource protection ispublication Economic Budgeting for Agroforestry a step toward a permanent, stable agriculture.Practices (5) offers step-by-step guidelines for Farmers have pioneered many of these systems.developing multiple enterprise budgets and then Each requires a careful initial design adapted tocombining them into a cash flow plan (see Fur- the site and the farm operation, continuous ob-ther Resources below). In addition, the more servation, and a commitment to a long timeline.generic ATTRA publication Evaluating a Rural The resulting farmscape will be beautiful as well //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW PAGE 9
  • 10. as productive, and can be a source of pride for can help plan and fund new agroforestrythe family and the community. projects. Although hard copies are no longer available, it is posted on ATTRA’s website:WHERE TO LOOK FOR MORE INFORMATION <http://www.attra.org/guide>. An update of the electronic version is planned.There are a growing number of information re-sources on agroforestry in temperate climates, Several excellent reference books—both classicseasily available to anyone who seeks them. and recent publications—are listed below under Further Resources, along with many electronicThe Association for Temperate Agroforestry sources of forestry or agroforestry information.(AFTA) (See the Further Resources section be-low) is the professional organization devoted to REFERENCESagroforestry research, demonstration, and infor-mation dissemination in North America. Its 1) Richards, Keith. 1997. Planning for aquarterly newsletter, The Temperate Agroforester, positive future: This family seeds enter-is included as a benefit of paying annual mem- prises that fit their farm vision. Plant-bership dues. In addition, many books on tem- ing Your Farm’s Future Series, Nationalperate agroforestry are available to members at Center for Appropriate Technology,a discount. AFTA sponsors a biennial interna- Fayetteville, AR. 2 p.tional conference where researchers and practi- <http://www.attra.org/pub/leaflets/tioners gather to learn what is happening in tem- planningrs.html>.perate agroforestry throughout North America.The Proceedings from these conferences provide 2) Conservation Trees For Your Farm, Fam-an excellent overview of the field. Proceedings ily & Future. No date. The National Arborfrom many of the past conferences are still avail- Day Foundation. Nebraska City, NE. 10 p.able. (See AFTA’s website or contact AFTA aboutavailability for purchase.) The seventh confer- 3) Mortimer, John and Bunny Mortimer. 1996.ence was held in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, Shelter & Shade: Creating a Healthyin August of 2001. When proceedings become andProfitable Environment for Our Live-available, ordering information will be posted on stock with Trees. Green Park Press, Jack-the AFTA website. son, MS. 161 p.Based in Lincoln, Nebraska, the National 4) Knowles, Leith and Phillip Middlemiss.Agroforestry Center (NAC) is an interagency 1999. Evaluating Agroforestry Options.venture of the Natural Resources Conservation A Continuing Professional DevelopmentService and the USDA Forest Service. The part- course held at Hot Springs, AR, June 12, 1999.nership combines the resources of both agencies June. p. 6.to develop and apply agroforestry technologiesin appropriate conservation and/or production 5) Godsey, Larry D. 2000. Economic Bud-systems for farms, ranches, and communities. geting for Agroforestry Practices. Publica-NAC publishes Inside Agroforestry, a quarterly tion UMCA–3–2000. University of Missouriperiodical containing news from the Center as Agroforestry, Columbia, MO. 20 p.well as information about developments inagroforestry in the U.S. They also offer a num-ber of practical publications, many of which arefree. See Further Resources below.ATTRA distributed a recent USDA publicationentitled Building Better Rural Places: Federal Pro-grams for Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry, Conser-vation and Community Development. It identifiesnumerous agencies and programs, some of whichPAGE 10 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW
  • 11. FURTHER RESOURCES Members receive a quarterly newsletter, National Woodlands, with information on managing wood- Agroforestry-related organizations: land, legislative and tax issues, as well as other intermittent publications; a complimentary visitAssociation for Temperate Agroforestry (AFTA) from a certified forester; and access to videos andSchool of Natural Resources other publications.1-30 Agriculture Bldg.University of Missouri Books:Columbia, MO 65211 The $25/year membership fee includes a subscrip- Agroforestry for Soil Management, 2nd ed. tion to The Temperate Agroforester, a quarterly 1997. By Anthony Young. CAB International, newsletter, as well as discounts on association New York, NY. 320 p. events and on many agroforestry books ordered Describes benefits of trees in controlling soil ero- through the association. sion, increasing soil fertility, and maintaining soil structure on marginal lands; offers support forThe National Agroforestry Center agroforestry practices that improve the soil.Rocky Mountain Forestry and Range ExtensionStation Agroforestry for Sustainable Land-Use. 1999.Univ. of Nebraska East Campus Edited by Daniel Auclair and Christian Dupraz.Lincoln, NE 68583-0822 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 266 p.http://www.unl.edu/nac Examines the environmental and social conditions Offers a free quarterly newsletter, Inside that affect the roles and performance of trees in Agroforestry, to anyone who requests it, and field- and forest-based agricultural production manypublications on agroforestry practices systems. andproducts, all at low or no cost. Agroforestry: Science, Policy and Practice. 1995.Association of Consulting Foresters of America Edited by Fergus L. Sinclair. Kluwer Academic732 N. Washington St., Suite 4-A Publishers. 296 p.Alexandria, VA 22314 An attempt to use the results of process-oriented(703) 548-0990 research toward the goal of developing a policyhttp://acf-foresters.com/ framework to encourage adoption of agroforestry as a sustainable land-use practice.Forest Landowners Assn.P.O. Box 450209 Design Principles for Farm Forestry. 1997.Atlanta, GA 31145 Anon. RIRDC/LWRRDC/FWPRDC Joint Ven-(800) 325-2954 ture Agroforestry Program. <http://http://www.forestland.org/ www.mtg.unimelb.edu.au/designbook.htm>. Members receive Forest Landowner Magazine bi- Pub no 97/48. 102 p. monthly and a Forest Landowner Manual; an- A guide to help farmers create their own nouncements of the Southern Forestry Conference agroforestry design. Written around seven and other relevant seminars; discount rates on basic reasons for planting trees, each chapter hunt lease liability insurance; access to student provides basic design principles to achieve that scholarships; and tax and policy updates. objective; each chapter also provides hints at how to adapt a design to capture multiple benefits.National Woodland Owners Assn. Available for downloading at the website, or in374 Maple East, Suite 310 hard copy for $16 from:Vienna, VA 22180 RIRDC(800) GRO-TREE Australiae-mail: info@woodlandowners.org (02) 6272 4819http://www.woodlandowners.org (02) 6272 5877 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW PAGE 11
  • 12. Email: publications@rirdc.gov.au North American Agroforestry: An Integrated http://www.rirdc.gov.au Science and Practice. 2000. Edited by H. E. Garrett, W. J. Rietveld, and R.F. Fisher.Enhancing Wildlife Habitats: A Practical Guidefor Forest Landowners. 1993. By Scott S. Temperate Agroforestry Systems. 1997. EditedHobson, John S. Barclay, and Stephen H. by Andrew M. Gordon and Steven M. Newman.Broderick. NRAES-64. Northeast Regional CAB International, New York, NY. 288 p.Agricultural Engineering Service, Ithaca, NY. Design and practice of agroforestry systems172 p. based on ecological theory. Available for $25 plus $4 shipping from: Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Restoration Forestry: An International Guide to Service Sustainable Forestry Practices. 1997. Edited by 152 Riley-Robb Hall Michael Pilarski. 1994. Kivaki Press, Durango, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701. CO. 525 p. (607) 255-7654 An encyclopedia of sustainable forestry with in- ternational scope, including temperate and tropi-Forest Farming. 1985. By James Sholto Douglas cal applications; an important reference book.and Robert A. de J. Hart. 1985. IntermediateTechnology Publications, New York, NY. 207 p. The Silvicultural Basis for Agroforestry Sys- Food production using tree and other forest re- tems. 1999. Edited by Mark S. Ashton and sources. Out of print. See your librarian or a Florencia Montagnini. CRC Press. 296 p. used bookseller. This college-level textbook summarizes the state of current knowledge in the rapidly expandingForest Gardening: Cultivating an Edible Land- field of agroforestry.scape. 1996. By Robert Hart. Chelsea Green,White River Junction, VT. 234 p. The Status, Opportunities & Needs for Describes how to transform even a small cottage Agroforestry in the United States: A National garden into a diverse hospitable habitat for song Report. 1997. Edited by Miles L. Merwin. As- birds, butterflies, and other wildlife using a wide sociation for Temperate Agroforestry. variety of useful plants, including fruit and nut 41 p. trees, perennial herbs, and vegetables. Available for $6 from AFTA (See contact infor- mation listed above).An Introduction to Agroforestry. 1993. By P.K.Ramachandran Nair. Kluwer Academic Publish- Temperate Agroforestry Systems. 1997. Editeders (in cooperation with ICRAF). 496 p. by Andrew M. Gordon and Steven M. Newman. Describes the development, ecological founda- CAB International, New York, NY. 269 p. tions, and status of agroforestry today. Covers Explores the development of temperate technical aspects of the five major agroforestry agroforestry systems, concentrating on temper- practices and evaluates each. Socioeconomic fac- ate-zone areas where the greatest advances, adop- tors and the future of agroforestry are a l s o tions, and modifications have taken place: North included. and South America, China, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and ContinentalNontimber Forest Products in the United States. Europe.2002. Edited by Eric Jones, Rebecca McLain, andJames Weigand. Timber Management for Small Woodlands. Describes the range of products being produced Katherine M. Layer. Information Bulletin 180. in woodlands, including traditional uses and us- Revised edition. Cornell Cooperative Extension ers of the forest—both commercial and non- Service, Ithaca, NY. 57 p. commercial; discussion of sustainable manage ment; also policy, economics, and future re- The Theory and Practice of Agroforestry De- search needs. sign. 1998. By Paul A. Wojtkowski. Science Pub- lishers, Inc., Enfield, NH. 282 p.PAGE 12 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW
  • 13. Focuses on the theory of agroforestry design;not Proceedings: a manual for practitioners. Proceedings of Past North AmericanTree-Crop Interactions: A Physiological Ap- Agroforestry Conferences (AFTA)proach. 1996. Edited by Chin K. Ong and P.A. The biennial North American Agroforestry Con-Huxley. CAB International, New York, NY. ference series, initiated in 1989, has been a forum416 p. for researchers, teachers, extensionists, and prac- Uses quantitative physiological evidence to sup- titioners to share up-to-date information about port the potential role and benefits of agroforestry temperate agroforestry. The papers and poster ab- in sustainable agriculture, showing how the prin- stracts presented at the meeting are collected in a ciples of crop physiology can be applied to the un printed proceedings published by the hosting in- derstanding of tree-crop interactions. stitution. These proceedings provide a wealth of information on a wide range of topics related toTree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture. 1987. By agroforestry.J. Russell Smith. Island Press, Covelo, CA.408 p. • Exploring the Opportunities for Visionary classic describing use of temperate-zone Agroforestry in Changing Rural Land- trees to produce food for people and livestock with- scapes. Proceedings of the Fifth North out the erosion associated with annual cropping American Agroforestry Conference, August systems. 1997, Ithaca, NY. Edited by Louise Buck and James P. Lassoie. Published in 1997.A Tree for All Reasons: Introduction and Evalu- Includes an update on institutional andation of Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry. extension developments, the latest research1991. By P.J. Wood and J. Burley. ICRAF, on temperate agroforestry practices, model-Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 92 9059 075 0. ing efforts, and multipurpose trees. Avail- Includes chapters on species selection, planning able for $20 (ppd. USA); check payable to and design, assessment, and areas of research Cornell University from: work. Dr. Louise Buck Natural Resources Dept.The Woodland Steward, 2nd Ed. 1994. By James Fernow HallR. Fazio. The Woodland Press, Moscow, ID. Cornell University211 p. Ithaca, NY 14853 Woodland management, including inventory and planning; harvesting and improving the woodlot; • Building a Sustainable Future. Proceedings chapters on Christmas trees, hollies as a business, of the 4th North American Agroforestry Con- and maple sugaring. ference, July 1995, Boise, ID. Edited by John H. Ehrenreich, Dixie L. Ehrenreich, andWoodland Stewardship: A Practical Guide for Harry W. Lee. University of Idaho, Moscow,Midwestern Landowners. 1993. By Melvin J. ID. 200 p. Published in 1996.Baughman, Alvin A. Alm, A. Scott Reed, Tho- Topics covered include: agroforestry poten-mas G. Eiber, and Charles R. Blinn. Minnesota tial, biology, and economics of temperateExtension Service, University of Minnesota, St. agroforestry systems, and updates on researchPaul, MN. 195 p. of agroforestry practices. Available for $30 How to take care of woodlands, including inven- to AFTA members; $35 for nonmembers tory, improvement, and protection; harvesting and (ppd., checks payable to College of Forestry, marketing; managing for wildlife; and tax and University of Idaho) from: financial investment analysis; excellent support- Dr. John Ehrenreich ing appendices. College of Forestry, Wildlife, and Range Stations //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW PAGE 13
  • 14. University of Idaho (519) 824-4120, ext. 2415 Moscow, ID 83844-1135 (519) 837-0442 (Fax) (208) 885-7600 (208) 885-5878 Other Proceedings of Interest: e-mail: dixie@uidaho.edu Proceedings of the North American Conference• Opportunities for Agroforestry in the Tem- on Enterprise Development Through perate Zone Worldwide. Proceedings of the Agroforestry: Farming the Agroforest for Spe- Third North American Temperate cialty Products. October 1998. Edited by Scott J. Agroforestry Conference, August 1993, Josiah. The Center for Integrated Natural Re- Ames, IA. Edited by Richard C. Schultz and sources and Agriculture Management, Univer- Joe P. Colletti. Published in 1994. sity of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 243 p. Published Includes papers presented on agroforestry in 1999. systems design, biology, and socio-econom- Includes sections on marketing; medicinals and ics. For purchase information, contact: botanicals; handicrafts, specialty woods, and deco- Richard Schultz rative florals; forest-based food products; unique Department of Forestry challenges of specialty forest products; and emerg- 249 Bessey Hall ing issues in forest farming. Contact CINRAM Iowa State University for ordering information: Ames, IA 50011-1021 The Center for Integrated Natural Resources (515) 294-7602 and Agricultural Management (CINRAM)• Proceedings of the Second Conference on University of Minnesota Agroforestry in North America. August 115 Green Hall 1991, Springfield, MO. Edited By H. E. 1530 Cleveland Ave. North ‘Gene’ Garrett. The School of Natural Re- Saint Paul, MN 55108 sources, University of Missouri, Columbia, (612) 624-4299 / 7418 / 4296 MO. Published in 1992. (612) 625-5212 FAX Papers on general biology, wildlife, systems e-mail: CINRAM@umn.edu design, pest management, water quality, and http://www.cnr.umn.edu/FR/CINRAM/ social/economic aspects of agroforestry sys- home/index.htm tems. OUT OF PRINT - check your nearest university library. Agroforestry and Sustainable Systems: Sympo- sium Proceedings. Held in August 1994 in Fort• Agroforestry in North America. Proceedings Collins, CO, 1995. Edited by W. J. Rietveld. Gen- of the First Conference on Agroforestry in eral Technical Report RM-GTR-261. USDA-For- North America, August 1989, Guelph, est Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Ontario. Edited by Peter Williams. Depart- Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 276 p. ment of Environmental Biology, Ontario Ag- Topics include: the use of dormant woody plant- ricultural College, University of Guelph, ing for slope protection, living snowfences, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. agroforestry and wildlife, agroforestry-enhanced Covers a wide range of topics on temperate biodiversity, conservation trees , and a report on agroforestry applications. Available for $25 the status of agroforestry in five agroclimatic re- CDN (AFTA members) and $30 CDN (non- gions of the U.S. Organized and sponsored by members), checks payable to the University the USDA. Out of print. See your librarian for of Guelph, from: help in obtaining. Andrew Gordon Dept. Of Environmental Biology Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural Sys- University of Guelph tems. 1998. Edited by Louise E. Buck and James Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 P. Lassoie. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Boca Ratan, Canada FL. 400 p. ISBN: 1-56670-294-1.PAGE 14 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW
  • 15. A selection of papers from a June 1997 workshop riparian buffers and windbreaks, forest tour- in Montpelier, France, including what is under- ism, and much more; includes direct on-line stood about underlying processes in agroforestry, links. an exploration of relevant modeling approaches, and descriptions of temperate and Mediterranean The Australia Master Tree Grower Program systems—both traditional and innovative. http://www.mtg.unimelb.edu.au Resources for practitioners including an on- Journals/Periodicals: line publication for farmers, Design Principles for Farm Forestry; spreadsheets and links toAgroforestry Abstracts other sites.Available on the Internet with a fully-searchable 13-year archive of worldwide agroforestry information Farm, Community, and Tree Networkwith weekly updates. Subscription: $150 regular; (FACT Net)$80 for AFTA members. Free 30-day trial of the on- http://www.winrock.org/forestry/line version is available. factnet.htm Fact sheets on many nitrogen-fixing trees—Agroforestry Systems many of them tropical. Research reports andInternational scientific journal that publishes results past publications are also available.of original research, critical reviews and short com- Forestry and Agroforestry in NRCSmunications on any aspect of agroforestry, including (Natural Resources Conservation Service)biophysical and socioeconomic aspects. Subscription: http://www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov/BCS/forest/$427 regular; $60 for AFTA members. agforest.html Websites related to agroforestry: Directory of state and national agroforestry pro- fessionals in NRCS; links to other related gov- ernment agencies and resources; links to forestryThese websites are continually in flux. If professionals; access to videos and slide showsthey can’t be found at the addresses listed, on various woodland management issues.a Web search will assist you in finding theircurrent locations. Resources for Tropical Forestry and Agroforestry http://www.agroforester.com/index.htmlNational Agroforestry Center’s home page Source of The Overstory, a free e-mail jour-http://www.unl.edu/nac/ nal; although the focus is on tropical regions, NAC homepage with links to publications and there is considerable information relevant to other excellent materials, including a Specialty temperate zone agroforestry. Forest Products series. Poplar and Willow home pageUniversity of Missouri Center for Agroforestry http://poplar2.cfr.washington.eduhttp://agebb.missouri.edu/umca/ General agroforestry information, publication on Covers topics related to newly developing short– budgeting agroforestry practices, and videos on rotation woody production for energy and other various practices; describes the Center and its uses. staff, provides abstracts of research; excellent links to many related sites. Websites related to special forest products: USDA Forest Service—Special Forest ProductsForest Landowners Guide to Internet Resources http://www.srs4702.forprod.vt.edu/pubsubj/http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/misc/ir/ sfp.htmindex.htm Index of on-line publications covering a wide Contains several articles about non-timber for- range of topics related to owning and managing est products. woodlands, pubs on special forest products, //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW PAGE 15
  • 16. University of Minnesota sitehttp://www.cnr.umn.edu/FR/CINRAM/home/Site to order the Proceedings from the 1998 Spe-cialty Forest Products/Forest Farming Conference and a publication on marketing Special ForestForestry with Steve Nixhttp://forestry.miningco.com/cs/alternativeforest Several articles about forest products, including charcoal, tree seeds, botanicals, and pine straw.Institute for Culture and Ecology’sU.S. Non-timber Forest Product Databasehttp://ifcae.org/ntfp/ Database lists commercial and non-commercial NTFP species—for identification, development and conservation; can be searched by scientific or common name, product use, parts used, state range, and distribution; also has a search- able bibliographic and Internet links database.WoodWebhttp://www.woodweb.com/Home.html Woodworking industry homepage with informa- tion on lumber sales, funiture and cabinet-mak- ing, business, and many other topics related to this industry.By Alice BeetzNCAT Agriculture SpecialistEdited by Richard EarlesFormatted by Cynthia ArnoldJune 2002 The electronic version of Agroforestry Overview is located at: HTML http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/agroforestry.html PDF http://www.attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/agrofor.pdfIP155PAGE 16 //AGROFORESTRY OVERVIEW