This is a small presentation on ocean acidification.It is a compilation of all materials(including present information) I collected related to it, any new information beside this or concerning it please comment.
CONTENTS•Introduction•Carbon cycle•What is ocean acidification?•Chemistry of ocean acidification•Impacts of ocean acidification•Potential effects on ecosystem•Facts about Ocean Acidification•What can we do about it?•conclusion
•Oceans cover more than 70% of the earth’ssurface.•Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation haveincreased the amount of carbon dioxide emittedto the atmosphere-and the amount thatdissolve into the ocean.•Massive amount of carbon dioxide into the sea-altering water chemistry.-causing ocean to become more acidic.-affecting life-cycle of marineorganism, particularly at the lower end of foodchain.
•Carbon dioxide is a critical part of earth’s atmosphere.•It maintain a natural balance of carbon in the atmosphere , landand ocean.•The ocean absorb carbon in two ways-physical and biological.
What is Ocean Acidification ?Since the beginning of industrial era , emission of carbondioxide have increased.Exceeding the capacity of the carbon cycle to maintain anequilibrium between the atmosphere and ocean.The absorption of carbon dioxide is fundamentally changingthe chemistry of the ocean by triggering reactions that make seawater more acidic , a phenomenon called Ocean acidification.Definition:-“Ocean Acidification is a term used to describe thechanges in the chemistry of the earth’s ocean ieongoing decrease in the pH and increase in acidity ,caused by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxidefrom the atmosphere”
POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON ECOSYSTEMS Specific effects of ocean acidification to a variety ofocean ecosystem , around the globe.•THE OPEN OCEAN ECOSYSTEM:Based on plankton , which serves as the foundation ofthe marine food chain.Planktonic species including coccolithophores ,foraminifera , and pteropods need carbonate ions tobuild their shells.If ocean acidification increases ,Carbonate based planktonic species may decline.A range of species including fish , seals , whales couldlose their preferred food. Cont……
Photos projected for the year 2100 shows pteropod’s shell slowly dissolves after 45 dayswhen placed in sea water with low pH and carbonate levels.
POLAR ECOSYSTEM •The polar waters of Arctic and Southern oceans harbor many protected and endangered marine mammals. •Carbon Dioxide dissolve more readily in cold water , acidifying the waters of polar regions faster than in lower latitudes. •If carbon dioxide continue to increase , by the year 2050 , the surface waters of southern ocean will become corrosive to some type of carbonate structure.TROPICAL CORAL REEFS • In the Natural world , corals must rapidly grow to outpace predation by fish and other organisms and to compete for space with algae and sea-grasses. •Ocean Acidification ,prevents reef building corals from growing fast enough to escape predation and competition and also contribute to coral bleaching. Cont………
DEEP WATER CORAL REEFS•Corals in the deep sea create habitat for manyspecies of fish .•Ocean Acidification in deeper water reduces calcification and decrease the rate of growth of deep water corals.
Growth and skeletal integrity of scleractinian corals and coralline algae that are likely to becompromised by ocean acidification.
FACTS ABOUT OCEAN ACIDIFICATION•World’s oceans are becoming acidic at faster rate, threatening disaster for marine life and foodsupplies across globe .• The carbon dioxide in the water has caused the pH ofsurface oceans to fall by 0.1 units –projected to fall further0.3-0.4 units.•Currently , the ocean absorbs about a third of human-created carbon dioxide emission , roughly 22 million tons a day.•Acidity has increased 30% and its effect is irreversible. CONT……
•If carbon dioxide emission continue unchecked-keyparts of the marine environment that are essential forfish-such as Coral reefs , the Algae and plankton will beseverely affected , leading to the extinction of somespecies by 2050.•Current rate of acidification -making difficult forspecies and habitats to adapt.•If atmospheric carbon dioxide can be stabilized at450ppm, only 8% of existing tropical and sub-tropicalcoral reefs will still be in the waters of right pH level tosupport their growth.
What can we do about it ?•Combating Acidification requires reducing carbon dioxide emissionand improving the health of the ocean.Creating marine protected areas andstopping destructive fishing practices. Addition of Alkali to the Oceans.Adding of lime stone carbonate material.Plantation of trees.Green belt around the industries.
CONCLUSION•Due to ,Ocean Acidification , the oceans’capacity as carbon store house is diminishing.• If nothing is done to help curb OceanAcidification , its negative impact may be felton the marine environment , localcommunities , and all the way up through theglobal economy..
“This is not something that’s off in the future.This is not something for our children’schildren. It’s happening now.”– Dr. Christopher Sabine