PHRASAL ANDPREPOSITIONAL VERBS A . C L A S S I F I C AT I O N I N T O F O U R C AT E G O R I E S :1. Phrasal verbs (V+Adv) a. intransitive verb + particle: The plane took off on time. b. transitive verb + particle: He gave back the book.2. Prepositional verbs a. intransitive verb (V+Prep): She looked after her family. b. transitive verb (V+NP+Prep): Youve talked me into it.3. Phrasal prepositional verbs a. intransitive verb (V+Adv+Prep): I wont put up with this noise. b. transitive verb (V+NP+Adv+Prep): Ill take you up on that.4. Other prepositional combinations: a. (V+NP+Prep): We soon made friends with them. b. (V+Adj+Prep): Ill get even with you.
Type of verb Components Lexical Verb Direct Particles + prepositional Object Adverb Preposition Object1. Type I Phrasal V. Come ------ In ------ ------ Crop ------ Up ------ ------2. Type II Phrasal V. Send S’one Away ------ ------ Turn S’one Down ------ ------3. Type I Prepositional V. Come ------ ------ With +me Come ------ ------ Across +a problem4. Type II Prepositional V Receive S’thing ------ From +me Take S’one ------ For +a fool5.Type I Phrasal – Prepositional Run ------ Away With +itV Come ------ Up With +an answer6. Type II Phrasal Prepositional Send S’one Out Into +the worldV Put S’one Up For +election
ALL FOUR COMBINATIONS MAY BE MORE OR LESS IDIOMATIC: More idiomatic Less idiomatic1a. The enemy gave in. (= surrendered) The guests came in.1b. Take this message down. (= write) Take that picture down.3. He did away with his wife. (= murdered) The thief gotaway with the money.
CLASSIFICATION PROBLEMS :1. The adverbial particles of some intransitive phrasal verbs couldsometimes be understood as prepositions with an understood complement: Five cars have gone past (this place) in the last few minutes. This is where we get off (the bus).2. It is sometimes difficult to decide whether a structure should beanalysed as an intransitive verb followed by a prepositional phrase or a prepositionalverb: They walked for hours. They waited for the next bus.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHRASAL VERBSAND VERB + PREPOSITIONS COMBINATIONSNotice, for example thecontrast in meaning of thefollowing pairs of sentences:
1. A The boy ran into the street Verb+prepositional phrase1. B He ran into an old friend yesterday (met byaccident) Phrasal verb2.A The passers-by looked into the windowcuriously - verb+ prepositional phrase2.B Have the policemen looked into the bankrobbery (investigated)- phrasal verb
OFTEN THE DIFFERENCE CAN BE TESTED WITH A QUESTION: They arrived at the station. Where did they arrive?*What did they arrive at? She looked at the pictures. *Where did she look?What did she look at?
For each of these sentences we cancompose a question with “where” and five ameaningful answer by using a prepositionalphrase:The boy run into the streetWhere did the boy run? Into the street
If we form a question with “Where” for the sentences in thesecond example, however, we find that there is no meaningfulresponse: Mr. Brown run into an old friend Where did Mr Brown run? Into an old friend (not meaningful)
But when we formulate a question with “what” or “whom” usingthe two-word verb as a unit, we find that the meaning is clear: Whom did he run into? An old friend What is the committee talking over? Our report.
So, a two word verb is a grammatical unit which fulfils the normalfunctions of a verb in a sentence. In the sentences above, we willconsider the noun phrases which follow the two-word verbs as theobject of the two-word verbs, not as the objects of the preposition
DIFFERENCES: S T R E S S O N A D V E R B PA R T I C L E S B. a. Stress - an adverb particle is usually stressed, amonosyllabic preposition is not: 1a. I wish youd shut up. 1b. I handed in the work. 2. He took to drink. Can you look after it? 3. She carried on with her work. 4. He took hold of her arm.
POSITION OF THE DIRECT OBJECT b. Position of the direct object: - the direct object may followor precede the adverb particle of a phrasal verb. If the object is apronoun, it must precede the adverb particle: They called up the young men. They called the young menup. They let us down. We put them off.
PASSIVESf. Passives: Transitive phrasal verbs can be freely used in the passive: 1b. Two hundred workers were laid off. The money will have tobe given back
IDIOMS What are idioms?The free dictionary defines Idioms as (Linguistics) "a group of words whosemeaning cannot be predicted from the meanings of theconstituent words". Example 1: in a fire situation (He just arrived) in the nick of time to call thefire brigade before it was a real disaster, meaning, at the last possible second. Example 2: If something works in the long run, it means in the end, when the wholeprocess is finished, but it has nothing to do with running, as an action.
IDIOMS IN USE Idioms are very common in spoken English and less common inwritten English, or more formal situations, and are very often used inbusiness contexts to help create a relaxed atmosphere. Whats more, youcan listen to them in TV comedy, drama series. Using idioms make you sound more personal, friendly and less formal.Thats why it is another important aspect when learning a language atadvanced levels.
TIP TO LEARN IDIOMSLearn a couple of idioms each day, try to learnthem on a daily basis. Also, try learning them bysaying the phrases out loud until they sound naturalto you. You can even write them down and keep anotebook for idioms. Lastly, you can visit the pagesbelow and practice them.
EXERCISES For more information and practice vitit: http://cursodeingles-elena.blogspot.com.es/2012/03/unit-4-phrasal-verbs.html