Stepper Motors                 Sold & Serviced By:                                       ELECTROMATE                      ...
What is a Stepper Motor?• The stepper motor is a motor which takes  input pulses and then takes proportional  steps to inp...
What is a Stepper Motor?    <Stepper with Peripheral Construction>                                   Vm (Motor Power)<Cont...
What is a Stepper Motor?    <Applications>    • Medical: Infusion Pump, Brad Test, X-ray,      Dialysis, DNA Extraction, P...
Stepper and Synchronous Motors       Movement Generation       • Step Mode       • Torque Generation       • Characteristi...
Movement Generation                                     N                                     S                           ...
Movement Generation    Unipolar Principle       • motor coils are unipolar       • every coil end has only one polarity (”...
Movement Generation    Bipolar Principle       • motor coils are bipolar       • every coil end will be positive (”+”) or ...
Movement Generation    Unipolar Drive       • low side switches       • 4 switches for the whole motor                +   ...
Movement Generation     Bipolar Drive        • switches in bridge configuration        • 2 full bridges (or H-bridges) are...
Movement Generation     Tin Can Motor                           Sold & Serviced By:                                       ...
Movement Generation     Tin Can Motor - Step Generation                                                                   ...
Movement Generation     Tin Can Motor                            Stator Core                     Coil                     ...
Movement Generation     Tin Can Motor - Step Generation                                                    2 magnetic syst...
Movement Generation     VR - Step Generation              Old Technology, No Longer Used                                  ...
Movement Generation     Hybrid - Step Generation            •Flame Motor              Hybrid Stator             Bobbin    ...
Movement Generation     Step Loss              N              S                          Rotor follows the stator field   ...
Movement Generation     Step Loss              N              S                          Rotor follows the stator field   ...
Stepper and Synchronous Motors        •   Movement Generation        •   Step Mode        •   Torque Generation        •  ...
Step Mode     Full Step Mode       • Step angle = catalogue value                  N                  S            I1 / I1...
Step Mode     Half Step Mode       • Step angle = half catalogue value                    N                    N          ...
Step Mode     Half Step vs. Compensated Half Step               I1 / I1max           1           0          -1           1...
Stepper and Synchronous Motors        •   Movement Generation        •   Step Mode        •   Torque Generation        •  ...
Torque Generation     Torque vs. Angle                                               Mel                                  ...
Torque Generation     Positioning Accurancy                                  Mel                               (torque)   ...
Torque Generation     Micro Step Modus       • Current in coils increases/decreases in small increments       • with tin c...
Stepper and Synchronous Motors        •   Movement Generation        •   Step Mode        •   Torque Generation        •  ...
Characteristics     Torque                                        Resonances may influence application!       torque      ...
Characteristics     Influence of Inertia          FI                                                       JLOAD + JROTOR ...
Characteristics     Output Power     torque                                                                2⋅Π ⋅ f     pow...
Characteristics     Resonance           • Step motors are resonant because             in short their rotors behave much  ...
Characteristics     Resonance       • When a step motor takes a step, the rotor         reacts to the changing stator fiel...
Characteristics     Resonance                 – Just like the mass on a spring,                   the motion of the rotor ...
Characteristics     Resonance                 – If the settling doesn’t occur                   rapidly, or the ringing of...
Characteristics     Resonance       • There are two major, negative side effects of         resonance.          – Rough mo...
Stepper and Synchronous Motors        •   Movement Generation        •   Step Mode        •   Torque Generation        •  ...
Reduced Duty Cycle        “We need more torque!“      You need more output power.        P = M · ω · [Nm · rad/s]       • ...
Reduced Duty Cycle     Independence from Resistance                                  copper volume VCu = A cu ⋅ l m = cons...
Reduced Duty Cycle     Operations                T              Δϑmax                                                    c...
Reduced Duty Cycle     A Simplified Calculation         input power at 100% duty cycle:                              Uk 2 ...
Stepper and Synchronous Motors        •   Movement Generation        •   Step Mode        •   Torque Generation        •  ...
Synchronous Motor     Schematic       • construction is similar to bipolar stepper motor       • electrical phase shift is...
Synchronous Motor     Frequencies      clock                                                   f = step frequency = fs    ...
Synchronous Motor     Operation Area          C        to start                                                 th        ...
Competitors for Stepper Motor        Rotary:           Portescap (Danaher)           HSI (Haydon Switch & Instrument)     ...
NPM/NPA Products     •   Tin-Can Rotary         <PF/PFC Series>         PF20, PF25, PF25C, PF35, PF35T, PF42, PF42T, PF42H...
Designation – PF/PF Series     • PF C 42 H – 48 C 1                     Magnet Material                                   ...
Designation – PF/PF Series     • PFC42H–48C1 G 1/10                                  Gear Ratio                           ...
Designation – PR Series     • PR 42 H -25 – 04 04 J A                                         A: Shingle Shaft Size (mm)  ...
Weakness and Settlements        Mis-step        -> 1. Taking Care Margin (Chose Best)           2. Closed loop (Add Encode...
Stepper VS Servo (Brushless)                       Stepper    Servo        Cost              √        Speed          (600r...
Glossary -1     Holding Torque       The holding torque is the maximum torque the stepping motor       has when rated curr...
Glossary -2     Rated Current       The rated current is determined by motor temperature rise. It is       the current val...
Glossary -3     Allowable (Permissible) Torque       The allowable torque represents the torque value limited by the      ...
Glossary -4     Torque        Pull-Output                    Torque       Pull-in                                 Torque  ...
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Nippon Pulse Stepper Motor Basics Presentation

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Stepper Motor Basics

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Nippon Pulse Stepper Motor Basics Presentation

  1. 1. Stepper Motors Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com
  2. 2. What is a Stepper Motor?• The stepper motor is a motor which takes input pulses and then takes proportional steps to input these signals. You can use for positioning and/or speed control for most any applications. The stepper motor needs a power circuit and a sequence circuit for changing phase. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com2
  3. 3. What is a Stepper Motor? <Stepper with Peripheral Construction> Vm (Motor Power)<Controller> <Driver> CPU <Motor> or Motion- SequencerControl-Chip Power Tr. Vcc (Logic Sold & Serviced By: power) ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com3
  4. 4. What is a Stepper Motor? <Applications> • Medical: Infusion Pump, Brad Test, X-ray, Dialysis, DNA Extraction, Pump • Semiconductor: Masking, Etching, Wafer Handling, Test-equipment, Die-Bonder • FA: Pick & Place, NC Machine, X-Y-Z stage • OA: Printer, Fax, Scanner • HA: HVAC, Cleaner Robot • Other: Vending machine Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com4
  5. 5. Stepper and Synchronous Motors Movement Generation • Step Mode • Torque Generation • Characteristics • Reduced Duty Cycle • Synchronous Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com5
  6. 6. Movement Generation N S N S N S S N N S N N S NS S N rotor follows the stator field one step ⇒ invert magnetic field in 1 coil for the next step invert magnetic field in the other coil A stepper motor always needs electronic control. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE step angle depends on number of poles -> fixed by construction Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com6
  7. 7. Movement Generation Unipolar Principle • motor coils are unipolar • every coil end has only one polarity (”+” or ”ground (-)”) PhA1 (=GND) (=open) + PhA2 (=GND) (=open) Sold & Serviced By: S N N S ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com7
  8. 8. Movement Generation Bipolar Principle • motor coils are bipolar • every coil end will be positive (”+”) or ground (”-”) PhA1 PhA2 GND + GND + Sold & Serviced By: N S S N ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com8
  9. 9. Movement Generation Unipolar Drive • low side switches • 4 switches for the whole motor + I I GND Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com9
  10. 10. Movement Generation Bipolar Drive • switches in bridge configuration • 2 full bridges (or H-bridges) are needed = 8 switches + I I GND Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com10
  11. 11. Movement Generation Tin Can Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com11
  12. 12. Movement Generation Tin Can Motor - Step Generation front side teeth back side teeth N S N N NS S N N N S S S S SSN N if there is only 1 magnetic system... NS N N NN N N S S S S motor is able to start in both directions S NN N S N SS S direction is undefined N NS S SNN N N N S S S S S S NS S SN N N N N N N S SNN N N NS S S S S S N N N N N S S S S N S Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com12
  13. 13. Movement Generation Tin Can Motor Stator Core Coil Bobbin Shaft Permanent Magnet Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com13
  14. 14. Movement Generation Tin Can Motor - Step Generation 2 magnetic systems = 2 stators... electrical phase shift 90 ° N S N S direction is defined by coil control sequencing S N control pattern (bipolar motor): N N N S S S S N N N S N S N N S N S N S S S S S N N coil 1 N N S S S S S N N N N N coil 2 direction CCW N S S N S S N N N N S S NS NS N N NS N N N S S S coil 1 direction CW N N N S S coil 2 N S S N N S Sold & Serviced By: stator 1 stator 2 ELECTROMATE front side teeth Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com back side teeth sales@electromate.com14
  15. 15. Movement Generation VR - Step Generation Old Technology, No Longer Used Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com15
  16. 16. Movement Generation Hybrid - Step Generation •Flame Motor Hybrid Stator Bobbin Teeth Coil Coil Rotor Shaft P.M. Bracket B.B. P.M. Stator Rotor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com16
  17. 17. Movement Generation Step Loss N S Rotor follows the stator field N S Rotor reaches the end stop noise N S N S N Rotor is not able to follow the stator field S N S Rotor swings back N S Motor will always loose n·4 steps Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com17
  18. 18. Movement Generation Step Loss N S Rotor follows the stator field N S Rotor reaches the end stop noise N S N S N Rotor is not able to follow the stator field S N S Rotor swings back N S Motor will always loose n·4 steps Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com18
  19. 19. Stepper and Synchronous Motors • Movement Generation • Step Mode • Torque Generation • Characteristics • Reduced Duty Cycle • Synchronous Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com19
  20. 20. Step Mode Full Step Mode • Step angle = catalogue value N S I1 / I1max 1 N S N S 0 S N N S -1 N S NS I2 / I2max 1 0 S N -1 coil current in a bipolar motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com20
  21. 21. Step Mode Half Step Mode • Step angle = half catalogue value N N S I1 / I1max 1 S S N N N S 0 S N S N NS S N -1 N SN NS I2 / I2max S 1 0 S S N -1 coil current in a bipolar motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com21
  22. 22. Step Mode Half Step vs. Compensated Half Step I1 / I1max 1 0 -1 1 I2 / I2max 0 -1 1 I1 / I1max 1/√2 0 -1/√2 -1 1 1/√2 I2 / I2max 0 Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE -1/√2 Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 -1 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com22
  23. 23. Stepper and Synchronous Motors • Movement Generation • Step Mode • Torque Generation • Characteristics • Reduced Duty Cycle • Synchronous Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com23
  24. 24. Torque Generation Torque vs. Angle Mel (torque) MH (holding torque) -2 -1 1 2 3 4 α αS -MH N N S S N N N N S S S S N S S S S N S N S S N N N N S S N N N N S S N N S N N S S N N S N N S Sold & Serviced By: N S N S N S N S ELECTROMATE S N S S N S S S S N Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 S N N N N S S Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com24
  25. 25. Torque Generation Positioning Accurancy Mel (torque) MH (holding torque) Friction -2 -1 1 2 α3 4 α αS αS -MH 2 Δα Δα...Step Angle Tolerance Sold & Serviced By: Accuracy depends on friction and motor tolerances (5-7% of step angle). ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Tolerance exists at every position, but it will not sum up! Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com25
  26. 26. Torque Generation Micro Step Modus • Current in coils increases/decreases in small increments • with tin can motor: • micro step only for smoother travel at low frequencies M (torque) α friction Sold & Serviced By: step no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com26
  27. 27. Stepper and Synchronous Motors • Movement Generation • Step Mode • Torque Generation • Characteristics • Reduced Duty Cycle • Synchronous Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com27
  28. 28. Characteristics Torque Resonances may influence application! torque reduced duty cycle = increased power consumption (pull out graph) with chopper pull-in pull-out (pull out graph) Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE f1 fA f2 fB frequency Toll Free Phone(877) SERV099 Toll Free Fax (877) SERVO98 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com28
  29. 29. Characteristics Influence of Inertia FI JLOAD + JROTOR Inertia Factor FI = JROTOR f torque Load inertia reduces start-stop-range. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 f www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com29
  30. 30. Characteristics Output Power torque 2⋅Π ⋅ f power Motor output power : P = M · ω with ω = z M...torque ω...angular velocity f...step frequency z...steps per revolution Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE frequency Toll Free Phone(877) SERV099 Toll Free Fax (877) SERVO98 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com30
  31. 31. Characteristics Resonance • Step motors are resonant because in short their rotors behave much like a classic “mass on a spring”. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com31
  32. 32. Characteristics Resonance • When a step motor takes a step, the rotor reacts to the changing stator field in the same way a mass on a spring reacts to a change in position. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com32
  33. 33. Characteristics Resonance – Just like the mass on a spring, the motion of the rotor settles into position after each step. – This settling can last as long as a second or more in worst cases! Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com33
  34. 34. Characteristics Resonance – If the settling doesn’t occur rapidly, or the ringing of the rotor gets worse, the motor can become unstable and lose position (stall). Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com34
  35. 35. Characteristics Resonance • There are two major, negative side effects of resonance. – Rough motion • When step motors resonate they generally vibrate excessively. • This can be bad for sensitive equipment. – Loss of torque, which can lead to loss of position • When step motors resonate much of the torque available in the motor is used up in keeping the rotor synchronized with the stator field, and in worst cases the motor will not have enough torque to move the load. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE • Loss of torque often leads to stalling. Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com35
  36. 36. Stepper and Synchronous Motors • Movement Generation • Step Mode • Torque Generation • Characteristics • Reduced Duty Cycle • Synchronous Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com36
  37. 37. Reduced Duty Cycle “We need more torque!“ You need more output power. P = M · ω · [Nm · rad/s] • higher output power requires higher input power •-> power losses increase •-> duty cycle needs to be reduced, otherwise motor becomes too hot •Order a Motor with reduced duty cycle, •specify cycle time, •do not only request reduced coil resistance. •Otherwise you get a motor with reduced coil resistance. But the winding is changed so that it will have the same maximum power dissipation, same duty cycle and therefore the same output torque. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE step _ frequency ⋅ 2π Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 M...torque ω...angular velocity = Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com steps _ per _ revolution sales@electromate.com37
  38. 38. Reduced Duty Cycle Independence from Resistance copper volume VCu = A cu ⋅ l m = const. coil winding area ACu torque temperature dϕ M= dα ϑ ~ PCu Θ ϕ= Θ = n ⋅ I = S ⋅ A Cu RM PCu = I2 ⋅ R ~ S 2 ⋅ VCu lm average length of a copper wire S ⋅ A Cu S ⋅ VCu ϕ magnetic flux ϕ= = α angle RM RM ⋅ l m Θ current linkage ϕ ≠ f (n,R) ϕ~S PCu ~ S 2 RM magnetic resistance n no. turns (winding) I current S current density Temperature ~ PCu ~ S2 PCu consumed energy ϑ temperature Sold & Serviced By: For same duty cycle same current density is needed. ELECTROMATE PCu=const. ϑ=const. Duty Cycle=const. S is the parameter, not R! Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com38
  39. 39. Reduced Duty Cycle Operations T Δϑmax continuous operation t T Δϑmax operation with reduced duty cycle tB tS t tB...ON-time T tS...cycle time Δϑmax tB Duty Cycle ED = ⋅ 100% Sold & Serviced By: tS ELECTROMATE tB tS t Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 • Duty cycle is based on 5 minutes cycle time (unless otherwise specified). www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com39
  40. 40. Reduced Duty Cycle A Simplified Calculation input power at 100% duty cycle: Uk 2 UK...supply voltage from catalogue PED100 = Rph..coil resistance Rph real duty cycle: 2 PED100 ⎛ Uk ⎞ Rph ED = • 100% = ⎜ ⎟ • 100% = • 100% P ⎝ US ⎠ RED100 PED100 ... Power for 100% duty cycle US ... supply voltage in application RED100... coil resistance for 100% duty cycle Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com40
  41. 41. Stepper and Synchronous Motors • Movement Generation • Step Mode • Torque Generation • Characteristics • Reduced Duty Cycle • Synchronous Motor Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com41
  42. 42. Synchronous Motor Schematic • construction is similar to bipolar stepper motor • electrical phase shift is done by capacitor instead • stepper motors are used with DC • synchronous motors are used with AC Parallel Connection Common, full voltage over both coils U~ Serial Connection U~ otherwise too many windings with too thin wire -> not possible Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com42
  43. 43. Synchronous Motor Frequencies clock f = step frequency = fs t i1 t bipolar stepper motor f = 200Hz i2 t Speed is equal ! i1 t synchronous motor f = 50Hz i2 t f = frequency of coil current = fi Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE • fs = 4·fi Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 (for motors with identical construction) Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com43
  44. 44. Synchronous Motor Operation Area C to start th er voltage m al ov er CN±10% operation area lo minimum ad ce Resonan minimum capacity Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE UN±10% U Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com44
  45. 45. Competitors for Stepper Motor Rotary: Portescap (Danaher) HSI (Haydon Switch & Instrument) Hybrid: Lin Engineering Portescap (Danaher) Oriental Motor Sanyo Denki, Shinano Linear: HSI (Haydon Switch & Instrument) Lin Engineering Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com45
  46. 46. NPM/NPA Products • Tin-Can Rotary <PF/PFC Series> PF20, PF25, PF25C, PF35, PF35T, PF42, PF42T, PF42H PF55, PF55H • Tin-Can Linear: <PFL/PFCL Series> PFCL25, PFL35T • Hybrid: <PJB Series> PJB42S, PJB56H <PR Series> (Only for North America ) PR20, PR28, PR35, PR42, PR57 Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com46
  47. 47. Designation – PF/PF Series • PF C 42 H – 48 C 1 Magnet Material 1: Ferrite Anisotropic Connector 2: Ferrite Isotropic Version 4: Neodymium Winding Code Motor Size Unipolar> B:24V, C:12V, D:5V Dia. (mm) Bipolar> P:12V, Q:5V 25, 35, 42, 55 Step/Rev 24: 15deg/stepMotor Length or High Torque 48: 7.5deg/stepVersion 96: 3.75deg/stepBlank: StandardT: Thin stack (Avail. In 35 and 42) Sold & Serviced By:H: High Torque (Avail. 42 and 55) ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com47
  48. 48. Designation – PF/PF Series • PFC42H–48C1 G 1/10 Gear Ratio G: w/ gear head Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com48
  49. 49. Designation – PR Series • PR 42 H -25 – 04 04 J A A: Shingle Shaft Size (mm) B: Double ShaftH: High TorqueS: Standard Step Angle J: 1.8deg/step (=200step/rev)Stack Length (mm) M:0.9deg/step (=400step/step)Motor Current Step/Rev04: 0.4Amp/phase 24: 15deg/step10:1.0Amp/phase 48: 7.5deg/step Sold & Serviced By: 96: 3.75deg/step ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com49
  50. 50. Weakness and Settlements Mis-step -> 1. Taking Care Margin (Chose Best) 2. Closed loop (Add Encoder) 3. Use/Change Higher Current Resonance -> 1. Use High Resolution Motor 2. Use Microstep Driver 3. Adjustment (reduce) Current Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com50
  51. 51. Stepper VS Servo (Brushless) Stepper Servo Cost √ Speed (600rpm) √ (3000rpm) Power/Torque √ Response √ Silence √ Easy to Use √ Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com51
  52. 52. Glossary -1 Holding Torque The holding torque is the maximum torque the stepping motor has when rated current is being supplied but the motor is not rotating (with consideration given to the permissible strength of the gear when applicable). If you are setting "automatic current down (Idle Current)" function at motor standstill, the holding torque should be less than setting rated current. Pullout Torque Pullout torque is the maximum torque that can be output at given speed. When selecting a motor, be sure the required torque falls within this curve. Rotor Inertia This refers to the inertia of rotor inside the motor. This is necessary when the required torque (acceleration torque) for Sold & Serviced By: the motor needs is calculated. ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com52
  53. 53. Glossary -2 Rated Current The rated current is determined by motor temperature rise. It is the current value that can flow to the motor coils continuously at motor standstill. As a general rule, the current must be set to the rated current. Step Angle The step angle is the angular distance (in degrees) that the motor moves at the input of one pulse from the driver. It differs depending on the motor structure and excitation system. Gear Ratio This is the ratio in rotation speed between the input speed from the motor and the speed of the ear output shaft. For example, the gear ratio 10:1 is that when the input speed from the motor is 10rpm, the gear output shaft is 1rpm. Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com53
  54. 54. Glossary -3 Allowable (Permissible) Torque The allowable torque represents the torque value limited by the mechanical strength of the gear. Backlash The play of gear output shaft when the motor shaft is fixed. When positioning in bi-direction, the positioning accuracy is affected. Maximum Starting Frequency (fs) This is the maximum pulse speed at which the motor can start or stop instantly (without an acceleration or deceleration period) when the functional load and inertial load of the stepper motor are 0. Driving the motor at greater than this pulse speed Sold & Serviced By: requires gradual acceleration or deceleration. This frequencyELECTROMATE drops when there is load inertia on the motor. Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com54
  55. 55. Glossary -4 Torque Pull-Output Torque Pull-in Torque Holding Torque Max. Starting Frequency Speed Sold & Serviced By: ELECTROMATE Toll Free Phone (877) SERVO98 Toll Free Fax (877) SERV099 www.electromate.com sales@electromate.com55
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