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ورقة صناعة البرمجيات في السودان
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ورقة صناعة البرمجيات في السودان

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الإتحــــــــــــــــــــــاد الوطني للشبــــــــــاب السوداني …

الإتحــــــــــــــــــــــاد الوطني للشبــــــــــاب السوداني
المؤسسة الشبابية لتقانة المعلومات
ورشة صناعة البرمجيات في السودان

الورقة الثانية :
صناعة البرمجيات في السودان – الواقع و التحديات

إعداد : مهندس/ عبد المجيد نمر ، شركة الانظمة المالية و المصرفية

Published in Education , Technology , Business
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  • 1. 1 ‫اﻟﺴﻮد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬‫ان‬–‫اﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻗﻊ‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬:‫ﻣﮭﻨﺪس‬/‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻧﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬: ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺷﻚ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﺪول‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اھﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬‫ﻧﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺮوات‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﺷﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻗﺪرات‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﺧﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬ ‫وﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﻊ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮ‬‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻠﮫ‬ ‫و‬. ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺪاﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻮدان‬ ‫اﺧﺮي‬ ‫ﺛﺮوات‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﯿﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻮاق‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﺷﺒﺎب‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﮭﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫وﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻄﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬. ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺄھﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻼﺑﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﺪف‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬1500‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﺮف‬ ‫ﻛﻘﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺮﻓﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫اﻋﺪاد‬‫ﻋﺮﯾﻀﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﻮد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬‫ان‬. ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻋﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺮﻓﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮﻣﻮن‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮھﺎ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺪﯾﺮ‬‫ﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻢ‬ ‫ُﻌﺘﺒﺮة‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.
  • 2. 2 1.‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻮء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬: ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫ﻻول‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ُدﺧﻞ‬‫أ‬1967)‫ع‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ع‬1( ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺒﺮاء‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺧﻠﯿ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻول‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺮﻋﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬. ‫ﻋﺪدھ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﯿﺮاد‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻟﻲ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬1977‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬. ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺧﻠﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﯿﺎه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﮭﺮﺑﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪا‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﻜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﺟﻨﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﺒﯿﺖ‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﺘ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫اﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪادات‬ ‫ﻗﺮاءة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﯿﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺮﻛﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺼﯿﻼت‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﯿﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻮﺗﺮة‬)‫س‬ ‫د‬ ‫م‬1.( ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎري‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺒﺮس‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫إدﺧﺎل‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮادر‬ ‫إﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺧﻠﯿ‬ ً‫ا‬‫اﻣﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻇﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺎرج‬ ‫إﺑﺘﻌﺎﺛﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄھﯿﻞ‬ ‫و‬. ‫ﺗﺠﮭﯿﺰاﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻼرﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬)‫دوﻻر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻣﺮﯾﻜﻲ‬(‫ُﺪرﺑﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆھﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮادر‬ ‫ﻧﺪرة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫رﺟﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٍ‫ي‬‫أ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺮؤ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻢ‬ ،‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫وﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺎب‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻋﻤ‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻮج‬ ‫ﺎل‬. ‫ﺣﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫أدﺧﻠﺖ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﺮم‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺮن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺒﻌﯿﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫اوآﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻧﻎ‬)WANG(‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰھﯿﺪة‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬‫اﻻﺧﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬)NCR(‫و‬)IBM(‫اﻹﻧﺠﻠﯿﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫و‬)ICL(. ‫ﺑﺪأت‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺄول‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﻟﻌﻤﻼﺋﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫إﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬.‫ﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٍ‫ﻞ‬‫ﻟﻜ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻇﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎوﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺐ‬)ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻻﺣﻘ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫دﻣﺠﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬(‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﯿﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﻲ‬)‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺎﻟﯿ‬(‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺮوﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫و‬‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬.‫اﻟﻮﻗﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺪھﻮر‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﮭﺎرت‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻧﻎ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫أﻟﻤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻزﻣﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻓﻼس‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬. ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻋﺎم‬1982‫ﺑﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫درة‬‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻣﮭﻨﺪﺳ‬‫ﻲ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫و‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫رﺟﺎل‬‫اﻻ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬‫ﺎل‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﻮﻟﻮج‬‫إ‬‫ﺻﻨ‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺎ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺔ‬،‫ﺑ‬ ‫وﻗﺎﻣﻮا‬‫أرﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﺈﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب‬ ‫ﺧﯿ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺮة‬.‫ﺛﻢ‬‫ﺑﺪأ‬‫اﻟﻮﻟﯿﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ت‬‫ﺗﺠﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫أﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺼﺎرف‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬‫اﻟﺜ‬ ‫اﻟﺰھﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﯾﻜﺮو‬ ‫دﯾﺠﺘﻞ‬ ‫أﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﻤﻦ‬‫آ‬‫ﻧﺬاك‬.‫أن‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ‫ﻣ‬‫ﺸﺎﻛ‬‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎء‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫واﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎت‬ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺒﻜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺋﺪت‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻢ‬. ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬1982‫ﻓﺮع‬ ‫ﺑﺪأ‬‫ان‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬.‫ﺳﻲ‬.‫ﺑ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫أر‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻮدان‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﺎ‬‫اﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ادارة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺮع‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺎرف‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺴﻮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ )‫ﻣﻮدﺑﺎﻧﻚ‬(‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫و‬‫ﺳﻮداﻧ‬ ‫ﻛﻮادر‬‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﺗﻔﺎق‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﯿﺔ‬‫ﻣﻌﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬.‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﯿﺐ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﺄس‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎرف‬‫وﺛﺎﻗﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮأة‬ ‫اﻣﺘﻠﻜﺖ‬‫اﻟﺮؤﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٍ‫ﻞ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺖ‬:‫وﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫اﻻوﺳﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮق‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻚ‬‫،ﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫اﻻزرق‬ ‫اﻟﻨﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫وﺑﻨﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬.‫وﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻘﺎ‬‫اﻻ‬‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮﯾﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺤﺎب‬‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺎﻣﻠﯿﻦ‬.‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮاء‬ ‫ﻗﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻮدﺑﺎﻧﻚ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺘﮭﺠﯿﺮ‬‫اﺟﮭﺰة‬‫ان‬.‫ﺳﻲ‬.‫ﻣ‬ ‫ار‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﯿﻨﻲ‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫أﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫أﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬‫ﻋﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫اﺿﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﻣﻮدﺑ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻈﻞ‬‫ﺎ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﮭﯿﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﻧﻚ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫وأﺳﺎﺳ‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬
  • 3. 3 ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺤﻠﯿ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬‫ﻋﺎم‬1999،‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺑﺪأت‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺼ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺎرف‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﺑ‬‫ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺘﺤﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮﺑﻮل‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﺔ‬‫ﺣﺪﺛﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻔﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﺋﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬.. ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻒ‬‫اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﯿ‬‫ﺎت‬‫ﻗﺎد‬‫ا‬.‫د‬.‫اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻻﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻮدﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺜﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺰاﻟﺪﯾﻦ‬ ‫وﺑ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘﻌﺎون‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺜﺔاﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻃﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬)‫ﻧﺎرس‬(‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬‫ﻣﺤﻮﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫أورﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻼﺋﻘﯿﺔ‬.ُ‫ﺗ‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎون‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻮج‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎج‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬‫ﺎ‬‫اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬‫ﻟﺘﺮﺧﯿﺼﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬‫اﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻋﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻌﻤﻞ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻟﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺎرع‬ ‫ﻤﻮذﺟﻲ‬.‫ﻻﺣ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬‫اﻻﺻﺪار‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻘﺎ‬‫ة‬ ‫وﺗﺮﺧﯿﺼ‬‫ﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎرف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﺴﻌﻮدي‬‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﻲ‬،‫واﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﺎري‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وﻻزاﻟﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺰراﻋﻲ‬‫اﻹﺻﺪارة‬‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬‫إن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎرف‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺄرﯾﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﮭﺠﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺪﯾﻼت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬‫اﻟﻮاﺟ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫ﮭﺎت‬‫اﻟ‬‫أورﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺮﺳﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ . ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺼﻒ‬ ‫آواﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻘﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﻌﺎراﺳﻌﺎر‬ ‫وﺗﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﺧﺮﯾﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫وزﯾﺎدة‬:‫اﻟﺨﺮﻃﻮم‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫،ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰﯾﺮة‬ ‫،ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻌﻠﻮم‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬،‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﻟ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرات‬.  ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻘﺖ‬‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺠﺎﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺳﺒﺔ‬‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت‬/‫اﻧﻈﻤﺔاﻟﻤﺒﯿﻌﺎت‬/‫اﻻﻓﺮاد‬ ‫ﺷﺆون‬ ‫اﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬/‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬/‫اﻧﻈﻤﺔادارة‬ ‫ﻣﺎرﻛﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮﺑﺮ‬ ‫أدارة‬ ‫واﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪارس‬‫اﻟﻤﻼ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ،‫ﺗﺒﺪأ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﺟﻆ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮم‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫وﺻﯿﺎﻧﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺐ‬ ‫وﺗﺮﻛﯿﺒﮫ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﻮﯾﻘﮫ‬.‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫إﺣﺴﺎس‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻤﻮﺣﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮم‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪور‬‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼف‬ ‫ﻣﺎﯾﺪب‬ ‫ﺴﺮﻋﺎن‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺪھﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻔﯿﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬‫ﻮﺗﺆ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ل‬‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬‫اﻻ‬‫ﻓﺮاد‬‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺄس‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬.‫ا‬ ‫ﯾﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬‫ﻟﻀﻤﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرة‬ ‫روح‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ‫اﻧﻔﺴﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺪوا‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﯾﺮادات‬‫ﺑﻌﺪم‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬ ً‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺠﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻛﺒﺘﮭﻢ‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻠﻌﺎت‬‫ﯾﺠﯿﺪوﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎدم‬ ‫و‬. ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ّ‫ﯿ‬‫اﻟﺠ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬‫ﻟﯿﻮاﻛﺒﻮ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﺴﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻄﻮرا‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺪﯾﻦ‬‫اﻟﺤﺪﯾ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ا‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻠﯿﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﮭﻨﯿ‬ ‫وﯾﺮﺗﻘﻮا‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﺔ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺘﺮا‬‫ﻛ‬‫ﻤﺔ‬‫ﻟﺪﯾﮭﻢ‬‫ﻋ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺒﺮ‬‫ﻤﺘ‬‫ﻓﯿﺠﺪوا‬ ، ‫ﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﺴﮭﻢ‬‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ً‫ة‬‫ﻓﺠﺄ‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬‫ﺻﻼﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺘﮭﺎء‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﮭﻢ‬. ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻠﺺ‬‫آﻧ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ‬‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬‫اﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎرﯾﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫وﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺠﺎح‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬: 1-‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﯾﻦ‬‫ﺎت‬‫واﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺪاﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤ‬‫واﻟﺰﻣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬‫ﻟﻺﻧﮭﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺮﺿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮد‬‫ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫وﺟﮭﺎت‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﺻﺤﺎﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬. 2-‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺠﺪات‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻛﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬‫ﺘﻘﻨ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﻻﺻﺤﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺘﺎزة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﮭﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬.ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻤﺜ‬‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺪ‬‫اﻟﻜﻮ‬‫ﺑﻮل‬ )COBOL(‫أﺧﺘﻔﺖ‬‫ﻟﺘﻈﮭ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺠﯿ‬‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﻟﺘﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺴﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺌﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﯿﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬‫أورﻛﻞ‬‫و‬ ،‫ﻣﺎﯾﻜﺮوﺳﻮﻓﺖ‬‫ﯾﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮاﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﺎرف‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮات‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫واﻻﺳﺘﻔﺎدة‬ ‫اﻻﺟﯿﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻻﺟﯿﺎل‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘ‬‫ﺔ‬.
  • 4. 4 3-‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬‫أي‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬10‫ﻓﯿﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻒ‬ ‫وﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬‫ﻓﺈن‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ 25‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬)RIW01(‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮد‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ُﻌﺮض‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﺛﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮد‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻣﻐﺎدرة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻔﯿﺔ‬. 4-‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﺮ‬، ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺗﺤﻮﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬‫ﻹﺗﺒﺎع‬ ‫إﻟ‬ ‫أدي‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺎﻟﯿﺐ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻇﮭﻮر‬ ‫ﻲ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬‫اﻟﺬ‬‫ي‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻدوار‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮم‬‫دورة‬‫ﺣﯿﺎة‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ً‫ء‬‫ﺑﺪ‬ ،‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬، ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬‫اﻋﺪاد‬‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫واﻟﻘﯿﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺷﻔﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻤﯿﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬‫ﺘﺪر‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫وﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬‫ﻌﺪ‬‫واﻟ‬ ‫ﯾﻼت‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺤﺴ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻨﺎت‬‫اﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‬.‫ﻣﺨﺎﻃ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﻘﺪان‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬ ‫ﺣﺴﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺮض‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﻛﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫أم‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﻄﺎب‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮﻗﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺼﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺎر‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫اﺣﺪ‬. 5-‫ا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺳﻊ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬‫وﺗ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻟﮭﺎ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ات‬‫ﻟﺘﺼﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎدت‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﺰات‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﻗﻔﺎت‬‫ﺑﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎرﯾ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫إﺟﺒﺎرﯾ‬ ‫أو‬. 6-‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﯿﺮ‬‫اﻟﺤﻮﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬‫واﺟﮭﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎت‬ ‫أﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺒﺒﺖ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻌ‬‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﺎت‬ ‫دﻓﻊ‬ ‫وﺗﺄﺧﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺎﻛﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻢ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﺣﺪي‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ات‬‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺾ‬‫ﻟ‬‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻠﺘﺨﻠﻲ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬‫اﻟﺘﺤﻮل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﺒﯿﻊ‬‫وﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫أﺟﮭﺰة‬. 2.‫ﻣﻘﻮ‬‫وﺗﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎت‬‫ا‬‫ﻓﺮ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ھﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﺷ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اي‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎت‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬‫ﺣﺚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﻮض‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻮﺋﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮون‬‫ﺳﺘ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻐ‬‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻼل‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻮﻣﺎت‬‫ﻟﺘ‬‫ﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫أرﺑﺎح‬‫اﻟﻔﻮاﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺄس‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰاﯾﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎرﯾﺔ‬. ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻘﻮﻣﺎت‬‫اﻵﺗﯿﺔ‬: 1-‫ﺗﺄ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫ﻋﺎ‬ ‫ھﯿﻞ‬‫ﻟﻲ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﮭﻨﯿ‬ ‫ُﺪرﺑﺔ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻣﻤﺘﺎزة‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮرة‬. 2-‫ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺔ‬‫أن‬ ‫ﺳﻮاء‬‫ﻛﺎن‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬‫ﺤ‬، ‫ﻠﻰ‬‫أﻗﻠﯿ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻤﻲ‬ 3-‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ‬‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻷدﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺎل‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬‫واﻟﻤﻌﺪات‬ ‫واﻻﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺠﮭﯿﺰ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺴﯿﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮوﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻄﻲ‬ ‫ذاﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫إﯾﺮادات‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬. 4-‫و‬‫ﺟﻮد‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت‬‫ﺟﯿﺪة‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺧﺒﺮاء‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬)Domain Knowledge Experts(‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮوا‬ ‫إن‬. 5-‫وﺟﻮد‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎﺗ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺠﯿﺔ‬‫ﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻤﻦ‬‫ﺣﻠﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ )Requirements Specification , RS(‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬‫اﻟﺘﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬)Change Request CR(ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺮور‬‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬‫ﻋﻨﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫دورة‬)Phase Out( 6-‫ﻗﺎدرة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮوﯾﺞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺬ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺟﺪ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫إﺧﺘﺮاق‬‫ﻣﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﺔ‬ ‫وﻧﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬. 7-‫ﻋ‬ ‫ادارة‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﺮ‬‫ﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬‫ﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﮭﻤﺔ‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬. 8-‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫إﺑﻘﺎﺋﮭﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻤﯿﯿﺰن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫إرادة‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬. ‫ﺑ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻚ‬ ، ‫اﻋﻼه‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﻤﺮاﺟﻌﺔ‬1-4‫ﺑﻜﺜﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ، ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫إن‬ ‫و‬
  • 5. 5 ‫اﺷﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺜﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪورات‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﺎرق‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻟﺘﺤﺎق‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺎھﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺴﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺮرات‬. ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﺠﮭﻮد‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ‬‫ﻧﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬‫ﺣﻮﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎﺣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻردن‬ ، ‫اﻟﮭﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬.‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ھﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫أن‬)IDEAL, Integrated Design, Evaluation and Assessment of Loadings(‫ﺳﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫أو‬)Scrum(‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫أو‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮك‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬)JAD, Joint Application Development(‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫أھﺪاف‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺮؤﯾﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺼﯿﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬. ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪرات‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻮج‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫أي‬)CMMi/CMM( ‫اﻟﺨﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ُﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫ﯾ‬‫و‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻤﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬)Mission Critical Applications(‫اﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻓﺎع‬ ‫وزارة‬‫ﺗﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻨﻮك‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﻣﻮال‬ ‫ﻏﺴﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮوﻋﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰﯾ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ل‬.‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫إﻟﻲ‬ ‫أﺿﻒ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎح‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﺎس‬ ‫آﻟﯿﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫إﯾﺮاداﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫اﻣﺮﯾﻜﻲ‬ ‫دوﻻر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮﯾﻦ‬‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﯾﺮ‬. ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬6‫إﻟﻲ‬8‫ﺑﻨﺠﺎح‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎھﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ُﺤﺪدھﺎ‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻤﺮارﯾﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺰﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻮاﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬.‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫إﯾﺠﺎﺑ‬ ‫إﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﺿﻼع‬ ‫ﺑﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫اﻻﺿﻼع‬ ‫اﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻠﺚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺿﻼع‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬‫أو‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻠﺒ‬. 3-‫ُﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮص‬: ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﺧﺮﯾﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫وﻇﯿﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻮﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺮض‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻘﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫دورات‬ ‫ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ُﺠﺰي‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪ‬. ‫ﺟﺰﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻤﻮﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺟﺎھﺰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺜﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮاﻓﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻹدارات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﮭﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﯾﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻠﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﯿﻦ‬. ‫ا‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻤﮭﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﺄس‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ُﺠﺪ‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﺻﺤﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪﯾﻦ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮات‬. ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺒﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻮﯾﻞ‬ ‫واﻓﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﺮص‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻘﺼﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺆﻣﻨﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺬﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﺎب‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺰاﯾﺪة‬ ‫أﻋﺪاد‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺪراﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻐﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺟﯿﮫ‬. ‫ﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮات‬ ‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ُﻘﺪر‬‫ﯾ‬‫ﺑﺤﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫رﺳﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫راﺳﺎت‬25 ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫دوﻻر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮﺧﯿﺺ‬ ‫اﻣﺮﯾﻜﻲ‬ ‫دوﻻر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺐ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺸﺎرﯾﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬.
  • 6. 6 4-‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬: ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺟﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺻﻨﺎف‬ ‫ارﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬: 1.‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻵن‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫إ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎ‬ 50‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫واﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺞ‬25‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬‫ﺗﺨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺼﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻼء‬ ‫اﯾﺮادﺗﮭﻤﺎ‬.‫اﻋﻮام‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺸﺮة‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻣﮭﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟ‬ ‫اﯾﺮادات‬ ‫وﺣﻘﻘﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﺮﻣﺔ‬‫اﻟﺼﺎدرات‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫دوﻻر‬ ‫ﻣﻠﯿﻮن‬ ‫ﻲ‬. 2.‫ﺣﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺄﻓﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﻤﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﻤﻊ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ 3.‫ﻧﺸﻄﻮ‬ ‫اﻓﺮاد‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺨﺼﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮع‬ ‫وﻣﻌﻈﻤﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻠﻮن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﺟﮭﺪ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋﺘﮫ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺪأ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻔﯿﺔ‬‫ﯾﻮازي‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬.‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺄھﯿﻠﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻤﯿﺰ‬ ‫اﻻﻓﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ھﺆﻻء‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ُﺮﻛﺰون‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻠﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎح‬ ‫ﺗﺆھﻠﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮاﻛﻤﺔ‬ ‫وﺧﺒﺮاﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻄﯿﻌﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺼﻠﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻼزم‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺪم‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﻢ‬ ‫ُﺠﺰﯾﺔ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫اﯾﺮادات‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺮض‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻼﺋﮭﻢ‬ ‫رﺿﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺎب‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻻ‬ ‫ﯾﺪﻋﻤﻮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻤﻠﻮا‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪة‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺒﺎدرون‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻻﻓﺮاد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﯿﺪﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻠﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻮك‬ ‫وھﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﺿﻐﻂ‬‫ﻣﺆھﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮادر‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ھﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﯾﺮادات‬ ‫وﻓﻘﺪان‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﻮﻓ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫أن‬. 4.ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺧﻠﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ادارات‬ ‫ﻟﮭﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻻﻏﺮاض‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮل‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ذاﺗﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺮار‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻂ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وﯾﺘﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫واﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫اﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻐﯿﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدرة‬ ‫روح‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﻮن‬ ‫ﯾﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﻮﻓ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫ادﻧﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺸﻐﯿﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺎزة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وذات‬‫وﻇﺎﺋﻔﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻮاﺋﺪ‬‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻨﻮﻧﮭﺎ‬. ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺠﯿﺔ‬:- ‫دراﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻻ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺪاد‬‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻲ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎھﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺎھﺞ‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺘﻘﺮوا‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻮرﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬،‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎوﻻت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫وان‬، ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺠﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﻲ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﺿﻒ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻟﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺘﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮاﺟﺪﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﻟﻮﻗﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻗﻊ‬ ‫زﯾﺎرة‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺠﺮد‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻮﺑﮭﻢ‬ ‫وﺗﻄﻤﺌﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﯾﻌﻤﻠﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬. ‫ﺧﺒ‬ ‫ذوي‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮاء‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺮة‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫رﺑﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺋﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺟﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺎﻟﯿﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺎدﻗﺔ‬ ‫رﻏﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬:- ‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﻠﻔﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫وﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﮭﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻨﺪ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻘﺘﺪرة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻖ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎح‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺮض‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎھﻈﺔ‬.‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻘﺎد‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫رﻏﻢ‬
  • 7. 7 ‫اﻟ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﺸﻞ‬‫ﺬ‬‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫رﯾﻊ‬‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺔ‬‫ﻌ‬‫واﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎرف‬ ‫ﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮة‬ ‫زاﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﻻ‬ ، ‫واﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬. ‫اﻟﺒﺸﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮارد‬:- ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫وﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺪاد‬ ‫رﻏﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺨﺼ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄھﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﻮادر‬ ‫ﯾﻔﺘﻘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﻻ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫وھﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬‫اﻵﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﯿﺔ‬ :- ‫اﻻﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬Business analysis ‫ﻣﮭﻨﺪﺳ‬‫ﻮ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬Software engineer ‫ﻣﻌﻤﺎرﯾ‬‫ﻲ‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬Systems architect ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮاء‬Software Quality Experts ‫اﻟﻔﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺮﯾﺮ‬Technical editing ‫اﻟﻜﻔﺎءة‬ ‫وﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮادر‬ ‫وﺑﺪون‬‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫اﻋﻼه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺟﺰاء‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻋﺎدة‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫وﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺘﺪاﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﺔ‬. ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺄھﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮادر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄھﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻮة‬ ‫ھﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺧﯿﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺮﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬‫ُﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮص‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﯾﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ُﺪد‬‫ﺠ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬. ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ورﻋﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫دﻋﻢ‬: ‫ﻟﺪﻋﻢ‬ ‫وﻣﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫وﻻﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﺗﺤﺎدي‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫واﺿﺢ‬ ‫دور‬ ‫اي‬ ‫اﻵن‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬‫اﻟﻘﺪرات‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻷدﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻮاھﺎ‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺨﺒ‬‫اﻟﻄﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺮات‬.‫ان‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪودة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺄي‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﻜﯿﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮوط‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮض‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺠﯿ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮادر‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺐ‬‫اﻟﻔﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮادر‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻞ‬‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﯿﺔ‬‫وﯾﺤﻀﺮﻧﺎ‬‫ھﻨﺎ‬‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳ‬‫ﺘ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮوف‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺠﻼت‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻨﺘﺎﺑﺎﻧﻚ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫اﺗﺎﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻮدان‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﺗﻔﺎق‬ ‫ووﻓﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎرف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮة‬‫ﺗﺮاوﺣﺖ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫زھﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﯾﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬90‫و‬ ‫دوﻻر‬ ‫أﻟﻒ‬210‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫دوﻻر‬ ‫أﻟﻒ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮاﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﻮد‬ ‫واﺳﺘﻤﺮت‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﯿﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﺎب‬‫ﺑﻌﺪھﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻦ‬‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫وھﻜﺬا‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﺳﻮدﻧﺔ‬‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻول‬ ‫اﻷﺻﺪار‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬2001‫اﻻﺻﺪار‬ ‫اﻟﻲ‬6،5 ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬2010‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎدة‬ ‫وﺳﻠﺒﯿﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎﺣﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﻗﻮف‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻗﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وھﺬه‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﯿ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬. 5-‫اﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺎت‬: ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺎت‬‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬‫اﻟﺬاﺗﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫واﻻﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻐﻄﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺠﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﺪﯾﺮ‬. ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﻹﻧﻔﺎذ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬: ‫ﺗﺸﺠ‬‫ﯿ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺮﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫اﻧﺸﺎء‬ ‫ﻊ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻄﻠﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫واﻟﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎع‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺮي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬‫و‬
  • 8. 8 ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬‫اﺣﺪث‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫وﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮدة‬ ‫ذات‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎذج‬ . ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻠﻊ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬ ‫واﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫اﻻﻓﺮاد‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﯿﻊ‬ ‫وﻣﺤﺪودﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺎﺟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪوي‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺮي‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻗﮭﺎ‬. ‫ﻛﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻮد‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫وﻣﮭﻨﯿ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﻨﯿ‬ ‫ﻣﺆھﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮادر‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫واﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻠﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬. 10/‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫وﻣﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺎت‬ ‫واﻟﻜﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرس‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎھﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﮭﻮد‬ ‫ردم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻓﻮر‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺎھﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﯾﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﯾﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺮض‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬. ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮي‬ ‫اﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪات‬ ‫ﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻞ‬‫ﻟﻠﺨﺎرج‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺠﻮء‬ ‫وﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎت‬ ‫وﻓﻖ‬ ‫أﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺬر‬ ‫اذا‬ ‫أﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺮاﻋﺎة‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻠﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫واﻷﺿﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻜﺮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻜﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺪي‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫اﯾﺪاع‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﺑ‬‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫واﻋﺮاف‬ ‫اﺳﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﻀﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﯿﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻨﺎء‬ ‫واﺧﺘﺼﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ھﺆﻻء‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫وﺿﯿﺎع‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻨﻘﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬‫اﻻﻛﺎدﯾﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫د‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺮﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫واﺗﺎﺣﺘﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻷرض‬ ‫واﻧﺰاﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮادر‬ ‫وﺗﺪرﯾﺐ‬ 6-‫اﻟﻤﻠﺨﺺ‬: ‫اﻟﻮﻗﻮف‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺮض‬ ‫ﺷﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﯾﺠﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺮﺿﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫أﻋﺎﻗﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫دﻟﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺮات‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫ُﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮص‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻠﻜﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺎب‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺐ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄھﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻮادر‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺟﮭﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻻي‬ ‫ﺗﺎم‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺎب‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﺟﺴﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺷﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺎرج‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻏﺰو‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ‫روح‬ ‫ُﺰﻛﻲ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬.‫اﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺪﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻮرﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺮﻗﺖ‬‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻣﺎم‬ ‫ﺛﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺪاﻣﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫واﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﻄﻼق‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﻃﺔ‬ ‫رﺳﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة‬.
  • 9. 9 7-‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺟﻊ‬: 1.‫أ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ع‬:‫ا‬.‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎج‬ ‫ﻋﻮض‬ ‫د‬)‫اﻟﺴﻮدان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬( 2.‫ا‬ ‫س‬ ‫د‬ ‫م‬) :‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪراﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻠﺔ‬‫اﻏﺴﻄﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﻠﺪ‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫ﻌﺪد‬1989( 3.RIW01:1.RICHARDSON &G.G Wangenheim Why Are small Software Organization Different IEEE software 24.1.2007 4. http:// en.wikipedia.orgwihi/smallbussiness