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  1. 1. By Elliot Kronsberg, Danielle Grosse,Samantha Kramer, and William Luttrell
  2. 2.  Began in 1990, completed in 2003 U.S. Department of Energy National Institutes of Health Wellcome Trust (U.K.)-became major partner Other contributions-Japan, France, Germany, China
  3. 3.  Identify all the human DNA genes Determine sequences of chemical base pairs store this information in databases Improve tools for data analysis Transfer related technologies to private sector Address ethical, legal, and social issues
  4. 4.  All DNA in organism – including genes Genes carry information for making proteins Proteins determine:  how the organism looks  how its body metabolizes food or fights infection  sometimes even how it behaves
  5. 5.  Made of Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine Repeated throughout genome Human genome - 3 billion base pairs Order of bases is extremely important Order dictates what organism is
  6. 6.  Determining sequence of human genome Identifying genes that human genome contains Allowed researchers to understand human blueprint This knowledge will impact:  The fields of medicine  Biotechnology  Life sciences
  7. 7.  The process of determining the exact order of the 3 billion bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine) that make up the DNA of the 24 different autosomal human chromosomes The resulting DNA sequence maps are being used by 21st Century scientists to explore human biology and other complex phenomena
  8. 8.  Researchers collected blood (female) or sperm (male) samples from a large number of donors Sperm cells are selected for DNA preparation because there is a higher DNA to protein ratio which makes it easier to isolate the DNA Researchers also used white blood cells from female donor blood to represent women in the project
  9. 9.  Gene tests involve direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for gene products and for microscopic examination of stained chromosomes. Researchers studied the genetic makeup of several nonhuman organisms, including the common human gut bacterium Escherichia coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse.
  10. 10.  Previously, standard methods were based on separating DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis This was extremely labor intensive and expensive
  11. 11.  Now, gel-based sequencers use multiple tiny tubes to run standard electrophoretic separations These separations are much faster because the tubes dissipate heat well and allow the use of much higher electric fields to complete sequencing in shorter times.
  12. 12.  The human genome’s higher-gene-density are mostly composed of cytosine and guanine However, the lower-gene-density areas are rich in adenine and thymine The genes clump randomly along the genome There are areas of non-coding DNA in between
  13. 13.  The total number of genes is estimated at 25,000, much lower than previous estimates of 80,000 to 140,000 The human genome sequence is almost exactly the same (99.9%) in all people. Functions are unknown for more than 50% of discovered genes.
  14. 14.  The largest human chromosome (chromosome 1) has the most genes (3,168) and the Y chromosome has the fewest (344) The distribution of genes on the chromosomes of mammals is uneven, making their appearance look strange This contrasts with the genomes of many other organisms, such as the mustard weed, the worm, and the fly. Their genomes are more uniform, with genes relatively evenly spaced along chromosomes.
  15. 15.  "Completing the human genome is a vital step on a long road but the eventual health benefits could be phenomenal.” -Professor Allan Bradley Better diagnosis of diseases Help understand human migration and evolution Understand how humans evolved and how they are evolving today. Produce healthier/disease-free animals
  16. 16.  Screening newborn babies for disease Alert patients of risk of disease Risk of future development of disease (such as Huntington’s) Testing for disease, like leukemia Study response to drugs Study mutations
  17. 17.  The Human Genome project has identified the association of certain gene sequences with diseases. These include: • Breast cancer • Muscle disease • Deafness • Blindness The Human Genome project may help treat or even cure these diseases.
  18. 18.  Study diseases found to help health Maintain better general health Better drugs and medicine Understand diseases like Alzheimers or heart disease. Understand best drugs for someone based on genetic makeup.
  19. 19.  Biological and Environmental Research Information System. (2003, October 29). TEN VIGNETTES: Stories of Genomic Discovery. Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved March 13, 2012, from Biological and Environmental Research Information System. (2008, September 19). Genome Sequencing. Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved March 13, 2012, from Biological and Environmental Research Information System. (2011, September 19). About the Human Genome Project. Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved March 13, 2012, from (2010, October 30). Retrieved from Human genome project information. (2009, October 09). Retrieved from (n.d.). Retrieved from The finished human genome - welcome to the genomic age. (2003, April 14). Retrieved from