Global warming and us_Presentation made at NITK


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Presentation made during ‘How to conduct courses on Environmental Management and Sustainability’ at NITK

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Global warming and us_Presentation made at NITK

  1. 1. Prasad Modak Environmental Management Centre LLP Director, Ekonnect Knowledge Foundation Global Warming and Us
  2. 2. 2 Green House Effect: Global Warming Increase in average temperature on Earth due to Green House Gases like CO2, NOx , CFC, CH4 , O3
  3. 3. Is it real? Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change confirms GlobalWarming and Climate Change as Real Phenomena. Find More on Several local phenomena support the scientific evidences reported world over. India responds with NationalAction Plan on Climate Change. Refer APCC/main.htm
  4. 4. Observed changes Global average sea level Northern hemisphere snow cover Global average temperature Source: Direct observations of recent climate change. GW1 SPM p.5. Figure SPM.3. by AR5
  5. 5. Surface, balloon & satellite temperatures agree Source: Met Office Hadley Centre Database, UK
  6. 6. Temperature increases are non-uniform: higher mid- continent, highest of all in far North. (These are observations, not modeling results.) J. Hansen et al., PNAS 103: 14288-293 (26 Sept 2006) 2001-2005 mean ∆Tavg above 1951-80 base, °C
  7. 7. The frequency of heavy precipitation events has increased over most land areas - Rainfall in Mumbai (India), 2005: 1 million people lost their homes
  8. 8. Source:
  9. 9. Source:
  10. 10. Source:
  11. 11. Muir Glacier, Alaska, 1941-2004 NSIDC/WDC for Glaciology, Boulder, compiler. 2002, updated 2006. Online glacier photograph database. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. August 1941 August 2004 Coastal glaciers are retreating
  12. 12. NASA photograph Extent of Arctic summer ice in 1979 (top satellite image) and in 2003 (lower satellite image). North Polar ice cap is sea ice -- it’s floating and so does not change sea level when it melts. But the reduced reflectivity when the ice is replaced by water amplifies the warming effect of greenhouse gases. Sea ice is shrinking
  13. 13. People exposed to increased water stress by 2020  120 million to 1.2 billion in Asia  75 to 250 million in Africa  12 to 81 million in Latin America Possible yield reduction in agriculture:  50% by 2020 in some African countries  30% by 2050 in Central and SouthAsia  30% by 2080 in Latin America Crop revenues could fall by 90% by 2100 in Africa Impacts on poor regions
  14. 14. Impacts on India • Rise in temperature: 2-5 C • Subsequent Heat Waves • Increase in 1-day and 5- day extreme rainfalls, particularly Maharashtra, MP, AP and Karnataka Source: High-resolution climate change scenarios for India for the 21st century by K. Rupa Kumar et all, IITM, 2006
  15. 15. How much of Global Warming is human- caused? HUMAN INFLUENCES ON GLOBAL CLIMATE • rising concentration of “greenhouse gases” (GHG) from deforestation, agricultural practices, fossil-fuel burning • rising concentration of particulate matter from agricultural burning, cultivation, fossil-fuel burning, • alteration of Earth‟s surface reflectivity by deforestation, desertification • increased high cloudiness from aircraft contrails NATURAL INFLUENCES ON GLOBAL CLIMATE • variations in the energy output of the Sun • variations in the Earth‟s orbit and tilt • continental drift • changes in atmospheric composition from volcanoes, biological activity, weathering of rocks • “internal” dynamics of ice-ocean-land-atmosphere system
  16. 16. The main cause of the CO2 build-up in the last 250 years has been emissions from fossil fuels & deforestation
  17. 17. 19 Industrial production is responsible for 21% of all CO2 emissions 9% of CO2 emissions are transportation related. 57% of CO2 emissions result from electricity generation Residential sources account for about 9% of carbon dioxide emissions CO2 emission by other sectors is 4% India: Sectoral Contribution to CO2 Source: CC Mitigation & Adaptation An Indian Perspective by Prof. S Kumar, Dean, Asian Institute of Technology
  18. 18. Science and Politics of Global Warming
  19. 19. Mitigation, meaning measures to reduce the pace & magnitude of the changes in global climate being caused by human activities. Adaptation, meaning measures to reduce the adverse impacts on human well-being resulting from the changes in climate that do occur. Suffering? (is this a Choice) the adverse impacts that are not avoided by either mitigation or adaptation THE CHOICES
  20. 20. Promote a new development path? The dominant path to industrialization has been characterized by high concurrent GHG emissions Committing to alternative development paths requires major changes in a wide range of areas:  Economic structure : Low Carbon Economy  Geographical distribution of activities  Consumption patterns  Demography
  21. 21. Leverage against CO2 emissions • It could be accelerated. It entails more efficient cars, trucks, planes, buildings, appliances, manufacturing processes.This opportunity offers the largest, cheapest, fastest leverage on carbon emissions. GETTING MORE GDP OUT OF LESS ENERGY • the mix of fossil & non-fossil energy sources (most importantly more renewables and/or nuclear) RIGHT MIX OF ENERGY SOURCES FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY • new frontiers in fossil-fuel technologies (most importantly with carbon capture & sequestration). PRACTICING NEW PARADIGMS OF TECHNOLOGIES
  22. 22. 0 Historical emissions Reduced carbon intensity of the baseline economy Emissions proportional to economic growth 205520051955 14 7 1.9 28 21 StabilizationTriangle Flat path Virtual Triangle GtC/yr Stabilizing would be possible if emissions were flat for ~50 years, then declined. The green “stabilization triangle” represents the emissions that should & could be avoided by new policies (a depiction due to Socolow & Pacala). Source: Pacala S & R Socolow: „Stabilizing wedges to solve climate problem in next 50 years‟ with current technologies‟, Science, 305
  23. 23. Corporate Commitments and Results 10% reduction 10% reduction $650 million saved 69% reduction $2 billion saved 65% reduction $791 million saved 25% reduction 9% reduction 6% reduction 10% reduction “It’s made us more competitive” 25% reduction $100 million saved 13% reduction Absolute cap 35% reduction $200 million saved 19% reduction 37% reduction 17% reduction 5% reduction 72% reduction 1% reduction $1.5 billion clean tech R&D
  24. 24. I am concerned..What Next?  The amount of GHGs emitted due to an individual’s every day activities on a personal level is called “Personal Carbon Footprint (CFP)”. The carbon footprint of an average Indian is 1.4 metric tons of CO2 equivalent in a year.  CFP of an Urban Indian is expected to be higher, perhaps close to 3.0 metric tons of CO2 equivalent (Source: International Energy Agency, 2010)
  25. 25. Our Carbon footprint depends on… • The resources we consume • The mode of transport we use • The electricity we use • The waste we generate The way we live!!! Your transport choices for vacations No. of LPG cylinder s for cooking you buy How often and how long you travel on vacations Your monthly expenses for daily commute to work Your monthly electricit y bill Six Things you should know to estimate your carbon footprint…
  26. 26. What Can I Do? KnowCo2Now • KnowCO2Now is a easy-to-use designed by EMC will help you estimate your carbon footprint based on your response to 14 easy questions. • The questions posed relate to a few carbon-intensive activities in your everyday life. An honest answer will help you know your CFP and CFI and how your lifestyle choices could influence the same. • More on
  27. 27. Every unit of electricity(kWh) used generates 0.82 kg of CO2at the power station Use CFLs at homes and offices. Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 84kg on every replacement. Reduce annual electricity bill by Rs. 409
  28. 28. Switch off unnecessary lights and fans Reduce annualCO2 emissions by 28 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 134 per bulb and fan kept off for just an extra hour each day If just 1000 homes do that, that’s 28000 kg of CO2 less per year Switch off theTV, Set top box and DVD player at the plug, not with a remote. Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 106 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 518 Source: Bureau of Energy Effiiciency
  29. 29. Buying a new home appliance? Look out for the 5 star label and buy a higher star rated product Fans (1200mm sweep) Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 36 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 176 Refrigerators (Frost-free) Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 269 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 1312 Air conditioners (1.5 tons split) Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 283 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 1382 Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency
  30. 30. Per replacement you reduce annual CO2 emissions by 205 to 279 kg annual electricity bills by ` 1000 to 1360 Replace old desktops with laptops
  31. 31. Print responsibly Just 500 sheets of double sided printing a month Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 87 kg Reduce printing in each department by just one ream of paper a month Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 87 kg
  32. 32. Use the geyser efficiently. Have baths in quick succession Reduce annualCO2 emissions by 344 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 1676 Reduce the temperature setting on the geyser. Geysers come with a factory setting of 60oC but you need water at only 40oC for a comfortable bath. Reduce annualCO2 emissions by 172 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 838 Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency
  33. 33. Use a pressure cooker Reduce annualCO2 emissions by 125 kg Save ` 1048 (cost of 3 cylinders) Use fuel efficient cooking methods Reduce gas usage by 20 minutes a day to reduce annualCO2 emissions by 62 kg and save ` 524 Eat together Heating food at one go to reduce unnecessary use of the microwave for just 5 minutes can reduce up to 30 kg of CO2 emissions per year Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 146 Source: Operating manual of IFB microwave oven
  34. 34. Install a solar water heater Reduce annualCO2 emissions by 687 kg Reduce annual electricity bills by ` 3352 Don‟t use the hot wash setting Reduce CO2 emissions by 98 kg annually Reduce annual electricity bills by ‘478 Source: Operating manual of IFB machine
  35. 35. Conserve water
  36. 36. Transportation & Carbon Modern cars emit more CO2!!!  Post-2000 petrol cars, with engine size more than 1,400 cc, emits 143 gm/km of CO2. Average Fuel economy 16 km/litre  But post -2005 models of same engine size emit 173 gm/km. Average Fuel economy 13 km per litre. ARAI data analysis by CSE Public transport contribute much less of CO2 load  Bus carry several times more people and consume significantly less fuel per passenger  Trains are even more attractive
  37. 37. Every small car that goes off the road reduces Annual CO2 emissions by 1321 kg Annual fuel cost by ` 29352
  38. 38. Get driven to work….in a bus Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 1194 kg Save ` 29352 if you use the company bus
  39. 39. Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 48 to 64 kg Reduce annual fuel cost by ` 1071 to 1417 Source: Central Road Research Institute, July 2010
  40. 40. Regularly inflate vehicle tyres Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 150 kg Reduce annual fuel cost by ` 3344
  41. 41. Waste Management & Carbon  The wet garbage from home is a major contributor of methane  Dumping is the practice followed and with it uncontrolled emission to atmosphere  But by segregation, the wet garbage can be composted locally  Follow 4R principle: Reduce, Repair, Reuse, Recycle  Send dry waste for recycling; earn money by the way ! Compost your kitchen wastes Reduce annual CO2 emissions by 68 kg
  42. 42. Buildings & Carbon  Green Buildings  Use of renewable or low energy intensive construction material and Structures designed optimizing on energy use in the life cycle  Energy Conservation Building Code 2006  Green Building Codes  Energy Efficiency, Environment Management, Water Management, Renewable Energy, Waste Management and Recycling Benefits of Green Building Green building offers a range of economic and environmental benefits •30% to 40% reduction in operation cost •Green Corporate image •Enhanced occupant comfort
  43. 43. Individual Action Counts Better if done collectively
  44. 44. Let us combat global warming
  45. 45. Acknowledgement for Sources of Slides and Statistics 1. Reports by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2. National Action Plan on Climate Change 3. Global Climate Change, Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences UW – Madison 4. Climate Change: Can Science Save Us? By Dr R K Pachauri, Chairman, IPCC 5. ‘Low Carbon Lifestyle’ by Low Carbon Campaign during Commonwealth Games 2010, New Delhi( 6. ‘Meeting the Climate Change Challenge’ by John P. Holdren, Director, The Woods Hole Research Centre
  46. 46. Dr Prasad Modak Environmental ManagementCentre O22-40049210/11/12 THANK YOU