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Road Map for Management of Indoor Air Quality
 

Road Map for Management of Indoor Air Quality

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Presentation made at a Seminar in IIT Delhi. Provides a framework how regulatory and market mechanisms could be used to initiate formulation of Indoor Air Quality standards in India. A Road Map to ...

Presentation made at a Seminar in IIT Delhi. Provides a framework how regulatory and market mechanisms could be used to initiate formulation of Indoor Air Quality standards in India. A Road Map to this effect is presented

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    Road Map for Management of Indoor Air Quality Road Map for Management of Indoor Air Quality Presentation Transcript

    • Slide 1Road Map for Management ofIndoor Air QualityByDr. Prasad Modak,Director, Ekonnect Knowledge Foundation
    • Indoor Air quality (IAQ)-• Air quality within and around buildings and structures,especially as it relates to the health and comfort ofbuilding occupants.• Traditionally associated with Sick Building Syndrome(SBS)4/13/2012Prasad Modak2
    • IAQ impacts the health, comfort, well being, and productivityof building occupantsOn average, people spend at least 90% of their time indoors.Assuming ceteris paribus, exposure from indoor pollutants is9 times that from ambient pollutantsGood indoor air quality can:1. Safeguard our health2. Contribute to our comfort and wellbeing3. Improve productivity at the workplace4/13/2012Prasad Modak3
    • IAQ could be addressed through:a. Standards, codes andguidelines governing IAQ-nationally and/or internationallyb. Source reduction strategies bychoosing low emissionmaterials and finishesc. Engineering control forcleaning the air4/13/2012Prasad Modak4Standards,Codesand Guidelines• Standards– International– National• Codes– ASHRAE &ISHRAE• Guidelines– NBC, 2005– GRIHA– IGBCIndoorAirQualitySource Modification• Low VOC emittinghousehold products• Low VOC BuildingMaterials/ interiordesign materials• Low VOC paintsEngineeringControl• Ventilation & Dilution• Filtration• Disinfection
    • 4/13/2012Prasad Modak5• Most countries have used combination of regulatory standardssupported by building codes.
    • Early starter on formingIAQ standardsThree stages of legislativehistoryStarting stage (late 1970s-1993)- Established twosets of IAQ relevantstandardsDeveloping stage (1994-2000)Normative managementstage (2001-present)4/13/2012Prasad Modak6
    • Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) firstproposed in 1988NAAQS upgraded in 2009Aligned as per the international AAQSNo indoor air quality standard4/13/2012Prasad Modak7
    • • Covers Industrial and nonindustrial use• Standards for ventilationand design of HVACsystems to removeparticulate matter• Does not specifyconcentrations/interventions formanagement of IAQ4/13/2012Prasad Modak8
    • • Covers new construction, major renovations andcore and shell.• Has stringent requirements. Includes air qualityperformance and ETS control. Also monitoring andpreparing a management plan4/13/2012Prasad Modak9
    • • Areas covered- Homes, townships, SEZand factory buildings. Separate guide oneach type gives information about thecredits and requirements• Focuses mainly on tobacco smokecontrol and VOC. It does not includemonitoring and management of indoor airquality4/13/2012Prasad Modak10
    • –Different types of new and existing buildings(commercial, institutional or residential.)–Focus on Low VOC materials and ETS–No emphasis on ventilation rates, monitoring ormanagement of IAQ4/13/2012Prasad Modak11
    • –Focus on HVAC design–Covers all types of buildings–ASHRAE has performance based procedures and notoccupancy based–also referred in LEED4/13/2012Prasad Modak12
    • Maintaining good IAQ requires enhanced ventilation and henceincreased consumption of energy and thus higher operatingcosts.Reducing ventilation rates to save energy, with nocountermeasures, increases indoor-generated VOCs and smallparticles by an amount that may pose health risks.To strike balance between two, integrated design approachtowards IAQ and energy should be used.Such an approach needs to be reflected in Indiasbuilding codes, standards and rating systems.4/13/2012Prasad Modak13
    • • Most studies based on short term measurement and/or sufferfrom smaller sample size• Focus on either rural and/or urban poor areas (slums). Cookingstoves as source of pollutants.• Focus of research is limited to conventional pollutants like PM10,NO2 and/or CO. Cumulative aspects not studied• Hardly any studies conducted on urban or peri-urbanhouseholds, using natural and/or artificial ventilation• Impacts on artificial ventilation on the build up of indoor pollutantlevels are yet to be investigated• Very few studies have been conducted at public places(auditoriums, cinema, Metro)4/13/2012Prasad Modak14
    • Broad scale, sufficiently long term experiments should beconducted in both artificially and naturally ventilated housesin both rural and urban areas in India. Will allow betterunderstanding of IAQ and its health implications to developappropriate interventions.Apart from PM10, NO2, SO2 and CO, pollutants like PM2.5,Benzene-Toluene-Xylene, Formaldehyde, Polycyclic AromaticHydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene), Trichloroethyleneand Tetrachloroethylene should be analyzed in chemicalparameters. Biological parameters like growth of molds,spores, dust mites and bacteria should be considered.4/13/2012Prasad Modak15
    • A networked research project that will address IAQ at 6 to 7metropolitan cities and 3 to 4 rural clusters could be takenup. This study will not only provide valuable research databut help build capacities, monitoring protocol etc. on lineswith the source apportionment study that was coordinated bythe Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).4/13/2012Prasad Modak16• There is a need to set up a National Centre ofExcellence researching on IAQ withappropriate infrastructure.The INDOORTRON facility is one excellentexample
    • Multiple stakeholders involvedMulti agency coordination requiredSet up a multi agency Central Coordination Agency (CCA)4/13/2012Prasad Modak17Indoor airpollution andhealthMinistry of Ruraldevelopment(MoRD)Ministry of women andChild development(MoWCD)Ministry of health andfamily welfare(MoH&FW)Ministry of Housing andUrban poverty alleviationBureau of IndianstandardsMinistry ofEnvironment & Forests(MoEF)Ministry of new andrenewable energy (MNRE)
    • –Develop overarching policyregarding IAQ–Establish a CentralCoordinating Agency (CCA)–Develop ToR , responsibility& authority and its delegationfor CCA–Identify research gaps andpotential areas forinterventions–Identify research agencies /organizations–Initiate Standard SettingProcess for IAQ–Develop plans for generatingawareness amongst majorstakeholder–Plan for economic assessment–Assign research projects to developstandards on IAQ–Initiate long term networked researchsuch as Expolis–Create a Centre for Excellence forresearch on IAQ with facilities likeINDOORTRAN–Hold international dialogues on IAQ–Publish IAQ standards with core setof criteria pollutants for target arease,g, public common places–Develop monitoring protocol–Establish enforcement mechanism–Demand reporting requirements onIAQ e.g. ESR, SoER–Initiate economic assessment–Influence Building Codes and Ratingsfor addressing IAQ–Initiate standards for emissions frombuilding materials and products–Launch awareness on IAQ in bothurban and rural areas–Ensure inter ministry and inter-agencycoordination on IAQ– Gradually shift to morecomplex pollutants like PM2.5,HCHO, VOCs, BTX etc.–Develop monitoring protocolfor above–Review effectiveness ofenforcement mechanism–Publish emission standards formajor or most commonly usedbuilding materials andproducts–Continue awareness on IAQ–Provideincentives/disincentives andawardsSHORT (6 months – 1 year) MEDIUM (1 year – 3 years) LONG (3 years – 6 years)
    • –Identify best internationalpractices / benchmarks forIEQ in Buildings likeASHREA 189.1 etc.–Sensitize members / industries/ clients on IAQ & create ademand–Provide feedback to Govt. toensure that theplans/guidelines on IAQ arealigned to marketdemands/requirements–Generate awareness amongstmembers–Hold discussions on IAQ withinternational counterparts andresearch agencies–Encourage / sponsor research–Modify/strengthen buildingcodes and rating schemes–Innovate building materialsand products that have lowVOC emissions–Develop cost-effective IAQmonitoring systems–Sustain IAQ demand inmarket by introducing energyefficient and innovative aircleaning technologies–Adopt /develop technologiesto suit Indian conditions–Help Govt. on improving IAQrelated policy/guidelines–Develop ties with internationalagencies for knowledgesharing and/or technologytransfer–Encourage indigenous patentsin IAQ – technologies,mateials and products–Develop market basedinstruments for IAQtechnology improvement &promotionSHORT (6 months – 1 year) MEDIUM (1 year – 3 years) LONG (3 years – 6 years)
    • –Identify and collate research(s) conducted on IAQ, statusin India & abroad andlinkage(s) with health,exposure, energy,management plan etc.–Identify gaps in presentresearch space–Develop research proposalto Central CoordinationAgency (CCA)–Identify counterpartinternational agencies /universities working on IAQ–Conduct research & developnew technologies onimproving IAQ – ventilation,air cleaning, monitoring,building materials andproducts etc.–Address the context and needof the rural poor and slums inurban areas – develop cheapbut cleaner fuel substitutes–Develop ties with internationalagencies for knowledgesharing and/or technologytransfer , do technologyadoption to suit Indianconditions–Build robust framework foreconomic assessment– Develop low cost IAQsolutions (incl. retrofits)suited for Indian conditions– Help Govt. in developingnew IAQ standards /monitoring protocols– File patents & tie up withindustries for massproduction of IAQ relatedsolutions– Help in developing massawareness on IAQ alongwith Industry & Govt.– Apply economic assessmentto make a business case ofmanaging IAQSHORT (6 months – 1 year) MEDIUM (1 year – 3 years) LONG (3 years – 6 years)
    • –EXPECTED OUTCOMEOF THE ACTION–ACTION (WHAT , WHEN ) –WHO (AGENCY &PARTNER)
    • 4/13/2012Prasad Modak22Questions / suggestions ?Email prasad.modak@emcentre.comURL: www.emcentre.com