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Aspects of Standards

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If you order or are involved with product testing or specifying, this presentation by Element Materials Technology Senior Metallurgical Engineer & Engineering Manager Dr. John Tartaglia, this …

If you order or are involved with product testing or specifying, this presentation by Element Materials Technology Senior Metallurgical Engineer & Engineering Manager Dr. John Tartaglia, this presentation will answer many standards questions, including:

- What's the difference between various types of ASTM standards, e.g., test methods, specifications, practices, terminology, and guides?
- How often are ASTM and SAE test methods and other standards revised?
- What are some guidelines for citing open specifications and test methods in industrial part prints and contractual documents?
- What are some key similarities and difference between between the standards published by various organizations, e.g., SAE, ASTM, AMS, JIS, DIN, EN, ISO, etc.?

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  • 1. Aspects of Standards Why are they important?And, examples in Metallurgical Testing John M. Tartaglia, Ph.D. Senior Metallurgical Engineer & Engineering Manager Element WixomMarch 6, 2012 Aspects of Standards
  • 2. Webinar Schedule• Begin lecture at 1 pm• Lecture for about 50 minutes• Questions & Answers – During webinar and directly after webinar • Ask questions using the GoToWebinar question box • These questions will be answered in the remaining 10 minutes – After the webinar is posted, send me an email at • John.tartaglia@element.com Aspects of Standards 2
  • 3. Presentation Requests & Materials• Supplied materials 1. PowerPoint slides • You may download a copy of this webinar from our website within 48 hours • You may separately download a pdf copy of this presentation from the website, without my voice Element Materials Technology marketing information and scopes are available on our website: www.element.com• Topical Coverage – I picked topics based on my/our experience with these standards – I’ll try to keep your interest – I won’t cover all the notes; some of them are for reference only. This may be a good reason to download the pdf copy of the presentation. – I will cover and omit topics partly based on time expenditure – This presentation contains some of the presenter’s personal opinions. • Some parties may consider these assertions to be controversial. • The opinions do not represent ASTM, ASM, JIS, ISO or Element policy. Aspects of Standards 3
  • 4. Questions that will be (at least) partially answered in this webinar • How are ASTM standards developed? • How often are ASTM & SAE test methods and other standards revised? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of various types of specifications? • What are some guidelines for citing open specifications and test methods in industrial part prints and contractual documents • What are some implications of using domestic standards for products produced in foreign locations? • What are some key differences between the metallurgical standards published by various organizations, e.g., SAE, ASTM, JIS, DIN, EN, ISO, etc.? Aspects of Standards 4
  • 5. Aspects of Standards Topics• Definition of standards• ASTM society description• ASTM collections and nomenclature• Types of ASTM committees & standards• Other standards organizations• ASTM standards numbering• ASTM standard revision timing• ASTM versus SAE test methods and specifications• Why bother and a “sad story”• Test method standards, including ASTM vs. other types – Hardness and Mechanical Test Standards – Quantitative Metallography Standards Aspects of Standards 5
  • 6. What is ASTM?• Originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).• Begun in 1898 when engineers and scientists gathered to address frequent rail breaks in the burgeoning railroad industry.• Now known as ASTM International, which is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world.• ASTM standards make products and services safer, better and more cost-effective. Information on this and subsequent ASTM slides was obtained from www.astm.org and the ASTM “Blue book” Aspects of Standards 6
  • 7. ASTM vs. ASM• Note that ASTM and ASM are very different• ASTM is a standards-making organization• ASM International: – Is the former American Society for Metals, – Is The Materials Information Society, – Only supplies information about materials, – Issues no standards, but – Publishes handbooks that are an excellent source for cross- referencing various metals and alloy specifications Aspects of Standards 7
  • 8. 7 Categories of ASTM Committees and Standards Ferrous Metals Nonferrous Metals Ceramics, Glass, Concrete, Insulators Plastics, Paint, Rubbers, Wood, Packages Miscellaneous Subjects (mostly testing) Fasteners, Electronics, Hazards, Amusement Rides Corrosion, Wear, Erosion Aspects of Standards 8
  • 9. ASTM standards facts• 12,000 standards• Delivered by PDF file download, CD, or• 77 book volumes of standards – Two digit section number precedes a period – Two digit volume number follows the period – Example: • Section 3: Metals Test Methods and Analytical Procedures • Volume 03.01: Metals—Mechanical Testing; Elevated and Low- Temperature Tests; Metallography – With the advent of computerized standard delivery, the ASTM book volumes are becoming less significant and less used. • However, they are still extremely valuable for several specialized reasons like subject matter searches and alloy groupings because the ASTM website does not quite give you this key wording “perfection”. Aspects of Standards 9
  • 10. Volume 03.01 – Metals (most common in metals labs) Volume 03.01 includes tests and practices that outline the standard procedures needed to perform mechanical testing Some standards define terms and explain procedures related to fatigue testing and loading Also featured are metallography tests and practices Aspects of Standards 10
  • 11. ASTM “standard” is a generic description• standard, n—as used in ASTM International, a document that has been developed and established within the consensus principles of the Society and that meets the approval requirements of ASTM procedures and regulations. – The term “standard” is also used as a generic adjective in the title of documents, such as test methods or specifications. The various types of standard documents are prescribed by the ASTM committees. Aspects of Standards 11
  • 12. Primary types of ASTM standards specification, n—an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service. test method, n—a definitive procedure that produces a test result. Aspects of Standards 12
  • 13. Other types of ASTM standards guide, n—a compendium of information or series of options that does not recommend a specific course of action. practice, n—a definitive set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations that does not produce a test result. This is not really true; many practices do produce a test result. terminology standard, n—a document comprising definitions of terms; explanations of symbols, abbreviations, or acronyms. Aspects of Standards 13
  • 14. Other standards-making organizations • In this webinar, I mostly discuss ASTM and SAE because they are the organizations that are arguably most predominant in North America and Detroit, respectively, where Element Wixom mostly operates. • However, there are many organizations that issue standards. • To the left of this slide is an example, from a survey, of all the organizations that issue aerospace standards: 14
  • 15. JIS Background• The Japanese Standards Association is an organization that formed in December 6, 1945.• The objective of the association is "to educate the public regarding the standardization and unification of industrial standards, and thereby to contribute to the improvement of technology and the enhancement of production efficiency".• The primary activity of JSA is to publish and distribute JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards)• JSA also publishes books on industrial standardization, quality management (control), administrative management, science and technology, JIS Handbooks, and other books. http://www.jsa.or.jp/default_english.asp Aspects of Standards 15
  • 16. ISO Background http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm• ISO standards are developed similarly to ASTM and according to the following principles:• Consensus The views of all interests are taken into account: manufacturers, vendors and users, consumer groups, testing laboratories, governments, engineering professions and research organizations.• Industry wide Global solutions to satisfy industries and customers worldwide.• Voluntary International standardization is market driven and therefore based on voluntary involvement of all interests in the market-place.• Example: Element laboratories have A2LA Accreditation International Standard ANS/ISO/IEC 17025 “General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories” Aspects of Standards 16
  • 17. DIN and EN Background http://www.din.de/cmd?level=tpl-home&languageid=en http://www.cen.eu/cen/Pages/default.aspx• The creation of German standards is the task of DIN, a self-governing institution of trade and industry.• DIN represents Germany and fulfils an equivalent function in the European and International (ISO) standards organization.• An EN standard is a European standard, with the status of a DIN or BS (British) standard.• CEN develops EN standards, in the same way as ASTM and ISO: – Standards are developed through a consensus process; – Participants in standards development represent all concerned interests: industry, authorities and civil society, contributing mainly through their national standards bodies; – Draft standards are made public for consultation at large; – The final and formal vote is binding on all members; – The European Standards (ENs) must be transposed into national standards and conflicting standards withdrawn. Aspects of Standards 17
  • 18. ASTM standards• Numbering• Revision and issuance• Test methods• Specifications• The sad stories….. Aspects of Standards 18
  • 19. Standards Numbering• Volume 03.01 contains standards produced by the following committee(s): – E04 on Metallography – E08 on Fatigue and Fracture – E28 on Mechanical Testing – E30 and E58 on Forensic Sciences and Engineering, respectively• I’m a member of these three committees for Element Wixom and I vote on new and revised standards that are issued by several subcommittees of these committees.• The standards themselves are preceded by their letter category and a chronological number (which varies from one to four digits). Aspects of Standards 19
  • 20. Standards Numbering Example E1234M-99a(2004)ε1 The “E” signifies that it is a “Miscellaneous Subjects” standard, and that it was probably published by an “E” committee and subcommittee. The “1234” signifies that it is the 1234th standard developed in the E category. The “M” means the standard version with metric units. Sometimes this is in a separate document like this example – Usually it is in the same document with the English units and called E1234(E1234M)a(2004)e1.4. The “99” signifies that it was originally adopted or last revised in 1999.5. Standards can be revised every day, but in reality, it takes a rather long process with one or more votes. – The “a” signifies that it was revised once in 1999 after it was adopted or a revision was published during that year. 20
  • 21. Standards Numbering Continued E1234M-99a(2004)ε1 (with rules)1. The “2004” signifies that it was reapproved with no changes during 2004. – All ASTM standards must be reapproved or withdrawn (after a vote) within seven years. – ASTM will automatically withdraw the standard when/if the (sub)committee does not act to submit the standard for reapproval, revision or withdrawal vote within the seven years. The e1 or e1 signifies that it was revised editorially. – These editorial revisions do not require a vote and are usually used to correct clerical mistakes. Aspects of Standards 21
  • 22. ASTM Standard Footnotes & Chronology• The footnotes at the bottom of the left hand column of each standard give more pedigree information.• Chronology: – The current edition was approved on July 1, 2007. – The current edition was published in September 2007. – The standard was originally published as E3-21T, which was in 1921. This is the oldest surviving E standard! – The last previous edition was E3-01, or the 2001 version. • The 2007 reapproval makes it a separate version!• Both a committee and a subcommittee are involved in issuance: – Jurisdiction of ASTM (Main) Committee E04 on Metallography – Direct responsibility of Subcommittee E04.01 on Specimen Preparation. Aspects of Standards 22
  • 23. Are your ASTM standards updated in a timely manner?• ASTM standards change at any time – Some changes occur multiple times throughout the year.• With standards in book form, you probably don’t have the latest standard.• If you update once a quarter, you are more timely, but you are still behind.• ASTM email notification service is available – when a standard of interest is updated and downloadable as a pdf.• Often entities, and even ASTM, references obsolete or withdrawn standards! Aspects of Standards 23
  • 24. Incorporating ASTM standard revisions• At Element Wixom, I read the standard and see what has changed. (For the major ASTM test methods, I know this because I’ve voted on the standard revisions during development.)• The subcommittee authors sometimes make this easy with a “Notification of Changes” section since the last revision.• I then notify the laboratory staff who will be affected, and it’s their responsibility to incorporate the revisions into their daily test or certification practice.• A2LA and other accreditation bodies like Nadcap require a full citation on a report for the relevant standard. This must include the year and revision designation. I am surprised at how often that’s missing on many laboratory reports! Aspects of Standards 24
  • 25. Other documents reference ASTM standards• Besides ASTM, many companies and standardizing bodies issue test methods.• Almost all of these organizations refer to ASTM standards, but not all of them do so correctly!• The major examples of incorrect (or at least inadvisable) reference are as follows: – Including a year for the reference (which is exactly opposite to the requirement for a report) – Abstracting data from the cited ASTM standard, e.g., an alloy composition – Both of these references are potentially out-of-date as soon as they are published. Aspects of Standards 25
  • 26. An example of a print exhibiting a problematic specification referencePrint DATE: 06/20/97 Material: LEADED RED BRASS PER ASTM B584-87 ALLOY UNS NO. C83600• Print requires (19)87 Version of ASTM B584• The earliest edition of the standard that we could find was (19)98a• The sample was out-of-specification for 98a – This is the current (2008) version of the ASTM standard.• However, the question remains: – Was the alloy out-of-specification in the 1987 version of the ASTM standard? Aspects of Standards 26
  • 27. SAE vs. ASTM test methods Test Method SAE ASTM E10-10 Hardness J417 Dec 1983 E18-08b E140-07 Decarburization J419 Dec 1983 E1077-01(2005) Inclusions J422 Dec 1983 E45-11 Case Depth J423 Feb 1998 None!• ASTM is updated much more frequently so procedures are different.• SAE test methods, except for case depth, are hardly used anymore. Aspects of Standards 27
  • 28. SAE vs. ASTM alloy specifications Alloy SAE ASTM Specification A684(A684M)-10a J403 for strip with separate Plain Carbon standards for wrought November 2001 Steels products of different form (wrought only) (sheet, plate, tube, bar, etc.) or castings Ductile Iron J434 Feb 2004 A536-84 (2009) • ASTM usually requires more and different things. • SAE has more ambiguities. Aspects of Standards 28
  • 29. Differences in plain carbon steel specifications SAE J403 November 2001 ASTM A684 (A684M)-10a• Requires • Requires – C range – C range – Mn range – Mn range – P maximum – P maximum – S maximum – S maximum – Report other elements – Si range (although exceptions)• Special callouts for – Report other elements – B and/or Si ranges • Special callouts for – Copper minimum – B and/or Si ranges – Lead (Pb) range – Lead (Pb) range• No discussion of residuals • Residuals are limited – Ni, Cr, Mo – Ni, Cr, Mo, and Cu – Could lead to a tool, alloy or • Strip thickness is specified stainless steel being classified as a plain carbon steel Aspects of Standards 29
  • 30. Example: A true, but sanitized and relevant story• Major OEM buys a safety-critical fastener system from fastener manufacturer in accordance with a print specifying 1050 steel per SAE J403.• Fastener manufacturer buys a component for the system from heat treater – Heat Treater buys “1050” steel from Service Center #1. – Service Center #1 buys “1050” steel from another service center (call it #2). – Service Center #2 supplies “3150” steel, and doesn’t report (to Heat Treater and Service Center #1) that the steel contains 0.8%Cr and 1.25%Ni. • Don’t worry if you’ve never heard of 3150; it was only obsoleted in 1952. – Service center #1 reports only C, Mn, P, S, and Si to Heat Treater• Heat treater hardens and tempers 3150, certifies it as 1050, and reports Service Center #1’s composition to fastener manufacturer.• Fasteners embrittle in the field and this caused a large recall.• Major OEM very upset – OEM metallurgists say everyone should know that 1050 steel wasn’t supplied – OEM quality engineers and Tartaglia say 3150 steel is no different than 1050 steel based on SAE J403 Aspects of Standards 30
  • 31. Ways That Failures Can Be Caused by Incorrect, Ambiguous, or Insufficient Specifications or Test Methods• Due to cost, availability, volume, or dimensional considerations – Prototypes often survive Production Part Approval Process (PPAP),* but production material fails because it is specified differently before production launch *PPAP definition Per AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group) – Prototype testing is only conducted on one end of the specification limit, but production parts may still fail even if they meet design specification• Specification is incomplete and inaccurate• Conformance testing is not specified or ambiguously specified Aspects of Standards 31
  • 32. How can you be sure?• Test, test, test, TEST• Ask Element about what kind of tests to run• Supply Element with your specifications and ask us about certification options Aspects of Standards 32
  • 33. Aspects of Mechanical Testing Standards• Definitions in ASTM E6• Different ASTM tensile test methods• Determining yield strength and modulus from tensile tests• Differing elongation methods (ASTM vs. ISO & JIS)• Charpy V-notch toughness (ASTM vs. ISO & JIS) Aspects of Standards 33
  • 34. ASTM tensile test methods• E8 standard English method – Uses psi or ksi and 4:1 gauge length to diameter/width ratio – Mechanical/Uniaxial ASTM E28.04 subcommittee• E8M standard metric units method – Now combined standard, with E8 – Uses 5:1 gauge length to diameter/width ratio – Same as ISO and JIS test methods, except for elongation calculations – Uses MegaPascals=MPa = MN/m2 = N/mm2 (≠ kg/mm2)• B557/B557M – For nonferrous wrought and cast aluminum and magnesium only – Light Metals and Alloys (product) ASTM B07.05 subcommittee responsibility• A370 – For steel products – Includes many tests besides tensile – Steel (product) ASTM A01.13 subcommittee responsibility• All have virtually same requirements (now) thankfully Aspects of Standards 34
  • 35. Methods and terminology for strength testing in various standards• JIS Z2241, and DIN EN 10 002-1 results have the same yield and tensile strength requirements as ASTM, although the JIS and DIN test methods use different symbols for the results versus ASTM. – 0.2%YS, UTS, El, and RA are yield strength, (ultimate) tensile strength, Elongation, and reduction of area respectively, in ASTM standards – Rp is proof strength, Rm is tensile strength, Z is reduction of area, and A is elongation for EN and JIS standards• Proof vs. Yield – Offset method is used for 0.2% offset YS in US & 0.1% proof stress in UK – Upper and lower yield strength is terminology reserved for discontinuous yielding in all the standards – In JIS and DIN, offset method is used for “proof” and the word “yield” is reserved for discontinuous yielding• All standards define 5% EUL (extension under load); mostly for Cu alloys Aspects of Standards 35
  • 36. Elongation measurements Elongation at fracture – Total elongation per current versions of ASTM test methods E8, B557 and A370 – Measured by extensometer Elongation after fracture (manual and plastic) – Measured physically by pushing fractured samples together (under 2 ksi pressure, if desired) – Measure final gauge length with digital calipers • Will overestimate elongation in brittle materials because you cannot push sample ends together perfectly • Will be similar to #1 for ductile materials3. ASTM elongation calculation is all the same for JIS Z2242.4. ASTM elongation calculation is mostly the same for DIN EN 10 002 Part 1 – DIN EN has somewhat different gauge length requirements for some specimens, and thus elongation is calculated somewhat differently than ASTM and JIS. Aspects of Standards 36
  • 37. What’s the results section of the standard test method require?• Assumption: – In this age of computers, you can get sophisticated data• Potential problem: – But should you trust it (GIGO=garbage in-garbage out)?• Example: – ASTM E8, JIS Z2242, and DIN EN 10 045 Results – Reports only ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), elongation (%El), and reduction of area (%RA) and a few other items under some conditions in all three types of standards – What about modulus (E) and digital stress-strain curves? Aspects of Standards 37
  • 38. Elastic modulus and digital stress-strain determination: ASTM E111 Only small difference 50 between 45 40 extensometer and 35 30 strain gauge here 25 20 Although this full 15 curve looks OK, 300 10 5 250 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Engineering Strain (%) 200 40Stress (ksi) 150 35 30 100 25 significant inaccuracy has 20 15 occurred at low strains Extensometer Strain % 50 10 here, so strain gauge must Strain Gauge Strain % 5 0 be used! 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 1.400 1.600 Engineering Strain (%) Engineering Strain % Aspects of Standards 38
  • 39. Charpy impact toughness• ASTM E23 and the other worldwide standards – Fast and inexpensive – Constant overall standard geometry (10 mm by 10 mm by 55 mm) and apparatus – V-notch is the same throughout the world – All standards report energy in Joules or ft-lbs • Multiply ft-lbs by 1.355 to obtain Joules (J)• U-notch can have different depth in US versus Europe – ASTM E23 and JIS Z2242 = 5 mm depth (although JIS allows 2 mm in special instances) – EN 10 045 = 5 mm – DIN 50 115 = 3 mm for DVM (special for some ductile cast irons) – Notch depths will give much different energy results• No testing standard allows or discusses reporting of energy density (Joules per mm2), but many users scale energies for subsize samples – Although some product testing standards allow this calculation, this energy density calculation is fraught with peril! Aspects of Standards 39
  • 40. Inclusion Definitions & Analyses• Indigenous (endogenous): A nonmetallic material that precipitates from the melt. An indigenous inclusion is native.• Exogenous: A nonmetallic constituent produced by entrapment of foreign material in the melt.• Inclusion cleanliness severity ratings are usually applied to indigenous inclusions only, and mostly in steels. I will discuss ASTM, German DIN, and Japanese JIS methods for these.• Inclusion content determinations and elemental analyses can be applied to all inclusion types and metal alloys. I won’t discuss these, but they are covered in ASTM test methods and practices E1245, E2283, and E2142. Aspects of Standards 40
  • 41. Inclusion Cleanliness Severity Standards• American ASTM E45• German DIN 50602• Japanese G0555• All three rate by color and morphology only• No composition determination• Severity is defined as thickness/width and length, except for JIS which is in % Aspects of Standards 41
  • 42. Sample requirements (ASTM+DIN+JIS)• Careful mount polishing is required to avoid – Corrosion of inclusions – Pullout of inclusions – JIS requires hardened samples• Required sample orientation – in the radial longitudinal orientation (G) for round stock – in the long transverse orientation (E) for flat stock• Required sample state – in the semi-finished state only (e.g., not after being forged or formed into a product) – JIS suggests hardening some samples• Required minimum sample size of – minimum 160 mm2 (0.25 in2) rated area Aspects of Standards 42
  • 43. International Comparison: (Same types, but different abbreviations) Type Morphology and Color Hardnes ASTM DIN JIS s Elongated, gray, and continuous Soft &Sulfide (stringers) elongation (orientation) A SS A1 plastic in working direction Elongated, dark, and continuous Soft &Silicate elongation (orientation) in working C OS A2 plastic direction Elongated and fragmented (granular) with discontinuousAlumina Hard B OA B elongation (orientation) in working direction Rounded and individual with noGlobular preferred orientation with respect Hard D OG C to the working direction Aspects of Standards 43
  • 44. To take away• Standards are part of our lives and societies – Accept them – Use them – Contribute to their improvement• Standards have precision and provide – Requirements – Test methods – Rules for commerce• There are fine points that are similar and different between various worldwide standards Aspects of Standards 44
  • 45. Contact for questions John M. Tartaglia, Ph.D., FASM Senior Metallurgical Engineer & Engineering Manager Element Materials Technology 51229 Century Court Wixom, MI 48393-2074 Tel: 248-960-4900 Ext. 329 Fax: 248-960-5973 E-mail: john.tartaglia@element.com Aspects of Standards 45