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Indian Space and Defence Programmes
 

Indian Space and Defence Programmes

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Main Features of this e-book are: ...

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58 ISRO Space Missions For 12th Five Year Plan, 2012-17
Mangalyaan Mission
Successful tests of Dhanush and Prithvi-II Ballistic Missiles
Successful test of BrahMos and K-5 Ballistic Missile
Nuke Missile Agni-VI
Nuke Capable Agni-II Successfully Test Fired
Indian Navy Successfully Test-Fires BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile
India’s Heaviest Satellite GSAT-10 Launched
India Launches 100th Space Mission Successfully
AGNI I Ballistic Missile Successfully Launched
INS Vikramaditya On Final Sea Trials
India To Have Its Own Navigation Satellite By 2013

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    Indian Space and Defence Programmes Indian Space and Defence Programmes Document Transcript

    • Indian Space and Defence Programme eBook Developed By A site for Current Affairs & General Studies
    • Table of Contents58 ISRO Space Missions For 12th Five Year Plan, 2012-17 ..................................................................... 2ISRO Announces Mangalyaan Mission .................................................................................................... 3Dhanush Ballistic Missile Successfully Test-Fired ................................................................................... 6India Test-Fires Prithvi-II Ballistic Missile ................................................................................................ 7India Successfully Test Fires BrahMos .................................................................................................... 8India Test-Fires K-5 Ballistic Missile ........................................................................................................ 9India Developing Nuke Missile Agni-VI ................................................................................................. 10Nuke Capable Agni-II Successfully Test Fired ........................................................................................ 11Indian Navy Successfully Test-Fires BrahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile ............................................. 12India’s Heaviest Satellite GSAT-10 Launched ........................................................................................ 13India Launches 100th Space Mission Successfully ................................................................................ 15AGNI I Ballistic Missile Successfully Launched ...................................................................................... 17INS Vikramaditya On Final Sea Trials .................................................................................................... 18India To Have Its Own Navigation Satellite By 2013 ............................................................................. 19Free eBook Free Sharing
    • 58 ISRO Space Missions For 12th Five Year Plan, 2012-17The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has submitted a plan for 58space missions to be undertaken as a part of 12th Five Year Plan, 2012-17.The 12th five-year plan of the organisation, which has been cleared for Rs39,750 crore, encompasses 33 satellite missions and 25 launch vehicle missionsthat will take place till 2017. During the current year 2012-13, a sum of Rs.5,615 crore has been allocated and the amount spent up to End October, 2012is Rs.1,871.53 crore.While several new missions will be launched on the communication front, aninteresting one will be GSAT 7 that has been mentioned as a communicationsatellite for ‘special users’.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • ISRO Announces Mangalyaan MissionThe first model of ISRO’s Mangalyaan was unveiled at the Indian ScienceCongress in Kolkata on January 6. The Rs 450-crore mission will be launchedfrom Sriharikota using the workhorse rocket, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV).The spacecraft, with a 1350 kg lift-off mass, will have a single solar array withthree panels of 1400 x 1800 mm capable of generating 750 watts of power inthe Martian orbit. It will also be equipped with a 36 AH Lithium-ion battery forpower storage. For attitude and orbit control, the spacecraft will be equippedwith four reaction wheels, eight thrusters of 22 Newton each and a 440Newton liquid rocket engine.Former President APJ Abdul Kalam underlined the importance of the project bysaying, “Mars is international property, all the planets belong to theFree eBook Free Sharing
    • international community. It is essential to establish that we have done our joband our job has important scientific goals and we should do that only then wecan say then that Mars belongs to us.”Key Facts  India will be the sixth country to launch a mission to the Red Planet after the US, Russia, Europe, Japan and China;  If the mission is successful, India will be the first Asian country to do so as probes sent by China and Japan had to be abandoned en route;  The spacecraft is expected to take nearly 300 days to reach the Martian orbit;  The spacecraft will be placed in an orbit of 500 x 80,000 km around Mars;  The satellite is expected exit Earth’s orbit on November 26 and embark on the journey to Mars, which is expected to last for around 300 days;  Scientists have drawn up plans to insert the satellite into an orbit around Mars on September 22 next year.About The MissionThe spacecraft will have a tentative scientific objective for studying theclimate, geology, origin, evolution and sustainability of life on the planet. Oncein the Martian orbit, the satellite will start taking pictures of the red planetwith an onboard colour camera and infra-red spectrometer, while the Lyman-alpha photometer would measure atomic hydrogen in the Martianatmosphere.Among the payloads for the mission is the Exospheric Neutral CompositionAnalyser which would study the Martian atmosphere and a Methane Sensor tolook for of the gas, considered as a signature for life, on the planet.The Thermal Infrared Imaging System would take pictures of the planet duringthe night. A key challenge before the scientists is navigating the spacecraftfrom the earth to Mars in deep space using the Deep Space Network at Baylaluon the outskirts of Bangalore.Another challenge would be to re-activate the temporary inactive sub-systemsof the spacecraft once it reaches Mars after a 10-month journey through deepspace.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • Should Undertake This Mission?China has been pacing itself and building up its space prowess incrementally.Their first successful human spaceflight was in 2003, spacewalk in 2008 andfirst space docking in 2011. Last December, Beijing unveiled its ambitious five-year plan for exploration that includes collecting lunar samples and launching aspace laboratory. India’s Mars mission is being seen by some countries as anattempt to compete with China for space mission.India’s former announcement to launch Mars mission came under sharpcriticism in the British and American media. In the wake of India’s emergenceas an economic power and these ambitions, questions have been raised as towhether we ought to be recipients of international aid anymore. Can Indiajustify the cost of sending a probe to Mars when nearly 42 per cent of itschildren under the age of five are moderate to severely underweight and 350million live in poverty? But first, let’s look at the cost of this Indian spacedream: it is Rs. 4,500 crore ($82 million), a mere 13% of the government’sbudgeted FY 2012-2013 allocation for one scheme – the Mahatma GandhiNational Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). So even if we pumpedthe money meant for space research into poverty alleviation programmes, it isunlikely to make a dent.Truth be told, the benefits of space exploration cannot be easily calculated, asthere are both tangible and intangible benefits. Besides, the power of wonderis not to be underestimated. National pride and prestige aside, there will berich returns for the government’s current investment in space exploration, as itwill spur high-tech industry and innovation. If the US example is anything to goby, space exploration has and will continue to lead to path-breakingtechnologies and provide an eight-fold return on investment.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • Dhanush Ballistic Missile Successfully Test-FiredIndia successfully tested the Dhanush, its Naval variant on 5 October. The 350-km range surface-to-surface ballistic missile was launched from a Naval ship offthe coast of Balasore, Odisha. The missile was test fired by the country’sstrategic forces command (SFC).Developed by scientists of the Defence Research and DevelopmentOrganisation (DRDO), Dhanush is a short range strategic ballistic missile. Itachieved all the mission objectives.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India Test-Fires Prithvi-II Ballistic MissileIndia test-fired its nuclear-capable Prithvi-II ballistic missile with a strike rangeof 350 km on 4 October. “The flight test of the surface-to-surface missile wasconducted from a mobile launcher from Integrated Test Range’s launchcomplex-III at Chandipur.”The latest Prithvi is the first ballistic missile developed under the country’sIntegrated Guided Missile Development Programme and has the capability tocarry 500 kg of both nuclear and conventional warheads with a strike range of350 km.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India Successfully Test Fires BrahMosIndia on January 9 successfully test-fired a highly manoeuvrable version of the290-km range supersonic cruise missile BrahMos off the coast ofVishakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal.The missile blasted off in a pre-designated war scenario hitting the designatedtarget ship just one meter above water line. This is the 34th launch ofBrahMos.BrahMos is capable of acquiring data not only from the American GPS but alsofrom Russian GLONASS satellite systems, which ensures double redundancy.The BrahMos missile system was inducted into the Indian Navy in 2005 when itbegan arming the Rajput-class guided missile destroyers and inductedsubsequently in many warships.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India Test-Fires K-5 Ballistic MissileMoving a step closer to completing its nuclear triad, India successfully test-fired K-5 submarine-launched ballistic missile(SLBM) ballistic missile on January27. The Missile, with a strike range of around 1500 kilometres, was fired froman underwater platform in Bay of Bengal.With this test, development phase of the K-5 missile is over and it is now readyfor deployment on various platforms including the indigenous nuclearsubmarine INS Arihant which is under development.K-5 is part of the family of underwater missiles being developed by DefenceResearch and Development Organization (DRDO) for the Indian strategicforces’ underwater platforms. This is the first missile in the underwatercategory to have been developed by India. India is also developing two moreunderwater missiles including K-15 and Brahmos with strike ranges of 750kilometres and 290 kilometres respectively. K-5 ballistic missile, which is alsoknown as BO5, has been developed by DRDO’s Hyderabad-based DefenceResearch and Development Laboratory (DRDL).Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India Developing Nuke Missile Agni-VIDefence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) has announced thatIndia is developing a long-range nuclear-capable Agni-VI ballistic missile thatwill carry multiple warheads allowing one weapon system to take out severaltargets at a time. According to DRDO, Agni-V is major strategic defenceweapon and Agni-VI will be a force multiplier. The force multiplier capability ofthe missile is attributed its Multiple Independently Targetable Re-entry Vehicle(MIRV) capability.The Agni-V ballistic missile, which was test-fired in April last year, has a rangeof upto 5,500 kms and it is believed that the Agni-6 would have a range longerthan its predecessor. Once the Agni-VI is developed, it will propel India into theelite club of nations with such a capability including the US and Russia.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • Nuke Capable Agni-II Successfully Test FiredIndia on August, 9 successfully test-fired indigenously-built medium rangenuclear capable Agni-II ballistic missile from the Wheeler Island off Odishacoast. The trial of the surface-to-surface missile was conducted from a mobilelauncher from the Launch Complex Number-4 of Integrated Test Range (ITR).The 20-metre long Agni-II is a two-stage, solid-propelled ballistic missile. It hasa launch weight of 17 tonnes and can carry a payload of 1000 kg over adistance of 2000 km.Agni-II Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) has already been inductedinto the services and the latest test was carried out by the Strategic ForcesCommand (SFC) of the Army with logistic support provided by the DefenceResearch and Development Organisation (DRDO).The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) first tested theAgni-II in 1999. Since then it has been tested several times.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • Indian Navy Successfully Test-Fires BrahMos Supersonic Cruise MissileThe Navy successfully test-fired the 290-km range BrahMos supersonic cruisemissile, capable of carrying a conventional warhead of 300 kg, from a warshipoff the Goa coast.“The cruise missile was test-fired from guided missile frigate INS Teg–theIndian Navy’s latest induction from Russia off the coast of Goa. The INS Teg,which has been built at the Yantar shipyard in Russia, had fired the missilesuccessfully during pre-induction trials in Russia last year.The two remaining warships of the project namely INS Tarkah and INS Trikandwill also be armed with the lethal missile in vertical launch mode. The two-stage missile, the first one being solid and the second one ramjet liquidpropellant, has already been inducted into the Army and Navy, and the AirForce version is in final stage of trial.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India’s Heaviest Satellite GSAT-10 LaunchedIndia’s advanced communication satellite GSAT-10 that would augmenttelecommunication, direct-to-home broadcasting and radio navigation serviceswas successfully launched on board Ariane-5 rocket from Europe’s spaceport inFrench Guiana in South America.Ariane-5 ECA rocket injected GSAT-10 into an elliptical GeosynchronousTransfer Orbit (GTO). At 3,400 kg at lift-off, GSAT-10 is the heaviest built byBangalore-headquartered ISRO.Soon after GSAT-10 was hurtled into space, ISRO’s Master Control Facility(MCF) at Hassan in Karnataka took over the command and control of thesatellite and declared the launch of Indian space agency’s 101st space missiona success.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • Arianespace’s rocket first injected European co-passenger ASTRA 2F into orbitfollowed by GSAT-10.With a 15-year design life, GSAT-10 is expected to be operational by Novemberand will augment telecommunication, DTH and radio navigation services byadding 30 more to the much-in-demand transponder capacity. GSAT-10 will bepositioned at 83 deg East orbital location along with INSAT-4A and GSAT-12.GSAT-10 is fitted with 30 transponders (12 Ku-band, 12 C-band and sixExtended C-Band), which will provide vital augmentation to INSAT/GSATtransponder capacity.GSAT-10 also has a navigation payload – GAGAN (GPS aided Geo AugmentedNavigation) — that would provide improved accuracy of GPS signals (of betterthan seven metres) to be used by Airports Authority of India for civil aviationrequirements.This is the second satellite in INSAT/GSAT constellation with GAGAN payloadafter GSAT-8, launched in May 2011.The satellite will be moved to the Geostationary Orbit (36,000 km above theequator) by using the satellite propulsion system in a three step approach.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India Launches 100th Space Mission SuccessfullyThe Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) made history as it launched its100th indigenous mission. The space agency’s old warhorse, the Polar SatelliteLaunch Vehicle(PSLV), successfully blasted off into space with two foreignsatellites from the spaceport of Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.ISRO’s PSLV, on its 22nd flight placed in orbit France’sSPOT-6 satellite andJapanese spacecraftPROTIERES from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre. The 720kg French satellite, the heaviest satellite to be launched by India for a foreignclient.The launch has yet again demonstrated the versatility and robustness of PSLVwith the rocket completing its 21st successful mission in a row since its firstfailed flight in September 1993.No Indian satellite was on board today’s flight which is the third whollycommercial launch undertaken by ISRO for foreign clients.SPOT-6 is the biggest commercial lift so far since India forayed into the moneyspinning commercial satellite launch services after 350 kg Agile of Italy put inorbit in 2007 by PSLV. Twelve other foreign commercial satellites launched byISRO weighed below 300 kg. France’s five earlier SPOT satellites were launchedby European Araine rocket.SPOT-6, built by ASTRIUM SAS, a subsidiary of EADS, France, is an earthobservation satellite, while the micro satellite PROITERES, developed bystudents and faculty of Osaka Institute of Technology, will study Kansai regionof Japanese island of Honshu.The launch was a landmark for Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)which began its space odyssey on a humble note when it launched theindigenous ‘Aryabhatta’ on board a Russian rocket on April 19, 1975.Till now, ISRO has launched 63 Indian-made satellites and 36 indigenousrockets. The country’s first unmanned moon mission in October2008, Chandrayaan-1, was a huge success. The space agency has alsopioneered satellite television in the country and also catalysed the telecomboom.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India plans to launch, in 2013, its maiden mission to Mars Called Mangalyaan,it will be an unmanned orbiting mission to study the atmosphere of the RedPlanet. In the next five years, ISRO is also scheduled to have nearly 60 moremissions.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • AGNI I Ballistic Missile Successfully LaunchedIndia’s 700 km rangeballistic missile, ‘AGNI I’ was successfully conductedanother test of the 700-km Agni-I nuclear-capable ballistic missile on July 13from the wheeler island off the coast of Odisha. It was a textbook launchmeeting all mission objectives and the missile reached the target point in theBay of Bengal following the prescribed trajectory.The missile was launched from Road Mobile Launcher System and was trackedby Radar and Telemetry stations located along the coastline. Two Naval Shipslocated near the target point tracked the missile in the terminal phase of theFlight.Indigenously developed by DRDO the missile is already in the arsenal of IndianArmed Forcesand was launched by the Strategic Forces Command as part oftraining exercise to ensure preparedness.The Agni-I is a Medium Range Ballistic missile (MRBM), developed by theDefence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Currently themissiles are being manufactured by the DRDO and the Bharat DynamicsLimited (BDL). Although the first test launch of the missile was conducted in1989, the induction of the missiles in to the army was delayed due to technicalsnags.The DRDO has so far developed five versions of the Agni missile – I, II, III, IV andV. Recently it had tested the Agni-V, which is having a strike range of 5,000 km.The Agni-I and II are considered to be Medium Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBM),while the III and IV fall in the Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM)category. The Agni-V is currently the only Indian Inter-Continental BallisticMissile (ICBM). The DRDO is currently developing Agni-VI, another ICBM with astrike range of 10,000 kms.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • INS Vikramaditya On Final Sea TrialsINS Vikramaditya had undergone pre-trial exercises last month. INSVikramaditya is the name for the former Soviet aircraft carrier AdmiralGorshkov, which has been procured by India, and is estimated to enter servicein the Indian Navy after 2012.It is now fitted with modern communication systems, a protective coating, atelephone exchange, pumps, hygiene and galley equipment, lifts and manymore facilities. Officials said that at any given time, there would be a 2000-strong staff on the completely remodelled aircraft carrier which has anextended flight deck and a full runway with a ski jump and arrestor wires. Thevessel has new engines, new boilers, new generators, electrical machinery,communication systems and distillation plants.INS Vikramaditya will replace INS Viraat, the Indian Navy’s sole carrier atpresent.Delivery of the aircraft carrier, INS Vikramaditya, has been delayed byfour years.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India To Have Its Own Navigation Satellite By 2013K. Radhakrishnan, Chairman of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) andthe Space Commission has said that India will include its name among thecountries that have their own Navigation satellite by 2013.ISRO is planning to launch their own navigation satellite system that willinclude 7 satellites. This he said while addressing the 2nd convocation of TheNational Degree College. He said that the first of the seven satellites of theIndian Regional Navigation Satellite System would be launched in 2013.Besides Astrosat, an Indian multi wavelength astronomy satellite would also belaunched in 2014.He added that Chandrayaan I had helped discover watermolecules on the Moon and ISRO would work in this area in the coming yearstoo. The system would be developed at a cost of Rs 1,600 crore, providingIndian users accuracy levels of less than 20 metres throughout India andacross an area stretching over 1,000 km from Indian borders. This would becapable of both military and civilian applications.Free eBook Free Sharing
    • India is one among the six nations to build and launch its own satellites andone among the four nations to succeed in precise re-entry and recovery ofsatellites.What Is Satellite Navigation System?Satellite navigation (sat nav system) is systems of satellites that can help usersdetermine the position of an enabled device anywhere on the earth’s surfaceto within a few hundred metres. The same system with global coverage may betermed a global navigation satellite system or ‘GNSS’. The receiver picks upsignals transmitted by navigational satellites. With satellite navigation, it iseasy to trace location and is often helpful for users to find directions.Currently, the United States NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) and theRussian GLONASS are the fully globally operational GNSSs. But of late, aRussian rocket launched the first two satellites of the European Union’s Galileonavigation system after years of delay in an ambitious bid to rival theubiquitous American GPS network. (Source: Explained:Satellite NavigationSystem)Emerging Satellite Navigation SystemsThe future for satellite navigation is very exciting over the next ten years, aperiod where we could see 70+ positioning satellites available to be used.Global Positioning System (GPS) is being modernized over the years untilaround 2015. This will mean that GPS derived raw positions will becomeincreasingly more accurate and quicker to determine. The European satellitenavigation system Galileo will consist of 30 satellites and will provide a rangeof free and subscription services. Galileo satellites are due to be launched from2008 with full constellation in 2010. The Russian GLONASS navigation systemhas been underfunded for many years but now looks to be becoming strongerin the coming years.Overview of GPSGPS provides 24-hour navigation services which includes:  Extremely accurate three-dimensional location information (latitude, longitude and altitude), velocity and precise time.  Passive all-weather operations.Free eBook Free Sharing
    •  Continuous real-time information.  Support to an unlimited number of users and areas.  Support to civilian users at a slightly less accurate level.GPS satellites orbit the earth every 12 hours emitting continuous navigationsignals. With the proper equipment, users can receive these signals tocalculate time, location and velocity. The signals are so accurate, time can befigured to within a millionth of a second, velocity within a fraction of km perhour and location to within a few feet. Receivers have been developed for usein aircraft, ships and land vehicles as well as for hand carrying.GPS promises to significantly enhance many of the functions being provided bycurrent positioning and navigational equipment and will result in greateraccuracy at lower cost. Such functions as mapping, aerial refueling andrendezvous, geodetic surveys, and search and rescue operations will benefitfrom GPS capabilities.Free eBook Free Sharing
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