Program and Policy Innovations at the Water Energy Nexus
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Program and Policy Innovations at the Water Energy Nexus



Program and Policy Innovations at the Water Energy Nexus, presented by Meredith Younghein at the Electrochemical Energy Summit in San Francisco on October 27.

Program and Policy Innovations at the Water Energy Nexus, presented by Meredith Younghein at the Electrochemical Energy Summit in San Francisco on October 27.



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    Program and Policy Innovations at the Water Energy Nexus Program and Policy Innovations at the Water Energy Nexus Presentation Transcript

    • Program and Policy Innovations at the Water-Energy Nexus Electrochemical Society Energy-Water Nexus Symposium Meredith Leigh Younghein, JD Water/Energy Analyst California Public Utilities Commission State Water Resources Control Board
    • Big Picture Questions: • What is the potential for saving energy and reducing GHGs via the water sector in CA? • When water efficiency programs save energy and reduce GHGs, how do we account for these savings? – What is the value to energy and water ratepayers? – What is the value to California?
    • Water and Climate AB 32 forms the basis for most climate and energy activities in California: AB 32 Scoping Plan (2008) Goals for Water : • Water Efficiency: 20% by 2020 • Water Recycling: 23% municipal by 2030 • Water System Energy Efficiency: 20% = 4400Gwh/yr • On-site generation at water agencies 2100 Gwh/yr • Water/Energy Team of the Climate Action Team Oversight
    • CPUC-Past Efforts on Water-Energy • Three comprehensive studies on Water-Energy Relationship in California (2009-2012) • Water-Energy Pilot Projects (2007-2011) – – – – – Leak/loss detection and pressure management Landscape irrigation efficiency High efficiency toilets Ozone laundry More • All materials can be downloaded via: 4
    • CPUC Energy Efficiency Guidance Decision 12-05-015 DIRECTIVES FOR WATER/ENERGY: • • • • 5 Document water savings benefits from Energy Efficiency projects Expand Agricultural programs for water/energy Work with Local Governments and Regional Energy Networks Determine potential for program expansion in 2015
    • Current Water/Energy Activities Investor Owned Utilities, via energy efficiency programs: 1) increase targeting of agricultural and industrial customers--the largest end users of water in the state. 2) Target programs with small and medium water utilities 3) Develop programs with water agencies for leak-loss detection/remediation and pressure management services for water entities 4) Develop cost-effectiveness method for joint-water energy savings projects 6
    • Current Program Portfolio: Reducing Energy used by Water Sector • Energy Efficiency programs: – “Industrial” Custom projects for water agencies/utilities/districts – Local Government and Institutional Partnerships – Agricultural: pumping & irrigation efficiency • Integrated Demand Side Management – Encouraging DR and DG simultaneously with EE improvements • Continuous Energy Improvement – create and implement strategic energy management plans at water agencies 7
    • New Activities: Aimed at Embedded Energy Savings • 8 Commission Guidance Decision (May 2012) – IOUs to expand water-energy efficiency programs, including: » leak/loss detection and pressurization studies at water utilities » Joint water/energy programs for industrial and agricultural customers
    • Examples of New Water/Energy Programs • SoCalEdison: Leak/Loss Audits/Repairs and Pressurization Studies – South Bay Cities Council of Governments: Cities of: El Segundo, Lomita, Manhattan Beach, and Inglewood – City of Westminster • San Diego: Commercial Landscape Irrigation Efficiency – New technologies: moisture sensors, weather prediction • SoCalEdison: Continuous Energy Improvement Cohort – Public Water Agencies in Orange County 9
    • Energy Innovations in Water • Water Agencies in CA are leaders in onsite renewable generation • Traditional: on-site biogas fired engines at Wastwater/Sanitation Facilities • New/emerging: Fuel cells, on-site wind/solar, in-conduit hydro, transportation fuels, pipeline injection
    • Inland Empire Utilities Agency Overview Service Area • 240 Square Miles • 850,000 People • 7 Facilities • • • • Wastewater Treatment (4) Water Treatment (1) Biosolids Treatment (2) Composting Facility (1) • Platinum LEED Headquarters Building
    • IEUA--Peak Power Independence by 2020 15,000 Conservation / Efficiency 12,000 Summer Peak Load (kW) Fuel Cell Wind 9,000 Solar 6,000 3,000 Food Waste to Energy Purchased from Grid 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
    • IEUA Fuel Cell Technology • • • • On-Line 1/1/13 Run on 75/25 Biogas/NG Blend 2.8 MW gross output Manufactured by Fuel Cell Energy Benefits • • • • All Power Used On-Site Heat Recovered for Process PPA – No Capital Outlay $0.126/kWh + 2.5%/yr
    • Fuel Cell Operation Uptime • Average uptime of 89% since 1/1/13 Fuel Cell Uptime 100% 90% • Operating on biogas 69% of time • Major issue • Dimethyl sulfide breakthrough degraded preconverter catalyst 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% March 2013 - NG PRV failed due to variable flows; PRV upgraded 10% 9/6/13 - Dimethyl Sulfide breakthrough resulted in catalyst degradation and DG 10/8/13 – Fuel Cell shut down for catalyst replacement 0% Operation Uptime Digester Gas Operation
    • Fuel Cell Power Generation • 2.35 MW when operational • 89% of expected power output • Power Cost ~$0.146/kWh • Includes NG costs 3,000 2,500 Power Output (kW) • Overall average of 2.14 MW Average Fuel Cell Power Output (Jan 2013 - Oct 2013) 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Overall Average Power Output
    • Digester Gas Cleaning System (Key Component of Fuel Cell System) • Iron sponge for H2S removal • Moisture removal • Compression to 20 psig • Regenerable activated carbon system • Backup activated carbon system • Polishing media
    • IEUA Fuel Cell Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) Public Sector Role Private Sector Role (IEUA) (UTS BioEnergy/Anaergia) • Provides host site and fuel • Funds all project costs • Purchases electricity • Design and construction generated • Recovers heat for digestion process • Operations & Maintenance • Owns asset
    • OCSD Fuel Cell Demonstration Project Ellis Avenue Main Entrance Fountain Valley, CA Project Participants: Orange County Water District Orange County Sanitation District • South Coast AQMD • CARB Digesters • National Fuel Cell Research Center (UC Irvine) • Fuel Cell Energy • Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Ward Street • US Dept of Energy Fuel Cell Site Energy Station Fueling Station
    • Fuel Cell Power Generation, Hydrogen Production and Fuel Consumption from Commissioning to Present
    • 3-Year Fuel Cell Demonstration Project June 1, 2011 to May 31, 2014
    • Water Recycling Innovations • California water agencies produce >500,000 AF3 of recycled water for various purposes*: – Irrigation (agricultural and urban) – Groundwater replenishment – Indirect Potable re-use – Habitat Enhancement – Recreational Reservoir replenishment *Source: Assn. of CA Water Agencies
    • Water Recycling Innovations Orange County Groundwater Replenishment System: 2008-present • Joint project: Orange Co. Sanitation and Water District • Total production >120 billion gallons • Powered (in part) by OCSD Biogas • Less energy intensive than imported supplies =GHG reductions
    • Orange County Cont…. 3 Step Treatment Process: (post tertiary wastewater treatment) 1) Microfiltration 2) Reverse-Osmosis 3) UV Disinfection
    • Opportunities at Data Centers • Utilize wastewater biogas to either power on-site fuel cells or co-located biogas powered engines/ turbines • Utilize recycled water for cooling needs • Examples: UCSD fuel cell uses biogas • Various data centers being located near WWTP to use recycled water • Advocating for data centers to locate near WWTPs in Bay Area 24
    • Low Carbon Fuel Standard • California Air Resources Board Program to measure life-cycle carbon intensity of transportation fuels • Staff Proposal to certify “pathway” for wastewater biogas converted to CNG/LNG • Initial estimate: -65.3 g CO2e / MJ • Negative CI = fuel credits under LCFS