Day 9 teaching integrated skills
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Day 9 teaching integrated skills Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TEFLTEFL THE FOUR STRAND OF TEACHING A LANGUAGE Elih Sutisna Yanto ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAMME UNIVERSITAS SINGAPERBANGSA KARAWANG, West-Java, Indonesia elihsutisnayanto@gmail.com THE FOUR STRAND OF TEACHING A LANGUAGE Elih Sutisna Yanto ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAMME UNIVERSITAS SINGAPERBANGSA KARAWANG, West-Java, Indonesia elihsutisnayanto@gmail.com
  • 2. The topics to be discussed: 1. What is whole language education? 2. Two interconnected concepts in whole language 3. Integrating four skills 4. Most of interactive techniques involving the integration of skills 5. The four strand of teaching a language 6. Principles and the Four strand 7. Learning goals in Language Teaching
  • 3. THINK… What is WHOLE LANGUAGE EDUCATION?
  • 4. 1. What is WHOLE LANGUAGE EDUCATION? TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 5. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 6. 2. Two Interconnected concepts in Whole Language TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 7. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 8. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 9. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 10. Two Interconnected concepts in Whole Language TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 11. Cont...  Because we use language to construct meaning and to construct reality, teaching a language enables learners to understand a system of social practices that both constrain and liberate.  Part of our job as teachers is to empower our learners to liberate themselves from what whatever social, political, or economic forces constrain them. TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 12. THINK… Why integrated skills? TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 13. 3. Integrating Four Skills TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 14. 4. Most of interactive techniques involving the integration of skills TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 15. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 16. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 17. THINK… The Four strands of teaching a language TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 18. 5. The Four strands of teaching a language TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 19. The Four Strands TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 20. The Four Strands TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 21. The Four Strands TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 22. Meaning-focused Input: Learning through Listening and reading TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 23. This strand only exists if certain conditions are present: TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 24. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 25. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA  If these conditions are not present, then the meaning- focused input strand does not exist in that course.  If these conditions are not present, then the meaning- focused input strand does not exist in that course.  Learning from meaning-focused input is fragile (unstable) because there are usually small gains from each meeting with a word, and because learning is dependent on the quality of reading and listening skills, and is affected by background knowledge.  Learning from meaning-focused input is fragile (unstable) because there are usually small gains from each meeting with a word, and because learning is dependent on the quality of reading and listening skills, and is affected by background knowledge.  Because of this, large quantities of input are needed for this strand to work well. An extensive reading programme is one way of providing this quantity.  Because of this, large quantities of input are needed for this strand to work well. An extensive reading programme is one way of providing this quantity.
  • 26. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA  Nation and Wang (1999) calculated that second language learners needed to read at least one graded reader every two weeks in order to get enough repetitions to establish substantial vocabulary growth through incidental learning  Nation and Wang (1999) calculated that second language learners needed to read at least one graded reader every two weeks in order to get enough repetitions to establish substantial vocabulary growth through incidental learning  The gains from meaning-focused input, however, become substantial gains if there are large quantities of input.  The gains from meaning-focused input, however, become substantial gains if there are large quantities of input.
  • 27. Meaning-focused Output: Learning through Speaking and Writing TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 28. This strand only exists if certain conditions are present: TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 29. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 30. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA  Many spoken activities will include a mixture of meaning-focused input and meaning-focused output.  One person’s output can be another person’s input.  Many spoken activities will include a mixture of meaning-focused input and meaning-focused output.  One person’s output can be another person’s input.  Swain’s (1995) output hypothesis has been influential in clarifying the role of speaking and writing in second language learning.  Swain’s (1995) output hypothesis has been influential in clarifying the role of speaking and writing in second language learning.  The output hypothesis was initially formulated as a reaction to Krashen’s (1985) input hypothesis and the inadequacy of the input hypothesis in explaining the effects of immersion education.  The output hypothesis was initially formulated as a reaction to Krashen’s (1985) input hypothesis and the inadequacy of the input hypothesis in explaining the effects of immersion education.
  • 31. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA The output hypothesis claims that the act of producing language (speaking and writing) constitutes, under certain circumstances, part of the process of second language learning. (Swain,2005: 471). The output hypothesis claims that the act of producing language (speaking and writing) constitutes, under certain circumstances, part of the process of second language learning. (Swain,2005: 471).
  • 32. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Swain (1995) suggests three functions for output: (1)The noticing/triggering function. (2)The hypothesis testing function, and (3)The metalinguistic (reflective) function. Swain (1995) suggests three functions for output: (1)The noticing/triggering function. (2)The hypothesis testing function, and (3)The metalinguistic (reflective) function.
  • 33. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA The noticing/triggering function occurs when learners are attempting to produce the second language and they consciously notice gaps in their knowledge. The noticing/triggering function occurs when learners are attempting to produce the second language and they consciously notice gaps in their knowledge. That is, they do not know how to say what they want to say. That is, they do not know how to say what they want to say.
  • 34. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Izumi’s (2002) research indicates that the effect on acquisition of noticing a gap through output was significantly greater than the effect of noticing through input. Izumi’s (2002) research indicates that the effect on acquisition of noticing a gap through output was significantly greater than the effect of noticing through input. This effect can be explained in two ways. This effect can be explained in two ways.
  • 35. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA First, productive learning involves having to search for and produce a word form, whereas receptive learning involves having to find a meaning for a word form. First, productive learning involves having to search for and produce a word form, whereas receptive learning involves having to find a meaning for a word form.  Productive learning typically results in more and stronger knowledge than receptive learning (Griffin and Harley,1996).  Productive learning typically results in more and stronger knowledge than receptive learning (Griffin and Harley,1996).
  • 36. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Second, generative use involves meeting or using previously met language items in ways that they have not been used or met before and produces deeper learning than the simple retrieval of previously met items (Joe,1998). Second, generative use involves meeting or using previously met language items in ways that they have not been used or met before and produces deeper learning than the simple retrieval of previously met items (Joe,1998).
  • 37. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Swain’s second function of output is the hypothesis-testing function. Swain’s second function of output is the hypothesis-testing function.  This involves the learner trying out something and then confirming or modifying it on the basis of perceived success and feedback.  This involves the learner trying out something and then confirming or modifying it on the basis of perceived success and feedback.  This particularly hypothesis-testing function is particularly important in interaction when learners negotiate with each other or a teacher to clarify meaning.  This particularly hypothesis-testing function is particularly important in interaction when learners negotiate with each other or a teacher to clarify meaning.  The feedback provided in negotiation can improve not only the comprehension of input, but can also be a way for learners to improve their output (Mackey,2007).  The feedback provided in negotiation can improve not only the comprehension of input, but can also be a way for learners to improve their output (Mackey,2007).
  • 38. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA The third function of output is the metalinguistic (reflective) function. The third function of output is the metalinguistic (reflective) function.  This involves largely spoken output being used to solve language problems in collaboration with others.  This involves largely spoken output being used to solve language problems in collaboration with others.  Common classroom applications of this idea include the use of activities like the strip story (Gibson,1975) and dictogloss (Wajnryb,1988,1989) where learners work together to construct or reconstruct a text.  Common classroom applications of this idea include the use of activities like the strip story (Gibson,1975) and dictogloss (Wajnryb,1988,1989) where learners work together to construct or reconstruct a text.
  • 39. Dictogloss and Related activities Dictation and its related activities work mainly at the phrase and clause level. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Step Students Teacher 1. Preparation Vocabulary study activities to prepare for the text. Discuss the topic (predict vocabulary and content etc) Move into groups 2. Listening for meaning Listen to the whole text Reads the text at normal speed 3. Listening and note-taking Take notes listing key words. Reads again at normal speed 4. Text reconstruction in groups Work in groups to reconstruct an approximation of the text from notes (one learner acts as the writer. Helps groups Offers guidance 5. Text comparison between group Compare group versions of the text Pay attention to points of usage that emerge from the discussion. Facilitates class comparison of versions from different groups (on OHT of board) Facilitate discussion and correction of errors.
  • 40. Language-focused Learning TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 41. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 42. Substitution tables 1 2 3 4 5 I ‘ll see you tomorrow meet on Friday call next week at six o’clock TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Teacher : I’ll see you tomorrow. On Friday. Learner 1: I’ll see you on Friday. Teacher : next week Learner 2: I’ll see you next week Teacher : at six o’clock Learner 3: I’ll see you at six o’clock Teacher : I’ll see you tomorrow. On Friday. Learner 1: I’ll see you on Friday. Teacher : next week Learner 2: I’ll see you next week Teacher : at six o’clock Learner 3: I’ll see you at six o’clock
  • 43. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 44. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 45. This strand only exists if certain conditions are present: TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 46. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 47. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Language-focused learning can have any of these effect: It can add directly to implicit knowledge It can raise consciousness to help later learning  It can focus on systematic aspects of the language  It can be used to develop strategies. Language-focused learning can have any of these effect: It can add directly to implicit knowledge It can raise consciousness to help later learning  It can focus on systematic aspects of the language  It can be used to develop strategies.
  • 48. Becoming Fluent in Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 49. This strand only exists if certain conditions are present: TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 50. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA  The three strands of meaning-focused input, meaning-focused output, and fluency development are meaning-focused strands  They all involves activities where the learners’ focus is on communicating and receiving messages.  The three strands of meaning-focused input, meaning-focused output, and fluency development are meaning-focused strands  They all involves activities where the learners’ focus is on communicating and receiving messages.
  • 51. 6. Principles and the Four Strands (Nation 2009:12-13) TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 52. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 53. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 54. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 55. 7. Learning Goals In Language Learning TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA  Language items such as sounds, vocabulary and grammatical construction  Language items such as sounds, vocabulary and grammatical construction  The content or ideas of the subject being studied such as geography, English literature, mathematics, or cross culture understanding.  The content or ideas of the subject being studied such as geography, English literature, mathematics, or cross culture understanding.
  • 56. Cont... TEFL-TEACHING INTEGRATED SKILLS -ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA  Language skills such as listening, writing, fluency in using known items, and strategies for coping with language difficulties  Language skills such as listening, writing, fluency in using known items, and strategies for coping with language difficulties  The organization of discourse such as rhetorical features and communication strategies..  The organization of discourse such as rhetorical features and communication strategies..
  • 57. Reference Brown, H.D.2007. Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Pearson. Flowerdew, John& Lindsay Miller.2005.Second Language Listening: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Griffin, G.F. and Harley, T.A.1996. List Learning of second language vocabulary. Applied Psycholinguistics 17: 443-460 Hu, M. and Nation, I.S.P.2000. Unknown vocabulary density and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language 13, 1:403-430. Izumi,S.2002. Output, input enhancement, and the noticing hypothesis: an experimental study of ESL relativization.SSLA 24,541-557 Joe,A. 1998. What effects to text-based task promoting generation have on incidental vocabulary acquisition? Applied Linguistics 19,357-377 Mackey.2007. Interaction as practice. In R.DeKeyser (ed.), Practice in a Second Language (pp.85-110). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nation, I.S.P & Jonathan Newton.2008. Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking. New York: Routledge Nation, I.S.P. and Wang, K.1999. Graded readers and vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language 12,2:335-380 Nunan, D. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill Richards, C Jack. 2006. Teaching Listening and Speaking From Theory to Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press. Swain,M.2005. The output hypothesis: theory and research. In E. Hinkel (ed.) Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and learning (pp. 471 – 483). Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.