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  • 1. Googling to the MaxHow to do better searches usingyour favorite search engine. 1
  • 2. Today’s Goals – To learn How Google really works. How to construct better searches. How to use Google’s advanced searching feature And to explore some of the newest Google features 2
  • 3. Google Corporate Background “Googles mission is to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful.” Googles founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin developed Google in a Stanford University dorm room and it is currently the worlds largest search engine. "Googol" is the mathematical term for a 1 followed by 100 zeros. Source: http://www.google.com/corporate/ 3
  • 4. How Google Finds New Pages • Google has special programs called spiders (a.k.a. “Google bots”) that constantly search the Internet looking for new or updated Web pages. • When a spider finds a new or updated page, it reads that entire page, reports back to Google, and then visits all of the other pages to which that new page links.Image source: http://www.disobey.com/ 4
  • 5. Paging Miss Muffet When the spider reports back to Google, it doesn’t just tell Google the new or updated page’s URL. The spider also sends Google a complete copy of the entire Web page – HTML, text, images, etc. Google then adds that page and all of its content to Google’s cache. 5
  • 6. So What? When you search Google, you’re actually searching Google’s cache of Web pages. And because of this, you can search for more than text or phrases in the body of a Web page. Google has some secret, advanced search operators that let you search specific parts of Web pages or specific types of information. Source: Google Hacks,6p. 5
  • 7. How Google works When you search for multiple keywords, Google first searches for all of your keywords as a phrase. So, if your keywords are disney fantasyland pirates, any pages on which those words appear as a phrase receive a score of X. 7
  • 8. How Google Works - Adjacency  Google then measures the adjacency between your keywords and gives those pages a score of Y.  What does this mean in English? Well … Image source: Google Source: Google Hacks, p. 21 8
  • 9. How Adjacency WorksA page that says “My favorite Disney attraction, outside ofFantasyland, is Pirates of the Caribbean”will receive a higher adjacency score than apage that says “Walt Disney was a both a genius and ataskmaster. The team at WDI spent manysleepless nights designing Fantasyland. Butnothing could compare to the amount ofImagineering work required to create Piratesof the Caribbean.” 9
  • 10. How Google Works - Weights Then, Google measures the number of times your keywords appear on the page (the keywords’ “weights”) and gives those pages a score of Z. A page that has the word disney four times, fantasyland three times, and pirates seven times would receive a higher weights score than a page that only has those words once. Source: Google Hacks, p. 21 10
  • 11. Putting it All Together Google takes  The phrase hits (the Xs),  The adjacency hits (the Ys),  The weights hits (the Zs), and  About 100 other secret variables Throws out everything but the top 2,000 Multiplies each remaining page’s individual score by it’s “PageRank” And, finally, displays the top 1,000 in order. 11
  • 12. PageRankPageRank? There is a premise in higher education that the importance of a research article can be judged by the number of citations to it from subsequent articles in the same field. Google applies this premise to the Web: the importance of a Web page can be judged by the number of hyperlinks pointing to it from other pages. Google Toolbar’s PageRank icon indicates the relative importance of the page. Source: Google Hacks, p. 294 12
  • 13. All Search Engines use Boolean Search Strategy a AND b a disney AND pirates b c c OR d dfantasyland OR adventureland b NOT d c pirates NOT fantasyland b 13
  • 14. Google’s Boolean Default is AND If you search for more than one keyword at a time, Google will automatically search for pages that contain ALL of your keywords. A search for disney fantasyland pirates is the same as searching for disney AND fantasyland AND pirates But, if you try to use AND on your own, Google yells at you:  “The "AND" operator is unnecessary -- we include all search terms by default.” Source: http://www.google.com/help/basics.html 14
  • 15. Phrases To search for a phrase, put it in quotes. For example, disney fantasyland “pirates of the caribbean”  This would show you all the pages in Google’s index that contain the word disney AND the word fantasyland AND the phrase pirates of the caribbean (without the quotes) By the way, while this search is technically perfect, the choice of keywords contains a (deliberate) factual mistake. Can you spot it? Source: http://www.google.com/help/refinesearch.html 15
  • 16. Tharr, She Blows!  Pirates of the Caribbean isn’t in Fantasyland, it’s in Adventureland in Orlando and New Orleans Square in Anaheim.  So searching for disney AND fantasyland AND “pirates of the caribbean” probably isn’t a good idea. Image source: http://www.balgavy.at/ 16
  • 17. Boolean OR Sometimes the default AND gets in the way. That’s where OR comes in. The Boolean operator OR is always in all caps and goes between keywords. For example, an improvement over our earlier search would be disney fantasyland OR “pirates of the caribbean”  This would show you all the pages in Google’s index that contain the word Disney AND the word fantasyland OR the phrase pirates of the caribbean (without the quotes) Source: http://www.google.com/help/refinesearch.html 17
  • 18. Three Ways to OR at Google Just type OR between keywords  disney fantasyland OR “pirates of the caribbean” Put your OR statement in parentheses  disney (fantasyland OR “pirates of the caribbean”) Use the | (“pipe”) character in place of the word OR  disney (fantasyland | “pirates of the caribbean”) All three methods yield the exact same results. Source: Google Hacks, p. 3 18
  • 19. OR, She Blows!  Just remember, Google’s Boolean default is AND  Sometimes the default AND gets in the way. That’s where OR comes in. Image source: http://www.phil-sears.com/ 19
  • 20. Other Google searching Google won’t accept more than 10 keywords at a time. Searching is not case sensitive. Google doesn’t support stemming. (stem*) or truncation. Source: Google Hacks, 20 19 p.
  • 21. How Google Works  When you conduct a search at Google, it searches for  Phrases, then  Adjacency, then  Weights.  Because Google searches for phrases first, the order of your Image source: Google keywords matters. Source: Google Hacks, p. 20-22 21
  • 22. For Example A search for disney fantasyland pirates yields the same number of hits as a search for fantasyland disney pirates, but the order of those hits – especially the first 10 – is noticeably different. 22
  • 23. Knowledge is Power Those who understand how Google works can manipulate the end results. Type “miserable failure” and hit “I’m feeling lucky” button. This is called Google bombing. Linda J. Goff - Fall 2005 - 23 http://library.csus.edu
  • 24. Part Two: In Summary Google’s Boolean default is AND. Capitalization does not matter. Google has a hard limit of 10 keywords. Google doesn’t support truncation or stemming. The order of your keywords matters. Linda J. Goff - Fall 2005 - 24 http://library.csus.edu
  • 25. Part Three:Advanced Searching Using Advanced Search Google Services and Google Tools 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Google Tools 27
  • 28. Google Services 28
  • 29. Google Web Search Features 29
  • 30. Google Print  Google has made deals with publishers to make new books searchable online.  Search link to books containing your search terms, as well as other information about the title.  Click one of the links under "Buy this Book" and youll go straight to a bookstore selling that book online. Source:http://msnbc.msn.com/id/9785346/site/newsweek/ 30
  • 31. Google’s Digital Library Google has made a deal with large libraries to scan thousands of out of print library books to put them online. Association of American Publishers (AAP), has sued in federal court to stop Google. Publishers charge that by making electronic copies, the search giant is committing massive copyright infringement. We still recommend using real books!Source: http://msnbc.msn.com/id/9785346/site/newsweek/ 31
  • 32. So let’s give it a try Open http://google.com 32