0
TEFLTEFL
APPROACH, METHOD
AND TECHNIQUE IN
LANGUAGE TEACHING
Elih Sutisna Yanto- ENGLISH EDUCATION
PROGRAMME Unsika, West-...
Purpose of this PowerpointPurpose of this Powerpoint
• to become more aware of the terms of
approach, method, and techniqu...
Edward Anthony (1965)
An approach is a set of correlative
assumptions dealing with the nature of
language and the nature o...
According to Edward Anthony’s model (1965)
approach is the level at which assumptions and
beliefs about language and langu...
In other words, According to Edward
Anthony’s model (1965)
an approach embodies the theoretical
principles governing langu...
The Antony framework attempted to portray
the entire language teaching operations as
simple, hierarchical relationship bet...
 Clarke (1983) summarized the inadequacy
of the Antony framework as follows:
Approach, by limiting our perspective of lan...
Summary and elements and sub elements that
constitute method (Richards & Rodgers:33)
The first level, approach defines tho...
Notice that the term, method, does not figure
in this hierarchy. That is because Richards and
Rodgers preferred to use it ...
Summary and elements and sub elements that
constitute method (Richards & Rodgers:33)
Richards and Rodgers retained the
term, approach, to mean what it
means in the Antony framework,
that is, to refer primari...
Richards and Rodgers introduced a new term,
design, to denote what Antony denoted by the
term, method. Design, however, is...
Procedure, like technique in the Antony
framework, refers to the actual moment-to
moment classroom activity. It includes a...
The three-tier system proposed by Richards and
Rodgers (2001) is surely broader and more
detailed than the Antony framewor...
For instance, while defining approach, the
authors state that “theories at the level of
approach relate directly to the le...
While defining design, they state that design
considerations “ deal with assumptions about
the content and the context for...
Three different views of
The nature of language
1. Structural view: It views language as a system of
structurally related ...
Three different views of
The nature of language
2. Functional view: It regards language as a vehicle for the
expression of...
Three different views of
The nature of language
3. Interactional view: It sees language as a vehicle for the
realization o...
Rivers (1987) defined the interactive
perspective in language education:
“Students achieve facility in using a
language wh...
The common assumptions about
the nature of the language
1. Language is a group of sounds with specific
meaning and organiz...
Definitions of learning
1. A change in behavior as a result of experience or
practice.
2. The acquisition of knowledge.
3....
The nature of language learning:
1. Behaviorism: Stimulus- Response-
Reinforcement.- Drilling, exercise,
repetition.
2. N...
The nature of learning:
1. Behaviorism is a theory of learning
focusing on observable behavior and
discounting any mental ...
Learning a first language
Say what I say: the behaviorist position
Traditional behaviorists believed that language learni...
Learning a first language
It’s all in your mind: the innatists position
The linguist Noam Chomsky claims that children ar...
Chomsky (1959) argues that
behaviorism cannot provide sufficient
explanations for children’s language
acquisition for the ...
–Children come to know more about the
structure of their language than they
could be expected to learn on the basis
of the...
–The language children are exposed to
includes false starts, incomplete sentences
and slips of the tongue, and yet they le...
Cont...
For Chomsky, language acquisition is very similar to the
development of walking.
The environment makes a basic c...
LAD: LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
DEVICE ( or BLACK BOX)
LAD: LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
DEVICE ( or BLACK BOX)
– It contains all and on...
CONCLUSION
• Children’s acquisition of grammatical rules is
guided by principles of an innate UG which
could apply to all ...
Evidence used to support Chomsky’s
innatist position:
Virtually all children
successfully learn their native language
at a...
–Language is separate from other
aspects of cognitive developments
(e.g., creativity and social grace)
and may be located ...
The language children are exposed to
does not contain examples
of all the linguistic rules and patterns.
The language chil...
Animals cannot learn
to manipulate a symbol system
as complicated as
the natural language
of a 3- or 4-year-old child.
Ani...
Children acquire grammatical rules
without getting explicit instruction.
Children acquire grammatical rules
without gettin...
The biological basis for the innatist position:The biological basis for the innatist position:
The Critical Period Hypothe...
Virtually every child learns language on a similar
schedule in spite of different environments.
–Three case studies of abn...
Cognitive, constructivist learning
Constructivists view learning as the result of
mental construction. That is, learning t...
Learning a first language
Mom’s the word: the interactionist
position
A third theoretical position focuses on the role of...
Cont...
For example: Caretaker talk (Motherese)
 We are familiar with the way adults typically modify the
way they speak ...
The following assumptions relate to theories of learning and
teaching
1. Learning is facilitated if language learners disc...
Assumption about learning and
teaching, which have been developed
from theories in psychology, seem to
develop faster than...
Method
The plan of language teaching which consistent
with the theories. (Edward Anthony-1963)
Method may mean different...
Method cont...
The term “method” in the Direct Method may
refer to a single aspect of language teaching:
presentation of ...
Method cont...
According to Mackey (1975:157), all teaching,
whether good or bad, must include some sort of
selection, so...
Method
According to Richards and Rodgers (2001), a
method is theoretically related to an approach,
organized by the desig...
Technique
Carry out a method. It is
implementational, meaning
that a technique is something
that actually takes place in
...
Technique cont...
The following are some examples of techniques in error
correction.
1.The teacher does not praise or crit...
The Term of Technique
(H.D. Brown 2007:180)
1. Task. Task usually refers to a specialized form
of technique or series of t...
The Term of Technique
2. Activity. Activity may refer to virtually anything that learners
do in the classroom.
 We usuall...
The Term of Technique
3. Procedure. Richards and Rodgers (2001) used the
term procedure to encompass “the actual moment-
t...
The Term of Technique
4. Practice, behaviour, exercise,
strategy...
In the language-teaching
literature, these terms, and
...
The Term of Technique
5. Technique
 Even before Anthony (1963) discussed and
defined the term, the language teaching
lite...
The Term of Technique
Cont...
They are the product of a choice made by the
teacher. And they can, for your purposes as a
...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Controlled Techniques
1.Warm-up: ...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Controlled Techniques
4.Content E...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Controlled Techniques
8.Reading a...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Controlled Techniques
11.Drill: T...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Controlled Techniques
16.Recognit...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Semicontrolled Techniques
20.Brai...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Semicontrolled Techniques
23.Cued...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Semicontrolled Techniques
26. Wra...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Free Techniques
29.Role play: Rel...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Free Techniques
32.Problem solvin...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Free Techniques
37.Composition: A...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
Some techniques will fit into mor...
Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted
from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)
 This exercise seems to fit into...
References
• Brown, D.H. (2001). Teaching by Principle.Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice
Hall.
• Clarke,M.A.1983. The scope ...
Approach, method and technique in English teaching 2014
Approach, method and technique in English teaching 2014
Approach, method and technique in English teaching 2014
Approach, method and technique in English teaching 2014
Approach, method and technique in English teaching 2014
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  1. 1. TEFLTEFL APPROACH, METHOD AND TECHNIQUE IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Elih Sutisna Yanto- ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAMME Unsika, West-Java, Indonesia elihsutisnayanto@gmail.com APPROACH, METHOD AND TECHNIQUE IN LANGUAGE TEACHING Elih Sutisna Yanto- ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAMME Unsika, West-Java, Indonesia elihsutisnayanto@gmail.com
  2. 2. Purpose of this PowerpointPurpose of this Powerpoint • to become more aware of the terms of approach, method, and technique relating to English learning and teaching; • to think about the nature of language and the nature of language learning. • To think about how language are learned ( a first language) according to behaviorists, innatists and interactionists • to become more aware of the terms of approach, method, and technique relating to English learning and teaching; • to think about the nature of language and the nature of language learning. • To think about how language are learned ( a first language) according to behaviorists, innatists and interactionists
  3. 3. Edward Anthony (1965) An approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language and the nature of language learning and teaching. Edward Anthony (1965) An approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language and the nature of language learning and teaching.
  4. 4. According to Edward Anthony’s model (1965) approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefs about language and language learning are specified; method is the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skills to be taught, the content to be taught, and the order in which the content will be presented; technique is the level at which classroom procedures are described. According to Edward Anthony’s model (1965) approach is the level at which assumptions and beliefs about language and language learning are specified; method is the level at which theory is put into practice and at which choices are made about the particular skills to be taught, the content to be taught, and the order in which the content will be presented; technique is the level at which classroom procedures are described.
  5. 5. In other words, According to Edward Anthony’s model (1965) an approach embodies the theoretical principles governing language learning and language teaching. A method, however, is “an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, true in such an obvious way that you do not to prove it, a method is procedural” (p.65)
  6. 6. The Antony framework attempted to portray the entire language teaching operations as simple, hierarchical relationship between approach, method, and technique, without in any way considering the complex connections between intervening factors such as societal demands, institutional resources and constraints or restrictions , instructional effectiveness, and learners needs. The Antony framework attempted to portray the entire language teaching operations as simple, hierarchical relationship between approach, method, and technique, without in any way considering the complex connections between intervening factors such as societal demands, institutional resources and constraints or restrictions , instructional effectiveness, and learners needs.
  7. 7.  Clarke (1983) summarized the inadequacy of the Antony framework as follows: Approach, by limiting our perspective of language learning and teaching, serves as a blinder which hampers rather than encourages, professional growth. Method is so vague that it means just about anything that anyone wants it to mean, with the result that, in fact, it means nothing. And technique, by giving the impression that teaching activities can be understood as abstractions separate from the context in which they occur, obscures the fact that classroom practice is a dynamic interaction of diverse system. (p.111) In short, the Antony framework did not effectively serve the purpose for which it was designed.  Clarke (1983) summarized the inadequacy of the Antony framework as follows: Approach, by limiting our perspective of language learning and teaching, serves as a blinder which hampers rather than encourages, professional growth. Method is so vague that it means just about anything that anyone wants it to mean, with the result that, in fact, it means nothing. And technique, by giving the impression that teaching activities can be understood as abstractions separate from the context in which they occur, obscures the fact that classroom practice is a dynamic interaction of diverse system. (p.111) In short, the Antony framework did not effectively serve the purpose for which it was designed.
  8. 8. Summary and elements and sub elements that constitute method (Richards & Rodgers:33) The first level, approach defines those assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language and the nature of language learning which operates as axiomatic constructs or reference points and provide a theoretical foundation for what language teachers ultimately do with learners in classrooms. The Second level in the system, design, species the relationship of theories of language and learning to both the form and function of instructional materials and activities in instructional settings. The third level, procedure, comprises the classroom techniques and practices which are consequences of particular approaches and design. The first level, approach defines those assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language and the nature of language learning which operates as axiomatic constructs or reference points and provide a theoretical foundation for what language teachers ultimately do with learners in classrooms. The Second level in the system, design, species the relationship of theories of language and learning to both the form and function of instructional materials and activities in instructional settings. The third level, procedure, comprises the classroom techniques and practices which are consequences of particular approaches and design.
  9. 9. Notice that the term, method, does not figure in this hierarchy. That is because Richards and Rodgers preferred to use it as an umbrella term to refer to the broader relationship between theory and practice in language teaching. Notice that the term, method, does not figure in this hierarchy. That is because Richards and Rodgers preferred to use it as an umbrella term to refer to the broader relationship between theory and practice in language teaching.
  10. 10. Summary and elements and sub elements that constitute method (Richards & Rodgers:33)
  11. 11. Richards and Rodgers retained the term, approach, to mean what it means in the Antony framework, that is, to refer primarily to the theoretical axioms governing language, language learning, and language teaching. Richards and Rodgers retained the term, approach, to mean what it means in the Antony framework, that is, to refer primarily to the theoretical axioms governing language, language learning, and language teaching.
  12. 12. Richards and Rodgers introduced a new term, design, to denote what Antony denoted by the term, method. Design, however, is broader than Antony’s method as it includes specifications of (a) the content of instruction, that is , the syllabus, (b) learner roles, (c) teacher roles, and (d) instructional materials and their types and functions. Richards and Rodgers introduced a new term, design, to denote what Antony denoted by the term, method. Design, however, is broader than Antony’s method as it includes specifications of (a) the content of instruction, that is , the syllabus, (b) learner roles, (c) teacher roles, and (d) instructional materials and their types and functions.
  13. 13. Procedure, like technique in the Antony framework, refers to the actual moment-to moment classroom activity. It includes as specification of context of use and a description of precisely what is expected in term of execution and outcome for each exercise type. Procedure is concerned with : the types of teaching and learning techniques, the types of exercises and practice activities, and the resources – time, space, equipment – required to implement recommended activities. Procedure, like technique in the Antony framework, refers to the actual moment-to moment classroom activity. It includes as specification of context of use and a description of precisely what is expected in term of execution and outcome for each exercise type. Procedure is concerned with : the types of teaching and learning techniques, the types of exercises and practice activities, and the resources – time, space, equipment – required to implement recommended activities.
  14. 14. The three-tier system proposed by Richards and Rodgers (2001) is surely broader and more detailed than the Antony framework. However, a careful analysis indicates that their system is equally redundant and overlapping. (Kumaravadivelu 2006:86) The three-tier system proposed by Richards and Rodgers (2001) is surely broader and more detailed than the Antony framework. However, a careful analysis indicates that their system is equally redundant and overlapping. (Kumaravadivelu 2006:86)
  15. 15. For instance, while defining approach, the authors state that “theories at the level of approach relate directly to the level of design since they provide the basis for determining the goals and content of language syllabus.” (Kumaravadivelu 2006:86-87) For instance, while defining approach, the authors state that “theories at the level of approach relate directly to the level of design since they provide the basis for determining the goals and content of language syllabus.” (Kumaravadivelu 2006:86-87)
  16. 16. While defining design, they state that design considerations “ deal with assumptions about the content and the context for teaching and learning.... The boundary between approach and design is blurred (not clear) here because the operational definition of both relate to theoretical assumptions that actually belong to the realm of approach. (Kumaravadivelu 2006:86-87) While defining design, they state that design considerations “ deal with assumptions about the content and the context for teaching and learning.... The boundary between approach and design is blurred (not clear) here because the operational definition of both relate to theoretical assumptions that actually belong to the realm of approach. (Kumaravadivelu 2006:86-87)
  17. 17. Three different views of The nature of language 1. Structural view: It views language as a system of structurally related element. The target of language learning is seen to be the mastery of elements of this system, which are generally defined in terms of phonological units (e.g., phonemes), grammatical units (e.g., clauses, phrases, sentences), grammatical operations (e.g., adding, shifting, joining, or transforming elements), and lexical items (e.g., function words and structure words) For examples: the Audiolingual method, the Total Physical Response, and the Silent Way embody this particular view of language. 1. Structural view: It views language as a system of structurally related element. The target of language learning is seen to be the mastery of elements of this system, which are generally defined in terms of phonological units (e.g., phonemes), grammatical units (e.g., clauses, phrases, sentences), grammatical operations (e.g., adding, shifting, joining, or transforming elements), and lexical items (e.g., function words and structure words) For examples: the Audiolingual method, the Total Physical Response, and the Silent Way embody this particular view of language.
  18. 18. Three different views of The nature of language 2. Functional view: It regards language as a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. The communicative movement in language teaching subscribes to this view of language. This theory emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension rather than merely the grammatical characteristics of language, and Leads to a specification and organization of language teaching content by categories of meaning and function rather than by elements of structure and grammar. 2. Functional view: It regards language as a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. The communicative movement in language teaching subscribes to this view of language. This theory emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension rather than merely the grammatical characteristics of language, and Leads to a specification and organization of language teaching content by categories of meaning and function rather than by elements of structure and grammar.
  19. 19. Three different views of The nature of language 3. Interactional view: It sees language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals. Language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations. The development of interactional approach to language teaching include interactional analysis, conversational analysis, and ethnomethodology, 3. Interactional view: It sees language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals. Language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations. The development of interactional approach to language teaching include interactional analysis, conversational analysis, and ethnomethodology,
  20. 20. Rivers (1987) defined the interactive perspective in language education: “Students achieve facility in using a language when their attention is focused on conveying and receiving authentic messages (that is, messages that contain information of interest to both speaker and listener in a situation of importance to both.) This is interaction (Rivers 1987:4) Rivers (1987) defined the interactive perspective in language education: “Students achieve facility in using a language when their attention is focused on conveying and receiving authentic messages (that is, messages that contain information of interest to both speaker and listener in a situation of importance to both.) This is interaction (Rivers 1987:4)
  21. 21. The common assumptions about the nature of the language 1. Language is a group of sounds with specific meaning and organized by grammatical rules (The Silent Way). 2. Language is the everyday spoken utterance of the average person at normal speed (Audio Lingual Method). 3. Language is a system for the expression of meaning (Communicative Language Teaching). 4. Language is a set of grammatical rules and language consists of language chunks (Total Physical Responses) 1. Language is a group of sounds with specific meaning and organized by grammatical rules (The Silent Way). 2. Language is the everyday spoken utterance of the average person at normal speed (Audio Lingual Method). 3. Language is a system for the expression of meaning (Communicative Language Teaching). 4. Language is a set of grammatical rules and language consists of language chunks (Total Physical Responses)
  22. 22. Definitions of learning 1. A change in behavior as a result of experience or practice. 2. The acquisition of knowledge. 3. Knowledge gained through study. 4. To gain knowledge of , or skill in, through study, teaching, instruction or experience. 5. The process of gaining knowledge. 6. A process by which behavior is changed, shaped, or controlled. 7. The individual process of constructing understanding based on experience from a wide range of sources. (Alan Prichard 2009:2) 1. A change in behavior as a result of experience or practice. 2. The acquisition of knowledge. 3. Knowledge gained through study. 4. To gain knowledge of , or skill in, through study, teaching, instruction or experience. 5. The process of gaining knowledge. 6. A process by which behavior is changed, shaped, or controlled. 7. The individual process of constructing understanding based on experience from a wide range of sources. (Alan Prichard 2009:2)
  23. 23. The nature of language learning: 1. Behaviorism: Stimulus- Response- Reinforcement.- Drilling, exercise, repetition. 2. Nativism: A child naturally has a language acquisition device. (Kodrati). 3. Constructivism: A child acquired a language through interaction between the child and environment. (Jean Piaget). 1. Behaviorism: Stimulus- Response- Reinforcement.- Drilling, exercise, repetition. 2. Nativism: A child naturally has a language acquisition device. (Kodrati). 3. Constructivism: A child acquired a language through interaction between the child and environment. (Jean Piaget).
  24. 24. The nature of learning: 1. Behaviorism is a theory of learning focusing on observable behavior and discounting any mental activity. Learning is defined simply as the acquisition of new behavior. (Alan Prichard 2009:6) 1. Behaviorism is a theory of learning focusing on observable behavior and discounting any mental activity. Learning is defined simply as the acquisition of new behavior. (Alan Prichard 2009:6)
  25. 25. Learning a first language Say what I say: the behaviorist position Traditional behaviorists believed that language learning is simply a matter of imitation and habit formation. Children imitate the sounds and patterns which they hear around them and receive positive reinforcement ( the form of praise or just successful communication) for doing so. The quality and quantity of the language which the child hears, as well as the consistency of the reinforcement offered by others in the environment, should have an effect on the child’s success in language learning. Traditional behaviorists believed that language learning is simply a matter of imitation and habit formation. Children imitate the sounds and patterns which they hear around them and receive positive reinforcement ( the form of praise or just successful communication) for doing so. The quality and quantity of the language which the child hears, as well as the consistency of the reinforcement offered by others in the environment, should have an effect on the child’s success in language learning.
  26. 26. Learning a first language It’s all in your mind: the innatists position The linguist Noam Chomsky claims that children are biologically programmed for language and that language develops in the child in just the same way that other biological functions develop.  For example, every child will learn to walk as long as adequate nourishment and reasonable freedom of movement are provided.  The child does not have to be taught, most children learn to walk at about the same time, and walking is essentially the same in all normal human beings. The linguist Noam Chomsky claims that children are biologically programmed for language and that language develops in the child in just the same way that other biological functions develop.  For example, every child will learn to walk as long as adequate nourishment and reasonable freedom of movement are provided.  The child does not have to be taught, most children learn to walk at about the same time, and walking is essentially the same in all normal human beings.
  27. 27. Chomsky (1959) argues that behaviorism cannot provide sufficient explanations for children’s language acquisition for the following reasons: Chomsky (1959) argues that behaviorism cannot provide sufficient explanations for children’s language acquisition for the following reasons:
  28. 28. –Children come to know more about the structure of their language than they could be expected to learn on the basis of the samples of language they hear. –Children come to know more about the structure of their language than they could be expected to learn on the basis of the samples of language they hear.
  29. 29. –The language children are exposed to includes false starts, incomplete sentences and slips of the tongue, and yet they learn to distinguish between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. –Children are by no means systematically corrected or instructed on language by parents. –The language children are exposed to includes false starts, incomplete sentences and slips of the tongue, and yet they learn to distinguish between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. –Children are by no means systematically corrected or instructed on language by parents.
  30. 30. Cont... For Chomsky, language acquisition is very similar to the development of walking. The environment makes a basic contribution – in this case, the availability of people who speak to the child. The child, or rather, the child’s biological endowment, will do the rest. Chomsky developed his theory in reaction to the behaviorist theory of learning based on imitation and habit formation. For Chomsky, language acquisition is very similar to the development of walking. The environment makes a basic contribution – in this case, the availability of people who speak to the child. The child, or rather, the child’s biological endowment, will do the rest. Chomsky developed his theory in reaction to the behaviorist theory of learning based on imitation and habit formation.
  31. 31. LAD: LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE ( or BLACK BOX) LAD: LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE ( or BLACK BOX) – It contains all and only the principles which are universal to all human languages (i.e.. Universal Grammar – UG). – It contains all and only the principles which are universal to all human languages (i.e.. Universal Grammar – UG).
  32. 32. CONCLUSION • Children’s acquisition of grammatical rules is guided by principles of an innate UG which could apply to all languages. • Children “know” certain things of the language just by being exposed to a limited number of samples. • Children’s acquisition of grammatical rules is guided by principles of an innate UG which could apply to all languages. • Children “know” certain things of the language just by being exposed to a limited number of samples.
  33. 33. Evidence used to support Chomsky’s innatist position: Virtually all children successfully learn their native language at a time in life when they would not be expected to learn anything else so complicated (i.e. biologically programmed). Virtually all children successfully learn their native language at a time in life when they would not be expected to learn anything else so complicated (i.e. biologically programmed).
  34. 34. –Language is separate from other aspects of cognitive developments (e.g., creativity and social grace) and may be located in a different “module" of the brain.
  35. 35. The language children are exposed to does not contain examples of all the linguistic rules and patterns. The language children are exposed to does not contain examples of all the linguistic rules and patterns.
  36. 36. Animals cannot learn to manipulate a symbol system as complicated as the natural language of a 3- or 4-year-old child. Animals cannot learn to manipulate a symbol system as complicated as the natural language of a 3- or 4-year-old child.
  37. 37. Children acquire grammatical rules without getting explicit instruction. Children acquire grammatical rules without getting explicit instruction.
  38. 38. The biological basis for the innatist position:The biological basis for the innatist position: The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) –Lenneberg: • There is a specific and limited time period (i.e., “critical period”) for the LAD to work successfully. • Only when it is stimulated at the right time The Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) –Lenneberg: • There is a specific and limited time period (i.e., “critical period”) for the LAD to work successfully. • Only when it is stimulated at the right time
  39. 39. Virtually every child learns language on a similar schedule in spite of different environments. –Three case studies of abnormal language development - evidence of the CPH • Victor – a boy of about 12 years old (1799) • Genie – a girl of 13 years old (1970) • Deaf signers (native signers, early learners, vs. late learners) Virtually every child learns language on a similar schedule in spite of different environments. –Three case studies of abnormal language development - evidence of the CPH • Victor – a boy of about 12 years old (1799) • Genie – a girl of 13 years old (1970) • Deaf signers (native signers, early learners, vs. late learners)
  40. 40. Cognitive, constructivist learning Constructivists view learning as the result of mental construction. That is, learning take place when new information is built into and added onto an individual’s current structure of knowledge, understanding and skills. We learn best when we actively construct our own understanding (Alan Prichard 2009:17) Constructivists view learning as the result of mental construction. That is, learning take place when new information is built into and added onto an individual’s current structure of knowledge, understanding and skills. We learn best when we actively construct our own understanding (Alan Prichard 2009:17)
  41. 41. Learning a first language Mom’s the word: the interactionist position A third theoretical position focuses on the role of the linguistic environment in interaction with the child’s innate capacities in determining language development. ‘The interactionist’ position is that language develops as a result of the complex interplay between the uniquely human characteristics of the child and the environment in which the child develops. Unlike the innatists, the interactionists claim that language which is modified to suit the capability of the learner is a crucial element in the language acquisition process. A third theoretical position focuses on the role of the linguistic environment in interaction with the child’s innate capacities in determining language development. ‘The interactionist’ position is that language develops as a result of the complex interplay between the uniquely human characteristics of the child and the environment in which the child develops. Unlike the innatists, the interactionists claim that language which is modified to suit the capability of the learner is a crucial element in the language acquisition process.
  42. 42. Cont... For example: Caretaker talk (Motherese)  We are familiar with the way adults typically modify the way they speak when addressing little children. In English, caretaker talk involves a slower rate of speech, higher pitch, more varied intonation, shorter, simple sentence patterns, frequent repetition, and paraphrase. Example: Son : I putted the plates on the table. Mother : You mean, I put the plates on the table. Son : No, I putted them on all by myself. For example: Caretaker talk (Motherese)  We are familiar with the way adults typically modify the way they speak when addressing little children. In English, caretaker talk involves a slower rate of speech, higher pitch, more varied intonation, shorter, simple sentence patterns, frequent repetition, and paraphrase. Example: Son : I putted the plates on the table. Mother : You mean, I put the plates on the table. Son : No, I putted them on all by myself.
  43. 43. The following assumptions relate to theories of learning and teaching 1. Learning is facilitated if language learners discover rather than repeat and remember without understanding what is to be learned (Silent Way). 2. Learning involves the unconscious functions, as well as the conscious functions (Suggestopedia). 3. The norms of the society often block the process of learning (Suggestopedia) 4. Language learning will take place if language learners maintain their feeling of security (Community Language Learning). 5. Language learning is a process of habit formation (Audio Lingual Method) 1. Learning is facilitated if language learners discover rather than repeat and remember without understanding what is to be learned (Silent Way). 2. Learning involves the unconscious functions, as well as the conscious functions (Suggestopedia). 3. The norms of the society often block the process of learning (Suggestopedia) 4. Language learning will take place if language learners maintain their feeling of security (Community Language Learning). 5. Language learning is a process of habit formation (Audio Lingual Method)
  44. 44. Assumption about learning and teaching, which have been developed from theories in psychology, seem to develop faster than those about the nature of language. Assumption about learning and teaching, which have been developed from theories in psychology, seem to develop faster than those about the nature of language.
  45. 45. Method The plan of language teaching which consistent with the theories. (Edward Anthony-1963) Method may mean different things to different people (Mackey, 1975:155) For some , it means a set of teaching procedures; for others, the avoidance of teaching procedures. For some, it is the primary of a language skill; for others, it is the type and amount of vocabulary and stucture. The plan of language teaching which consistent with the theories. (Edward Anthony-1963) Method may mean different things to different people (Mackey, 1975:155) For some , it means a set of teaching procedures; for others, the avoidance of teaching procedures. For some, it is the primary of a language skill; for others, it is the type and amount of vocabulary and stucture.
  46. 46. Method cont... The term “method” in the Direct Method may refer to a single aspect of language teaching: presentation of material. Method in the Reading Method refers to the emphasis of a single language skill: reading, while In the Grammar Translation Method, method refers to the emphasis of the teaching material. The term “method” in the Direct Method may refer to a single aspect of language teaching: presentation of material. Method in the Reading Method refers to the emphasis of a single language skill: reading, while In the Grammar Translation Method, method refers to the emphasis of the teaching material.
  47. 47. Method cont... According to Mackey (1975:157), all teaching, whether good or bad, must include some sort of selection, some sort of gradation, some sort of presentation, and some sort of repetition. Therefore, all methods should include the four steps of teaching a language. Any method should include the four steps: selection, gradation, presentation, and repetition. According to Mackey (1975:157), all teaching, whether good or bad, must include some sort of selection, some sort of gradation, some sort of presentation, and some sort of repetition. Therefore, all methods should include the four steps of teaching a language. Any method should include the four steps: selection, gradation, presentation, and repetition.
  48. 48. Method According to Richards and Rodgers (2001), a method is theoretically related to an approach, organized by the design, and practically realized in procedure. According to Richards and Rodgers (2001), a method is theoretically related to an approach, organized by the design, and practically realized in procedure.
  49. 49. Technique Carry out a method. It is implementational, meaning that a technique is something that actually takes place in language teaching or learning in the classroom. Carry out a method. It is implementational, meaning that a technique is something that actually takes place in language teaching or learning in the classroom.
  50. 50. Technique cont... The following are some examples of techniques in error correction. 1.The teacher does not praise or criticize so that language learners learn to rely on themselves (Silent Way). 2.The teacher often praises when a student has made a good thing in learning (Audio Lingual Method). 3.When a student has produced a wrong expression, the teacher just repeats the right one (Total Physical Response). 4.The teacher does not care when a student make an error as long as it does not hinder (delay/prevent) communication (Natural Method) The following are some examples of techniques in error correction. 1.The teacher does not praise or criticize so that language learners learn to rely on themselves (Silent Way). 2.The teacher often praises when a student has made a good thing in learning (Audio Lingual Method). 3.When a student has produced a wrong expression, the teacher just repeats the right one (Total Physical Response). 4.The teacher does not care when a student make an error as long as it does not hinder (delay/prevent) communication (Natural Method)
  51. 51. The Term of Technique (H.D. Brown 2007:180) 1. Task. Task usually refers to a specialized form of technique or series of techniques closely allied with communicative curricula, and as such must minimally have communicative goals. It is focuses on the authentic use of language for meaningful communicative purpose beyond the language classroom. 1. Task. Task usually refers to a specialized form of technique or series of techniques closely allied with communicative curricula, and as such must minimally have communicative goals. It is focuses on the authentic use of language for meaningful communicative purpose beyond the language classroom.
  52. 52. The Term of Technique 2. Activity. Activity may refer to virtually anything that learners do in the classroom.  We usually refer to a reasonably unified set of student behaviour, limited in time, preceded by some direction from the teacher, with a particular objective.  Activities include role plays, drills, games, peer-editing, small-group information-gap exercise, and much more.  Because an activity implies some sort of active performance on the part of learners, it is generally not used to refer to certain teacher behaviours like saying “good morning,” maintaining eye contact with students, explaining a grammar point, or writing a list of words on the chalkboard. Such teacher behaviour, however can indeed be referred to as 2. Activity. Activity may refer to virtually anything that learners do in the classroom.  We usually refer to a reasonably unified set of student behaviour, limited in time, preceded by some direction from the teacher, with a particular objective.  Activities include role plays, drills, games, peer-editing, small-group information-gap exercise, and much more.  Because an activity implies some sort of active performance on the part of learners, it is generally not used to refer to certain teacher behaviours like saying “good morning,” maintaining eye contact with students, explaining a grammar point, or writing a list of words on the chalkboard. Such teacher behaviour, however can indeed be referred to as
  53. 53. The Term of Technique 3. Procedure. Richards and Rodgers (2001) used the term procedure to encompass “the actual moment- to-moment techniques, practices, and behaviour that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method” (p.26)  Procedures from this definition, include techniques. Thus, for Richards and Rodgers, this appears to be a catchall term, a thing for holding many small objects or a group or description that includes different things and that does not state clearly what is included or not. 3. Procedure. Richards and Rodgers (2001) used the term procedure to encompass “the actual moment- to-moment techniques, practices, and behaviour that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method” (p.26)  Procedures from this definition, include techniques. Thus, for Richards and Rodgers, this appears to be a catchall term, a thing for holding many small objects or a group or description that includes different things and that does not state clearly what is included or not.
  54. 54. The Term of Technique 4. Practice, behaviour, exercise, strategy... In the language-teaching literature, these terms, and perhaps some others, all appear to refer , in varying degrees of intensity, to what is defined as technique. 4. Practice, behaviour, exercise, strategy... In the language-teaching literature, these terms, and perhaps some others, all appear to refer , in varying degrees of intensity, to what is defined as technique.
  55. 55. The Term of Technique 5. Technique  Even before Anthony (1963) discussed and defined the term, the language teaching literature generally accepted technique as a superordinate term to refer to various activities that either teachers or learners perform in the classroom.  In other words, technique include all tasks and activities.  They almost always planned and deliberate, done on purpose rather than by accident. 5. Technique  Even before Anthony (1963) discussed and defined the term, the language teaching literature generally accepted technique as a superordinate term to refer to various activities that either teachers or learners perform in the classroom.  In other words, technique include all tasks and activities.  They almost always planned and deliberate, done on purpose rather than by accident.
  56. 56. The Term of Technique Cont... They are the product of a choice made by the teacher. And they can, for your purposes as a language teacher, comfortably refer to the pedagogical units or components of a classroom session. You can think of a lesson as consisting of a number of techniques, some teacher-centered, some learner-centered, some production- centered, some comprehension-centered, some clustering together to form a task. Cont... They are the product of a choice made by the teacher. And they can, for your purposes as a language teacher, comfortably refer to the pedagogical units or components of a classroom session. You can think of a lesson as consisting of a number of techniques, some teacher-centered, some learner-centered, some production- centered, some comprehension-centered, some clustering together to form a task.
  57. 57. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Controlled Techniques 1.Warm-up: Mimes, dance, songs, jokes, play. This activity gets the students stimulated, relaxed, motivated, attentive, or otherwise engage and ready for the lesson. It does not necessarily involves use of the target language. 2.Setting: Focusing on lesson topic. Teacher directs attention to the topic by verbal or nonverbal evocation of the context relevant to the lesson by questioning or miming or picture presentation, possibly by tape recording of situations and peole. 3.Organizational: Structuring of lesson or class activities includes disciplinary action, organization of class furniture and seating, general procedures for class interaction and performance, structure and purpose of lesson, ete Controlled Techniques 1.Warm-up: Mimes, dance, songs, jokes, play. This activity gets the students stimulated, relaxed, motivated, attentive, or otherwise engage and ready for the lesson. It does not necessarily involves use of the target language. 2.Setting: Focusing on lesson topic. Teacher directs attention to the topic by verbal or nonverbal evocation of the context relevant to the lesson by questioning or miming or picture presentation, possibly by tape recording of situations and peole. 3.Organizational: Structuring of lesson or class activities includes disciplinary action, organization of class furniture and seating, general procedures for class interaction and performance, structure and purpose of lesson, ete
  58. 58. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Controlled Techniques 4.Content Explanation: Grammatical, phonological, lexical (vocabulary), sociolinguistic, pragmatic, or any other aspect of language. 5.Role-play demonstration: Selected students or teacher illustrate the procedure(s) to be applied in the lesson segment to follow. Includes brief illustration of language or other content to be incorporated. 6.Dialogue/Narrative presentation: Reading or listening passage presented for passive reception. No implication of student production or other identification of specific target forms or functions (students may be asked to “understand”) 7.Dialogue/Narrative recitation: Reciting a previously known or prepared text, either in unison or individually. Controlled Techniques 4.Content Explanation: Grammatical, phonological, lexical (vocabulary), sociolinguistic, pragmatic, or any other aspect of language. 5.Role-play demonstration: Selected students or teacher illustrate the procedure(s) to be applied in the lesson segment to follow. Includes brief illustration of language or other content to be incorporated. 6.Dialogue/Narrative presentation: Reading or listening passage presented for passive reception. No implication of student production or other identification of specific target forms or functions (students may be asked to “understand”) 7.Dialogue/Narrative recitation: Reciting a previously known or prepared text, either in unison or individually.
  59. 59. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Controlled Techniques 8.Reading aloud: Reading directly from a given text. 9.Checking: Teacher either circulating or guiding the correction of students’ work, providing feedback as an activity rather than within another activity. 10.Question-answer display: Activity involving prompting of students responses by means of display questions (i.e. teacher or questioner already knows the response or has a very limited set of expectations for the appropriate response). Distinguished from referential questions by the likelihood of the questioner’s knowledge of the response and the speaker’s awareness of that fact. Controlled Techniques 8.Reading aloud: Reading directly from a given text. 9.Checking: Teacher either circulating or guiding the correction of students’ work, providing feedback as an activity rather than within another activity. 10.Question-answer display: Activity involving prompting of students responses by means of display questions (i.e. teacher or questioner already knows the response or has a very limited set of expectations for the appropriate response). Distinguished from referential questions by the likelihood of the questioner’s knowledge of the response and the speaker’s awareness of that fact.
  60. 60. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Controlled Techniques 11.Drill: Typical language activity involving fixed patterns of teacher prompting and student responding, usually with repetition, substitution, and other mechanical alterations. Typically with little meaning attached. 12.Translation: Student or teacher provision of L1 or L2 translation of given text. 13.Dictation: Student writing down orally presented text. 14.Copying: Student writing down text presented visually. 15.Identification: Student picking out and producing/labeling or otherwise identifying a specific target form, function, definition, or other lesson-related item. Controlled Techniques 11.Drill: Typical language activity involving fixed patterns of teacher prompting and student responding, usually with repetition, substitution, and other mechanical alterations. Typically with little meaning attached. 12.Translation: Student or teacher provision of L1 or L2 translation of given text. 13.Dictation: Student writing down orally presented text. 14.Copying: Student writing down text presented visually. 15.Identification: Student picking out and producing/labeling or otherwise identifying a specific target form, function, definition, or other lesson-related item.
  61. 61. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Controlled Techniques 16.Recognition: Student identifying forms, as in identification (i.e., checking off items, drawing symbols, rearranging pictures), but without a verbal responses. 17.Review: Teacher-led review of previous week/month/or other period as a formal summary and type of test of student recall performance. 18.Testing: Formal testing procedures to evaluate student progress. 19.Meaningful drill: Drill activity involving responses with meaningful choices, as in reference to different information. Distinguished from information exchange by the regulated sequence and general form of responses. Controlled Techniques 16.Recognition: Student identifying forms, as in identification (i.e., checking off items, drawing symbols, rearranging pictures), but without a verbal responses. 17.Review: Teacher-led review of previous week/month/or other period as a formal summary and type of test of student recall performance. 18.Testing: Formal testing procedures to evaluate student progress. 19.Meaningful drill: Drill activity involving responses with meaningful choices, as in reference to different information. Distinguished from information exchange by the regulated sequence and general form of responses.
  62. 62. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Semicontrolled Techniques 20.Brainstorming: A form of preparation for the lesson, like Setting, which involves free, undirected contributions by the students and teacher on a given topic, to generate multiple associations without linking them; no explicit analysis or interpretation by the teacher. 21.Storytelling (especially when student-generated): Not necessarily lesson-based, a lengthy presentation of story by teacher or student (may overlap with Warm-up or Narrative recitation), May be used to maintain attention, motivate, or as lengthy practice. 22.Question-answer, referential: Activity involving prompting of responses by means of referential questions (i.e., the questioner does not know beforehand the responses information). Distinguished from Question-answer, display. Semicontrolled Techniques 20.Brainstorming: A form of preparation for the lesson, like Setting, which involves free, undirected contributions by the students and teacher on a given topic, to generate multiple associations without linking them; no explicit analysis or interpretation by the teacher. 21.Storytelling (especially when student-generated): Not necessarily lesson-based, a lengthy presentation of story by teacher or student (may overlap with Warm-up or Narrative recitation), May be used to maintain attention, motivate, or as lengthy practice. 22.Question-answer, referential: Activity involving prompting of responses by means of referential questions (i.e., the questioner does not know beforehand the responses information). Distinguished from Question-answer, display.
  63. 63. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Semicontrolled Techniques 23.Cued narrative/Dialogue: Student production of narrative or dialogue following cues from miming, cue cards, pictures, or other stimuli related to narrative/dialogue (e.g., metalanguage requesting functional acts). 24.Information transfer: Application from one mode (e.g., visual) to another (e.g., writing), which involves some transformation of the information (e.g., student fills out diagram while listening to description). Distinguished from Identification in that the student is expected to transform and reinterpret the language or information. 25.Information exchange: Task involving two-way communication as in information-gap exercise, when one or both parties (or a larger group) must share information to achieve some goal. Distinguished from Question- answer, referential in that sharing of information is critical for the task. Semicontrolled Techniques 23.Cued narrative/Dialogue: Student production of narrative or dialogue following cues from miming, cue cards, pictures, or other stimuli related to narrative/dialogue (e.g., metalanguage requesting functional acts). 24.Information transfer: Application from one mode (e.g., visual) to another (e.g., writing), which involves some transformation of the information (e.g., student fills out diagram while listening to description). Distinguished from Identification in that the student is expected to transform and reinterpret the language or information. 25.Information exchange: Task involving two-way communication as in information-gap exercise, when one or both parties (or a larger group) must share information to achieve some goal. Distinguished from Question- answer, referential in that sharing of information is critical for the task.
  64. 64. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Semicontrolled Techniques 26. Wrap-up: Brief teacher- or student-produced summary of point and/or items that have been practiced or learned. 27.Narration/Exposition: Presentation of a story or explanation derived from prior stimuli. Distinguished from Cued narrative because of lack of immediate stimulus. 28.Preparation: Student study, silent reading, pair planning and rehearsing, preparing for later activity. Usually a student- directed or –oriented project. Semicontrolled Techniques 26. Wrap-up: Brief teacher- or student-produced summary of point and/or items that have been practiced or learned. 27.Narration/Exposition: Presentation of a story or explanation derived from prior stimuli. Distinguished from Cued narrative because of lack of immediate stimulus. 28.Preparation: Student study, silent reading, pair planning and rehearsing, preparing for later activity. Usually a student- directed or –oriented project.
  65. 65. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Free Techniques 29.Role play: Relatively free acting out of specified roles and functions. Distinguished from Cued dialogues by the fact that cueing is provided only minimally at the beginning , and not during the activity. 30.Games: Various kinds of language game activity not like other previously defined activities (e.g., board and dice games making words). 31.Report: Report of student-prepared exposition on books, experiences, project work, without immediate stimulus, and elaborated on according to student interests. Akin to Composition in writing mode. Free Techniques 29.Role play: Relatively free acting out of specified roles and functions. Distinguished from Cued dialogues by the fact that cueing is provided only minimally at the beginning , and not during the activity. 30.Games: Various kinds of language game activity not like other previously defined activities (e.g., board and dice games making words). 31.Report: Report of student-prepared exposition on books, experiences, project work, without immediate stimulus, and elaborated on according to student interests. Akin to Composition in writing mode.
  66. 66. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Free Techniques 32.Problem solving: Activity involving specified problem and limitations of means to resolve it; requires cooperation on part of participants in small or large group. 33.Drama: Planned dramatic rendition of play, skit, story, etc. 34.Simulation: Activity involving complex interaction between groups and individuals based on simulation of real-life actions and experiences. 35.Interview: A student is directed to get information from another student or students. 36.Discussion: Debate or other form of grouped discussion of specified topic, with or without specified sides/positions prearranged. Free Techniques 32.Problem solving: Activity involving specified problem and limitations of means to resolve it; requires cooperation on part of participants in small or large group. 33.Drama: Planned dramatic rendition of play, skit, story, etc. 34.Simulation: Activity involving complex interaction between groups and individuals based on simulation of real-life actions and experiences. 35.Interview: A student is directed to get information from another student or students. 36.Discussion: Debate or other form of grouped discussion of specified topic, with or without specified sides/positions prearranged.
  67. 67. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Free Techniques 37.Composition: As in Report (verbal), written development of ideas, story, or other exposition. 38.A propos: Conversation or other socially oriented interaction/speech by teacher, students, or even visitors, on general real- life topics. Typically authentic and genuine. Free Techniques 37.Composition: As in Report (verbal), written development of ideas, story, or other exposition. 38.A propos: Conversation or other socially oriented interaction/speech by teacher, students, or even visitors, on general real- life topics. Typically authentic and genuine.
  68. 68. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54) Some techniques will fit into more than one category. Consider the “warm-up” activity suggested by Klippel (1984,pp13-14) for beginning level class: Step1: Each student writes his/her full name of a piece of paper. All the papers are collected and redistributed so that everyone receives the name of a person he/she does not know. Step 2: Everyone walks around the room and tries to find the person whose name he/she holds. Simple questions can be: “Is your name......? Are you......? Step 3: When everyone has found his/her partner, he/she introduces him/her to the group. Some techniques will fit into more than one category. Consider the “warm-up” activity suggested by Klippel (1984,pp13-14) for beginning level class: Step1: Each student writes his/her full name of a piece of paper. All the papers are collected and redistributed so that everyone receives the name of a person he/she does not know. Step 2: Everyone walks around the room and tries to find the person whose name he/she holds. Simple questions can be: “Is your name......? Are you......? Step 3: When everyone has found his/her partner, he/she introduces him/her to the group.
  69. 69. Taxonomy of language-teaching Techniques (adapted from Crookes & Chaudron,1991 pp.52-54)  This exercise seems to fit into a number of possible categories. It involves question-answer, referential activity; there is some information exchange as well.; and in some ways either problem solving or games may fit here.  The purpose in referring to such a taxonomy, therefore, is not to be able to pinpoint every technique specifically. Rather, the taxonomy is more of a help to you as  An aid to raising your awareness of the wide variety of available techniques  An indicator of how techniques differ according to a continuum ranging from controlled to free  A resource for your own personal brainstorming process as you consider types of techniques for your classroom.  This exercise seems to fit into a number of possible categories. It involves question-answer, referential activity; there is some information exchange as well.; and in some ways either problem solving or games may fit here.  The purpose in referring to such a taxonomy, therefore, is not to be able to pinpoint every technique specifically. Rather, the taxonomy is more of a help to you as  An aid to raising your awareness of the wide variety of available techniques  An indicator of how techniques differ according to a continuum ranging from controlled to free  A resource for your own personal brainstorming process as you consider types of techniques for your classroom.
  70. 70. References • Brown, D.H. (2001). Teaching by Principle.Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. • Clarke,M.A.1983. The scope of approach, the importance of method, and the nature of technique. In J.E. Alatis. H.Stern,& P. Strevens (Eds.). Geogetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics 1983. : Applied linguistics and the preparation of second language teachers (pp.106-115). Washington, D.C: Georgetown University. • Kumaravadivelu, B. 2006. Understanding Language teaching.New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,Inc. , Publisher. • Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. 2nd ed.Oxford: OUP • Lightbown, P& Nina Spada.1993. How language are learned. New York: Oxford University Press. • Prichard, Alan.2009. Ways of Learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom. New York: Routledge. • Richard, Jack C. , & Rodgers, Theodore S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press • Brown, D.H. (2001). Teaching by Principle.Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. • Clarke,M.A.1983. The scope of approach, the importance of method, and the nature of technique. In J.E. Alatis. H.Stern,& P. Strevens (Eds.). Geogetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics 1983. : Applied linguistics and the preparation of second language teachers (pp.106-115). Washington, D.C: Georgetown University. • Kumaravadivelu, B. 2006. Understanding Language teaching.New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,Inc. , Publisher. • Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. 2nd ed.Oxford: OUP • Lightbown, P& Nina Spada.1993. How language are learned. New York: Oxford University Press. • Prichard, Alan.2009. Ways of Learning: Learning theories and learning styles in the classroom. New York: Routledge. • Richard, Jack C. , & Rodgers, Theodore S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press
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