EKITI STATE GOVERNMENT                               ILE IYI, ILE EYEWater Supply and Sanitation PolicyConsultant:        ...
Table of ContentsAbbreviations and Acronyms…………………………………………………………………                                3Preface……………………………………...
3.7  LGA………………………………………………………………………………………..                                          333.8  Communities Based Associations...
5.6.1 Cost sharing for capital investment…………………………………………………… 535.7   Operating costs…………………………………………………………………………… 535.7.1...
ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMSBIPU       Bureau of Infrastructure and Public UtilitiesCBA        Community Based AssociationCBO ...
PREFACE (to be written by the SA BIPU)                                    6
EXECUTIVE SUMIMARYThis is the First proposal of the Ekiti State Water Supply and Sanitation policy which outlineshow the S...
•   Sustain 100% full coverage of sanitation services for the growing population beyond       the year 2020.Consumption st...
3.   Government shall endeavour to see that every resident of the state access     potable water of at least 30 litres per...
13. Reliable data collection, processing and storage are essential ingredients for          researching, planning and budg...
1.0   SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION      A recent WHO/Unicef Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) document (2010 updated)      ind...
in the states, this is hardly matched by budget allocation to the water sector.             In many cases less than 50% of...
The implementation process has resulted in lesson learning and this has helped to      inform the design of interventions ...
•   Guaranteeing affordable access for the poor to basic human need level of             water supply and sanitation servi...
creation of the State in 1996, the right institutional arrangement for effective service        delivery in the sector has...
•   unreliable power supply to the schemes               •   Low tariff, and               •   Weak institutional and mana...
•   Establish working relationship with all Local Governments in the State on                   issues of rural water supp...
refuse vans are seen collecting refuse from the various collection points for onward        transportation to the dump sit...
social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vitalecosystems.                         ...
2.0   SECTION TWO: PRESENT SITUATION, POLICY GOALS, OBJECTIVE AND      GUIDING PRINCIPLES      Successive administrations ...
c) Operational costs are high due to poor power supply, high treatment         requirements for surface water sources and ...
that landmark changes in orientation, thinking, attitude, policies, organizational        structure and management of the ...
•   The initial target for sanitation service coverage is to improve on the                   present 32%                 ...
The minimum sanitation facility in an urban area shall be pour flush as determined         and designed by Small Town Wate...
viii.    All water supply service providers shall be allowed to set appropriate         tariff from time to time subject t...
based on their experience and prerequisite skills in community         management processesxix.     The government shall e...
in schools with a view to using school children as change agents for        effective WASH promotions in all communities.x...
3.0   SECTION   THREE:           INSTITUTIONAL         STRUCTURE,          ROLES       AND      RESPONSIBILITIES3.1   Fede...
3.2   Ekiti State Ministry of Water Resources/Directorate of Water Supply and      Sanitation Services      The State Mini...
x.      shall provide technical assistance to the local government rural water                     supply units through it...
3.4   Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (STOWASSA)      This agency when finally established shall play simil...
v. partner with development partners to develop CLTS curriculum and                       integrate in school system up to...
ii. to build a platform on which States and Local governments could harmonize                their budgets fully with the ...
vii.     provide technical assistance to households for the upgrading of on- site                    sanitation facilities...
i. advocacy at State and LGA levels for improved water supply and sanitation                  governance at community and ...
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
Ekiti wss draft policy 4
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Ekiti wss draft policy 4

  1. 1. EKITI STATE GOVERNMENT ILE IYI, ILE EYEWater Supply and Sanitation PolicyConsultant: Client:Rodeson Investment Co. Ltd. The Ekiti State GovernmentShop No 11E Commercial Corridor, Office of the Special Adviser to Mr.Oke – Ila Housing Estate, GovernorP. O. Box 339, on Infrastructure and Public Utilities,Ado – Ekiti.. Governor’s Office, Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State. March, 2012
  2. 2. Table of ContentsAbbreviations and Acronyms………………………………………………………………… 3Preface…………………………………………………………………………………………. 4Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………… 51.0 SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………… 91.1 Overview of Water Supply and Sanitation Development in Nigeria……………... 111.2 National Water Policy and Legal Framework……………………………………… 111.3 Location and Climate………………………………………………………………… 121.4 Geology………………………………………………………………………………. 121.5 Hydrology and Hydrogeology………………………………………………………. 121.6 Water Sector Challenges in Ekiti State…………………………………………….. 131.6.1 Urban Water Supply…………………………………………………………………. 141.6.2 Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation………………………………………… 141.6.3 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation…………………………………………………. 151.6.4 Urban Sanitation……………………………………………………………………… 151.7 Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………. 161.7.1 Access to water supply and sanitation facility……………………………………… 161.7.2 Integrated water resource management (IWRM)………………………………….. 172.0 SECTION TWO: PRESENT SITUATION, POLICY GOALS, OBJECTIVE AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES……………………………………………………………… 202.1 Policy Goal…………………………………………………………………………….. 222.2 Policy Objective……………………………………………………………………….. 222.3 Policy Objective……………………………………………………………………….. 222.3.1 Water Supply…………………………………………………………………………… 222.3.2 Sanitation……………………………………………………………………………….. 232.4 Sanitation……………………………………………………………………………….. 232.4.1. Rural water supply…………………………………………………………………….. 232.4.2 Small towns water supply…………………………………………………………….. 232.4.3 Urban water supply……………………………………………………………………. 232.4.4 Rural Sanitation………………………………………………………………………… 242.4.5 Small Town Sanitation………………………………………………………………… 242.4.6 Urban Sanitation……………………………………………………………………….. 242.5 Policy Guiding Principles……………………………………………………………… 243.0 SECTION THREE: INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE, ROLES ANDRESPONSIBILITIES3.1 Federal Ministry of Water Resources…………………………………………………. 283.2 Ekiti State Ministry of Water Resources/Directorate of Water Supply and Sanitation Services……………………………………………………………………… 293.3 Water Corporation of Ekiti State……………………………………………………….. 303.4 Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (STOWASSA)………………… 313.5 Ekiti State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (EK-RUWASSA)………… 303.6 Ekiti State Community and Social Development Agency (EKCSDA)……….……. 313.7 Ekiti State Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Office…………………………. 31 2
  3. 3. 3.7 LGA……………………………………………………………………………………….. 333.8 Communities Based Associations (Water Consumers Associations (WCA) and Water Sanitation and Hygiene Committee (WASHCOM)………..……………. 333.9 Non-Governmental and Civil Society Organizations………………………………… 353.10 Other Relevant Ministries and Agencies to the Water and sanitation Sector…….. 35SECTION FOUR: POLICY COMPONENTS AND POLICY STATEMENTS……………… 354.1 Access to Water Supply………………………………………………………………… 364.1.1 Policy Statement No.1:………………………………………………………………… 364.2 Demand-Responsive Approach (DRA)………………………………………………. 364.2.1 Policy Statement No.2:………………………………………………………………… 374.3 Pro-Poor Concept………………………………………………………………………. 374.3.1 Policy Statement No.3:………………………………………………………………… 374.4 Community Involvement………………………………………………………………. 384.4.1 Policy statement No.4:…………………………………………………………………. 384.5 Involvement of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs)………………………………… 384.5.1 Policy Statement No.5:………………………………………………………………… 384.6 Private Sector Participation…………………………………………………………… 394.6.1 Policy Statement No.6:………………………………………………………………… 394.7 Demand Management…………………………………………………………………. 404.7.1 Policy Statement No.7:………………………………………………………………… 404.8 Operation and Maintenance…………………………………………………………… 404.8.1 Policy statement No.8:…………………………………………………………………. 414.9 System Design and Construction Standards………………………………………… 414.9.1 Policy Statement No. 9:………………………………………………………………… 414.10 Autonomy of Service Providers……………………………………………………….. 424.10.1 Policy Statement No. 10:………………………………………………………………. 424.11 The Role of Women and Gender Mainstreaming…………………………………… 424.11.1 Policy Statement No.11:……………………………………………………………….. 424.12 Human Resource Development……………………………………………………….. 434.12.1 Policy Statement No. 12:………………………………………………………………. 434.13 Data Gathering, Information Management, Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation… 444.13.1 Policy Statement No. 13:………………………………………………………………. 444.14 Sector Coordination and Reforms…………………………………………………….. 444.14.1 Policy statement No. 14:………………………………………………………………. 444.15 Sanitation and Hygiene………………………………………………………………… 454.15.1 Definition of sanitation and hygiene terms…………………………………………… 454.15.2 Policy Statement No. 15:……………………………………………………………… 464.16 Technological Options for Sanitation…………………………………………………. 464.16.1 Policy statement No. 16:………………………………………………………………. 474.17 Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)…………………………………………….. 474.17.1 Policy statement No. 17:……………………………………………………………….. 474.18 Environmental Pollution and Protection of Water Sources…………………………. 484.18.1 Policy statement No. 18:……………………………………………………………….. 485.0 LEGISLATIVE AND FUNDING IMPLICATIONS…………………………………… 515.1 Change Management Office………………………………………………………….. 515.2 Water Supply Regulatory Agency (WASRA)………………………………………… 515.3 Elements of Reform in the Policy……………………………………………………… 525.4 Manpower Development……………………………………………………………….. 525.5 Funding…………………………………………………………………………………… 525.6 Capital Projects………………………………………………………………………….. 53 3
  4. 4. 5.6.1 Cost sharing for capital investment…………………………………………………… 535.7 Operating costs…………………………………………………………………………… 535.7.1 Cost distribution for operation and maintenance…………………………………….. 53 4
  5. 5. ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMSBIPU Bureau of Infrastructure and Public UtilitiesCBA Community Based AssociationCBO Community Based OrganizationCSO Civil Society OrganizationDFID Department for International DevelopmentDWSS Directorate of Water Supply and SanitationSEEDS State Economic Empowerment and Development StrategyEHC Environmental Health ClubEKSWC Ekiti State Water CorporationESWMA Ekiti State Waste Management AuthorityFMWR Federal Ministry of Water ResourcesFMAWR Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water ResourcesLGA Local Government AreaM&E Monitoring and EvaluationMDA Ministry Department and AgencyMDG Millennium Development GoalsNEEDS National Economic Empowerment ands Development StrategyNGO Non governmental OrganizationO&M Operation and MaintenancePSP Private Sector ParticipationPPP Private Public PartnershipRUWASSA Rural Water Supply and Sanitation AgencySTOWASSA Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation AgencySEPA State Environmental Protection AgencySLGP State and Local Government ProgrammeUN United NationsUNDP United Nations Development FundUNICEF United Nations Children’s Educational FundVIP Ventilated improved Pit LatrineVHP Volunteer Hygiene PromotersWASRA Water Supply Regulatory AgencyWASH Water, Sanitation and HygieneWASHCOM Water, Sanitation and Hygiene CommitteeWES Water and Environmental SanitationWCA Water Consumers AssociationWHO World Health OrganisationWIMAG Water Investment Mobilization and Application GuidelinesWSAs Water Supply AssociationsWSS Water Supply and SanitationWSSSRP Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reform ProgrammeWSPs Water Supply Providers 5
  6. 6. PREFACE (to be written by the SA BIPU) 6
  7. 7. EXECUTIVE SUMIMARYThis is the First proposal of the Ekiti State Water Supply and Sanitation policy which outlineshow the State Government hopes to develop the Water and Sanitation sector with thesupport of Local Governments, communities, external support agencies, private sector andnon governmental organisations.It represents the effort of the Ekiti State Government to address the challenge of a lack of awater supply and sanitation sector specific policy which has resulted in lack of coordinationin the implementation of sectoral projects, weak institutional capacity, undefined roles for theprivate sector, external support agencies, non state actors, and community organisations,hence, poor water supply and sanitation service delivery.The development of this policy was driven by local water supply and sanitation stakeholders,including State and Local Government officials, community based organizations and non-governmental organizations; whose inputs during separate meetings with them and twoother debriefing meetings at State level have been widely reflected.The policy goal and objectives were developed based on the State Development StrategyPlan (2011-2014) for water supply and sanitation. This was found to be in line with currentthinking and realities in social service delivery and coherent with the National Water Supplyand Sanitation Policy.Policy ObjectiveThe centre-piece of Ekiti State’s water supply and sanitation policy shall be the provision ofadequate potable water and safe sanitation facilities to all residents of the state throughparticipatory investment and management by all stakeholders with a view to guaranteeingavailable, accessible, affordable, reliable and sustainable service delivery.Water Supply Targets • The initial target is to improve on water supply service coverage from the present less than 40% to 60% by the year 2014. • Extension of water supply service coverage to 80% of the population by the year 2016 • Extension of water supply service coverage to 100% of the state’s population in the year 2020 • Sustain 100% full coverage of water supply for the growing population beyond the year 2020Sanitation Targets • The initial target for sanitation service coverage is to improve on the present 32% to 50% by 2014 • Extension of sanitation service coverage to 60% by 2016 • Extension of sanitation service coverage to 80% by 2018 • Extension of sanitation service coverage to 100% by 2020 and 7
  8. 8. • Sustain 100% full coverage of sanitation services for the growing population beyond the year 2020.Consumption standardsTo have an effective, affordable, consistent, achievable and sustainable water supply, it isnecessary to establish minimum standards of supply and also to enforce these standards.These minimum standards relate to both quality of water and quantity provided. Therefore,this policy seeks to meet minimum standards as set below:Rural water supplyThis policy guarantees minimum water supply standard of 30 litres per capita per day forsettlements with population less than 5,000.Small towns water supply.This policy guarantees minimum water supply standard of 60 litres per capita per day forsmall towns with population of between 5,000 and 20,000.Urban water supplyThis policy guarantees minimum water supply standard of 80 litres per capita per day forurban areas with population greater than 20,000 inhabitants.Rural SanitationThe minimum sanitation facility for rural communities shall be sanplat latrine with specialfocus on CLTS championed by EK-RUWASSA in collaboration with the Department ofEnvironmental Health and Sanitation in the Ministry of Environment and Housing.Small Town SanitationThe minimum sanitation facility in a small town shall be sanplat latrine as determined anddesigned by Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (STOWASSA).Urban SanitationThe minimum sanitation facility in an urban area shall be pour flush as determined anddesigned by Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation Agency in collaboration with the StateEnvironmental Protection Agency (EK-SEPA). The government should begin to think in thedirection of designating an area for sanitary landfills to take care of urban sewage andsanitation. The area should have minimum clearance of about 5km radius from thedesignated landfills where there shall be no drinking water sources.Based on these targets and standards, the policy developed a number of principles thatguided the formulation of policy statements. In all, there are 30 policy guiding principles and18 policy statements key among these: 1. Ekiti State Government recognizes that water is life and essential for human existence and should therefore be accorded the highest priority it deserves. 2. The government recognizes that while water is a social good, it is as well an economic and environmental good. 8
  9. 9. 3. Government shall endeavour to see that every resident of the state access potable water of at least 30 litres per day in the State.4. Having recognized that water is a socio-economic and environmental good, all users of water should therefore pay for water based on level of service provided. This is with a view to at least recovering O&M cost, but a pro poor concept shall be developed in setting appropriate tariffs.5. The government shall continue to provide the majority of capital financing for rehabilitation of existing systems and construction of new systems (including expansion of systems).6. The government shall continue to explore all opportunities for engaging communities in management and O&M of water schemes through their local community development associations for sustainability.7. The government recognises that the private sector has a role to play in water resources and sanitation development, and would create an enabling environment for the participation of the private sector in the delivery of water supply and sanitation services.8. The government shall partner with CSOs and engage them in community involvement in water supply and sanitation service delivery based on their experience and prerequisite skills in community management processes9. The government shall ensure that sustainability is incorporated into planning process, and government funds shall not be invested in water systems unless long term sustainability through a participatory approach is demonstrated.10. The government shall ensure the protection of water sources from environmental contamination and pollution essential for long term sustainable water supply provision, through collaboration with the State Environmental Protection Agency and the agencies involved in physical planning and development.11. Government shall ensure that all water supply service providers in the State produce potable water that meets the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, while environmental health officers in the State ensure that each household meets the minimum requirements for safe sanitation.12. In the spirit of participatory democracy and gender mainstreaming, government shall ensure that both women and men are adequately represented in all water and sanitation decision making organs and processes at the state, local, and community levels. 9
  10. 10. 13. Reliable data collection, processing and storage are essential ingredients for researching, planning and budgeting. Therefore, all water agencies of the State shall have functional PRS Departments with Monitoring and Evaluation Units equipped with adequate electronic software and systems with a view to making data management the basis for planning and budgeting in the water and sanitation sector. 14. The State Government shall embark on institutional reform, capacity building, and creation of an enabling legal environment for effective implementation. 15. This policy shall be viewed as a long term objective and it may take long term to implement all aspects of the policy.Summary of Key Reforms in the Policy.This policy will usher in an element of reform aimed at repositioning institutions, for improvedperformance and meet the objective of the policy. These may require legal instruments. Thewater supply and sanitation Law will make provisions for these reform elements. Theseanticipated reform elements are listed below. i. Establishmennt of Ministry of Water Resources or Directorate of Water Supply and Sanitation Services ii. Establishment of a Change Management Office. iii. Establishment of Water Supply Regulatory Agency (WASRA). iv. Repositioning of Water Corporation. v. Establishment of Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (STOWASSA). vi. Empowerment of RUWASSA. vii. Establishment of Task Group on Sanitation. viii. Establishment of an Inter-Ministerial Committee on Water Resources Management. 10
  11. 11. 1.0 SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION A recent WHO/Unicef Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) document (2010 updated) indicates that only 32% of the 150 million Nigerians have access to improved sanitation facilities i.e. an estimated 102 million Nigeria still lack access to basic sanitation facilities. The document also indicates that about half of the Nigerian population do not have access to safe source of drinking water. Only one third of all schools in Nigeria have access to safe water. According to 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS-2008), diarrhoea is identified to be responsible for 16% of child deaths in the country. Stakeholders agree that the foregoing unenviable statistics are caused by two main problems confronting the Nigeria water and sanitation sector. They are: i) Inadequate sector policy and institutional framework. At present, the Nigerian water sector policy has no legislation backing it. The Water law of 1993 (Decree 101), which expounds a command (top-down) structure of water management by the FMWR, was wholly rejected by stakeholders in the states. The law remains un-implemented since its enactment in 1993. A draft National Water Bill (2009) was produced with the support of Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reform Programme (WSSSRP) to incorporate good water governance practices as well as integrated water resources management principles. The Bill is still awaiting enactment into law. There is equally no regulatory framework in place at the federal level; donor coordination is non-existent, sector monitoring and review are absent. The situation is similar in the states. There were no water policies and laws in place in the states before now. Although States are now making frantic efforts to develop a policy framework for the sector, development of implementing strategies, water laws and regulatory frameworks have not yet been developed. The consequences of inadequate policy and institutional framework are absence of a water sector action plan, leading to poor funding of the sector. Without water sector programme planning coupled with adequate funding, state water institutions are unable to deliver quality water and sanitation services to the people. Women and children are the most affected by the poor service delivery. Women spend many hours searching for water. Many children die of water-related diseases e.g diarrhoea, while many miss school in search of water, the quality of which is suspect. ii) Weak sector institutions. The Nigerian water sector is bedevilled with weak institutions caused by: − low technical and managerial expertise: An institutional capacity assessment of the water sector institutions in the states indicates that technical and managerial capacity is poor. Staffing is lopsided; with unskilled staff making up a greater percentage of the workforce. Many of the water sector institutions have no job descriptions or job evaluations or skills profiles. There is no system of performance management incentives or disincentives in place. − Poor funding: Budget allocation to the water sector has declined in the last two decades in all the states. Although water is often mentioned as a priority 11
  12. 12. in the states, this is hardly matched by budget allocation to the water sector. In many cases less than 50% of the budget is actually released to the sector. The consequences are that new investments are curtailed and maintenance of existing facilities is neglected. In many of the states, due to inefficient use of resources, focus is often on capital expenditure rather than on routine maintenance of existing facilities. - Poor service delivery orientation (institutions are unaccountable and insensitive to users and customers). There are no complaint desks for unsatisfied customers. Forums for services providers-customers interaction are hardly available. - Poor data collection and monitoring. Data collection and performance monitoring systems hardly exist in any of the states. The consequence of low technical capacity, poor funding and lack of performance monitoring and review mechanism is that water sector institutions are not delivering services. The population does not have access to safe water sources. The population, especially children, are exposed to water-related diseases.1.1 Overview of Water Supply and Sanitation Development in Nigeria The government of Nigeria recognizes water and sanitation as part of the most important needs of man. Various government initiatives geared towards meeting the basic need have been designed in the past. In spite of these initiatives, it is estimated that majority of the people in the urban and rural areas still lack access to potable water supply and sanitation. The situation is such that average delivery in urban areas is far below 60 litres per capita per day and 20 litres per capita per day for rural areas. The picture as it exists now poses a great challenge to government at all levels. The united Nation declared the period 1980 to 1990 as the water and sanitation decade. The key element of the Water Decade was full coverage of water and sanitation for all citizens of the member countries of the UN. The African Convention on the conservation of the nature and natural resources enjoins member States to develop policies for the conservation, utilization and development of underground and surface water. As a signatory to both the UN declaration and the African Convention, the government of Nigeria initiated various interventions in the water supply and sanitation sector. At the time of the review of the Water Decade by the African Working Group of the Collaborative Council on Water and Sanitation, Nigeria was identified as one of the few countries with a draft Water and Sanitation Policy. In 1992, Nigeria developed the Rural Water and Sanitation Sector Strategy and Action Plan. Urban and semi-urban schemes were also being implemented through the State Water Board/Corporations. Through the policy and programmes identified, the government initiatives yielded positive results. Overall performance in the sector indicates that coverage of water and sanitation has reached 57% and 42% respectively. In spite of these achievements, available statistics indicate that there is more to be done, if the goal of the Water Decade of universal coverage is to be attained. 12
  13. 13. The implementation process has resulted in lesson learning and this has helped to inform the design of interventions in the water sector. A review of the 1992 policy led to the design of a new Water and sanitation Policy in 2000 as well as a strategic framework to guide the implementation of the policy. In addition, the Small Towns Water and Sanitation Programme, is currently under implementation. The programme was reviewed in 2004 to help assess not just the impact but also improve the delivery mechanism. The efforts of the Federal Government of Nigeria are geared towards creating an enabling environment for public-private sector partnership, providing a lead to states so they can formulate their own policies and strategies for the provision of water supply and sanitation services in the country. Consequent upon the enactment of Water Act 101 of 1993 and the preparation of the National Water Resources Master Plan in 1995, the Water Resources Management Reform Programme commenced in 1997; this programme carried out a Water Sector review in Legal and Regulatory Framework, Institutional Framework and Participatory Approach, Information and Water Resources Data Base, Water Resources Economics and Financing, Environment and Resource Sustainability, Water Resources Infrastructure, Assets and Assets Management and International Waters. The report of these reviews provided inputs in the formulation for a Water Resources policy, principles and strategies.1.2 National Water Policy and Legal Framework The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, and in fact all other laws have given the Federal Government jurisdiction over shared water resources, large dams, formulation and implementation of policies for overall water resources management. The Federal Government of Nigeria recognizes water and sanitation as the most important basic need of man. Various initiatives and efforts were designed in the past few decades by the Government and its development partners to meet this important need. In spite of these initiatives, majority of the people in urban and rural areas still lack access to potable water supply and sanitation. According to figures contained in the National Policy on Water Supply and Sanitation, only about 46% of the populace have access to safe drinking water. Access to water and sanitation is usually higher in urban than rural areas. Service coverage in urban areas is approximately 50%, and rural coverage is estimated to be 35% of actual demand for water supply As a way of accelerating access to social services in the country, the Government of Nigeria developed a blue print strategy document, the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS), for the socio-economic transformation of the country. States were also encouraged to follow suit with their SEEDS, and LEEDS at the local government level. Meanwhile, in the year 2000, the Federal Government came up with the National Water Supply and Sanitation Policy which aims at providing sufficient potable water and sanitation to all Nigerians in an affordable and sustained manner through participatory investment by the three tiers of Government, the private sector and the beneficiary communities. The elements of the policy objective include: • Ensuring affordability of water supply and sanitation services for the citizens. 13
  14. 14. • Guaranteeing affordable access for the poor to basic human need level of water supply and sanitation services. Arising from the National Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, all states are expected to develop a State Water Supply and Sanitation policy within the context of their respective peculiarities. It is in realization of this that Ekiti State Government is taking up the challenge by developing a people centred policy framework for the management and development of the sector in the state. This is in line with the State Development Blue Print called State Development Strategy (2011 – 2014) as the key development Action Plan of the State. Core to the success of the blue print, is institutional reforms at all levels of government. The section on water resources sector clearly states that potable water, as a basic necessity is not available to a vast majority of the populace. The policy direction of the government therefore is to improve water supply and management for other productive activities with a view to eradicating the scourge of water related diseases.1.3 Location and Climate The State is situated entirely within the tropics. It is located between Longitudes 40 451 and 50 451 East of Greenwich Meridian and Latitudes 70 151 and 80 51 North of Equator and Time zone of WAT (UTC+01). The State has common boundary with Kwara and Kogi States in the North, Osun State in the East, Edo State in the West and Ondo State in the South. Ekiti State lies in the savannah belt of Nigeria with total land area of 6,353 km2 (2,453 sq miles).1.4 Geology In general, Ekiti State is underlain by metamorphic rocks of the pre-cambrian basement complex, the great chamorkite, quartzite and pegmatite intrusions are common features in some parts of the basement complex, these basement rocks show great variation in grain size and mineral composition. The rocks include quartz gneisses and schists. In grains size structure, the rocks vary from very coarse rained pegmatite to medium grained gneisses. These rocks are strongly foliated and they occur as outcrops that are about 250m above sea level in some parts of the Sate.1.5 Hydrology and Hydrogeology The drainage system over the areas of Ekiti State basement complex is usually marked with the proliferation of many small stream channels. The channels of these smaller streams are dry between November and May. Because of the geomorphology, the State serves as the watershed and source region for many rivers that flows into the Atlantic Ocean. These rivers include Ogbese, Ero, Ose and Oni. Another important aspect of the relief of Ekiti State is the prevalence of erosion gullies along hill slopes and valleys. The main source of groundwater in the State is the weathered basement and fracture zones. Exploitation of groundwater which is structurally controlled and restricted to a depth of 50-70m. Extensive geophysical surveys are usually required to delineate the fracture zones.1.6 Water Sector Challenges in Ekiti State The sector is characterized with challenges from poor institutional arrangement to low technical capacity and managerial ineptitude in water service agencies. Since the 14
  15. 15. creation of the State in 1996, the right institutional arrangement for effective service delivery in the sector has not been put in place. The State inherited whatever was left of the old Ondo State Water Corporation from where Ekiti State was carved out from and the increasing population notably in major cities of Ado-Ekiti, Ikere-Ekiti, Aramoko, Igede-Ekiti, Iyin-Ekiti, Ifaki to mention a few has increased the pressure on water demand and sanitation services. Ekiti State’s rich water resources endowment is not in doubt, neither is the great efforts made by the each succeeding state government to improve access to potable water, yet the State still faces several challenges in the sector. Challenges are mostly a result of improper management of the resources and failure to adopt an integrated approach in the management of the rich water resources in the State. The performance of Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) sector in Ekiti State is largely reflected by the level of service delivery of the agencies that are statutorily charged with the responsibility of providing WSS services to the people of the State. According to the Ekiti State Development Strategy (2011 – 2014), which is the development roadmap of the State and at present, the preoccupation of this administration, the policy target for water includes the followings: • to provide safe water to all citizens of Ekiti State • to improve hygiene and sanitation in Ekiti State • improved management of dams The specific targets include: • Make water available in all the nook and cranny of the State • provide hygiene and sanitation services • effectiveness and efficient waste management system (i.e. waste-to- wealth) • promote behaviour change through Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) These policy targets are indication that the State government is focussed and committed to improving water supply and sanitation service delivery in the State. This policy will therefore lay the foundation for the attainment of these targets.1.6.1 Urban Water Supply Like any other State in Nigeria, coping with the socio-economic challenges of urban centres has been very demanding as successive administration try to meet the aspirations of the teeming population especially in provision of social services such as healthcare, education and water supply. Under Nigeria’s past and present Federal laws, urban water supply is a state responsibility. Hence the Ekiti State government created the Ekiti State Water Corporation (EKSWC) in 1997 to manage and operate systems for water service delivery in Urban officially defined as areas with a population in excess of 20,000 and in some semi-urban areas. All the water schemes have varying degrees of constraints which include: • Inadequate funding • aged plant and equipment, • faulty and inadequate distribution system 15
  16. 16. • unreliable power supply to the schemes • Low tariff, and • Weak institutional and managerial framework The combined effect of these constraints is that only about 38% of the urban settlements in Ekiti State are presently served by EKSWC.1.6.2 Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation In 2004, Ekiti State became a beneficiary of EU supported Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Reform Programme through the National Planning Commission and the then Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources. As a criterion to fully benefit from the programme, the State was requested to have a Small Town Water Supply Agency. In an attempt to meet that criterion, the State created a Unit in the State Water Corporation for Small Town Water Supply which was solely to work for the implementation of the programme (WSSSRP). The purpose of the programme according to the signed MoU is to develop the best delivery mechanism for water and sanitation in focal small towns which are to be replicated in other small towns across Nigeria. The Unit has lived up to its expectation since creation and as a result, the Unit is in the process of being transformed to an agency with the aim of translating the EU operating principles to other small towns of the State. To date, the department has constructed through contract 12 mini water schemes in 12 small towns, whilst 4 have been completed and handed over to the community for O&M others are at various stages of completion. A major objective of this approach is to ensure community participation, ownership and management. Once the schemes are completed through a cost sharing formular among four stakeholder groups (Federal, State, LGA and Community), the schemes are transferred to the community for ownership, operation and maintenance. Each small town is to have a WCA which are supposedly constituted via a community management process, registered with the CAC under the company Allied Matters as a public liability entity and saddled with the responsibility of managing, operating and maintaining the water scheme. The WCA is also saddled with sanitation improvement throughout the community. Considering the fact that Ekiti State has many small towns (about 60% of the State), it is suggested that the process of transforming this Unit into the desired agency be fast tracked to help in sustaining water schemes at this level of service delivery.1.6.3 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation The Ekiti State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (RUWASSA) started as a WATSAN project assisted by UNICEF in 1998. The then UNICEF assisted WATSAN project was transformed into a full-fledged Agency in 2010 through an Enactment of the State House of Assembly No.11 of 2010. The same enactment of the House of Assembly also established WASH Departments in all the LGAs of the State. Key functions of the Agency as listed in the enactment, among others are as follows: 16
  17. 17. • Establish working relationship with all Local Governments in the State on issues of rural water supply, sanitation and hygiene. • Assist Local Government to plan and implement their rural water supply sanitation and hygiene education programmes by devising schemes which will allow community participation in terms of capacity building and maintenance. • Construct low cost technology latrines such as the sanitary platform (SANPLAT), Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines (VIPL) and demonstrated toilet units in strategic places in the LGA; and • Liaise with the Federal Ministry of Water Resources for national guidelines and reporting up-to-date data on water supply, sanitation and hygiene coverage to the Ministry’s monitoring units through the State’s parent Ministry at quarterly intervals. Water supply is usually used as the entry point into these communities. RUWASSA has plans to scale up UNICEF interventions in many more communities of the State. If EK-RUWASSA is to fulfil its statutory role of leading the way in rural water supply and sanitation, the government needs to increase the autonomy of this agency, build its technical and managerial capacity and increase funds to the agency.1.6.4 Urban Sanitation Water related sanitation in the urban areas of Ekiti State is presently not accorded the attention that it deserves. The Ekiti SEPA has the responsibility for water related sanitation in the State. It is also charged with the responsibility of generally ensuring that the environment is pollution free, enforcement of environmental standards and regulations, reduce human activities that negatively impact on the environment including pollution of water bodies through industrial effluents and air quality. The agency also works in collaboration with the State Town Planning Authority to check indiscriminate citing of petrol filling stations that have been found in recent time to be sources of underground water contamination through leakages of the underground tanks. Despite the responsibilities saddled with the agency, the barrage of problems including but not limited to: • inadequate funding • lack of laboratory for environmental quality control and assurance • lack of capacity to embark on effective education and public enlightenment • weak institutional capacity to enforce laws and maintain environmental standards • inadequate manpower in terms of prerequisite skills and qualification • weak institutional arrangement that leads to duplication of statutory role However, there are some activities going on with respect to solid waste management especially in the urban centres of Ado-Ekiti and Ikere-Ekiti through the State Waste Management Authority (EWMA). The activities of this agency are conspicuously noticed in the streets of Ado-Ekiti with Street sweepers seen on daily basis sweeping major streets of the city. Their waste bins are seen at strategic places and their 17
  18. 18. refuse vans are seen collecting refuse from the various collection points for onward transportation to the dump sites. However, their various refuse dump sites are potential threats to underground water. Presently, no EIA was conducted on any of the dump sites and the extent of contamination they can cause to underground water has not been determined, neither is there any alternative measure put in place to ensure that population around the dump sites have access to safe water. This policy needs to address solid waste management and environmental pollution in relation to water sources.1.7 Definition of Terms These are terms that are generally used in water supply and sanitation service delivery and are generally used and applied within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG).1.7.1 Access to water supply and sanitation facility: Access to safe water is defined as the availability of potable water of at least 30 litres per person per day, located within 250-500 meters of every household. Access to safe drinking-water is also taken as the percentage of the population using "improved" water sources. Access to sanitation is defined as the availability of safe excreta disposal facility at either household level, communal based or in public places. It also looks at the sum total of population using improved sanitation facilities. It follows that a person should have access to atleast a pit latrine within a radius of not more than 500m and not more than 10 persons to a latrine. Access to water supply and sanitation is not merely dependent on the existence of a water supply source or the existence of a latrine. Therefore, when assessing peoples level of access both to water supply and sanitation, it is important not to restrict this only to issues of distance to a source and density of users, but it further involves a range of other aspects such as: Regularity: how frequently is the service or facility available to people and when; Sufficiency: how much water is available per capital per day or how many people are using the sanitation facility; Affordability: how much do people have to pay for the service, particularly in relation to their income. The standard measurement is that households are not expected to spend more than 3% of their income on water and sewerage Quality: what is the quality (of water and sanitation facilities) of the service available; and, Safety: how safe is the water supplied and how safe and culturally acceptable is the sanitation facilities, especially for women and children who must rely on facilities outside the household (e.g. public toilets).1.7.2 Integrated water resource management (IWRM): IWRM is a process that promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize the resultant economic and 18
  19. 19. social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vitalecosystems. 19
  20. 20. 2.0 SECTION TWO: PRESENT SITUATION, POLICY GOALS, OBJECTIVE AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES Successive administrations in Ekiti State have implemented water supply and sanitation schemes since the creation of the State in 1996. While key areas of focus had been on construction of urban and semi-urban water schemes and rural water supply, implementation of the various projects at the time did not involve sanitation until 2005. Since then, sanitation provision in both communities and schools has been an integral component of the water supply schemes, particularly in the rural areas. Delivery of water and sanitation services in the State has been through the State Agencies such as the State Water Corporation and the newly established Ekiti State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency. The Water Corporation is responsible for the management, operation and maintenance of urban based water schemes, while a unit of small town water supply in the corporation is responsible for water supply in semi-urban/small towns. The State Agency for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation is responsible for rural water supply and sanitation delivery in rural communities of the State. These agencies are currently being supervised by the Bureau for Infrastructure and Public Utilities headed by a Special Adviser to the Governor. Apart from these agencies, the Department for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in the Ministry of Integration and Inter-Government Affairs is also involved in water supply service provision particularly to rural communities/small towns, schools and government establishments such as Hospitals and public places such as market and abattoirs. Despite the efforts of the State government, the water supply and sanitation situation in Ekiti State remains very poor. Based on the 2006 National population census, the population of Ekiti State is 2.384 million. It is estimated that more than half the present population, or approximately 1million people, do not have access to safe, reliable and affordable potable water supplies with current coverage and access rate put at less than 40%. This means that about 60% of the people of the State obtain their water from alternative sources. These alternative water sources are usually very costly, often impose high labour requirements for fetching water, and the quality may be suspect. In such a situation, it is usually the poor or the low income earners that are the culprit, thereby denying them the right to access potable water. In terms of sanitation, indiscriminate open defecation is very common especially in small towns and rural communities and the slum areas of the cities. Current sanitation coverage in the State is as low as 38% in urban and 32% in rural. These are even below the national average of 52% and 48% respectively. This clearly indicates that the water and sanitation sector is not delivering adequate and equitable service to the people of the state. This situation is as a result of or a combination of many factors, including but not limited to: a) The level of investment in the sector has not been adequate to match the rapid population growth. b) Investment has focused on capital works rather than on a sustainable operation and maintenance system, resulting in deterioration of systems in the sector. 20
  21. 21. c) Operational costs are high due to poor power supply, high treatment requirements for surface water sources and long pumping distances which in turn affect pumping duration. d) Water has been treated as a social service by government, and there has been a lack of emphasis on cost recovery. This combined with high operational costs and lack of focus on operation and maintenance has made systems unsustainable. e) Water unaccounted for is very high due to ageing equipment and leakages in pipeline distribution networks recently occasioned by damages during construction of roads, drainages, side walkways and roundabouts for city beautification. f) The sector is characterized by very low skills, untrained manpower, unqualified technical officers lacking in both technical and managerial experience and coupled with a government set up where motivation is low. g) The private sector has not developed interest to support the sector due to government stronghold on control and management of respective water and sanitation agencies coupled with the absence of a policy framework that creates an enabling environment for private sector participation. h) Lack of coordination in the sector, and duplication of efforts between the various organizations. This has led to haphazard implementation of statutory roles by different agencies and departments of government. i) Water supply has been delivered from the “top-down” with government making all the decisions. There has not been thought of community based approaches to operation and maintenance of schemes, especially at small towns and even urban areas of the State.Again, the sector lacks adequate statistics based upon which projections could bemade and fed into programme planning. The absence of adequate and accurate datahas affected the effectiveness with which the sector activities are managed. In viewof this, fire brigade approach to operation and maintenance is the order of the day,thereby making it systematically plan for addressing the water and sanitation needsof the people difficult.This policy framework is essential so that clear monitoring mechanisms are put inplace to assess the level of performance in the sector. The current 8 Point Agenda ofthis administration which is a roadmap to accelerated socio-economic developmentof the State will be enhanced through the formulation of this policy framework for thewater sector which is central to the effective performance of other sectors of theState’s economy. This policy framework will provide a coherent approach toaddressing problems identified in the sector and helps to put in perspective the waytargets should be pursued and implemented over time.In a nut shell, the policy is designed in such a way that unproductive approach to howthe sector is organized and managed is removed. However, it should be emphasized 21
  22. 22. that landmark changes in orientation, thinking, attitude, policies, organizational structure and management of the sector are required if improvements to the water supply and sanitation situation in state are to be achieved within the foreseeable future.2.1 Policy Goal This policy framework is developed with the intent that institutional, socio-economic and legal reforms in the sector will lead to: • Improved water governance at the State, Local Government and community levels. • Improved access to safe, adequate and sustainable water supply services for the people of Ekiti State. The Mission statement of Ekiti State Government is to provide sufficient potable water and safe sanitation facilities to the citizens of and residents in the state in an affordable and sustainable way as it relates to the expressed intention of the state Government in its State development strategy (2011 – 2014) and in accordance with the National Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS).2.2 Policy Objective The centre-piece of Ekiti State’s water supply and sanitation policy shall be the provision of adequate potable water and safe sanitation facilities to all residents of the state through participatory investment and management by all stakeholders with a view to guaranteeing available, accessible, affordable, reliable and sustainable service delivery.2.3 Policy Targets For effective sector performance and performance measurement, it is essential that a policy has specific targets that will guide its operation and performance. In this respect, the targets set below are to enable the government to be well focussed and channel resources to meeting the targets.2.3.1 Water Supply • The initial target is to improve on water supply service coverage from the present less than 40% to 60% by the year 2014. • Extension of water supply service coverage to 80% of the population by the year 2016 • Extension of water supply service coverage to 100% of the state’s population in the year 2020 • Sustain 100% full coverage of water supply for the growing population beyond the year 20202.3.2 Sanitation 22
  23. 23. • The initial target for sanitation service coverage is to improve on the present 32% to 50% by 2014 • Extension of sanitation service coverage to 60% by 2016 • Extension of sanitation service coverage to 80% by 2018 • Extension of sanitation service coverage to 100% by 2020 and • Sustain 100% full coverage of sanitation services for the growing population beyond the year 2020.2.4. Consumption standards The National Water Supply and Sanitation policy has established a standard of 120 litres per capita per day for urban, 80 litres per capita per day for small town and 60 litres per capita per day for rural communities. In Ekiti State however, considering the current organizational and technical capacities of the water supply service agencies, it is difficult to meet the set national standards. To have an effective, affordable, consistent, achievable and sustainable water supply, it is necessary to establish minimum standards of supply and also to enforce these standards. These minimum standards relate to both quality of water and quantity provided. Therefore, this policy seeks to meet minimum standards as set below:2.4.1. Rural water supply This policy guarantees minimum water supply standard of 30 litres per capita per day for settlements with population less than 5,000.2.4.7 Small towns water supply. This policy guarantees minimum water supply standard of 60 litres per capita per day for small towns with population of between 5,000 and 20,000.2.4.8 Urban water supply This policy guarantees minimum water supply standard of 80 litres per capita per day for urban areas with population greater than 20,000 inhabitants.2.4.9 Rural Sanitation The minimum sanitation facility for rural communities shall be sanplat latrine with special focus on CLTS championed by EK-RUWASSA in collaboration with the Department of Environmental Health and Sanitation in the Ministry of Environment and Housing.2.4.10 Small Town Sanitation The minimum sanitation facility in a small town shall be sanplats latrine as determined and designed by Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (STOWASSA).2.4.6 Urban Sanitation 23
  24. 24. The minimum sanitation facility in an urban area shall be pour flush as determined and designed by Small Town Water Supply and Sanitation Agency in collaboration with the State Environmental Protection Agency (EK-SEPA). The government should begin to think in the direction of designating an area for sanitary landfills to take care of urban sewage and sanitation. The area should have minimum clearance of about 5km radius from the designated landfills where there shall be no drinking water sources.2.5 Policy Guiding Principles This policy is based on a set of fundamental principles and guiding philosophies. The principles and philosophies are in-line with the current thinking and direction of the Federal Government of Nigeria and current trends in the water sector as well as other sectors in developing countries, designed to improve service delivery. Some of the fundamental principles enumerated below are also included to meet the targets for water supply in the State development strategy plan (2011 – 2014). i. Ekiti State Government recognizes that water is life and essential for human existence and should therefore be accorded the highest priority it deserves. ii. The government recognizes that while water is a social good, it is as well an economic and environmental good, therefore an Integrated approach should be developed in its management and service delivery to the final beneficiaries. iii. The State Government believes that access to potable water and safe sanitation is a fundamental human need, therefore, a basic right. However, government shall strive to meet the minimum standards set in this policy. iv. Every resident of the state shall have right to access potable water of at least 30 litres per day, within a distance of between 100 and 250 metres within any settlement in the State and access to at least a pour flush latrine within a distance of between 250 and 500 metres in any settlement in the State. v. This policy framework shall be coherent with national water policies and programmes to meet national requirement and take advantage of funds available from the federal government and external agencies. vi. Having recognized that water is a socio-economic and environmental good, all users of water should therefore pay for water based on level of service provided. This is with a view to at least recovering O&M cost. vii. A recent publication by the National Bureau of Statistics indicated that about 69% of Nigerians live below the poverty line of less than $1 per day (NBS, 2012). Therefore, a pro poor concept shall be developed in setting appropriate tariffs. 24
  25. 25. viii. All water supply service providers shall be allowed to set appropriate tariff from time to time subject to approval by the Water Supply Regulatory Agency (WASRA) or the appropriate agency empowered to do so in the interim.ix. For efficiency and improved performance of State water supply agencies, government shall grant water supply service agencies adequate autonomy with a view to empowering them to recover at least their O&M and gradually recover overhead cost. To this end, government shall gradually discontinue funding the operation and maintenance of systems.x. The government shall continue to provide the majority of capital financing for rehabilitation of existing systems and construction of new systems (including expansion of systems). After a system has been rehabilitated or newly constructed with government capital contributions, the future O&M shall be by the system.xi. The government shall continue to explore all opportunities for engaging communities in management and O&M of water schemes through their local community development associations for sustainability.xii. The government shall gradually cease from being a provider of water supply and sanitation services, and instead shall be a policy maker, supervisor, regulator, facilitator of change and creating enabling environment for sustainable operation by all sector players.xiii. The government recognises that the private sector has a role to play in water resources and sanitation development, and would create an enabling environment for the participation of the private sector in the delivery of water supply and sanitation services.xiv. The appropriate agencies of government shall explore all Public Private Partnership (PPP) options and go for the one that is most beneficial in terms of improved performance and quality service delivery.xv. The assets of urban based water schemes shall be held in public trust by the public water agencies, and shall be managed like enterprises- free from political interference, autonomous in its managerial, financial, technical and personnel functions, and operating along commercial lines.xvi. Assets provided under the small and rural schemes shall be held in trust for government by the respective small towns and rural communities through their WCAs and WASHCOMs.xvii. Government shall base water and sanitation management and development on a bottom-up approach, which is demand driven, involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels.xviii. The government shall partner with CSOs and engage them in community involvement in water supply and sanitation service delivery 25
  26. 26. based on their experience and prerequisite skills in community management processesxix. The government shall ensure that sustainability is incorporated into planning process, and government funds shall not be invested in water systems unless long term sustainability through a participatory approach is demonstrated.xx. The government shall ensure the protection of water sources from environmental contamination and pollution essential for long term sustainable water supply provision, through collaboration with the State Environmental Protection Agency and the agencies involved in physical planning and development.xxi. All environmentally based operations and projects such as construction of solid waste dump sites, sewage disposal sites, construction of incinerators, public or private latrines, abattoirs, oil and gas filling stations, industries that emit or discharge toxic waste (effluents) and mechanized farmlands must not cause adverse environmental impacts and in particular to water sources.xxii. In view of 20 above, government shall ensure that any of such operations or projects mentioned in 20 above shall be accompanied with a comprehensive EIA report and where adverse impact to water sources are envisaged, government shall relocate such operations or projects to a more suitable site or put in place adequate mitigation measures.xxiii. The government through the relevant MDAs shall develop strategies that will lead to controllable use of farm chemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides and fumigants and educate farmers on the danger of drinking from shallow wells dug in or around farmlands.xxiv. Government shall ensure that all water supply service providers in the State produce potable water that meets the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality, while environmental health officers in the State ensure that each household meets the minimum requirements for safe sanitation.xxv. In the spirit of participatory democracy and gender mainstreaming, government shall ensure that both women and men are adequately represented in all water and sanitation decision making organs and processes at the state, local, and community levels.xxvi. Reliable data collection, processing and storage are essential ingredients for researching, planning and budgeting. Therefore, all water agencies of the State shall have functional PRS Departments with Monitoring and Evaluation Units equipped with adequate electronic software and systems with a view to making data management the basis for planning and budgeting in the water and sanitation sector.xxvii. Schools are seen as veritable grounds for promoting best sanitation and hygiene practices, therefore, relevant MDAs shall promote WASH 26
  27. 27. in schools with a view to using school children as change agents for effective WASH promotions in all communities.xxviii. The State Government shall embark on institutional reform, capacity building, and creation of an enabling legal environment for effective implementation.xxix. This policy shall be viewed as a long term objective and it may take long term to implement all aspects of the policy.xxx. In view of the economic value that has been added to potable water supply, it shall not be treated as free commodity for the purpose of sustainability. 27
  28. 28. 3.0 SECTION THREE: INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE, ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES3.1 Federal Ministry of Water Resources The Federal Ministry of Water Resources shall be responsible for policy advice, contribute to funding of new schemes along the national cost sharing formular. It shall also be responsible for formulation, data collection, resources and demand surveys, monitoring, evaluation and coordination of water supply development and management, studies, research and development including the following; i. establishment and operation of national water quality laboratories and monitoring network of water quality standards. ii. maintenance of database on water supply and sanitation facilities and performance. iii. mobilization of national and international funding and technical support with a view to promoting and coordinating other collaborative activities by other government and non governmental agencies in the sector. iv. provide technical support and assistance to the state and local government water and sanitation agencies and the community water supply sanitation committees. v. creation of an enabling environment for meaningful private sector participation in the sector. vi. provision of a framework for the regulation of private sector participation in water supply and sanitation and under decree 101, formulate laws for private initiatives in the water supply industry. vii. assist individual agencies, and be responsible for the maintenance of the hydrological primary network. viii. The River Basin Development Authority shall be responsible for the establishment and supply of bulk water. ix. The National Water Resources Institute shall be responsible for manpower training, research, development and studies under the national water supply training network in the water supply sector. 28
  29. 29. 3.2 Ekiti State Ministry of Water Resources/Directorate of Water Supply and Sanitation Services The State Ministry of Water Resources or the Directorate for Water Supply and Sanitation Services in the State shall serve as the link between the State and Federal government and external support agencies on all matters of water and sanitation in the State. The Ministry or Directorate shall in addition to the traditional Departments of Administration, Finance and PRS, have the following Departments or Units respectively: Department/Unit of Water Supply and Policy Coordination Department/Unit of Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Surveys Department/Unit of Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Department/Unit of Regulation and Public Relations Department/Unit of Community Health and Sanitation Services The roles and functions of each Department/Unit shall be comprehensively explained in the policy implementation guidelines. The Ministry or Directorate shall however play the following roles: i. shall be charged with the responsibility of actualizing the policy objectives and supervise the reform implementation process. ii. shall ensure separate appropriation for all agencies under its jurisdictions and timely release of funds for water supply and sanitation activities annually. iii. shall ensure that all funds from internal and external sources for water supply and sanitation programmes are properly utilized. iv. shall promote sanitation and hygiene education as part of the curricular at primary, secondary school and, tertiary institutions particularly teachers’ training institutions and schools of health technology or any other institutions where environmental health officers are trained. v. shall engage in monitoring and evaluation of water supply and sanitation activities at the State and Local government levels. vi. shall engage in the training, capacity building and involvement of government personnel, civil society organizations (NGOS), the private sector, communities and environmental health officers in water supply and sanitation service delivery throughout the State. vii. shall ensure the provision of appropriate and adequate water supply and sanitation facilities in all public institutions of the State and ensure that such institutions pay the prescribed fees or rates. viii. shall liaise with relevant MDAs in the State that have statutory role that impact on water supply and sanitation with a view to harmonizing and coordinating activities in the sector. ix. shall be responsible for licensing and monitoring of water supply service providers and monitor the quality of water supply to the public. 29
  30. 30. x. shall provide technical assistance to the local government rural water supply units through its appropriate department or unit. xi. develop, maintain and beneficially exploit water resources both surface and underground. xii. support sanitation and hygiene promotion activities, such as provision of hand washing facilities in all public places including government offices for demonstration and promotion of hand washing with soap thoughout the State. xiii. partner with the appropriate government agency and development partners to popularize and celebrate UN dedicated dates for promotion of sanitation and hygiene such as World Water Day, World Toilet Day and World Hand Washing Day.3.3 Water Corporation of Ekiti State The Ekiti State Water Corporation is generally saddled with the responsibility of water supply to urban areas of the State through its numerous treatment plants. Although, its services are also enjoyed by small towns and rural communities, its roles and responsibilities need to be streamlined in accordance to the objectives of this policy. Therefore, the water corporation in line with its role enumerated in the edict that established it shall: i. plan, control and manage all water schemes vested in the Ekiti State Water Corporation. ii. establish, control, manage, extend and develop water works as the government considered necessary for the purpose of providing wholesome, potable water for consumption by the public for domestic, trade, commercial, industrial, scientific and other uses. iii. ensure that adequate wholesome water is supplied to its consumers in line with WHO and the National standard for drinking water quality. iv. determine and charge water rates in respect of (iii) and present it to the Ekiti State Water Supply Regulatory Agency (EK-WASRA) or the agency so designated for approval. v. conduct, organize or commission research in respect to water supply, water resources development and matters connected therewith and submit the results of such research to the Commissioner for Water Resources or the Head of the Directorate of Water Supply and Sanitation Services for formulation of policy. vi. ensure that communities in urban areas are organized as enumerated in this policy and are involved in the management, operation and maintenance of water supply thereby enhancing revenue collection. vii. ensure that contracts or agreements entered into with a third party (private sector) aimed at improving water supply in the State are properly documented, adequately supervised and well executed. 30
  31. 31. 3.4 Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (STOWASSA) This agency when finally established shall play similar roles as Water Corporation but covering only small town water projects not under the management of Water Corporation. Therefore, the agency in line with its statutory roles as will be stated in the edict establishing it shall: i. ensure control and management of water schemes vested in the agency. ii. establish, control, manage, extend and develop water schemes to small towns using a demand responsive approach for the purpose of providing potable water for small town communities. iii. ensure that small town communities are organized as enumerated in this policy and are involved in the management, operation and maintenance of water supply schemes in their jurisdiction. iv. ensure that lessons learnt in the EU supported Water Supply and sanitation reform programme (WSSSRP) are replicated and scaled up in all small towns of the State where the agency has jurisdiction. v. ensure that small town communities that enter into contracts or agreements with a third party (private sector) aimed at improving water supply and sustaining the scheme are properly documented, adequately supervised and well executed for the overall benefit of the community. vi. develop appropriate sanitation technology options for small towns and in conjunction with the LGA WES Departments ensure that sanitation is taken seriously in all the small towns of the State.3.5 Ekiti State Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (EK-RUWASSA) This agency was established under an act of State parliament No. 10 of 2010 to support all LGAs in the State on issues of rural water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion. The agency in line with its statutory roles as enumerated in the establishment edict shall: i. design and popularize sanitation technology options, especially for rural communities for the purpose of promoting sanitation and hygiene throughout the State. ii. develop minimum standards for borehole drilling for the purpose of water supply in rural communities and ensure that contractors do not construct boreholes below the established standards. iii. partner with NGOs/CSOs to scale up sanitation and latrine uptake in all rural communities of the State through the promotion of CLTS concept. iv. partner with NYSC for scaling up of sanitation and hygiene throughout rural communities of the State by promoting CLTS, WASH in schools and value based sanitation and hygiene programmes 31
  32. 32. v. partner with development partners to develop CLTS curriculum and integrate in school system up to post secondary level with a view to scaling up CLTS. vi. parner with SUBEB for construction of WASH facilities in all schools of the State, especially those in rural communities. vii. support schools (primary and secondary) throughout the State with hand washing facilities for the promotion of hand washing with soap.3.6 Ekiti State Community and Social Development Agency (EKCSDA) This agency is an establishment of the State government assisted by the World Bank to address poverty situation through the Community Driven Development (CDD) strategy. The agency is designed to ensure direct access of communities to the State level agency for full participation of beneficiary communities in all stages of project identification, development, implementation, monitoring and maintenance. Among other objectives of the agency are: i. empower communities to plan, part finance, implement, monitor and maintain sustainable and socially inclusive multi sectoral micro-projects. ii. facilitate and increase the community LGA partnership on human development related projects, by increasing the capacity of LGAs, State and Federal agencies to implement and monitor CDD policies and interventions iii. leverage Federal, State and LGA resources for increased availability of resources of CDD interventions in communities. However, and in line with the objectives of this policy, EKCSDA shall work in partnership with the appropriate agency in the water and sanitation sector to implement water and sanitation related projects in its intervention programmes. This will enhance coordination, data management and growth in the water and sanitation sector.3.7 Ekiti State Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Office In September 2005, Nigeria successfully negotiated a debt relief deal with Paris Club of Creditors and consequently, Nigeria committed itself to spending the gains on pro- poor projects and programmes in support of the national efforts at achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In realization of this, a Conditional Grant Scheme (CGS) was set by the Federal government to administer the gains in collaboration with States and LGAs on cost sharing arrangement on all projects and programmes. The scheme was designed to provide window of opportunity through which State and LGAs can access funds annually from the Federal government’s share of the debt relief gains. The major objectives of the CGS among others are: i. to offer an opportunity to maximize the use of information and expertise at every level of government and share the burden of expenditure responsibility among different levels of government. ii. to foster genuine consultation and commitment among Federal, State and Local governments, communities, NGOs to engender project sustainability. 32
  33. 33. ii. to build a platform on which States and Local governments could harmonize their budgets fully with the nations Medium-Term-Fiscal Framework. iii. to leverage spending towards supporting State and Local government programmes that are fully aligned with national policy objectives and the MDGs. The Ekiti State MGD Office has been doing very well since its creation and its contribution in the water and sanitation sector has been very massive. The collaboration between it and the Water Corporation of the State has yielded very visible results. However, and in line with the objectives of this policy, the MDG office should not work only in partnership with the Water Corporation, but also with STOWASSA and EK-RUWASSA so as to accelerate access and coverage of water supply in the State.3.7 LGA The Local Government is the closest tier of government to the grassroots, hence, feels the pulse of the people the more. This tier of government should therefore institute programmes and projects that will meet the aspiration of the people with support from the State and Federal tiers of government. With the establishment of EK-RUWASSA, a department of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) was to be established in all the LGAs. This is only true of the 4 UNICEF Focal LGAs. For other LGAs in the State, WASH is only an integral part of the Department of Environmental Services as has been the case before the edict that established RUWASSA. In order to maintain uniformity in water supply and sanitation services, there is the urgent need to pass a circular directing all the LGAs in the State to change their hitherto Department of environmental services to WASH Department as enumerated in edict No. 10 of 2010 that established EK-RUWASSA. The LGA through the WASH Department shall therefore be responsible for all matters of water supply, environmental sanitation (including excreta disposal and community health in general and as contained in the establishment edict. In addition to this, the LGA through the WASH Department shall: i. ensure separate appropriation and timely release of funds for WASH activities annually. ii. make appropriate bye-laws to support the planning, implementation and monitoring WASH programmes. iii. source funds from internal and external sources for the promotion of WASH programmes. iv. develop WASH programmes for the Local Government headquarters and communities in their area in consultation with all stakeholders. v. provide support to communities and households for WASH development. vi. ensure that all funds from internal and external sources for sanitation development are properly utilized. 33
  34. 34. vii. provide technical assistance to households for the upgrading of on- site sanitation facilities e.g. traditional pit latrines to a safer and convenient facility. viii. promote safe sanitation technology options in all the communities through a value based WASH programme to be promoted to school level. ix. engage in the training and capacity building of government personnel (environmental health officers, monitors, enforcers and administrators) and community artisans to be involved in maintenance of WASH facilities in the communities.3.8 Communities Based Associations (Water Consumers Associations (WCA) and Water Sanitation and Hygiene Committee (WASHCOM) This policy recognises that community involvement in water supply and sanitation service delivery will not only ensure sustainability of schemes, it will build trust and confidence in water supply and sanitation governance in the State. The LGA WASH Departments in partnership with CSOs/NGOs and with the support of EK- RUWASSA shall organize the communities into community based associations that will participate at every stage of the decision making process of any water supply and sanitation project. Such decisions shall include affordability and willingness to pay for services, operation and maintenance arrangement. These community based associations shall ensure that: i. social and cultural factors peculiar to each community are taken into consideration in arriving at a water supply and sanitation option preferred for the community. ii. women, youths and the vulnerable groups including people living with HIV/AIDs are considered and carried along at all levels of decision- making and execution of water supply and sanitation programmes. iii. the community with the aid of sanitation promoters, establish sanitation norms and practices that is most suitable and acceptable to all resident in the community as stipulated by this policy and other environmental laws of the State. iv. the community sanctions members that do not observe the accepted water supply and sanitation norms. Most communities through their WCA or WASHCOMs have their own law enforcing methods and sanctions that can be applied. v. the community while considering their norms shall establish structures and systems for self-monitoring and self-appraisal to ensure that agreed targets, and goals of water supply, hygiene and sanitation standards are achieved and sustained.3.9 Non-Governmental and Civil Society Organizations NGOs shall make use of their presence and acceptability in the community to complement government efforts in promoting water supply and sanitation programmes especially health and hygiene education. NGOs shall be involved but not limited to the following: 34
  35. 35. i. advocacy at State and LGA levels for improved water supply and sanitation governance at community and mobilization of communities for operation and maintenance. ii. promotion of WASH in communities and schools through VHPs and EHCs in schools. iv. Development of IEC materials for promotion of WASH in communities. v. Training and capacity building of the community artisans for water scheme maintenance and construction and social marketing of sanitation technology options. vi. bridging existing gaps between government and communities with a view to improving water and sanitation governance at community level. vii. work with the appropriate government agencies to ensure generation and consolidation of relevant data.3.10 Other Relevant Ministries and Agencies to the Water and sanitation Sector The water sector cannot operate successfully in isolation. There are other relevant MDAs that the sector needs to collaborate with for effective coordination and development of the sector. These MDAs include: i. Ekiti State Ministry of Environment and Housing ii. Ekiti State Waste Management Authority iii. Ekiti State Environmental Protection Agency iv. Ministry of Health vi. Hospitals Management Board vii. Ministry of Education viii.State Universal Basic Education Board ix. Ministry of Works and Transport x. Urban Renewal Board xi. Ministry of Integration and Inter-Governmental Affairs xii. Ministry of Economic Planning and BudgetThe Ministry of Water Resources or the Directorate for Water Supply and SanitationServices shall therefore constitute an Inter-Ministerial Committee of Water and SanitationManagement that will include all of the MDAs listed above for effective coordination, controland management. 35

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