Globalization against illegal immigrationPresentation Transcript
FOREIGN POLICY OF ITALY AGAINST ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION ELENA DIVIZIA ERASMUS STUDENT MAY 2010 Globalization, security and International terrorism
Immigration is the permanent or temporary transfer of groups of people in a country other than the home.
The real problem for the host countries (as defined in the developed or developing) concerns the regulation of these people, today lack the ability to act quickly and fix them when and where possible, or deported where needed, is necessary to regulate the flows migration as quickly as possible.
The only one exception to this rule concerns those who are victims of political persecution or religious, come from dictatorships and countries at war, the International law provides that in such cases is entitled to political asylum, health care and first aid are compulsory.
Immigration can help solve a problem of overcrowding in the country of origin and those linked to it by hunger, disease and poverty.
Politically, the countries of origin and destination may engage in bilateral agreements which provide control programs for migration, to meet labour needs of the country of destination, to resolve problems of overcrowding in the country of origin, offset by other aspects such as exchange raw materials and energy.
The migration plays a central role in the analysis of economic and social trends that characterize a country like Italy that has been transformed over the past quarter century by country of emigration to a country of immigration.
For over a century emigration to Italy has been a valuable tool for rebalancing the labour market because large shares of Italian workers have been absorbed by the economies of multiple countries making it less burdensome level of unemployment; it is easy to understand for some times this phenomenon was very convenient for Italy.
Since the eighties, but especially in the nineties, there has been reversed, the migration to our country have significantly intensified making Italy a point of land rather than secondary to citizens from third world .
Thus Italy is a role of "road necessary step" to Northern Europe or "last resort" alternative to the traditional immigration countries, often because of very stringent rules and controls other European countries.
Basically people move to new country for problems incidental to these social phenomena:
Poverty : one of the more immediate causes for the selection of a migratory population is represented by the poverty that continues to increase in many developing countries of the Mediterranean as a combined effect of several factors.
Wars : ethnic and religious conflicts, tribal hostility and other forms of persecution. These causes generally attributable to the political situation of countries of origin.
Deteriorating environmental conditions: natural disasters, soil erosion, deforestation, lack of water resources, desertification and pollution in its different manifestations make uninviting areas more extensive on the planet, causing mass transfer of populations in areas deemed safer.
Food shortages : The reduction of arable land due to the development of desertification and urbanization has resulted in an obvious decline in food production.
2. What are the factors that cause migration and why is Italy the first choice?
Massive population growth : the exponential growth and accelerated urban population of southern Mediterranean countries has created even more instability, as it was compatible with the growth capacity of the economic and social system of the country.
Advent of new technologies : phenomenon that has proved destructive to many traditional business sectors and has contributed to unemployment, affecting the productive structures of the less advanced countries, characterized by the massive forces of cheap labour is not specialized
The reasons for the choice of Italy as a land of immigration are many:
It is a geographical location in the Mediterranean which makes it particularly vulnerable to the influx of North African country, even from the great responsibilities related to Italy for his role in the border country of the European Union in the south and in the east;
The characteristics of our national borders make it very difficult to fully and properly;
supervised, is in fact mostly coast within easy reach and difficult to control, in addition to allegedly lower stiffness compared to other European countries to Italy shall be deducted from other countries. Europeans, accustomed to the controls on their traditional country of arrival of migratory flows
3. The immigration problem is too big for Italy. It needs to cooperate with European Union to combat it.
To combat the problem of illegal immigration Italy have to cooperate with other states, because it alone cannot contain this phenomenon.
Precisely for this reasons Italy is asking other states to collaborate creating a clear policy against illegal immigration, is fundamental to promote only the legal immigration that if well-managed can help the state to grow from an economic and social standpoint.
In one of many files produced by the European Commission on this issue is the need to strengthen cooperation between Member States and the entire European Union with countries of origin for immigrants in order to combat illegal immigration. The common immigration policy must necessarily be based on a high level of political and operational solidarity, mutual trust, transparency, shared responsibility and joint efforts of the European Union and the Member States.
Another important point on which I believe should work is not only the creation of a common policy, but also an international body that may apply.
About this is most important to control the borders, and exactly for this purpose the European Union has created the Frontex (full name: "European Agency for the Management of International Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the Union" ) whose administrative centre is in Warsaw, Poland.
Its purpose is the coordination of border patrols outside air, sea and land of the EU states and the establishment of agreements with countries bordering the European Union rejected the readmission of migrants along the border.
It is really important also create a common policy that consists in collaboration between different states of Europe Union, to do that is fundamental watch out at subjects like solidarity, integration and transparency.
Europe Union decided that the integration is basic for create a good relationship between different people; for these reasons Europe Union determined that there are some points on which to focus discussion like:
• support diversity management and evaluation of results of integration policies in the
• promote integration programs for newly arrived immigrants;
• ensure equal career opportunities in the labour market for legal workers from third countries;
• apply the social security schemes on an equal footing to immigrants and EU citizens;
• develop measures to increase the participation of migrants in society;
• review the Council Directive on family reunification;
3. Relations with other different Mediterranean's States
Europe, like Italy, to attain a good policy about the immigration problem must collaborate with more different countries that until now had not considerate, nations like Libya, Turkey and Malta.
Europe and of course Italy is concluding agreements with countries like Morocco, which fortunately do not reach large migration flows, which works fine with Egypt and Tunisia. Agreement with Libya is recent but is already showing the first results of Tripoli with the government that knows that there are places, where smuggling is organized and goes into those ports and arrest people, leaders and organizers. In doing so, with perseverance and stubbornness, the phenomenon will gradually be blocked.
In conclusion we can not forget the important role played by Malta in the context of illegal immigration in the Mediterranean.