Early naturalists in texas

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  • Jean Louis Berlandier
  • 1834
  • Early naturalists in texas

    1. 1. EARLY NATURALISTS IN TEXAS
    2. 2. WHAT IS A NATURALIST
    3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>OBSERVER </li></ul><ul><li>RECORDER </li></ul><ul><li>COLLECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENT </li></ul><ul><li>DEDICATED TO THE CAUSE </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Who were the earliest? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we know? </li></ul><ul><li>Who followed? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Jean Louis Berlandier 1800?-1851 <ul><li>Geneva, Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to Mexico 1826 to collect for Geneva Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Accompanied soldiers into Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Sent over 55,000 plants to Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Remained in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Many scientific names associated with him </li></ul><ul><li>Texas tortoise, Spanish grape, Acacia </li></ul>
    6. 6. Thomas Drummond 1790-1835 <ul><li>Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived in North America in 1825 with British expedition- Collected plants and birds </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived in Texas in 1833 </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of 750 plants and 150 birds </li></ul><ul><li>Many species bear his name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Oak, Annual Phlox, Wild Onion </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Ferdinand Lindheimer 1801-1879 Father of Texas Botany <ul><li>Germany (Professor) </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived in Texas 1833 -Returned in 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>Collected for Dr. Gray (Harvard) </li></ul><ul><li>Led German settlers to Comal River </li></ul><ul><li>Sold dried plants to collectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prickly Pear, Hackberry, Rat Snake, Texas Star, Mimosa, White Gaura </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Charles Wright 1811-1885 <ul><li>Connecticut – Yale educated </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived in Texas 1837 </li></ul><ul><li>Sold plants to Dr. Gray (Harvard Museum) </li></ul><ul><li>Walked to El Paso w/survey crew 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>-collecting 570 specimens </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,400 species sent to Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Jimson Weed, Goldenrod, Verbena, Mallow, Salamander, Gray Flycatcher </li></ul>
    9. 9. Others: <ul><li>John James Audubon 1837 </li></ul><ul><li>Julien Reverchon </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand Roemer 1846 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Father of Texas Geology” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacob Boll 1869 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explored and collected fossils near Wichita Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent over 15,000 specimens to Harvard </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Gideon Lincecum <ul><li>1793-1874 </li></ul><ul><li>1813 in Mississippi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Married </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employed in mercantile for 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed an interest in medicinal plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was invited to become a doctor </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Journey to Texas <ul><li>1835 to Texas with small party </li></ul><ul><li>Decided to remain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… to study the rivers and soils” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled from Gulf Coast to Fredericksburg area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected shells, fossils, birds, grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured by Comanches near Nueces River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counseled with local medicine men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Escaped </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Traveled and explored between the Brazos and Colorado </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve years later returned to Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Settled in at Long Point to farm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mount Olympus 1800 acre plantation </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Naturalist Days <ul><li>Developed a keen interest in insects </li></ul><ul><li>Ants….named the Harvester Ant </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote articles for The American Naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>Began collecting for scientists and private collectors </li></ul><ul><li>Sent thousands of specimens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including large collection to Smithsonian </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Later Years <ul><li>Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Ruin of plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Death of wife in 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Mexico in 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>Returned to Texas in 1873 </li></ul><ul><li>A final collection to the Smithsonian in 1874 </li></ul>

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