The Cognitivist Theory
Jessica , Gigi , Shawnda , Julie, Lauren
What is this theory all about?
Cognitivism is an attempt to explain what is
going on in the mind while learning.
* inner mental activities –“black box” of the brain
* people learn by active participation
* actions are consequence of thinking
* metaphor of the mind as a computer-
information comes in, gets processed and leads to
• Learning is an active constructive process.
• The learner processes information like a
• The focus is on inner mental activities such as
thinking, memory, knowing.
• Knowledge is constructed based on personal
• As information is processed, it changes the
•Recognized that recall and recognition is
related to how it is presented (visually and
•Dual Coding Theory - distinct information
1) representational - verbal or nonverbal
representations are directly influenced
2) referential - verbal systems activate
nonverbal communication or vice-versa
3) associative - text and graphics trigger mental
Robert Gagne•Identified five categories of learning
1) Verbal information - learner can state
what has been learned.
2) Intellectual skills - learner can
discriminate between facts, can identify
colors, and can follow directions.
3) Cognitive strategies - learner reads
4) Motor skills - learner can use a mouse
5) Attitudes - learner ‘s choice of actions
•Identified events of instruction
1) Gain attention of the learners
2) Inform learners of the objective
3) Stimulate recall of prior learning
4) Present the stimulus or lesson
5) Provide learning guidance and
6) Elicit performance
7) Provide feedback
8) Assess performance
9) Enhance retention and transfer