مناهج التعليم وصناعة البرمجيات

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الإتحــــــــــــــــــــــاد الوطني للشبــــــــــاب السوداني
المؤسسة الشبابية لتقانة المعلومات
ورشة صناعة البرمجيات في السودان

الورقة الاولى :
مناهج التعليم وصناعة البرمجيات في السودان
أسامة عبدالوهاب ريس

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مناهج التعليم وصناعة البرمجيات

  1. 1. ‫ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﳎﻴﺎﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬‫ﻣﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻭﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﳎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻮﻫﺎﺏ ﺭﻳﺲ‬
  2. 2. ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻟﺬي ﯾﮭﺪف إﻟﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ اﻷﺳﺲ واﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺗﺆدي إﻟﻰ ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻦ ﻃﺮق ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ و ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ اﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﯾﺎت وذﻟﻚ ﺑﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﻠﺒﻲ اﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﯿﻦ ﺑﺘﺤﺴﯿﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ وﯾﺼﻨﻊ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﺑﺘﺪاﺋﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﯾﺠﻤﻌﮭﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﺮف واﻧﺘﮭﺎﺋً ﻋﻨﺪ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺻﯿﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ أو‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻮﺳﯿﻌﮫ وھﻲ ﺗﻘﻮم ﻋﻠﻰ دراﺳﺔ اﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫و ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺛﻢ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺘﮫ و اﻷﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﯿﻦ‬‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﻮاﻧﺐ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺪرة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ أو اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ أو إﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻘﺎت ﻟﮫ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ دﯾﻨﺎﻣﯿﻜﻲ‬
  3. 3. ‫ھﻲ ﻧﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ ﯾﮭﺘﻢ ﺑﺘﻄﻮﯾﺮ و ﺑﻨﺎء اﻟﺒﺮاﻣﺞ و‬‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ و ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻨﮭﺎ ﺑﻄﺮق ھﻨﺪﺳﯿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪة ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪدة ھﻲ:‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت و ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫◦‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﯿﻢ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫◦‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﺠﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫◦‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫◦‬ ‫ﺻﯿﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫◦‬
  4. 4.  System: Integrated set of interrelated components that interact in an organized fashion toward a common objective Systems Thinking: Taking a “big picture” or holistic view of large-scale and complex problems and their proposed solutions Systems can be classified by their purpose: Product-oriented Service-oriented Process-oriented
  5. 5. SystemHardware Software Personnel Facilities Data Materials Services Techniques
  6. 6.  Stakeholder: Individuals, groups, or organizations having: ◦ A vested interest in the system being developed ◦ Resources (money, people, political clout, etc.) to influence the outcome or end result of the system Stakeholder influence can be real or perceived Stakeholder needs can be categorized as current and future “must haves”, “nice to haves”, and “pie in the sky” Some Examples: Customers Developers Users Others Stakeholders are the primary and most important source of requirements.
  7. 7.  Defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle Developing and managing requirements and interfaces Synthesizing designs and validating system Considering the complete problem to be solved, including: ◦ Acquisition Approach and Management – Technology ◦ External environment/influences ◦ Stakeholders – Manufacturing ◦ Requirements – Test ◦ Performance – Training and Support ◦ Cost and Schedule – Operations and Maintenance Considering both the business and the technical needs of all – Disposal customers with the goal of providing a quality product that meets the user needsSE is an overarching discipline, to achieve the best overall product and/or service that meets requirements and does so within budget and schedule constraints.
  8. 8.  Systems Engineering Processes: Logical, systematic, comprehensive, iterative problem solving activities tailored and used to accomplish systems engineering tasks and generate work products Information System Scheduling Management Architecture Requirements Risk Quality Development & Management Management Integration, Measurement Decision Verification, & Analysis Analysis Validation, & Transition Integrated Configuration Cost System Management Estimation Security
  9. 9.  Systems Engineer: Defines, develops, and deploys solutions using systems engineering processes Role of the Systems Engineer: ◦ Is involved in developing the system from day one on ◦ The level of systems engineering effort applied depends on our role with the customer and contract  If the developing contractor, we employ systems engineering techniques  If in a role supporting a customer organization (SETA), we provide SE oversight and SE management ◦ In either role we drive decision making through quantitative and qualitative formulation, analysis, and interpretation of the impacts of alternatives Systems engineering is not just a role for a specialist group of people, but a part of the work of every individual working in the system development.
  10. 10. requirements specificification design codingtesting & debugging integration maintainance 10
  11. 11. Planning Risk analysis planning based on customer comments toward a completed systemCustomer evaluation Engineering 11
  12. 12. start Requirementsstop Design Engineer Prototype Refine Customer Evaluation 12
  13. 13. ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬‫ھﻨﺪﺳﺔ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب و اﻟﻨﻈﻢ اﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫ھﻨﺪﺳﺔ اﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻮﯾﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺬﺟﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت واﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﻤﻨﮭﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫...‬ ‫إدارة اﻟﻤﺸﺮوﻋﺎت‬
  14. 14. ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ •‬ ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻹﺳﺘﺸﻌﺎر •‬ ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ •‬ ‫ھﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪة •‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻹﺗﺼﺎﻻت •‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ •‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻣﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت •‬‫41‬
  15. 15. ‫اﻟﻄﺮاﺋﻖ اﻟﮭﯿﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮاﺋﻖ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﯿﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮاﺋﻖ اﻟﺮﺳﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺎ اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻘﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت واﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫...‬
  16. 16. Based vs. Oriented Components Design Patterns Services Traditional Object Compositional(Structured) Oriented Aspects Model Transformations Frameworks1970 1990 2000 2010 Workshop on Information Technology - Khartoum 2009

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