Territorio, autoridad y derecho

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Territorio, autoridad y derecho

  1. 1. .
Analytic
Tactics
 
Destabilizing
stable
meanings
  In
the
shadows
of
powerful
explanations
  When
territory
exits
conventional
framings:



it
becomes
institutionally
mobile,
nomadic

 and
can
alter
the
meaning
of
nation‐state
 membership.


  2. 2. Multiple
immigration
spaces
  The
spaces
(institutional,
ideational,
tactical)
for
 producing
the
migrant
subject
can
be
very
diverse
  ‐
the
new
transnational
class
of
professionals

  ‐
the
contract‐labor
worker
entering
for
seasonal




 work
under
specific
short‐term
conditions
  ‐
the
business‐visa
immigrant

  ‐
the
family‐dependent
immigrant
  ‐
the
green
card
immigrant
  ‐
the
high‐tech
visa
worker

  3. 3. Top
20
remittance‐recipient
countries,
2006
(US$
billions)
 Billions of Billions dollars of dollars1. India 21.7 11. Serbia 4.12. China 21.3 12. Pakistan 3.93. Mexico 18.1 13. Brazil 3.64. France 12.7 14. Bangladesh 3.45. Philippines 11.6 15. Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.36. Spain 6.9 16. Portugal 3.27. Belgium 6.8 17. Vietnam 3.28. Germany 6.5 18. Colombia 3.29. United Kingdom 6.4 19. United States 310. Morocco 4.2 20. Nigeria 2.8Source:
Author’s
Calculations
Based
on
IMF
BoP
Yearbook,
2004,
and
World
Bank
Staff
estimates.

  4. 4. Surveillance
regimes
  1,271
government
organizations
and
1,931
 private
companies
work
on
programs
related
 to
counterterrorism,
homeland
security
and
 intelligence
in
about
10,000
locations
across
 the
US
  

  An
estimated
854,000
people
–
nearly
1.5
times
 as
many
people
as
live
in
Washington,
D.C.
–
 hold
top‐secret
security
clearances
  


  5. 5. .
  Of
the
estimated
265,000
private
 companies
doing
intelligence
work,
1,931
 do
work
at
the
top‐secret
level.

  Out
of
854,000
people
with
top‐secret
 clearance,
the
Post
estimates
that
265,000
 are
private
contractors

  6. 6. Source:
Washington
Post.
2010.

“Top
Secret
America,”
Interactive
Maps.
Washington
Post,
July
2010.
http://projects.washingtonpost.com/top‐secret‐america/map/


  7. 7. INEQUALITY
IS
MADE
  The
aims
of
economic
systems
can
vary
 greatly
  The
modes
in
which
governments
regulate
 economies

  8. 8. 
Income
%
of
top
10%
earners
1917‐2005

 *Income is defined as market income but excludes capital gains
 Source: Mishel, L. 2004. “Unfettered Markets, Income Inequality, and Religious Values.” Viewpoints. May 19, 2004. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved July 26, 2008 [ www.epi.org/content.cfm/ webfeatures_viewpoints_moral_markets_presentation.] 

  9. 9. %

Growth
in
After‐Tax
Income,
USA
1979‐2007

  10. 10. Expulsions:
Foreclosures
  2006
:

1.2
million
foreclosures,
up
42%
from
 2005.
This
is:
One
in
every
92
U.S.
households
  2007:

2.2
million
forecls,
up
75%
from
06
  2008:

3.1

million,
up
81%

from
07
  2009:

3.9
million

(or
1
in
45
US
hholds)
  (From
2007
to
2009:
120%
increase
in
forecls)
  2010:
2.9
mill
forecls.

(2006‐2010:
total
14.2
mil)
  Source:
RealtyTrac
2007,
2008,
2009,
2010;
 Blomquist
2011

  11. 11. 20

  12. 12. 21

  13. 13. Table
1:
RaIo
ResidenIal
Mortgage
Debt
to
GDP
(Select
countries/end
2006)
Source:
h*p://www.germany‐re.com/files/00034800/MS%20Housing%20Report%202007.pdf

  14. 14. Table
2:
RaIo
ResidenIal
Mortgage
Debt
to
GDP:
Emerging
Asia
Source:
Warnock,
Veronica
Cacdac
and
Warnock,
Francis
E.,Markets
and
Housing
Finance(February
2008).
Available
at
SSRN:
h*p://ssrn.com/abstract=981641,
retrieved
24
August
2008.

  15. 15. Table
8:
Ra*o
of
Household
Credit
to
Personal
Disposable
Income
(2000‐05)
 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Emerging Markets Czech Republic 8.5 10.1 12.9 16.4 21.3 27.1 Hungary 11.2 14.4 20.9 29.5 33.9 39.3 Poland 10.1 10.3 10.9 12.6 14.5 18.2 India 4.7 5.4 6.4 7.4 9.7 … Korea 33.0 43.9 57.3 62.6 64.5 68.9 Philippines 1.7 4.6 5.5 5.5 5.6 … Taiwan 75.1 72.7 76.0 83.0 95.5 … Thailand 26.0 25.6 28.6 34.3 36.4 … Mature Markets Australia 83.3 86.7 95.6 109.0 119.0 124.5 France 57.8 57.5 58.2 59.8 64.2 69.2 Germany 70.4 70.1 69.1 70.3 70.5 70.0 Italy 25.0 25.8 27.0 28.7 31.8 34.8 Japan 73.6 75.7 77.6 77.3 77.9 77.8 Spain 65.2 70.4 76.9 86.4 98.8 112.7 United States 104.0 105.1 110.8 118.2 126.0 132.7 Source:
IMF
Staff
esImates
based
on
data
from
country
authoriies,
CEIC,
OECD,
and
Bloomberg

  16. 16. Table
11:
Share
of
Foreign‐Currency‐Denominated
Household
Credit,
End‐2005
(In
percent
of
total
household
credit)
 Source: IMF 2006. “Global Financial Stability Report: Market Developments and Issues.” IMF: World Economic and Financial Surveys. September, 2006. Retrieved August 26, 2008. [http://www.imf.org/external/ pubs/ft/GFSR/2006/02/pdf/chap2.pdf] p. 54
  17. 17. In
the
shadows
of
“urbanization”
  In
all
the
talk
about
the
growth
of
urban
 populations
there
is
never
mention
of
what
 processes
are
feeding
this
growth.
  One
set
of
processes
consists
of
expulsions
– of
people
from
their
land
due
to
“landgrabs”
 or
mining.
  Where
do
they
go?
To
cities,
where
they
will
 add
to
the
homeless
and
to
the
slums.

  18. 18. One
instance
From
2006
to
2010:
70million
hectares
of
land
in
 Afri
,LatAm,
Cambodia,
Ukraine
bought/ leased
by
rich
govts,firms,fin
firms
  The
land
is
now
more
valued
than
the
people
 or
activities
on
it

  The

active
making
of
surplus
populations
  Novel
assemblage
of
Territory/Authority/ Rights

  19. 19. Africa:
main
target
for
land
acquisitions.
  Sudan:
South
Korea
has
signed
deals
for
 690,000
hectares
and
the
United
Arab
 Emirates
(UAE)
for
400,000
hectares.
  Ethiopia:
Saudi
investors
are
spending
$100m
 to
raise
wheat,
barley
and
rice
on
land
leased
 to
them
by
Ethiopia’s
government;
they
 received
tax
exemptions
and
export
the
crop
 back
to
Saudi
Arabia.
 30

  20. 20. .
  Congo:
China
secured
the
right

to
grow
palm
 oil
for
bio‐fuels
on
2.8m
hectares
–this
would
 make
it
the
worlds
largest
palm‐oil
 plantation.

  Zambia:
China
is
negotiating
to
grow
palm
oil
 for
bio‐fuels
on
2m
hectares.

 31

  21. 21. Russia
and
Ukraine
  Much
buying
of
privatized
land
in
the
former
 Soviet
Union,
especially
in
Russia
and
 Ukraine:
some
cases
in
2008:
  A
Swedish
company
(Alpcot
Agro),
bought
 128,000
hectares
in
Russia.
  South
Koreas
Hyundai
Heavy
Industries
paid
 $6.5m
for
a
majority
stake
in
Khorol
Zerno,
a
 company
that
owns
10,000
hectares
in
 eastern
Siberia.
 32

  22. 22. More
Russia
and
Ukraine
  Morgan
Stanley
bought
40,000
hectares
of
 agricultural
land
in
Ukraine.
  Gulf
investors
are
planning
to
acquire
Pava,
 the
first
Russian
grain
processor
to
be
floated
 on
the
financial
markets
to
sell
40%
of
its
 landowning
division,
giving

them
access
to
 500,000
hectares.
 33

  23. 23. Land
plus
military
protection
  Pakistan
is
offering
half
a
million
hectares
of
 land
to
Gulf
investors
with
the
promise
of
a
 security
force
of
100,000
to
protect
the
land.
 34

  24. 24. Colombia:
Anglo
Gold
Ashanti

  ..versus
the
people
of
Tolima
  Open
mining
–which
will
take
250,000
liters
 of
water
for
one
hour
of
work.
  Wants
to
mine
there
for
15
years
  The
area
(Potosi)
is
a
natural
forest
reserve,
 that
includes
a
watershed
ecosystem
 protected
by
law

  Area
has
161
water

springs
(sources
)


  25. 25. Consequences
  The
land
is
now
more
valued
than
the
people
 or
activities
on
it

  The
active
making
of
surplus
populations
  Novel
assemblage
of
TARs

  26. 26. Shift
from
National
Territory
to
Global
Commodity/Jurisdiction
  The
Repositioning
of
Territory
in
the
Global
 Division
of
Functions.
  Making
alternative
jurisdictions:
going
beyond
 older
forms
of
extraterritoriality.
  Making
parallel
geopolitical
circuits.
 37

  27. 27. A
disassembling
  Regardless
of
their
differences
all
these
 instances
can
be
conceived
of
as
structural
 holes,
or
blank
spaces,
in
the
older
social
and
 jurisdictional
fabric
of
the
nation‐state
and
 the
interstate
system.
  
This
entails
a
disassembling
of
nation‐state
 territory,


  28. 28. .
  These
types
of
trends
are
components
of
our
 emergent
global
modernity.

  They
are
not
anomalous.


  They
are
part
of
the
shifting
ground
bubbling
 in
the
as
yet
illegible
world
beneath
the
tip
of
 the
iceberg.



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