When is it used?O REPORTED SPEECH is used to tell what someone said. Yet, we do not repeat all the words exactly. O REAL WORDS (direct speech): Tom said: “We are going to the cinema this afternoon.” O REPORTED SPEECH: Tom said that they were going to the cinema that afternoon.
ChangesO Types of changes: 1. Verb Tenses 2. Time and place adverbial expressions 3. Logical change of pronounsO EXAMPLE O DIRECT: Mary said: “They are seeing me tomorrow” O REPORTED: Mary said that they were seeing her the following day
Verb TensesDIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECHO PRESENT • PAST O We study • She said that they studied O We are studying • She said that they were studyingO PAST • PAST PERFECT O We studied • She said that they had studied O We were studying • She said that they had been studyingO FUTURE • CONDITIONAL O We will study • She said that they would study
List of Verb Changes TENSE DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH She said that she played tennis with her PRESENT SIMPLE I play tennis with my friends friends PRESENT I am playing tennis with my She said that she was playing tennis with her CONTINUOUS friends friends PRESENT PERFECT I have played tennis with my She said that she had played tennis with her SIMPLE friends friends PRESENT PERFECT I have been playing tennis with She said that she had been playing tennis CONTINUOUS my friends with her friends She said that she had played tennis with her PAST SIMPLE I played tennis with my friends friends I were playing tennis with my She said that she had been playing tennis PAST CONTINUOUS friends with her friends I had played tennis with my She said that she had played tennis with herPAST PERFECT SIMPLE friends friends PAST PERFECT I had been playing tennis with She said that she had been playing tennis CONTINUOUS my friends with her friends She said that they would play tennis with her FUTURE SIMPLE I will play tennis with my friends friends
Changes in Modals DIRECT REPORTED SPEECH SPEECH CAN COULD MAY MIGHTMUST / HAVE MUST / HAD TO TO WILL WOULD
Time and Place Adverb ChangeDIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH Now Then Today That day Tonight That night Yesterday The previous day / the day before Last week The previous week / the week beforeA __________ ago The previous ______ / the _____ before The following day / the day after / the next Tomorrow day The following ________ / the _______Next ___________ after Here There This That These Those
Reported Speech In StatementsWhen transforming statements, first,doublecheck:O pronounsO present tense verbs (3rd person singular)O place and time expressionsO tenses (backshift)
Reported Speech In Statements Type Example direct speech “I speak English.”reported speech He says that he speaks English. (no backshift)reported speech He said that he spoke English. (backshift)
In QuestionsWhen transforming questions, check whetheryou have to change:O pronounsO present tense verbs (3rd person singular)O place and time expressionsO tenses (backshift)Also note that you have to:O transform the question into an indirect questionO use the interrogative or if / whether
In Questions Type Examplewith interrogative direct speech “Why don’t you speak English?” reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English.without interrogative direct speech “Do you speak English?” reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English.
In RequestsWhen transforming questions, checkwhether you have to change:O pronounsO place and time expressions
In Requests Type Exampledirect speech “Carol, speak English.“reported speech He told Carol to speak English.
Some reporting verbs. IF / THAT + THAT+ THAT + Object +WHETHER + sentence or sentence or sentence infinitive sentence infinitive should ASK ANSWER CLAIM ADVISE ADVISEREMEMBER BOAST PROMISE BEG ASK SAY COMPLAIN THREATEN DEMAND BEG DENY RECOMMEND INVITE REPLY SUGGEST ORDER SAY SHOUT SUGGEST WARN TELL WARN