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Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
Day 8 teaching listening
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Day 8 teaching listening

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  • 1. TEFL TEACHING LISTENING Elih Sutisna Yanto ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAMME UNIVERSITAS SINGAPERBANGSA KARAWANG, West-Java, Indonesia elihsutisnayanto@gmail.com TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 2. The topics to be discussed: 1. What is listening? 2. Listening development in the first language 3. Why is listening? 4. Types of listening 5. Background to the teaching listening 6. Listening process 7. Principles for teaching listening 8. Classroom techniques and tasks 9. Listening strategies. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 3. THINK… What is LISTENING? TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 4. 1. What is LISTENING?  It has been claimed that over 50 percent of the time that students spend functioning in a foreign language will be devoted to listening (Nunan, 1998)  Listening is an active, purposeful process of making sense of what we hear.  Marc Helgesen2003:24  Listening is very active. As people listen, they process not only what they hear but also connect it to other information they already know.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 5. Cont...  The ability to hear is a natural process that develops in all normal infant. Indeed, most of us begin to hear sounds before we are even born. (John Florwerdew & Lindsay Miller 2005:21)  The physical components of the listening process combine with the cognitive development in a child, resulting in sophisticated listening skills. (John Florwerdew & Lindsay Miller 2005:21)  Buck (1995) points out, the assumption that listeners simply decode messages is mistaken, “Meaning is not in the text (text= whatever is being listened to) – but is something that is constructed by listeners based on a number of different knowledge sources.” TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 6. 2. Listening Development in the First Language  The process of listening and discriminating what we hear begins before we are even born and develops rapidly during the first year of childhood. Baby in utero (the organ in women in which babies develops before they are born) have the capacity to listen and discriminate (John Flowerdew & Lindsay Miller 2005:21)  Studies by De Casper and Spence (1986) demonstrated that unborn babies could be “programmed” to recognize speech patterns.  These researchers had expectant mothers read out loud the same short children’s story every day for six week prior to giving birth. Once born, the infants were played two short stories recorded by their mothers: the one their mother had read out loud each day and another unheard story. The result showed that the newborn infants attended to the story they had heard in utero more than they attended to the new story. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 7. 3. Why is LISTENING? In second language learning, several writers and researchers in the early 1980s suggested that listening had a very important role (Winitz,1981) TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 8. Cont...  Approaches that gave more importance to listening were based on different ideas. Nord (1980:17) expresses this view clearly: Some people now believe that learning a language is not just learning to talk, but rather that learning a language is building a map of meaning in the mind. These people believe that talking may indicate that the language was learned, but they do not believe that practice in talking is the best way to build up this “cognitive” map in the mind. To do this, they feel, the best method is to practice meaningful listening.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 9. Cont...  In this view of language learning, listening is the way of learning the language.  It gives the learner information from which to build up the knowledge necessary for using the language.  When this knowledge is built up, the learner can begin to speak. The listening-only period is a time of observation and learning which provides the basis for the other language skills.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 10. Cont...  Gary and Gary (1981) described the many benefits of delaying speaking and concentrating on listening. These benefits include the following: 1. The learners is not overloaded by having to focus on two or more skills at the same time – a cognitive benefits. 2. Speed of coverage – receptive knowledge grows faster than productive knowledge. It is possible to experience and learn much more of the language by just concentrating on listening. If learners had to be able to say all the material in the lesson, progress would be very slow. 3. It is easy to move very quickly to realistic communicative listening activities. This will have a strong effect on motivation.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 11. Cont... 4. Learners will not feel shy or worried about their language classes. Having to speak a foreign language, particularly when you know very little, can be a frightening experience. Listening activities reduce the stress involved in language learning – a psychological benefit. 5. Listening activities are well suited to independent learning through listening to recordings.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 12. 4. Types of Listening We can distinguish two broad types of listening: 1. One-way listening – typically associated with the transfer of information (transactional listening) 2. Two-way listening – typically associated with maintaining social relations (interactional listening) TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 13. Cont...  Traditionally, listening was associated with transmission of information, that is with one- way listening. This can be seen in the extensive use of monologues in older listening materials.  While this is fine if we are relating primarily to listening in academic contexts for example, it fails to capture the richness and dynamics of listening as it occurs in our everyday interactions (two-way listening).  Most contemporary materials reflect this re- emphasis with a move towards natural sounding dialogues.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 14. THINK… Background to the teaching of listening TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 15. 5. Background to the teaching of listening • Interest in using children’s learning in their first language as a model for foreign language teaching grew. • One of the result was Gouin’s series method. It featured action and oral presentation of new language. In the late 1800s • Promoted ideas such as the teaching of spoken, as opposed to written, learners should hear language before seeing it in written form. • Charles Berlitz promoted the teaching of listening comprehension and the idea that new teaching points should be introduced orally. - Direct Method The reform movement • The Audiolingual method came to dominate foreign language teaching. • It emphasized MIM/MEM (mimicry/memorization) of new structures • The popularity of the audiolingual method paralleled the establishment of language laboratories for dialogue and pattern practice drills In the years following World War II Marc Helgesen 2003:25 TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 16. Cont... • The introduction of communicative language teaching – the idea the students learns through the act of communication – increased the role of listening In the 1970s and early 1980s • Stephen Krashen’s input hypothesis made a major impact on language teaching. • The input hypothesis says that, “for language learning to occur, it is necessary for the learner to understand input language which contain linguistic items that are slightly beyond the learner’s present linguistic competence. • We acquire language by meeting language that is a bit higher than our current level. • Listening was seen as a major source of comprehensible input • Language learning textbooks began including listening activities. During this period Marc Helgesen 2003:26TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 17. 6. Listening Process 1. Bottom- up Process  These are the processes the listener uses to assemble the message piece-by-piece from the speech stream, going from the parts to the whole.  Bottom-up processing involves perceiving and parsing the speech stream at increasingly larger levels beginning with auditory-phonetic, phonemic, syllabic, lexical, syntactic, semantic, propositional, pragmatic and interpretive (Field,2003:326)  Bottom-up processing refers to using the incoming input as the basis for understanding the message. (Richard 2006:4).  Comprehension begins with the data that has been received which is analyses as successive levels of organization – sounds, words, clauses, sentences, texts – until meaning is arrived at. Comprehension is viewed as a process of decoding, to find the meaning of something. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 18. We can illustrate this with example Imagine I said the following to you:  “ The guy I sat next to on the bus this morning on the way to work was telling me he runs a Thai restaurant in Chinatown. Apparently it’s very popular at the moment.” TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 19. How to understand this utterance?  In order to understand this utterance using bottom-up processing, we have to mentally break the utterance down into its components.  This is referred to as “chunking” and here are the chunks that guides us to the underlying core meaning of the utterances. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 20. The guy I sat next to on the bus this morning was telling me he runs a Thai restaurant in Chinatown apparently it’s very popular at the moment TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 21. The chunks help us identify the underlying propositions the utterances expresses, namely, I was on the bus. There was a guy next to me. We talked He said he runs a Thai restaurant. It’s in Chinatown It’s very popular now.  It is these units of meaning which we remember, and not the form in which we initially heard them. Our knowledge of grammar helps us find the appropriate chunks, and the speaker also assist us in this process through intonation and pausing.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 22. Teaching bottom-up Processing  Learners need a large vocabulary and a good working knowledge of sentence structure to be able to process texts bottom-up.  Exercises that develop bottom-up processing help the learner to do such things as the following  Retain input while it is being processes  Recognize word and clause divisions  Recognize key words  Recognize key transitions in a discourse  Recognize grammatical relations between key elements in sentences  Use stress and intonation to identify word and sentence functionsTEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 23. Teaching bottom-up Processing  Many traditional classroom listening activities focus primary on bottom-up processing.  For examples, exercises such as dictation, cloze listening, the use of multiple choice questions after a text and similar activities which require close and detailed recognition and processing of the input and which assume that everything the listener needs to understand is contained in the input.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 24. Teaching bottom-up Processing  Kinds of tasks that develop bottom-up listening skills :  Identifying the referents of pronouns in an utterance  Recognize the time reference of an utterance  Distinguish between positive and negative statements  Recognize the order in words occurred in an utterance  Identify sequence markers  Identify key words that occurred in a spoken text  Identify which modal verbs occurred in a spoken text TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 25. Some examples of listening task that develop bottom-up processing a) Students listen to positive and negative statements and choose an appropriate form of agreement. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Students hear: Students choose the correct response Yes No That’s a nice camera. That’s not a very good one. This coffee isn’t hot This meal is really tasty.
  • 26. Cont... b) The following exercise practice listening for word stress as a marker of the information focus of a sentence. Students listen to questions that have two possible information focuses and use stress to identify the appropriate focus. (words in italic are stressed) TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Students hear: Students check information focus Where When The bank’s downtown branch is closed today. Is the city office open on Sunday? I’m going to the museum today.
  • 27. Cont... c) The following activities helps students develop the ability to identify key words. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Students hear: My hometown is a nice place to visit because it is close to a beach and there are lots of interesting walks you can do in the surrounding countryside. Students’ task: Which of these words do you hear? Number them in the order you hear them. Beach shops walks hometown countryside schools nice I’m going to the museum today.
  • 28. 6. Listening Process 2.Top-down Process  Top-down processes involve the listener in going from the whole- their prior knowledge and their content and rhetorical schemata – to the parts.  In other words, the listener uses what they know of the context of communication to predict what the message will contain, and uses parts of the message to confirm, correct or add this. The key process here is inferencing. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 29. 7. Listening Process 2.Top-down Process  According to Richards (2006), top-down process refers to the use of background knowledge in understanding the meaning of a message.  Whereas bottom-up processing goes from language to meaning, top-down processing goes from meaning to language.  It may be previous knowledge about the topic of discourse, it may be situational or contextual knowledge, or it may be knowledge in the form of “schemata” or “scripts” – plans about the overall structure of events and the relationships between them.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 30. For example consider how we respond to the following utterance: “ I heard on the news there was a big earthquake in Los Angeles last night.”  On recognizing the word “earthquake” we generate a set of questions we want to hear or obtain responses to:  Where exactly was the earthquake?  How big was it?  Did it cause a lot of damage?  Were many people killed or injured?  What rescue efforts are under way? TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 31. For example consider how we respond to the following utterance: “ I heard on the news there was a big earthquake in Los Angeles last night.”  On recognizing the word “earthquake” we generate a set of questions we want to hear or obtain responses to:  Where exactly was the earthquake?  How big was it?  Did it cause a lot of damage?  Were many people killed or injured?  What rescue efforts are under way? TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA These questions guide us through the understanding of any subsequent discourse that we hear and they focus our listening on what is said about the questions.
  • 32. Consider this example. Imagine I say the following to a colleague at my office one morning: “ I am going to the dentist this afternoon.”  This utterance activates a schemata for “going to the dentist”. This schemata can be thought of as organized around the following dimensions:  A setting (e.g. the dentist’s surgery)  participants: (e.g. the dentist, the patient, the dentist’ assistant)  Goals: (e.g. injections, drilling, rinsing)  Outcomes: (e.g. fixing the problem, pain, discomfort)  When I return to my office the following exchange takes places between my colleague and I: “So how was it?” “Fine. I didn’t feel a thing”. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Because speaker and hearer share understanding of the “going to the dentist schemata” the details of the visit need not be spelled out. A minimum amount of information is given to enable the participants to understand what happened.
  • 33. Teaching Top-down Processing  Exercises that require top-down processing develop the learner’s ability to do the following:  Use key words to construct the schemata of a discourse  Infer the setting for a text  Infer the role of the participants and their goals  Infer causes or effects  Infer unstated details of a situation  Anticipate questions related to the topic or situation TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 34. The following activities develop top-down listening skills:  Students generate a set of questions they expect to hear about a topic and listen to see if they are answered.  Students generate a list of things they already know about a topic and things they would like to learn more about. Then listen and compare.  Students read one speaker’s part in a conversation, predict the other speaker’s part, then listen and compare.  Students read a list of key points to be covered in a talk, then listen to see which ones were mentioned.  Students listen to part of a story, complete the rest of it, then listen and compare endings.  Students read news headlines, guess what happened, then listen to the news items and compare.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 35. 7. Principles for teaching listening 1. Expose students to different ways of processing information: bottom-up vs. top down and interactive  The distinction is based on the way learners attempt to understand what they read or hear.  With bottom-up processing, students start with the component parts: words, grammar, and the like. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 36. Cont... 1. Expose students to different ways of processing information: bottom-up vs. top down and interactive  Top-down processing is the opposite. Learners start from their background knowledge, either content schema (general information based on previous learning and life experience) or textual schema (awareness of the kinds of information used in a given situation) TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 37. Cont... 1. Expose students to different ways of processing information: bottom-up vs. top down and interactive  In the classroom, prelistening activities are good way to make sure top-down/bottom-up integration happens.  Before listening, learners can, for example, brainstorm vocabulary related to a topic or invent a short dialogue relevant to functions such as giving directions or shopping. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 38. Principles for teaching listening TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 39. Cont... 2. Expose students to different types of listening  Listening for specific information. This usually involves catching concrete information including names, times, specific language forms, etc.  Listening for gist/global. Students try to understand in a more general way. (What is the main topic?)  Listening between the lines (inference). Listening for meaning that is implied but not stated TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 40. Cont... 2. Expose students to different types of listening  In the following example 1: A: Let’s go outside. We could go for a walk. Maybe play tennis. B: Look out the window. It’s raining. A: Raining. Oh, no. (Helgesen & Brown,1994)  “Do the speakers go outside or not?” Of course they don’t. It’s raining. The text doesn’t say that directly. It doesn’t need to. Learners can infer the information.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 41. Cont... 2. Expose students to different types of listening  Inference is different from gist and specific information listening. Because inference requires somewhat abstract thinking, it is a higher level skill.  Listening for specific information and listening for gist are two important types of listening, but of course, they don’t exist in isolation. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 42. Cont... 3. Teach a variety of tasks  A beginning level learners hears a story and is asked to write a summary in English.  According to Just and Carpenter’s capacity hypothesis (1992), when people are listening in a second or foreign language, they are having to process not only the meaning of what they are listening to but also the language itself.  This can lead to an overloaded. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 43. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity  Spoken language is more redundant, full of false starts, rephrasing, and elaborations. Incomplete sentences, pauses, and overlaps are common.  Learners need exposure to and practice with natural sounding language. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 44. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity  To overcome speed, a more useful technique is to simply put pauses between phrases or sentences.  As Rost (2002,p.145) points out, “By pausing the spoken input (the tape or the teacher) and allowing some quick intervention and response. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 45. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity  Some people speak quickly, some more slowly.  The average for native speakers of English seems to be 165-180 words per minutes (wpm), but sometimes it jumps to 275 wpm. Even native speakers can get lost at that speed (Rubin, 1994). TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 46. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity  Brown (1995) talks about “cognitive load” and describes six factors that increase or decrease the ease of understanding: • The number of individuals or objects in a text (e.g., More voices increase difficulty) • How clearly the individual or objects are distinct from one another (e.g., A recording with a male voice and a female voice is easier than one with two similar male voices or two similar female voices. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 47. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity • Simple, specific spatial relationships are easier to understand than complex ones. (e.g., In recording giving directions, information like turn right at the bank is easier to understand than go a little way on that street.) • The order of events (e.g. It is easier when the information given follows the order it happened in, as opposed to a story that includes a flashback about events thatTEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 48. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity • The number of inferences needed (e.g., Fewer are easier than more.) • The information is consistent with what the listener already knows (e.g., Hearing someone talk about a film you have seen is easier to understand than hearing the same type of conversation about one you haven’t seen.) TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 49. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity  Everything that students work with should be authentic.  Brown and Menasche (1993) suggest looking at two aspect of authenticity: the task and the input. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 50. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity 1. Task authenticity • Simulated: modeled after a real- life; nonacademic task such as filling in a form. • Minimal/incidental: checks understanding, but in a way that isn’t usually done outside of the classroom; numbering pictures to show a sequence of events or identifying the way something is said are examplesTEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 51. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity 2. Input authenticity • genuine: created only for the realm of real life, not for classroom, but used in language teaching • altered: no meaning change, but the original is no longer as I was (glossing, visual resetting, pictures or colors adapted)TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 52. Cont... 4. Consider text, difficulty, and authenticity 2. Input authenticity • adapted: created for real life (words and grammatical structures changed to simplify the text) • simulated: written by the author as if the material is genuine; many genuine characteristics • minimal/incidental: created for the classroom, no attempt to make the material seem genuine. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 53. Cont... 5. Teach listening strategies  Rost (2002,p.155) identifies strategies that are used by successful listeners. • Predicting: Effective listeners think about what they will hear. This fits into the ideas about prelistening mentioned earlier. • Inferring: It is useful for learners to “listen between the lines.” • Monitoring: Good listeners notice what they do and do not understand. • Clarifying: Efficient learners ask questions (What does___ mean? You mean____?) and give feedback (I don’t understand yet.) to the speaker. • Responding: Learners react to what they hear. • Evaluating: They check on how well they have understood. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 54. 8. Classroom techniques and tasks Dictation with a difference  For many teachers, listening for specific information means dictation.  Dictation is a “word level” exercise, the learners don’t need to think about overall meaning. It is almost completely bottom-up – students need to catch every word. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 55. STEP 1… A road went through a forest. A woman was walking down the road. Suddenly she saw a man. He was wearing a shirt, pants, and a hat. He smiled and said something. In class, students hear the passage and imagine the story. Then they listen again, but this time, at several points, they hear a bell. As they listen, they fill in a cloze (fill in the blanks) dictation sheet. Each time they hear the bell, they write any word that fits the story as they imagined it. The imagined words go in the boxes  Listen again. Write the missing words on the lines. When you hear the bell, write any word in the circle that makes sense. A long road went through a..................... ...................... A ....... .............. .................was ...........................down the ................... Suddenly she........................a ................ .............. He was..................................a ............................ ................................. ......................... ......................, and a..................... .................................. He............................and ....................... “........................................” TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 56. The script, as they hear it this time is as follows. The dots (.) show the points where the learners hear the bell. Step 2 A . Road went through a . Forest. A . Woman was walking down the road. Suddenly she saw a . man. He was wearing a . shirt, . Pants and a . hat. He smiled and said . (Helgesen and Brown,1995) While the students have the accuracy work of the dictation – writing the missing words (forest, woman, walking, etc.) – they are also getting the top down experience of imagining the story and describing their version of it. Some see a dark forest. Some see it as green, old, a rainforest, etc. Since everyone’s image of the story will be somewhat different, it provides a good reason for them to compare stories after they finish their writing. This, of course, means they continue listening – this time to their partners. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 57. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself: Modifying materials to add “listening for specific information” Some ways of modifying listening tasks to add or increase listening for specifics Micro-listening (usually done after they know the main topic of the recording, but before they have begun the main listening task) Choose a few target items that occur several times on the recording. Examples might be names of colors, people, places, etc. In class, tell the students the topic of the recording. Ask them to listen for the target items. Each time they hear one, they should rise their hands. Play the recording. Students listen and raise their hands. The showing of hand is a good way for those who caught the items to give a cue to those who didn’tTEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 58. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself: Modifying materials to add “listening for specific information” Some ways of modifying listening tasks to add or increase listening for specifics Bits and pieces (before the main task) Tell the students what the topic will be. In small groups or as a whole class, they brainstorm vocabulary likely to come up on the recording. Each learner makes a list. Then they listen to the recording and circle the words they hear.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 59. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself: Modifying materials to add “listening for specific information” Some ways of modifying listening tasks to add or increase listening for specifics What do I want to know (before the main task) Tell the students the topic and enough about what they will hear for them to imagine the situations. In pairs or small groups, they write two or three questions about the information they think will be given. Then they listen and see how many of the questions they are able to answer. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 60. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself: Modifying materials to add “listening for specific information” Some ways of modifying listening tasks to add or increase listening for specifics Dictation and close Many books feature cloze (fill in the blanks) dictation as listening. Very often these are not actually listening tasks since learners can find the answer by reading. If you are using a book that has such exercise, have the students try to fill in the blanks before they listen. They read the passage and make their best guesses. Then when they listen to the text, they have an actual listening tasks: to see if they were right TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 61. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself: Adding gist tasks What are they talking about? Some ways to add gist listeningMain ideas Write the main idea for the recording on the board, along with three or four distracters. Often, subpoints within the conversation make good distracters. In the second example above, the main point is “she feels sick” and the distracters could be rotten day, go to bed, and take some aspirin. Students listen and identify the main idea. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 62. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself: Adding gist tasks What are they talking about? Some ways to add gist listeningWhat is the order? When the listening text is a story, list five or six events from the story. Students listen and put the items in order. It is often useful to tell them which item is number one to help them get started. It is also useful to have at least one item as a distracter than isn’t used. Otherwise, the last item is obvious without listening.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 63. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself: Adding gist tasks What are they talking about? Some ways to add gist listening Which picture? If pictures are available (e.g., one from the particular listening page of your textbook and distracters from elsewhere in the book) students can listen and identify the one that goes with what they are hearing.TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 64. Listening between the lines: Inference task Student often find inferring meaning challenging because it requires abstract processing. Consider the following task: • Stay to the left • Elevator Example Look at this sign. What do you think it means? Listen to the dialogue, then circle your answer. Now read the script to see if you were right. Man: So the office is, what, on the fifth floor? Woman: That’s right, fifth floor. Room 503. Man : Where’s the – oh, there it is. Well, shall we go up? Woman: Yeah, let’s go. (Helgesen & Brown, 1994) TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 65. From the script, the sign means there is an elevator. However, neither speaker ever says the word “elevator”. They don’t need to. By their talking about the floor the office is on and talking about going up, the listener is able to understand what they are talking about and consequently what the sign means. For that reason, asking the learners, “How did you know?” is probably just as important as whether or not they got the correct answer. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO- UNSIKA-WEST JAVA-INDONESIA
  • 66. Cont...Classroom techniques and tasks Do-it yourself inference The following are two places to start: Focus on emotion How do the speakers feel? How do you know that Look for background Has one or more of the speakers been here/done that/tried this before? Why do you think so? TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 67. 9. Listening Strategies  According to Willing (1988:7), a learning strategy is “ a specific mental procedure for gathering, processing, associating, categorizing, rehearsing, and retrieving information or patterned skills.  Successful listening can also be looked at in terms of the strategies the listener makes use of when listening.  Does the learner focus mainly on the context of a text, or does he or she also consider how to listen? TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 68. Cont...  A focus on how to listen raises the issues of listening strategies.  Strategies can be thought of as the ways in which a learner approaches and manages a task and listeners can be taught effective ways of approaching and managing their listening. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 69. Cont... Buck (2001:104) identifies two kinds of strategies in listening: 1. Cognitive strategies: those mental activities related to comprehending and storing input in working memory or long-term memory for later retrieval;  Comprehension processes: associated with the processing of linguistic and non-linguistic input;  Storing and memory processes: associated with the storing of linguistic and non-linguistic input in working memory or long-term memory  Using and retrieval processes: associated with accessing memory, to be readied for output. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 70. Cont... 2. Metacognitive strategies: those conscious or unconscious mental activities that perform an executive function in the management of cognitive strategies;  Assessing the situation: taking stock of conditions surrounding a language task by assessing one’s own knowledge, one’s available internal and external resources and the constraints of the situation before engaging in a task;  Monitoring: determining the effectiveness of one’s own or another’s performance while engaged in a task;  Self-evaluating: determining the effectiveness of one’s own or another’s performance after engaging in the activity;  Self-testing: testing oneself to determine the effectiveness of one’s own language use or the lack thereof. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 71. Goh (1997,1998) shows how the metacognitive activities of planning, monitoring, and evaluating can be applied to the teaching of listening. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Planning This is a strategy for determining learning objectives and deciding the means by which the objectives can be achieved. General listening development Identify learning objectives for listening development Determine ways to achieve these objectives Set realistic short-term and long-term goals Seek opportunities for listening practice Specific listening task Preview main ideas before listening Rehearse language (e.g. pronunciation) necessary for the task Decide in advance which aspects of the text to concentrate on Monitoring This is a strategy for checking on the progress in the course of learning or carrying out a learning task General listening Consider progress against a set of pre-determined criteria Determine how close it is to achieving short-term or long-term goals Check and see if the same mistakes are still being made Specific listening task Check understanding during listening Check the appropriateness and the accuracy of what is understood and compare it with new information Identify the source of difficulty
  • 72. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA Evaluating This is a strategy for determining the success of the outcome of an attempt to learn or complete a learning task General listening development Assess listening progress against a set of pre-determined criteria Assess the effectiveness of learning and practice strategies Assess the appropriateness of learning goals and objectives set Specific listening task Check the appropriateness and the accuracy of what has been understood Determine the effectiveness of strategies used the task Assess overall comprehension of the text
  • 73. 9. Listening Strategies TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA
  • 74. Reference Brown, H.D.2007. Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Pearson. Brown, H.D.1994. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching (3rd Eds.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Flowerdew, John& Lindsay Miller.2005.Second Language Listening: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Harmer, Jeremy.2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 4th eds. Essex: Longman Pearson ________.2007. How to Teach English. New Eds. Essex: Longman Pearson. Nation, I.S.P & Jonathan Newton.2008. Teaching ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking. New York: Routledge Nunan, D. 2003. Practical English Language Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill Richards, C Jack. 2006. Teaching Listening and Speaking From Theory to Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press. TEFL-LISTENING-ELIH SUTISNA YANTO-UNSIKA-WEST JAVA- INDONESIA

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