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New method for port logistics



When the the old machine gets a new way of use, it's called adaptation. When an old idea becomes new, it's called creative! But when a new method isn't a challenge, it's amazing!

When the the old machine gets a new way of use, it's called adaptation. When an old idea becomes new, it's called creative! But when a new method isn't a challenge, it's amazing!



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New method for port logistics Document Transcript

  • 1. EGBERTO FIORAVANTI RIBEIRONEW METHOD FORPORT LOGISTICS1stEditionRio de Janeiro – BrazilEgberto F Ribeiro2013
  • 2. Egberto F RibeiroAcknowledgmentsI want to thank our God for this bright theme and for myhealth and time to develop this fast mean of transportation, which I hopeto be helping the preservation of clean environment.5
  • 3. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSDedicationI want to dedicate this work to my family, by the support andhelp in so hard task to develop and to bring to inner view what stilldoesnt exist.6
  • 4. Egberto F RibeiroInternational data Catalog by the Publisher.Responsible Librarian: Mara Rejane Vicente Teixeira.Ribeiro, Egberto F. (Egberto Fioravanti), 1950-New Method for Port Logistics/Egberto Fioravanti Ribeiro;translated into international English by the author. -Rio de Janeiro, RJ : Author Publisher, 2013.226 p. ; 21 cm.1. Container transportation. 2. Port logístics.3. International trade. I. Títle.CDD ( 22ª ed.)658.7885Copyright ©2013Egberto Fioravanti RibeiroThe Author is the only holder of the Author Rights of this work NewMethod for Port Logistics and the methods and projects described. The Authorprohibits all and every kind of printing reproduction, sales of projects byphysical or digital means, memory files, photocopy, electronic commerce,distribution by tape, broadcast, TV cable, CD, phone SMS, wireless or anyelectronic means, without the written authorization signed by the Author.R. Sen Euzébio, 30 Apt 106 – Flamengo - Rio de Janeiro-RJ-Brazil. 22250-080Phone: (55) 21-021-31786641 email-to egfior@hotmail.comISBN 978-85-906811-7-57
  • 5. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSINDEXCHAPTERPreface............................................................... 9Introduction....................................................... 1101 Global Logistics................................................. 1402 Port Challenge................................................... 1603 Ships.................................................................. 2104 Human Resource................................................ 2505 Maritime Freight................................................ 3306 Container Weight…........................................... 4107 Maritime Insurance............................................ 4508 THC Terminal Handling Charges...................... 4809 Equipments for Container.................................. 5710 Clean Transportation......................................... 6511 Container Mode................................................. 7812 Bonded Warehouse........................................... 9313 Invoice............................................................... 9614 Container Stuffing............................................. 10015 Practice of Stuffing ........................................... 10216 Safe Containerization........................................ 10717 ISO Containers.................................................. 11718 Hub Ports........................................................... 12319 Cargo Plan......................................................... 13720 Mooring............................................................. 14021 Port Operation................................................... 14922 Warehousing..................................................... 16323 General Cargo Loading.................................. 16724 Containers Terminal...................................... 17625 Traytainer....................................................... 17826 Statistics.......................................................... 22127 Conclusion....................................................... 223Biography......................................................... 2248
  • 6. Egberto F RibeiroPrefaceA new method of shipping has to serve ships each time larger thanever, thats why there is the need of a newest system of ports and ships,following the reasonable thinking for an only company or corporations to ownand manage the shipping services from ports to carriers. The berthing of shipsshould be built out of the stream currents to operate Mega-ships and Feederssynchronously. The traditional ship structure of the frames, from the holds todeck and upward has to be changed to shelves, it will reinforce the ship. Thisnew class of ship can be called DiaMag-ship (diamagnetic). There is technicalsupport and parts for her immediate construction. The gantry crane industriesdont need to update their cranes to operate faster with Feeders, because thecontainers will be stored in shelves and there will have an easy work betweenboth to follow the speed offered by DiaMag-ships.The new model of port needs 120m of quay to install a bridge withretractile platform in order to connect the pre-stacking at the ship, four columnsare similar to a petroleum platform. The bridge is near 60m wide, but musthave some space on the wharf to move aside to give clean area for ships9
  • 7. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSmooring. The Triple-e ship will be moored by her stern, opened her doors andconnected to the pre-stacking by a bridge to transfer containers on Traytainers.The system of shelves in Hub-ports is the same for Mega-ships, feeders, orsmaller vessels. Each bay and row will be unloaded and loaded through theships gates to the bridge. The Traytainers are sent from shelves in the ship andthrough the bridges will be sent to shelves in the port. The bridge works at thesame tier to move the Traytainers, from high to lower tiers. The first questionIve received is “how many people will work? I say the same which areworking today, because this system does not close any job, but willincrease the development of other means with low fuel consumption. Ina world of near 90K container ships, there are only few unities of Triple-e ships. Thats enough to begin, when new ships may be built in thissame method in the next years.As soon as a larger DiaMag-ship announces her arrival to anyport, her method of operation allows all DiaMag-shelves ports to beupdated very easily. It gives good contribution to the worldwide PortLogistics to operate friendly with all liners.10
  • 8. Egberto F RibeiroINTRODUCTIONThe recent international meeting in Rio+20 happened in June 2012,in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil, the governments of a hundred nations havediscussed the way to develop a new model of industry without aggression tonature, to protect, to defend the environment, to reduce the emission of carbonand a better use of energy. Thats the commitment of these nations and itscitizens to come together to the green energy.The emission of CO² caused by industry has doubled its bad effectunder vehicles consumers of hydrocarbons fuel. To reduce the damage onenvironment, the use of alcohol to cars in hybrid engines has offered a greathelp to reduce the poisonous emission of gases. Brazil has introduced the use ofalcohol for more then thirty years, now with new techniques and materials noncorrosives, the product is being used over the entire world. The studies oneffects caused on engines by alcohol has been developed in Brazilian industriesand universities and to convince investors is been hard than ever. While thewood alcohol was developed by Germany in WWII, Brazil has the sugar caneindustry in operation for five centuries, it was the first Brazilian product in the11
  • 9. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSEuropean market. The know how born with this fuel in the South Hemisphereis now being applied on the entire world. Some studies and methods of workare being developed on several countries to drive all the humanity on a betterway of life. The development of naval transportation industry cant doeverything alone, but together with ports and the governments at the UN. Thefaster movement of containerized cargoes by roads, rails and ships, helped bynew technologies, has the need to be applied under the same method of work allover the world.Brazilian anthem says the nation is “Giant by Own Nature”. Thecountry is the 5thin territory extension and its inland doesnt have deserts asSahara, mountains as Himalaya, or sea as the Caspian, or volcanic Ridge as theAndes, nor snow in the winter, but has rain and green fields over the year. Allthese facts elects Brazil as a natural agriculture provider of food to the worldand it has to be sent to consumers by all means.When Brazil was discovered, the Portuguese believed it was anisland, few months later during the first explorations, they realized it wasalmost a continent. The name Brazil came from a tree with the blazes color andvery used in Europe to dye in red the clothes, that was an epoch fashion color.The second main product was the sugar cane which last longer than fivecenturies. The production of alcohol along the sugar and a variety of grains areexported by Southern ports. The mechanization has encouraged farmers toexpand their land to other states, where these methods were not used in theagricultural economy of grain. Now these products are also exported via theNorthern ports of the country to the whole world.12
  • 10. Egberto F RibeiroThe production of fruits as orange and apple, associated with soyamilk in long life packing has been a new market for industries. The heavyindustry of iron and aluminum are present on the entire world. All thatproduction is sent to consumers in containers. The production of cattle, milk,poultry are also exported by containers and for that all, there is the need ofports specialized in containers, the well known Port Containers Terminals.The specialized ports to export containers ought to be ready forshipping all the inland goods. Since the seventys, the knowledge on ports,ships and methods have suffered several unsuccessful experiences. The UN hasgiven a real line of thinking which is being followed by several countries and acommon mechanism of efficiency have reached year after year. To serve theinternational business on goods exchange, from east to west, there are socialrules that must be obeyed, for people do not kill the future of their sons.13
  • 11. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS1- GLOBAL LOGISTICSThe first European search to the Oriental market was without doubtthe Marco Polos family. In 1418, the Infant Dom Pedro from Portugal did atrip of ten years through Europe to the Middle East where he got the newsbrought by the merchant of Venice. Marco Polo brought a sample of powderfrom China and in his book a very important information; he had been to thelast island before the large ocean Pacific, a place from where the Polar star wasnot seen. The book was read on all Europe and considered mere phantasy, butvery valuable to the Portuguese king, his sons and to the bishops, theycompared the Polos news to the islands shown in Daniels book. The constantwar between Iberian countries and Saracen invasion on Portugal territoryforced the correct adaption of powder & gun. The known cannons in those dayswere too heavy and did not resist more than two or three shots. The heavycannons had to be produced near the war fields and moved by almost 200horses, while Portugal developed light cannons to be moved by ten men.Portugal knew the Saracen secret: the malleable steel and used it to make lightcannons and to install them on large boats built to defend the Tejo and otherrivers. Later, this boats frames were the model for the caravel. This large ship14
  • 12. Egberto F Ribeirofor cargoes was able to sail between antipodes regions.Portugal and the Saracens were in war for centuries and the oftenescape of Arabian warriors to the desert behind the mountains of Ceuta hadtaken the Infant Dom Henrique to fight behind the desert. The new strategydeveloped by the prince was called the Indias Plan. The plan was to close therearguard for do not allow the Saracens to escape. To reach that position of warthere was the need of a new fleet as sailors, boatswain, pilots and captains tosail on unknown seas. The Portuguese prince hired Italian masters, technicians,cosmographers, cartographers and made a school of navigation in his ownhouse in the Algarves. The new navigators could never to stop the Saracensescape route, but they discovered the half of the unknown lands of the world.Today there is the same challenge, when a new time needs a newmethod of work. The shipowners have built ships four thousands times largerthan a caravel. While the world economy slows down, its time to create newkind of ships, ports, methods and equipments for TEUs. On my e-book writtenin 2002 "Logistica de Container" I have written a phase used in class "For theeffectiveness of a training is required experience of those who teach andspontaneous determination of those who wish to learn, so everyone canovercome the initial pattern to establish new and audacious targets."15
  • 13. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS2- PORT CHALLENGELarger vessels have been expected to be built for more than sixtyyears, since the first supertanker had been ordered by the shipowner MrOnassis. There is no way to adapt a port built for general cargo ships to accept aTriple-E ship as in a Hub Port. Large ships have too many containers to movethrough a bottleneck to a large container terminal. These ships are not approvedfor conventional ports, where the square meter of land is too expensive. Theports quay is narrow and dangerous place for workers, even when there aresome containers for inspection.There was a time, when the captain wanted to stay moored at thequay without operation, only to give a free time to his crewmen in downtown.Today, things are quite different, there is no lazy time at quay after mooring.Just few years ago, several shipyards have developed the Panamax, with theproposal to reduce the expenses on fuel and to reduce the costs of freight,which are already outdated in size.All the productive chain is engaged in the same thinking on theentire world, to increase the production with the reduction of costs. At fiftyyears ago, an Italian scooter cost the same price of a black and white home16
  • 14. Egberto F Ribeirotelevision. The high technology existing only in very expensive cars are nowbeing applied in popular cars. The ports didnt have good perspective to attendeach new kind of ships, where sometimes the vessel is larger than the port. ThePanama Canal working for a new width to receive ships 53% larger than itsown earlier width. However, it seems not to be enough, the new project hasbeen surpassed by larger ships. For such target, it has been working hard toenlarge the gates and receive ships each time wider, it seems to exist a shipyardracing to win a TEUs record on the Guinness Book.Searching the Global Logistics to reduce costs, shipowners areupdating the transport routes and the connecting waterways, railways, roadsand ports, no matter how distant they are, if from small to large cities. Theeconomically and viable transportation must be flexible, because it requiresseveral access roads and rails to approach the distance between the mineral toports and the rural producers to the industries till the ports. The most importantaccess roads will be those which offers the shortest distance between twopoints, no matter which means of transport will be used; highway, railroad orwaterway.In a Global Logistics for ISO containers, the buyer and the shippermust to define the best appropriate means for transportation; from the producercountry to the importer country. Shippers must have the discipline required bylogistics to enter in a global transportation. Thats why the UNCTAD has askedfor training the ports and industries workers to build their mind as only one.The port logistics doesnt begin at the port, but inside the industry orterminal where the container is stuffed. Teaching ports workers is the only way17
  • 15. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSto increase the speed on shipments, or to automatize all the process fromstacking, loading, receiving and delivery. There is no collective mind, wherepeople dont know what to do. Protection and security for transit betweencountries are the most important allied on international trade. The protection ofcargoes inside each container must be added in the DNA of all workers, nobodyhas to say to them what to do, they must be encouraged to learn, so they willknow exactly what to do. All the costs with arrangement of cargoes must beanalyzed and to teach them all the services offered by the company.The container terminal company which manages goods from theState or region must to involve their employee with their politics to enlarge thequality of services. The company has to build the owners mind on theemployees, training the high staff on negotiation and international trading andsearching for each regions necessities. The workers of the last level mustunderstand all the process of international transportation. They must to knowwhat does the industry expects of them and what is the importance of each oneof them in the productive chain. The motivation must offers them thepossibility to climb the steps of a great career in the company, explaining theirresponsibilities, to assist their clients with good treatment, improving themutual respect among all the employees. The workers must be compared towatchers, so the company has to provide telephone or black board fornotifications. The workers are in touch to all the installations and must tocommunicate any malfunctions on equipments. They have to fill the blanks ondaily checking list to notify the maintenance team the equipments operationalstate. If the preventive maintenance is in order, or it needs to stop the operation18
  • 16. Egberto F Ribeiroto do the corrective maintenance. The workers can notice inside the facilitiesthe existence of security failings when happens invasions. The workers can seethe conditions of stuffing into the containers, before the loading of cargoes andafter the loading, if the cargoes need to be properly tied inside the containers ornot. All material necessary must be suggested to block the cargo, as woodenframes, plastic bags of air, or other resources to keep the cargoes steady andsecure, for do not roll or slip in the container. All must be aware of themandatory ticket of weight to be added to its own documents, before typing itsBill of Lading.The security on location designated for storage of containers in portsor terminals must have care to offer periodic training for its employees, everytime a new equipment is acquired. The main marketing is to show to clientsthrough sites, the quality of services offered by the company. The care withclients goods and the continuous training of its employee. The human resourceis the most valuable richness of the company. The clients must to know aboutthe most advanced systems are applied by the company and the heavy expenseswith technical training of employees on industry politics and security, beyondmedical and social assistance and excellent selection of skilled workers. Thesecurity also implies in the protection of the facilities with high walls, gateswith x-ray and scanners, flat scales, cameras and service of communication online to the users with internet and SMS. As a picture has the value of a thousandwords, a word of impact awakes thousand of customers. The system of cargoestransportation in containers is being applied very well in the internationalmarket for over 40 years, with solid economy and good performance.19
  • 17. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSA new system of sea transportation of containers must be objectiveand managed by the same system and/or the same ship & port owner. The seaports know-how must to assimilate new methods of shipping and storing ofcontainers. This is the "Green Century", when several means of transportationwill be moved on magnetic system. The XX century was the age of the rotaryinduction motor, the first quart of the XXI century is turn of the linear inductionmotor with magnetic levitation. Over the next 30 years will be the engines bynanotechnology levitation, when Earths magnetic effects will be controlled bya literal cloud of light produced at twice the speed of light powered by theproperties of nanotubes. These are some reasonable ways to reduce CO²emissions and the production of clean electricity to compensate the industriespollution20
  • 18. Egberto F Ribeiro3- SHIPSToo many old inland ports were built to receive sailing boats and itsliterally handling of cargoes into barrels on ramps to load at ten tonnes per day.Later these ports were adapted to receive tween-decks steam ships with newsystem of steam winches & boom with coal and water supply, (water at the portsupply was 8tons/h, against a consumption of 20tons/h). The existing water netswere modified, as the cargo loading speed changed for two hundred tonnes perday. When electrical cranes and ships moved by oil engine appeared, the portshad to adapt its facilities to receive these modern vessels, loading large lots ofcargoes in faster time. From the last sixty years, new industries projects and itsshipyards removed the tween-decks inside the hold to install the neweststructural bulkheads, a kind of wall from the deep-tank to the deck, applied onbulk grain and ore/oil transportation.The most advanced ship industry developed larger bulk carriers for25K tons, with bridge cranes for self loading and discharge. A ship in that sizewas loaded with lumber from Paranagua in Brazil to Malta. The operation onwagons was done by a gantry crane on board for 25tons. The movement of 30tons/hour in other ships moored at the port was dramatically surpassed by 25021
  • 19. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICStonnes per hour, at a speed of six minutes per wagon. Everything has a price, atthat speed and without experience, officers on board, Maritime Agent, foremenand stevedores caused a complete disaster; the cargo on board was smashed byheavy forklifts.The American shipbuilding engineer Jerome Goldman developed atsixty years ago the Lash - Lighter Aboard Ship with barges for 380tons eachone, to be lifted as a container by a stern gantry crane for 700 tons, but it didntsucceed. The Delta Lines Lash System had a fleet of 272m ships with engine atthe side along the hull and one propeller. She had a wide open stern door at thewaterline to allow her barges to be loaded by huge gantry crane on rails to loadand unload the units. The barges always had to be moved from quay by tugboats to the anchored ship and beyond the too expensive handling cargoes,there were the stealing of cargoes, when the loaded barges were on theanchorage bay, waiting for the mother ship arrival. This system was followedon the entire world, but today, there are few ships in the Lash system still inoperation, very weak operation. There is another Lash called Sea-bee, thisvessel has ballast tanks to be immersed under the surface as a dry-dock, whosebarges are loaded floating in through a safe stern door.In the middle of the seventieths, Belgium and Denmark shipyardshad sent a survey by letter to several ports to know their facilities to define abetter ship for these ports. The Gear Bulk is one of the first shipowners whichinvested on vessels with gantry cranes for operation at 400t/h.Shipowners Grimaldi from Italy also visited the ports to show themtheir method of shipping and their vessels with own equipments necessary for22
  • 20. Egberto F Ribeirooperation, to work without the ports equipments. Today, the Grimaldi Lines arethe roll-on/roll-off liners docking daily at several ports, where there is noenough cranes to supply the faster loading at 400 tons/hour until now. There isan interface between the ports and the ships which raise up a question: how toadequate them to operate in reduced time at low cost? The answers are: newequipments and new methods, because there is a cost to counterbalance withbig expenses. The actual program of big ships challenges the industries toproduce suitable new equipments for ports, but it stumbles in time and cost toremold the port structure to bear such heavy equipments and to repeat thedredging for several times during the year.There are ports around the world which ceased their investments towatch their own history go away at full speed. To update its own ports facilityimplied in a complete destruction of the environment, so they changed to otheractivities as museum, theaters, art gallery or completely demolished to raise anew shopping, a new building or a condominium of offices.Meanwhile, shipowners of larger vessels were choosing forexclusive quays, nonexistent till now, even they dont know exactly how shouldbe these quays. They all know, there is a world need to reduce the emissions ofcarbon, to reduce the environment aggression, to reduce the free access ofpeople on ports, to reduce the cost of freights, to reduce the numbers ofmooring, to reduce the time of their trip, to reduce the expenses in security andinsurance, to reduce the piracy and to follow international laws againstterrorism.23
  • 21. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSThere are several expenses following each port, as tugboats, pilots,buoy taxes, lane dredging taxes, Panama and Sues taxes and several surcharges.The shipowners know they must have partners at seashore, as companies, users,agents and terminals. Shipowners always send money to their Agents abroad topay all services for their ships. In times of high inflation, Agents were used toinvest in short term that money they received to pay workers and services,when several agents work at very low price or for free, only to get these profits.By the end, at the final account, the Agent shows the main deposit in banks, butthey hide the profits. Shipowners must have full support from governments,without the national influence of protective laws, but all joined in a global andactualized thinking, which demands determination, disposition and courage.24
  • 22. Egberto F Ribeiro4- HUMAN RESOURCEThere is a self defense inaction promoted by rich nations to do whatthey need. The high consumption of petroleum produces monoxide of carbon,which destroys the ozone layer reducing the world protection against Sunharmful rays and the global warm. Without rain, the drought annihilates thevegetable production and the cattle. The industries are destroying the air qualityand give up the poor nations to live alone, by their very small resources. Theinternational forums must rule on a friendship world, but some countries liveunder extreme exception, closing the market to some countries. Every nationreceives foreign persons as immigrants, while other countries close theirborders for all people, including for tourists.Since old times, families move around the entire world, from one toanother country, or even continent to have a better opportunity for them.Sometimes, these people took with then some knowledge that was applied inother nations. When Portugal got its independence, the Saracen know–how toproduce malleable steel was used to produce light cannons. The just inventedgunnery was put on caravels to seal the Lusitania conquests during the greatdiscoveries.25
  • 23. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSHow to deal in a so protective market? The business secret dwells inthe art of knowing that the most important is to buy than to sell. This is an oldArabian teaching from father to son for centuries, but today, the most importantis to know how to deliver the goods under lower costs. The news of war inConstantinople arrived to the Silk Road only several seasons later. The SilkRoad was the most important and most dangerous route in the world, whennames as Genghis Khan, Attila grew up among those mountains of CentralAsia, dreadful names to menace the Roman Empire. In several other nationsthere were historical names that implanted fear everywhere.One of the most important fundamentalist laws in the Muslim worldis now disturbing the peace on the last ten years, when sheiks can raise newYahid everywhere. When these laws are applied by persons with criminalbehavior, the foreign governments will be forced to take hard measures; toforbid the preaching of the Islamism in their countries, where today it is free. Inthis way, all the expansionism won by the Islamism in centuries are in risk tobe lost in few decades. It has happened in the old Europe, when the Islamismbecame a religion not welcome and Muslims families were sent back to Africa.It also happened in Portuguese and Spanish colonies when they cast out thecatholic fathers Jesuits. It may happen again caused by the action of a halfdozen of bad leaders. The promise of sharing spoil among believers hasgathered armies of adventurers in Africa and Asia.Amid a time of international recession the freights have risen, itseems that there is a very clear mind leading the piracy to raise the insurancesand freights. The reaction of governments sending war ships to combat26
  • 24. Egberto F Ribeiro“piracy” is the same of Middle Ages kingdoms against the Islamism before theCrusades, but with much more power.The emerging nations have a basic level index of production whichincreases every year. It is not caused by their companies selling papers in theStocks Exchanges, but because the richest nations are seeking for goodsproduced by emerging nations in astronomic levels. When we see a productfrom any European or Asian country, there is high percentage of their exportsthickening the local GDP. The developed countries produce goods withaggregated value, few products costs too much. This is the added value of hightech machines sold to emerging nations. But at the same time, poor nationshave high production of goods, handcrafted at low cost. When the rich nationsells one machine, the poor nations produce millions of a single article that isfound for all over the world. When the market is restricted by any politicalreason, the developed nations stop their production for lack of buyers, while thepoor nations go on producing as always and selling for several.That high production of cheap goods has been moving for threedecades the branches of several industries, from famous trade marks to hightechnology micro computers, sent by rich countries to the Asian continent. In afirst moment, there was an important wave of economists who suggested toproduce abroad, where hand of work were cheaper. The first wave of dealsreally showed the amazing coins face; to produce where there was no skilledworkers caused discredit by consumers. The developed nations began to buytheir own traditional goods and marks produced abroad. It caused a confusionin other countries where there are laws to protect trade marks. When Brazilian27
  • 25. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSCustoms find in a containers inspection, some goods as clothes or shoes withtrade mark from one country produced in another country, the inspectorunderstands there is a trade mark violation and all cargo is arrested, with lossesto importers. Several trade marks produced out of the origin country have lowquality and are no more sold in great quantity in Brazil as it was at thirty yearsago. Consumers stopped buying foreign clothes made of cotton and theemerging local industries entered in the market with new goods produced withthe same row material. The better quality of clothes produced inland fromNorth to South has created a new fashion in beauty and high technology. This isa showcase to the world, from astonishing design clothes created and developedin several stylists courses in universities to compete on the entire world. Eventhough, the lack of qualified hands of work is noticed on every job offer.Dangerous artifice to reduce the factory cost producing abroad is adouble-edged sword. The production of a traditional product in another countryerupts the escape of consumers by discredit on the products quality. It is worstthan to freeze its own trade mark for a restoration time, to begin later undernew technologies and tendencies.The classical example is the film industry for movies facing the newtechnology of micro-chip. When the emulsion granulation was visible on aframe, the industries on the entire world were in production. Now, thechallenge is to reduce the granulation or a complete chip at nano size. The filmcamera industries for large granulation disappeared, giving their place to micro-chip under some storage systems. However, old owners of expensiveequipments are in latent stage on the entire world, waiting for a revival of28
  • 26. Egberto F Ribeirotechnology to fulfill their machines. So, it has just come! The single cell is nowso small that can capture in a quarter of inch, much more pixels than a 35mmfilm.The new industries of pictures can produce an electronic cartridge tosupply 8mm cameras as it was at 50 years ago, from single eight to super eightor 16mm. There are millions of thirsty consumers waiting for such product onthe entire world. But the industries are in "dead fire", as it was said in Brazilwhen an old industry of sugar was out of service. Several well known andrespected American industries of pictures have closed their doors, because theirpearls are produced and assembled in other countries.The stop flag slows till the physics “momentum” and to start againwill demand time and energy. Into trade marks, the proliferation of new centersof production abroad created a lack of workplace into its own nation and theworld disqualification of its trade mark. There is no more time to recuperate thelost customer, most of them are “out of fashion”, “new technology consumers”,or "dead". The most reasonable order now is to reconquest its own credibility,investing heavily in marketing, in behalf of its own trade mark® for the next 5years.When importers chose your product, they know exactly what theywant; whiskey from Scotland, perfume from France, Sun glasses from Italy.There is no market for Scotch produced in Brazil.Was the political power on industry only to create good relationshipbetween nations? Of course not, that happened by brilliant ideas, with calculusby only one incognito; “how to get more money, paying less”. The richest29
  • 27. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSnations have self applied a devastating unemployment wave, from alarming todesperate levels. Everything that was traditional in their country, from food toclothes and electronics was sent to be produced in the third world at low cost.The secret formulas, electronic schemes, even newest trade marks with richsoftware that should be kept under seven keys, have been given for free tounknown industries. When a factory in New York produces one thousand wristwatches, its potential competitor in Asia produces one hundred million unitsand sells through E-bay to worldwide. The Asian market is traditional for hugequantity of goods, at prices always lower and to be paid at long term withfreight for free. During the Vietnam war, there was an international slogan wellknown in Asia and on the entire world: “Yankee, go Home!” Today, theAmerican citizen must to cry more aloud than ever: “Yankee, come backhome!”. That same calling is happening in Italy and Spain, because theirhomeland industries are also in the industrial “dead fire”.The recent unemployment in Europe is an advice to all 3rdWorld todouble their production of goods, or to start a new field of industrialization.Now in Brazil, the foreigners are allowed to open their business as; restaurants,electronic shops, or self employee as photographer, hair-dresser, to attend theirsociety living in the country. Any foreigner will take near one week to onemonth to have all papers in order to work. The only monthly fees for selfemployee are $19 dollars and near 20% on wages for social security, there arealmost two million micro-entrepreneurs opening doors at an unpredictable 1%for federal fees on gross selling.30
  • 28. Egberto F RibeiroSince 2005, when Brazil got fuel production to grow up to selfsufficient level, the economy became more comfortable and began a new waveof injection on development in commerce, industry, agriculture and services.For such unexpected rhythm of growth, the inland market has shown the lack ofskilled technical laborer. The actual offer for workers range from 900K to onemillion new jobs, but new opportunities will increase these numbers for thenext three years, when industries will be seeking for eight million techniciansfor electromechanics, metallurgy, geology, communication, chemicals,medicine, petroleum, forests, plastic, rubber, environment, food and severalothers. According the IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Statistics, the workforcein 2012 had almost five million unemployed, or 4,6% of the national productivepopulation. So far exists the need of three million workers to be invited fromabroad, as medical, engineers, mathematicians. For more than five years, halfof the offers for programmers on e-commerce was not filled and those who hadappeared were not so skilled to work. The first step for those who want to workin Brazil is to visit the Embassy or Consulates in your country to get theFederal register and other documents, including the visa for work. But it doesnthappen only in Brazil, several countries claims for skilful hands of work andtechnicians in Canada, Australia and so on. There are offers of employment fortechnician, but there are no skilled laborers. There are 6,5 million of students inBrazilian universities to get full scholarship by the government and privateuniversities. However, most of them will never work into their graduation,because their diploma is always gotten only for status. Less than 20% ofLawyer bachelors will have their professional register every year. The31
  • 29. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSprofessionals courses have 900K students at technician schools in 2012, when90% of them are employed even before their graduation.The reality in Brazil in 2013 is that most of the private jobs pay betterwages to workers with technician level, than the public jobs pay to engineers andphysicians. Thats an unhappy politics of wages in government service, whichfeeds the escape of professionals from public hospitals to private initiative. Thepublic medical service pays low wages to professionals, whose cost forgraduation is from two to four times higher. The recent search asked by theUNESCO known as “Students in Brazil” showed the reduction of 58% on thenumber of students for teaching in the last seven years.The Brazilian companies for the last ten years have hired retiredworkers from 50 to 70 years old. In 2012, that supplementary work force hasreached to significant level of 21%, much more caused by the low-income afterretirement. As that has not been enough, companies will have to hire technicianshands of work from abroad nations. Until now, in Brazil there is no culture tofuturist jobs in Logistics, beyond the newest “Drivers Law” to carriers drivers torest half hour, between four hours of work. The law had to enter in office in lastJuly, 2012, but suffered a heavy strike by drivers, causing a huge lack of fuel,foods and imported and exported goods, which forced the government to delaythe beginning of that law to next year (2013). Brazilian government has aprogram of 65 billion dollars to expend on the next three years on roads,railroads and 70 billion dollars for ports and seashore industries. Brazil isamong the most important countries producers of steel, although the nationindustries dont produce containers or Hinger wagons.32
  • 30. Egberto F Ribeiro5- MARITIME FREIGHTFreight is the payment by user or cargo owner for a service oftransportation, handling, shipping and transport of goods by ships, trucks,wagons, air plane etc. Freight can be paid at the port of shipment (Prepaid) orlater at the destination port (To Collect). There are extra payments on freightsrate in several countries, in Brazil it is the AFRMM (paid by BrazilianImporters). That additional expenses and several others withdraw importersfrom international commerce; it costs more than 30% at the final balance.When the final product will be ready to re-export, it will be too expensive; themarket will refute it. If such tax over freight will have not been paid on time,the original “Bill of Lading” will not be released. The Customs will not makethe clearance of that merchandise, which will continue losing money every dayin Demurrage and storage charges in the primary zone. Ship-owners pay the tax"Inframar", a small fee that varies between ports, calculated on the tonnageloaded on that port. This rate refers to the use of maritime infrastructure beyondthe buoy tax payment for Navy. The ship-owners pay the port quay occupationrate, calculated on the length of the ship per day. These rates, services and taxes33
  • 31. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSare different from port to port and may reach 400%. Freight is today the mostimportant resource to reduce the cost of goods into a common market of prices.The government in several countries are paying all expenses of freight to inviteforeigner importers to buy their products.5.1- Maritime Freight ConditionThe international community has agreements to rule the generalcommerce. Obviously it does not rules over all countries, less than 200countries try to put order in the international trade. The World TradeOrganization WTO and its associations, as GATT, TRIPs discuss differencesbetween nations in International Court. The contracts for maritime transport incabotage freight and for long-haul vessels must have conditions very clearlyspecified, regarding the coverage of expenses and liabilities of receiving,loading, unloading and delivery of cargoes. Anyway, the ships take the centerof all freight negotiations, because involve several expenses directly charged onthe owners. The terms shall define the national seashore liners, frominternational liners. Among a universe of possibilities, lets understand some ofthese terms: Cabotage, Long Haul, Full Liner Terms and Basic Freights.5.1.1 CabotageCabotage is the sea transport of cargoes and passengers betweenports at the coast, lake and river ports within the same country. In a cabotage,the goods are in documents of each country and written on its own language.34
  • 32. Egberto F RibeiroThere isnt need of international Bill of Lading for cargoes in transit within onlyone country, this document is valid only between countries. When a cargo issent from an inland industry to its port for abroad shipping, the papers used arethose common to such country. Even though, the exporters must provide allpapers common to international trade. The several papers as Invoice, bankdeclaration of Letter of Credit, Bill of Lading, Contract of Freight Modality,with/out Insurance, Origin Declaration, Certificate of Weight and Quality, orany other paper requested by the foreigner wholesaler. As in Cabotage there areno foreign goods on board, there is no Customs procedure, there are only thestates or provinces inspections of taxes. An exception happens when foreignercargoes are guided to one port, but for any reason are discharged on anotherport. Then, foreigner goods are moved to the registered port in the B/L, by sea,air or land, under Customs care. The payment of state or province taxes must beobserved by exporter only on the merchandise and follow the rules of eachState or Interstate traffic. To promote cabotage, encouraging the seashorenavigation, several countries exempt or reduce port taxes and stevedore wages.5.1.2. Long-haulLong-haul trip is the navigation by sea, air or land between two orseveral countries. The abroad trip is provided with international procedures,even if these countries have common borders. Sometimes, these countries withcommon borders have regional agreement for trade and culture. The mostcommon in international trade is the provision of goods that each nation needs.Every port in any country is a Government place (Ruled by Constitution) andhas Customs to receive foreigner goods to nationalize them. The resident35
  • 33. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSdifficult to inland countries is when there is no seashore port, so they have toregister their own ships in other countries to have access to markets they needto buy goods directly, without intermediary. The ships applied to long-haultrips make use of lakes, rivers, seas and oceans. Almost all ports in the worldhave interconnection between two or more countries. The internationaldocument used in Long-haul trips is the Bill of Lading. When a ship is in aforeigner country and has cargoes without Bill of Lading, that merchandise isirregular and must be arrested by authorities of that port. When various Bills ofLading are contained in the same container, the ship provides a new Bill ofLading called Master. Bill of Ladings and Masters on the same vessel arerecorded into the "Cargo Manifest" to facilitate their Identification. It iscommon to ships, airplane, train, trucks etc. When the cargo arrives from theindustry to its port for shipping, the papers used within that country arechanged to International Bill of Lading. A cargo ship for foreigner ports orunder International Covenant Warehouses in other countries, when navigatingin international waters, or in other countries, should be provided with Bill ofLading. There is no State tax incidence before the nationalization of themerchandize in any country, because the cargo is under InternationalAgreements, out of reach of the state or province. The import tax is a variablepercentage according to the type of the goods, according internationalagreements. In Brazil, the value of good will be added to freight and insurancevalues, then calculated as a single value. On this final value will be computedthe port charges (THC) and State taxes. A freight rate qualification is acommon agreement between seller and buyer to define the means of36
  • 34. Egberto F Ribeirotransportation to deliver the cargo. It may happen within a country or betweenother nations.5.1.3. Full Liner TermsA full liner ship means that all holds will be under contract. Theship-owner is responsible for loading and unloading of the goods transported.This is the condition prevailing in freight conferences, as the offers of grossprice for a transportation of a cargo to a defined destination. Notice that whosigns the contract is the responsible to accomplish all expenses. When the shipdoesnt have engaged cargoes enough, the empties holds are offered to thirdexporters, but as they know about this ship only when she is near the port, or ina waiting line, the invited exporter doesnt have time to prepare the loading andit always causes delay and Demurrage. FILO (Free In Liner Out)The ship-owner is free from responsibility of the shipment when theterminal is automated. Ship-owner assumes the costs of unloading at thedestination. FIO (Free In and Out)The ship-owner is free from liability in shipments and discharges.The freight only covers the trip.37
  • 35. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS5.1.3.3 FIOS (Free In, Out and Stowage)The ship-owner is free of loading expenses, stowage on board andunloading at the destination. FISLO (Free In, Stowage and Liner Out)The ship-owner is free of loading costs and stowage on board. Theship-owner is responsible for unloading at the destination. LIFO (Liner In and Free Out)Ship-owner is responsible for loading and free from unloading costs. FIST (Free in, stowage and trimmed to vessel):The ship-owner is free of shipping costs. The stowage and trimming(loading balance) are at the expense of the ship-owner. FIOT (Free in, out and trimmed to vessel):The ship owner is free of loading charges. The expenses withtrimming (balance) and unloading charges are by ships account.5.1.4. Basic FreightShipping is based on relative occupation of weight and space ratecalculated by tonnage x cubic meters. Theoretically, the freight for a ton of ironore does not cost the same for a ton of soybeans, it is caused by the stowagefactor. The owner of a ship offers a number of cubic meters inside the holdsand a maximum tonnage for that same place. The best factor should be one tonequals one cubic meter with 100% for use. To know the stowage factor for38
  • 36. Egberto F Ribeirosome goods you have, just divide the cubic space you have for its gross weight.Thats why the stowage factor for soya beans is not the same for iron ore.Square goods will occupy less space than round or spherical goods, in this case,the empties place will be paid as if it were in use. So, goods with high stowagefactor are loosing space and must be analyzed a better use of its place. If thecargo must be processed to reduce the space, the goods must be fitted for lowcost in transportation. The cargo has to be fractionated in several parts toreduce the cost of freight. One piece of an aeolian generator is larger than twoforty feet containers and weights 50tons and causes serious trouble fortransportation from factory to the port. It should be divided in four pieces andput inside flat rack container with a little cost of freight.However, there are several other factors that influence the cost ofocean freight; ex:- special cargoes as 10m wide belt reels for mining industries,blades for aeolian generators and others. Despite of a low stowage factor,special cargoes are always a risk for the entire ship, which has to be controlledby ballast. There are tables with stowage factor for all goods, the user should tocompare if his product is in the average cost of freight or not and what shouldbe done to adapt his cargo inside a flat rack container. – Ad-valorem. – Increase on freights above $1,000/ton. – Port Addition – Applied on ship’s mooring without definedline or extra port services. (Ship arrival was not announced). – Fuel surcharge. – Variation in the currency contractedabout change in fuel supply.39
  • 37. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS5.1.4.4 – Over weight. – Freight on heavier cargoes. – Over length. – Goods measuring more than 12 m in length. – Port Congestion Surcharge. – Demurrage by waiting line. – Adjustment of exchange rates. – Variation caused byinflation or devaluation of the currency in the contract.40
  • 38. Egberto F Ribeiro6- CONTAINER WEIGHTThe World Trade Organization and other international associationslinked to foreign trade are solving a common problem at ports, ships, rails andtrucks on highways, the containers stability on the entire world. The focus ofthe discussions is on the weight, balance and equilibrium of containers and itsdocuments, which are causing many accidents, solely by false information ofthe unit’s weight. The worst is that it unbalances the ships bays, double-stackwagons and chassis on highways.Some shippers export containers without confirming the weights ofsome units are the same as those printed on each B/L. This is because too manyexporters request for printing packages with an estimated weigh. The industryprints on five faces of each cartoon with information not always correct as:exporter, importer, lot number, pack number, lot quantity, buyer, port ofdestination, net weight, gross weight and its measures. At a stage of packaging,the gross weight information are not checked, caused by theses label printed onthe boxes. When the lots are received at the port terminal, shippers will beinduced to add the weights reported and to type them on Bill of Ladings of each41
  • 39. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSlot inside each container from each Invoice. The total weighing of packages areon all documents and must never be changed.Products manufactured with the same material, the packaging of afull lot has that information printed on each side. However, when the productsare manufactured with diverse materials, various measures and differentindustries, certainly there won’t have the same weight. So, when the goods areshipped in containers, there will have great divergence between what is printedon boxes and on the documents. When the lots have small quantity of units, it ispossible to make the necessary corrections, but when the lots are fragmented indifferent measures and weights, the operation is time-consuming and too muchexpensive. The exporter must offer the correct weigh and exact measures andweights, before printing its B/L and all following papers. Lets remember thatthe main information is written on the Negotiable Bill of Lading, so it can beeasier or not to correct the Invoice, but it may delay the delivery. The exportermust have time enough to ask for a new one with all the weights gotten on thescale. There is the possibility to correct wrong weights, when the cargo is justimported and in regular inspection is found the number of units, or weigh notexactly as in the Bill of Lading. The importer has to send to the Customs adocument called Additive, it is internationally accept. Last year, BrazilianCustoms has accepted more than five million of these documents.If the documents submitted do not record the correct weight of thegoods, it will certainly cause the unbalance of the trucks, as soon as they leavethe consolidation area. Accidents are caused by incorrect information ofweight, because these mistakes alter the gravity center of the vehicle where the42
  • 40. Egberto F Ribeirocontainer is laid on. Governments must have Acts to rule on the weighing ofexporting containers loaded with cargoes.When a loaded container is put on a chassis without locking by anyway, two feet out of its correct place, backward or forward, caused bydispleasing or lack of attention, it will be enough to lift up, or to dive the truckscabin, impeding the correct driving. Sometimes, the wrong weigh is given bythe exporter order to hide profit evasion to any foreign country. They dontmind if it is discovered only when the crane cant to hoist the container byoverweight at destination. Sometimes, the wrong weight is purposeful; forexample an exporter industry has wood for shipping and hires several trucks forfull cargo freight. In that way, the total weigh is divided by the number oftrucks and the papers are typed for each truck with the same weight. When anycargo is loaded in a container, it’s paid for one unit, ignoring a scale to knowthe correct weight of each box.Shippers are used to consider a same weight for all trucks loadedwith a full cargo of 25 tons, they dont mind how different it is from the correctweighing. The shippers show the same weight for official documents and alsofor the sea freight. At the terminal gate, the truck with chassis is driven to ascale to check the real weight of 30 tons. Who loses is the driver for bringingfive tons for free, while wastes his money with fuel, tires, penalties, taxes etc.Lets think on what will happen when the lot has one hundred trucks.The stevedores will loose their commission. Also the Ship-owner,because he will transport five hundred tones for free and becomes an innocent43
  • 41. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSvictim, beyond the risk to have a shipwreck by wrong cargo plan. In addition,some accidents on roads may happen to innocent people, without any link withthese carriers. In this storm of irresponsibility, there is the way to identifycorrectly the weight of each container and its contents. Officiate the containerweighing at each gate of the container terminal. The terminal shall print oneticket of weighing for each container and non-invasive inspection by scannerand record on files to the correction of each B/L. For such service there will bea cost, near US$10,00 per container. It is a necessary matter to prevent not acompulsory penalty on container-carriers, but an avoidable accident.44
  • 42. Egberto F Ribeiro7 – MARITIME INSURANCEMaritime insurance was originated in ancient Greece and Rome toprotect private ships applied to wars. Later the insurance appeared in Genoaand England to protect cargo vessels from storm and loss of cargoes taken bypiracy in the Mediterranean Sea. After the Great Discovery, the Atlantic Oceansuffered for more than three hundred years the action of piracy and theirinsurance laws for body members lost in "service". The Prize Money in the18th century was an English Act to arrest ships. Beyond pirates ships, therewere the “privateers”, civilian ships with governments authorization to sail ashunter ships to enlarge their navy fleets in war. The privateer ship was a greatdeal, because had generated high profits to investors, as the ships had receivedletters from government, they were legal and few months later, a single shipcould get a fleet. At the beginning of the 19th century, the protection was byescort of vessels against countries in war, seeking for new ships to add to theirfleet. The expansion of the British Empire, the emerging Spanish competitor inthe insurance market by Yberica Company was won by Loyd’s Register, which45
  • 43. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSdeveloped a complete infrastructure with experts, judges, Royal Admiralty,bankers and brokers. Even though England does not have all ships on theworld, they earn annually part of the profits of all those ships. Shipping freightand insurance have risen the export costs for every international dealer. Despiteof the insurance be optional for owner of goods, it is imperative for ship-owners, because it may not only protect his ship, but several other near her. Thecost of insurance on goods will increase the value of goods; the tax triggeringenlarges the grand total sum on concurrent markets. Otherwise, the ships hullinsurance or third party machine is not a triggering event, because there is aknown preexisting value and the cost of the vessel.The marine cargo insurance is intended to protect the trade from lossand damage suffered by dangerous goods during a trip. The insurance also mustbe applied to any carriage to which the merchandises were transferred. It is asafe mode to keep the dealing gains between the origins to the final destination.The marine cargo insurance protects your trip, if your ship will come to causeany damage on Earth or at the sea. The vessel will be under investigation bymaritime accidents organs to define the responsibility. If the goods and thecontainer are not covered by insurance, the shipper or owner of the goods shallassume full responsibility for the claims, even if it has been caused by badweather. The insurance may be offered by a national company, but the warrantyis on who will provide better assistance in the event of loss or damage.Many insurance companies hire freelance agents or servicescompanies representing them in various ports worldwide or to P&I – Protectionand Indemnity Clubs. These associations or mutual insurance cooperatives46
  • 44. Egberto F Ribeiroprovide these service by its members; ship owners, operators, charterers, onclaims which are mentioned in various ports of the world. It is necessary to belegal and technical expertise, because this complex area involves variousinternational environments in its principles and terms; sinking, stranding,collision etc. Ships are too heavier than we think, a single touch causes greatdamages.7.1- The compensation of injured vessels is 75% of the total.7.2- The maritime insurance on cargo coverage starts at 5% after thevalue.7.3- To launch cargo overboard to save the ship requires theparticipation of other insurance coverage: Hull – engine – container boxes –goods.7.4- Collision: Shock between ships sailing against each other.7.5- Allision: Shock of ship against objects or stationary vessels.7.6- Removal: Remove debris from ships in the port, wharf, accesschannel, Bay of evolution etc.47
  • 45. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS8- THC - TERMINAL HANDLING CHARGES8.1 Warehousing Service ProvidersThe area where ships are moored to load and unload cargoes, iscalled by Authorities as the First Zone, it means that the area is the firstorganized place for people and goods to enter in a country. First Zone aredenominated the ports, airports and gates at the boundaries, where people andvehicles are ordered to enter and to leave a country. Persons must have theirpersonal papers to identify them, as passports or personal ID. Every cargo musthave Bill of Lading, International Manifest of Cargoes, Simplified Declarationof Import or Export, or other paper in convention by both countries.The Primary Zone is a very sensible place, because always there arepeople, ideologies and goods not allowed by the other country, but always thereare persons trying to cross hidden goods into the neighbor country without fees,or without permit, this is called smuggling. This is not a recent event, but ithappens for centuries and governments have to exchange their experiences to48
  • 46. Egberto F Ribeirofight smuggling. The governments are fighting against smuggling of drugs andguns, thats why there are inspectors, police, scanner, x-ray for containers. Inports, all the employees and workers from syndicates are controlled by theNavy and Customs Authorities. Nowadays, the international trade is carefulagainst the treacherous terrorism.The storage before shipment and transportation to the ship must becontracted with companies which offer storage facilities in a package ofservices, at reasonable prices. The goods for export are headed to the followingsteps before being stuffed into a container:8.1.1 The goods will be at an EADI, Dry Port or Container Terminal(Inland warehousing under Customs control). The storage must be the nearestas possible of the port, or the nearest possible to its equipments oftransportation.8.1.2 The unloading of the truck, boat, wagon etc. This cost must becalculated on real time of use the equipments. Do not accept to pay full hour ofequipment for only 15 minutes of real time of use.8.1.3 The storage of the cargo for separation. This is a place ofoperation where there are several lots to be loaded in few containers.8.1.4 The stuffing of the container and dispatching. The services onstore-yard or warehousing are done by companies which offers completeservice at competitive prices.8.1.5 Transportation to pre-stacking. The company receives thecontainer into its store-yard and delivers for loading. Sometimes there is a priceof free cost of storage.49
  • 47. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSThese steps can be performed by several companies or just a singlecompany that will offer this service package. The shipping of containers fromthe pre-stacking to the ship is due to the terminal that will charge the THC(Terminal Handling Charges).The services provided by workforce on land is paid by the user toPort Operator (Companies accredited to provide services inside the primaryzone). The services of the container receiving and unloading into the pre-stacking, storage and transportation to the ship are paid by exporters orimporters to Container Terminals. The cost of these services appear in the B/Las expenses with THC.8.2 Stevedore AgentTill February 25, 1993, the maritime service in Brazilian ports wasdone by the Stevedore Agents. The Agent was responsible for planning withPorts Authorities the ships operation to the following day. The edition of theLaw 8630, known as the Act of Port Modernization changed the StevedoreAgent service to Port Operator. The Law also provided a non profitOrganization called OGMO for the managing of Hand of Work. Since then,several Port Operators were being changed, when there was any fault. But intruth, this law aimed to transfer to the private sector the services of portworkers done by a secular union of Stevedores. To make possible thetransferring of rights was established a payment on the tonnage movement toestablish a compensation fund, which was supported by importers and exportersby 1995. Most union members did not join the indemnity plan, but the moneywas not returned to importers and exporters and almost twenty years later, none50
  • 48. Egberto F Ribeiroanswer was given to workers in several courts over the nation. This Law wasceased on December 06, 2012 and a new government measure was signed withsome new rules, but the President forgot to give an answer about the retainedmoney.This is the procedure of governments projects investments said tofavor workers and citizens in public services from cities to states and even thefederal government. If someone analyzes the GDP (Gross Domestic Product)on public works, will notice that the level shown doesnt correspond to theexisting services. Sometimes the work doesnt reach the half of the project,sometimes, none of the paid works were done, or it cost the double of itsstarting budget. The costs of hand of work, building material and equipmentsare the same during the year, but how did the engineers have committed sogreat mistake. The actual expenses on football stadium for Nations Cup andWorld Cup are all overpriced. A Billion Dollars is a big money, where was putso large amount of money shown on GDP, disappeared, or never existed? Is theGDP a new bubble on the entire world?8.3 Protector Maritime AgentProtector Agents are those who represent the vessel owners at everyport, to attend the vessels need. They are the receivers of import documents andprovide the delivery of copies to government agencies at the port. They keepdaily contact with ports authorities to notice the ETA/ETD (Estimated Time ofArrival and Estimated Time of Departure). Protector Agents are the freightsellers to fill all holds and cells of the ships. They type all letters given to IRSand represent the vessels commandant. They request the vessel to entry into the51
  • 49. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSport at the Navy, berthing, fuel, supply of water, food and payments for crew.The Maritime Agent delivers the B/L to the broker to fill for calculations offreight. They present it to the ships Captain after the cargo loading, due to thesigning of B/L taking on board for deliverance of the Letter of Credit. TheAgent controls all service requests to the ship along the harbor.8.4 Port Operator.The on-board stowage services are performed by union of stevedores(syndicates) or employees of the port terminal. The stevedores are requested byPort Operators directly to OGMO for cargo handling services in the ships hold,from goods, fertilizer, grain or cars at Roll on/Roll off ships. The services is byday of work of 6 hours calculated on units of cargo, tonnage handled or bulkcargo trimming. The stevedores are paid by the shipowner to the Port Operatorwith the resource gotten by the freight.The Port Operator also does services at silos on discharge of trucksand wagons. The Port Operator also does services at ware houses to unloadcargoes for export as paper, lumber etc. Port Operator also does services forcargo handling for container inspections by Customs.8.5 Foreman-shipAll the workforce for ships and for primary zone is provided byOGMO. The services in warehouses, yards and at the ships hull are made byworkers unionized for a century before the Act of Port Modernization. Theactivities performed on the quay are called Foreman-ship and it exists since theBrazil colony. The Foreman-ship service is payable by the importer or exporterto the Operator by the OGMO the same way as the stevedores.52
  • 50. Egberto F Ribeiro8.6 Variable Cost of Cargo Handling.The variable costs on hands of work and rental of equipment forspecial cargoes, and to load and unload cargoes with large number of workersrise the variable cost. The costs will be more expensive if handled bystevedores, or cheaper if moved by machines, better is when the cargoes areunitized. The costs will be more expensive when the cargoes are moved byequipments which belong to the ship, or cheaper when are moved byequipments from the port facilities. The fixed cost of freight is based on thesame calculation: distance, type of vessel, cargo capacity, equipment on boardand suffer the same extras costs worldwide.8.7 Where Economy Fails.Before the World War II, the variable costs had reached at 37% ofsea freight. In the postwar period, these costs rose to 60% of freight. Thisincrease in cost was due in part to inflation occurred at that time and also thegrowth in numbers of airplane for passengers instead of usual ships.From the ancient Roman Empire, there has been constant proceduresto reduce freight costs. The construction of the Corinth lane by the Romans,with slave labor force of Jewish prisoners, is an expensive example to solve thewell known ratio: distance and cost. Other lanes built centuries later as; Suezand Panama show the concern of the British and Americans in the reduction ofthe freight costs.Governments and companies have developed methods andtechniques to reduce the costs of production. The whole infrastructure of anindustry from the facilities, personnel, raw materials, production, environment53
  • 51. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSand taxes are subjugated to the flavor of freight which tries to annihilate thecompetition.The distribution costs must be understood as investment to reduce itsown expenses and to reduce the working time. One Distribution Center canbelong to one company and be hired to another. The best equipment is thatapplicable in the own country and abroad. It requires asymmetry of methodsapplied on transport by sea and land, on new operational techniques and newfacilities at seashore or inland. All of that is a large effort to reduce costs,however, the diverging lines of thinking appear when investing are very highand incomes are too low.Initially, nobody knew exactly what to do with the first computers,even today, e-commerce is so obscure which needs constant management of itssystem. The unknown owners of a new electronic gold mine were suggestinghuge gains sharing papers from companies operating through the internet.These companies were talking about a millionaire promising capital in a nearestfuture, but the company didnt worth ten thousand dollars. This expectation ofeasy gain was a trap for incautious investors, whose economies haveevaporated from night to day. In this same trick had fallen investors on woodenhouses made of taeda pine, abundant wood from the East Coast to the MidWest in the USA.There are today around 100 million wooden houses in the USA, 38million are rented and 18 million are closed, including 10% of new homesawaiting sale for over a year. The houses and apartments are built all over theworld, very appreciated are those made of bricks and concrete. In Europe, Asia54
  • 52. Egberto F Ribeiroand South America, the wooden houses are popular and inexpensive. In U.S. anew wooden house with three bedroom cost an average of US$400K, whichwere easily financed under mortgage in long term. After ten years, the financialcosts were too high and the houses needed to repairs at the half of its value.These fantastic wooden mansions were built in two months and soldoverpriced, from 10 to a hundred times over the values of materials and othercosts applied on its construction. In less than ten years, these houses were rotand plenty of termites and other flying insects infesting every part of thesepalaces. Currently, a three-bedroom house needs four days to replace thesynthetic wall panels, PVC windows and thermal insulation, at an average costof $25K. Despite of all such expenses on the entire house, no one will pay morethan $100K. Such formula rises the national GDP to unreal levels, but causessevere damages to the entire world economy. The slogan of a termite controlcompany panels at the roads: "Termites work 24 hours a day, we too." Theseopposing values between debts and real state market induced the owners to giveback their properties to the banks, generating a book loss of $6 trillion dollars.The procedure to rise up easily the GDP of any country to amazing heights wascalled "bubble" by economists.When a corrupt country has several investments budget of billion ofdollars, the costs rise quickly over 50% “according the law” and by analysis ofthe Union Court of Accounts. Nobody understands what happened to that risingof costs, if the engineers made any mistake in the structural calculus, or if therewas any reason for those materials appear with a new price. Sometimes, it iscaused by corruption, but sometimes it seems to be the bubble effect on GPD.55
  • 53. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSBillion of dollars is a so huge amount of money that it is easily analyzed, whenthe GPD is compared to the percentage of the governments revenues.56
  • 54. Egberto F Ribeiro9- EQUIPMENTS FOR CONTAINERS9.1 Side-loader Lancer.In the beginning of the 1970 decade, the Brazilian governmentfollowing the plan of development PND1, had sent to the Paranagua Port 16cranes from Germany, one floating crane for 100 tons made in Hungary, fourlocomotives from Japan, a complete grain complex for 100k tons, loading cargoequipment with four ship loaders from Japan and two Side-loader Lancer forcontainer, from a lot of five made in England. The main reason was to attendthe building of the giant plant of Itaipu at the Parana River in association withthe Paraguayan Government. The two Lancers had served the Port very well foralmost twenty years. The two Lancers had served the Port very well for almosttwenty years. Stevedore and workers had seen at night, how the discharge tubeshad gotten red, almost melted by its extreme pressure to elevate a container tilltall three. Even following the maintenance manual, the lives of both machineshave reached at the end after very often loss of oil, these equipments wererepaired and sent to another port of Recife in the Northeast of Brazil.57
  • 55. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS9.2 Ready to Move.Containers can be moved by stationary or mobile cranes on rail,lifted by four corner fittings provided with lockers. Containers of 20 have twoopenings through lower bars for handling by fork lift or heavy cargo lift. Only20 containers with cargo can be moved by those openings. Containers 40 werenot made to be moved when loaded by these openings. Some 40’ containers arenot provided with openings, exactly for do not allow any mistake.The containerization system has been the main center of attention ofgovernments all over the world, when the treatment is on transportation. Toattend the new system since the seventies, the UNCTAD has developed amethod of work common in several countries. At the APPA Port, someemployee, including me have been trained in this method to work on equaloperation with containers in pre-stacking, stuffing, documents, shipping andequipments. To give a wide view on port operation, the Port invited someemployees to prepare their own didactic material to teach their dominated areasof work in port service as; warehousing, port operation, port income, payments,port finances, personal relationship, personal security, import & export process,equipments and Container Terminal Administration. All work colleagues havebeen trained in this new system, knowing the containerization and portoperation according the last studies to give them the best knowledge, comparedwith big wages managers in private companies. The training was necessary toraise the common knowledge of the employees to an advanced level foranalysis of methods and legal procedure in a wharf which works 24/7.Otherwise, the company would have to hire skilled people to solve troubles58
  • 56. Egberto F Ribeiroanytime. The level of study of all workers was the high school, but in portoperation the workers didnt know enough the methods and always followed theAgents suggestions. When several services were incorrectly done, theresponsibility was always by the companys account. After the training, theworkers began to have the companys point of view and several servicesconsidered without bills, because it was to a friend, began to be payed by users.To a better understanding, the port was usual to do for free services notprovided in the cost list; ex: forklift for cargo inspection; crane to remove a pre-stacking. Beyond to know how to work with container, the training was addedto old methods by Port National Departments and Port Government Companyfor cargoes in bulk, as cargo plan, cargo inspections, port security,warehousing, how to identify container, how to identify the classes of fire andhow to operate correctly the equipments.After several years, the global system of work has been fragmentedand the countries are no more actuating according the same rules. Thats whythere are almost 15% of goods being produced oversized for containermeasures. But when it needs to be moved by containers, the operation is lazyand plenty of accidents. Ive been giving support to teachers and students atAdministration courses, industries and producers allowing them to read ordownload my book "Logistica de Container" and "Elements of Port Logistics"for free. I believe they have to get knowledge on port operation for do not failin international trading. The Port Operation is a theme not explained at theuniversities of Administration. This is the same as to teach laws, signs and rulesto someone to get a car drive license, without teaching him how to drive. In the59
  • 57. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSlast three years, my books and pictures have been read and seen by thousand ofstudents in Brazil and over the entire world through the sites belonged to scribdand issuu. The interest of readers from Americas, Europe, Africa, India andAsia has encouraged me to write this book and to translate it to severallanguages, to give them some knowledge in containerization and new methods.9.3 Container on Chassis.The amount of containers to be moved on any port, containerterminal or store-yard will determine the types of equipments. Ports or privatestore-yards for empty containers which move few containers, less than fiftyunits, dont have any reason to be provided of heavy and expensive equipments.The forklifts with capacity for up to 10tons are economically viable to moveempty containers of 20, with spread can move 40 quickly. When the shipsETA is three days, empty containers in warehouse for stuffing must be ready(cargo and documents) for shipment and has to be sent to the port. The port pre-stacking will have as much loaded chassis as the necessary for shipping. Thecontainer terminal also may have a parking for containers on chassis, allalongside each other at 45º of formation, to enter by one road of the parkingand go out by the first front road. That is a formation for any one container bemoved anytime. The chassis will be moved alongside the ship by trucks at thetime to load on board. The discharge of containers with imports LCL, will besent to warehousing at the Customs care. The empties containers on chassis willbe sent back to the ship, or will be sent to store yard. The empty Forklifts forten tons with spreader are also fitted for both TEUs on ISO measures, whenempties can reach tall three.60
  • 58. Egberto F Ribeiro9.4 Chains and Steel Cables.Do not use chains to lift a container, because when the chain is looseon the ground, the rings are always twisted and they suffer a sudden bumpunder heavy weight and when get aligned breaks itself. Look carefully the steelchain to see if it is in good condition; when the ring is like a groundnut, itmeans that is almost broken. The best work is gotten with steel cables, but itmust never be pulled on the ground, it suffers the abrading effect and becomesuseless in minutes. Steel cables must never reach its extreme resistance,because it loses the validity and will break. For loads of 10tons use cable for12tons; for 50tons, use cables for 60tons.9.5 Damages.Damages in containers are always caused by drivers, but sometimesthe stevedore equipments are not adequate for such work. When a forkliftdriver rises up a 40’ container by the lower panel, he will cause serious damageon its lower structure, breaking the steel bars and the plywood on the floor.Another mistake done by forklift drivers, which cause damages on anycontainer happens when he lays down on the upper panel (roof); cables,lockers, parts of spreader or stevedore articles. Later, the driver puts anothercontainer over that one with steel articles and the roof will be drilled and thelower panel will be broken. Another case, the driver has to move the containerand forgets there are loose pieces laid on the upper panel, which may fall downon someone or over himself. The forklift or gantry crane spreader for containerhas automatic corner guides to lock it, which is dangerous and may cause61
  • 59. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSsevere injury on workers at the corner of the container. The equipments forcontainers are the same on the entire world, since the same suppliers aremaking the most of this machinery for containers. Forklift to transport seacontainer of 40 with telescopic spreader may have latches to raise the containerby its front panel or by the top panel. Some users leave wooden packing or partof loads in empty containers that exceed the nominal weight of the unit andalways cause accidents. A forklift for 10 tons is steady enough to move anempty 40’ container, whose weight is near 4ton and the spread is no more than2 tons.9.6 Port Forklift > Reach-stacker > Straddle Carrier.Containers of 20 and 40 loaded must be moved by special vehiclesbuilt to transport them, as a rubber-tired Straddle Carrier. These are the threegenerations of container lift machines, after the Lancer system. The onlytrouble involving these machines is the wide area to move them and the lowheight them can stack.When a ship with equipments arrives to operate in a port withoutcranes, the Agent advice is to contract previously private trucks with chassis for25 tons to serve the operation. Container Terminal with facilities to attend twoship to shore gantry cranes must have a pre-stacking yard near the ship. Theport facility must have crane with hook to move bars for 20 and 40 containers,fitted with eyelets for attaching steel cables. Even though, a good work at lowcost is a stack reacher with forklift for 30tons for 20 and 40, with telescopicspreader. The spreaders with automatic control extends the bars with lockers62
  • 60. Egberto F Ribeirofor containers from 20 to 40. Despite of several measures for containers, onlythese measures are worldwide accepted. Some spreaders are provided withcorner guide to position correctly on the corner fitting to lock the container,workers must keep clear for do not suffer any injury.9.7 Intermodal Terminals.Intermodal also uses equipments for containers over rails or tires,while these are more versatile than those, both require a lot of time formaneuvers. The container yard for Straddle carrier with tires must have theground angle at 2% for rainwater drainage. The concrete on steel surface shouldbe mechanically smoothed to prevent premature tire wear. The train withcontainers comes into the Intermodal yard for weighing and non-invasiveinspection by X-ray. After that, wagons with containers are positioned forunloading. The Straddle Carrier drives on its road for operation above thewagons. The trucks bringing chassis stop alongside the wagons. The containeris transferred from the wagon to the chassis which heads to gate for weighingand scanning to receive the order of free output; it isnt to work twice, but toconfirm that the same container and contents which have entered in theIntermodal are these which are being delivered. This truck will carry thecontainer to its destination in the region, store, hypermarket or port terminal.Stationary crane on wheel is wide enough to have below it onewagon rail and one road for trucks to transfer a container from one means oftransport to another. Straddle Carriers operate to load and unload trucks orwagons and to take the container for stacking. To move the wagons will be63
  • 61. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSnecessary one locomotive, much more expensive than a truck, but a train withten wagons can be pulled by two pay-loaders with steel cables. To stackcontainers in a numbered square of the yard, where there is high movement, thebest equipment is the Transtainer (semi-portal crane) on rails. It has telescopicspread for 20 and 40 and is wider than the square of the yard to lift and lowercontainers on any place.64
  • 62. Egberto F Ribeiro10- CLEAN CONTAINER TRANSPORTIONAccording international studies and appliance of imperative rules onclean transportation, shipowners and technology companies have developedsoftware to improve the better condition of navigation for their vessels. Thebest efficient engines, hydrodynamics designs, ballast control and several otherresources under studies to obey the governments rules.In Brazil, since 1960 the universities are following several lines ofthinking as in France, Germany, China, Japan and several other countries,searching for high knowledge on linear magnetic transportation and its benefits.If there is the possibility to eliminate fuel consumption on any shore equipment,it will be helping the navigation on global reduction o carbon emissions.The technical models of magnetic devices applied on transportationof passengers and now to move cargoes in containers. These advanced projectsare available when we analyze the gross weigh of a sea container divided by allsquare meters of its lower panel. While a chassis over wheel divides the same65
  • 63. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICScontainers weigh by its axles and/or by its wheels which receive all theconcentrated weight of cargoes on less than one square meter. Two TEUs withgross weight of 28 tons on a truck of two axles and eight tires, when each onereceives 3,50tons, or the total of 28tons/m². Thats an equation which can besolved by a device called “Traytainer”. Its a set of a steel frame fortransportation of two 20 containers or one 40 container on a horizontalmagnetic lane, for storage of containers in horizontal drawers and fortransportation on inclining ramps from 8% to 15%, according the weight.The ground structure for magnetic system is 90% lighter thanconventional rail. Also the radius can be smaller; 60m diameter forelectromagnetic system, against 250m diameter for conventional rail. Lets havea glimpse on new methods and systems for sea containers storing which moveunder high rails on ports and terminals, beyond several studies on PortOperation on the entire world.10.1 High Rail.In this method, the container is lifted by a spreader below a high railand moved by electric engine under a steel structure through the terminal. Itmoves containers from the terminal to the ship, in a trip near to one mile. Thissystem causes material fatigue on the container corner lockers and on its lowpanel, beyond the spreader cables and lockers.10.2 Trucks.The container can be moved by tractor trucks at the ship. This is themost usual system in all ports, but there is large fuel consumption, which isalways repeated on all system.66
  • 64. Egberto F Ribeiro10.3 Automate.The container is moved from the store-yard to the ship on chassis bytractor trucks or tugs moved by remote control at very low speed guided bysensors of command installed into the ground.10.4 Wagon.The container on wagons are moved by diesel-electric trains. Thissystem must offer control on weighing and scanning by the rail company.10.5 Cryogenic Levitation.In 1911, the Dutch physicist Dr. Heike K. Onnes began to study thephenomenon which cuts off the electrical resistivity on materials, known assuperconductors, when cooled at critical temperatures. Twenty years later, theGerman physicists Dr Fritz Walther Meissner and Dr Robert Ochsenfeld havecontinued the studies on diamagnetic actions of superconductors, or theMeissner-Oschenfeld effect. Some experiments with liquid Nitrogen at -196ºhave been done since then to understand why superconductors have excludedits magnetic power and how to use it. The cold action of the liquid Nitrogen onmagnets made of ceramic rare-earth materials, with properties which dontsuffer any structure damage, but builds a diamagnetic field. This is a field withhuge strength to float softly an upper magnet and to attract it at the same time.The double action done by the superconductor to repel and to attract theopposite bodies has a singular benefit, the floating body cant fall down, when itis pulled up, it offers stability to the floating body. The diamagnetic field repelsboth bodies, the superconductor and the magnet, but at the same time keep bothattracted to themselves. After few seconds without cold supply, the67
  • 65. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSsuperconductor becomes demagnetized till to lose its properties and the uppermagnet falls down. These properties offer the possibility to drive a body on achosen frost lane between several lanes in normal temperature, from one lane toother without to lose the speed.To prevent the loss of cold, the frozen superconductor must beplaced on the lane to have control supply of liquid Nitrogen. The liquid isdistributed by tubes and controlled by a Center of Operation. This method canbe applied on Traytainers as support for container transportation on magneticmattress. As the shelves system for stacking is near to the cryogenic center, thesystem is available for immediate application. People may say: “OK! let’s useliquid nitrogen, but where to get it in liquid state?” There are atmosphere airprocessor centers in every big city to supply oxygen to hospitals, metallurgyindustries, or dry ice, where the nitrogen is a sub-product.The electrical resources are expensive, however, the cost of thecryogenic system is expected to be lower. It is available in both regions;tropical countries and cold regions, where the steel frames are blocked by snowfor few days, or weeks. It is to realize that a complete trip takes two weeks tobring containers from the tropics to cold regions. But it may have effectivecleanse with hot air tubes below the frames, for both systems of magneticmattress, knowing that ships for shelves dont need hatch cover, because theywill be covered at side and top. The cryogenic system for magnetic mattress issuitable, because it freezes so fast as the time of movement spent by eachTraytainer to go from the ship to the shelves.68
  • 66. Egberto F Ribeiro10.6 MagLev.There are three known technologies to move a body on magneticsystem; the Maglev in China is in operation for several years applyingelectromagnet for levitation under vector-control. The second technology is theelectrodynamic known as the HSST in Japan, which needs some speed to beginthe levitation, so it must have wheels and rails for low speed. The third systemis the cryogenic with ceramic superconductors at critical temperature withpermanent magnet, or electromagnet coils moved by linear motor. This is thesystem in development in Brazil at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro bythe physicist Dr Richard Stephan. The professor leads a team of work withother institutes, they have made prototypes for students, visitors and observersto have a general glimpse of the futurist application of that new methods ofmagnetism. The cryogenic transportation is one of the most attractiveexperiments in the campus. However, the advanced state of knowledge iswidening the industry horizon and power plants to reduce its size and toeliminate its bearing systems.The need of deep ports for Post Panamax ships is a brainstorm togovernments and investors throughout the world. The containers moved onmagnetic system seams to be the solution for transportation of containers on theUSA, from West Coast to East Coast on a structure for twenty lanes to onedirection and twenty lanes above to contrary direction with low cost ofmaintenance.69
  • 67. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS10.7 Cable Car.The container is lifted by a spreader and moved by steel wireelevated by towers for long distances between mountains. This system causesmaterial fatigue on the container corner lockers and on its low panel.10.8 Sea Truck.Each container sails as a boat and is self propelled by remote controlto land on a port or beach. This system is difficult to use when grounded at abeach, because there are the effects of waves, sand and tides to win.10.9 DivetainerThe Divetainer is the underwater system of transportation idealizedto take advantage of the zero gravity. This is a hermetic codified capsule,controlled under submarine principles, an opening on its top to be loaded withtwo TEUs (one container 40 or two 20 containers). The Divetainer movesitself inside an open steel frame assembled with three rails with electromagnetplates for propulsion and to guide the unity. This is a system to operate as a freewagon in deep sea at speed near 18miles/h (33,33km/h) at reduced cost perhour of trip. The Divetainer has a control center which monitors by sensorsduring all the trip.The unit doesnt have crew, nor navigation instruments as GPS,compass, propeller, radar, and all equipments seen in ships. The Divetainer is3,5m high and 15,00m long. It has hydrodynamic design to slide at zero-gravitywith low energy consumption. It works alone, without any link to the nextDivetainer. However, sets of sensors are installed on the frames, for keeping intouch the unity, the line of operation, the condition of security, the control70
  • 68. Egberto F Ribeirocenters from the departing port and all ports alongside the line till to the port ofdestination. The Divetainer works inside a triangle frame with three rails toguide and electricity supply made of copper-base alloy and carbon, samematerial found in brushes for electric devices, for do not suffer the electrolysiserosion, very common in metallic parts. There is great possibility to improvethe use of wireless power inside the water. The Divetainer has double front toreduce the turbo whirling of water and can go back without the need to turnaround toward changing its direction, so it can slide forward and backward bylinear electromagnetic power controlled by an operational center.The containers of 20 or 40 can be loaded at a quay in shallowwaters, but with depth enough to operate in low tides and to load the TEUs intothe Divetainer. The control of equilibrium is needed for TEUs, with heavyweights of cargo, or even low weight of cargoes, which must be steady in thecenter on the containers. The water tanks are controlled by sensors andcomputer to keep the balance at zero weight. The Divetainer is tough to beclosed tightly and able to be moved by electromagnets coils installed in theframe assembled in a line laid on the seabed from shallow waters to deepwaters. The frame is made by steel bars and elevated by steel columns onconcrete to laid on the sea bottom with height and length according the soilgeography to be free from obstacles as dredging, heavy traffic lanes,earthquakes, fishing-nets, water streams. The energy supply is gotten throughthe upper angle where there is a chamber to actuate as bell to capture energyand to release the hydrogen gotten by the electrolysis, which can be capturedand sent to mainland. The wireless system to transfer electricity is ideal for all71
  • 69. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSoperation, as it operates in mono phase at low tension. To prevent accidents andmalfunction a second set of monitoring cables and accessories must beinstalled.Beyond the transportation of containers, the Divetainer is suitable assubmarine for passengers or touristic short trips. This system can movecontainers between ports, countries and continents. The system of Divetainerhas frame to operate with a minimum of three lines: 1. Forward. 2. Backward.3. Maintenance. According the need, a hub can be installed with several lines toserve nearest ports for separation of lines which leaves and arrives to the mainline and for maintenance. This is the end of piracy on high sea.10.10 Shore-to-ship Gantry CraneRubber Tyre Gantry CraneThe generations of Gantry Cranes grew up after the bridge craneswhich showed their good stowage into warehouses. Since than, jib-cranes havebeen developed for ships, ports, industries and buildings. The system of gantry-crane for shipyards were applied on port quays, usually over steel wheel tomove over rails, or tires for a free circulation on port terminals. Beyond thetechnical of industrialization to make these cranes, there are the skilfuloperators, with their big paychecks.10.11 ChassisThe chassis are used by tractor, trucks or tugs, it has two axles andeight wheels to move one forty feet container or two twenty feet containers.The chassis are adequate for transportation of empties containers or withcargoes. Its low weight offers fast operation of loaded containers to be sent to a72
  • 70. Egberto F Ribeiropre-stacking, Intermodal or centers of delivery. The container terminals havehundreds of chassis to move containers. When there is no container fortransportation, the chassis are stored on a pile, one over the other. Very often,there are too many chassis stored on open sky, than in use. The large number ofchassis belongs to multimodal terminals, investments banks, drivers ortransportation companies. The weight of a chassis varies from 3,5tons to 5tons,they are called low weight chassis, because there are other heavier with 12wheels weighing almost 10tons, to carry 35tons of grains. When emptieschassis are moved, we have to consider that its own weigh is moved severaltimes, generated by a necessary relocation and costs. If the weigh of a kind ofchassis without wheels is around half ton and if ten of them can be moved in asingle bundle, certainly it should offer a great economy in a year of operation,this is the main target with this work.10.12 Rail for SpreaderThis is a system where the container is lifted by spreader and movedby electric engine or electromagnetic system under a steel frame with railhanged as cable-cars. The container is a heavy cargo and causes materialfatigue of the corners lockers on the top panel and the inner base of the inferiorpanel of the container. The movement of spreader with cable is not always soft,but shakes and trembles the container, that may cause any damage to its cargoor to the container structure.10.13 TraytainerWhile the heavy industries on the entire world are building shipseach time larger to carry cargoes in containers. The Ports Authorities have to73
  • 71. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSdevelop new methods, to buy new lands for berths, to buy large equipments tofollow the fast evolution on new technologies. Since the last ten years, giantship to shore gantry cranes are rising as rain forest at seashore.Despite of the Traytainer project has born as a new system of work,it isnt so modern at all, because for more than two thousand years, the goodswere being loaded on board of sailing boats over ramps. Cargoes were loadedin leather boxes to be moved on men shoulders, bags or barrels which wererolled by workers from the wharf to boats deck and holds. Only by thebeginning of the last century, the handling of cargoes with ropes and boomswere being improved by steam, hydraulic pressure and electricity to movecranes and winches applied to load cargoes on vertical transportation. Thehorizontal methods of transportation on board are still in full work in ships asroll-on/roll-off, ferry-boats and by belts for grain bulk cargoes, ore and pushedby hands on airplanes.Sometimes, we have the solution near to us for a better method ofshipping, but we dont see it. Ex: When youll go to a quay with a boy, wherethere are fishing boats whose weight is near 15 tons, try to ask him to push oneof them. Youll see how he does it easily, now ask him to try to lift up the sameboat, youll see he cant. Thats the way how the Traytainer and shelf systemwork. You have to keep the set of Traytainer and shelf on the same level andwith low consumption of energy, youll move a container on a lane, as the boaton the sea. Automatizing the container operation on the same level reduces thecontinuous effort to lift and to lower a single container.74
  • 72. Egberto F RibeiroThinking on that, I have developed this new equipment to carry twoTEUs and so reduce to half the movements of containers and a new method ofshipping to improve the operation through the unitization method. This systemof operation increases the speed for unloading and loading large ships, mediumships, full-containers and smaller ships. This method needs a new system forcontainer storage, which reduces the land area for terminal facilities, withoutexpensive equipments, landfill nor streets. The transportation of containerswont be done on the ground, but over our heads.The Traytainer operates in a shelf system for container storage onboard of ships, in the pre-stacking or in containers terminals to keep thecontainers in the same level, from the pre-stacking to the ships cell. To move acontainer from store to ship on the same level reduces from eight movements;to lift up and to lower to only two movements.All Traytainers must have magnets with the same power to elevatean area of 30m² for one 40 container or two 20 with a maximum weight of30tons. As the Traytainer operates in short time and the magnets are fed bycontinuous current of energy, there is the possibility to supply theelectromagnets coils and locks with rechargeable battery. When the Traytaineris applied on long trip, other choice is to energize the units by wireless supplyor brush connectors. Permanent magnet are allowed for long distances withprotection for do not attract undesirable objects. The lanes where theTraytainers will slide on will be supplied by cryogenic system to keep thediamagnetic effect in order to offer speed, stability and easy changing of lanesto guide units from one destination to another. The industries where the coils75
  • 73. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSfor linear motor will be made must be certified by its country technicalassociations.The Traytainer will work in shelves at any place, from containerterminals to ships and all facilities must to assemble the structure with the samekind of material and measure at quays and for long distances. The Traytainerhas the same measure of the 40 containers bottom rail, whose structure has thesame thickness. The frame has three more rails to support the magnets and thesame quantity of crossbars. The Traytainers bridge, shelf, structures and theconnection system for electrical supply must be the same. The methods forassembling the shelves by welding at the terminal and ships holds, it will beallowed to operate only after certification.The Traytainer is moved by itself, without ship to shore quay crane.Only under extreme cause a quay crane will be used. The gantry crane on rail atthe terminal yard will be used to carry containers from truck, wagons or boatsto the shelf. Each unity of Traytainer is moved on a lane, floating onelectromagnetic field, without link to other units in front or behind it. The lanesare built on the shelves frames and on a bridge to move Traytainers from pre-stacking to ships. The Bridge is not foreseen to lift up or to lower theTraytainers, its only a bridge where the units will cross over it, from one side toother. The Traytainer operates at low speed and gradual control for lifting upand down, without to cause any damage to the cargoes into the containers.The transportation on magnetic field can succeed with electricalpower from batteries to supply Traytainers, or ceramic made of rare-earth forpermanent magnets with property of diamagnetic field by cryogenic levitation,76
  • 74. Egberto F Ribeirosupplied by liquid nitrogen below the lanes. The magnet field can be producedby electromagnet coils, at low consumption of energy and also gotten bypermanent magnet. When the Traytainer is empty without work, it will bestacked on other units, as the permanent magnet can attract loose metallicpieces, it must be stored in safe place, as the known heavy sound speakers. Fordo not cause damages and accidents, it must have a protective covering.Permanent magnets can’t be attached directly under any containers base panel,because it wasnt built for such use. The container must be laid on theTraytainer and locked on its four corners, for do not fall down, the diamagneticaction allows the safe movement on the lane and drive control.77
  • 75. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS11 - CONTAINER MODEThe container is a unity for operation by all means of transportation,from cargoes to load and selective freights. Under this world of possibilities,the user can rent a container for a private trip, or to share a common containeramong several users, at a very low cost to everyone. The shipowner can alsooffer good freight in his ship for a container which belongs to one client. Theships captain always have a container to share at low freight to several users.When anyone of this cases appear, there is a code which is written on theInvoice and on the Bill of Lading. The sign “/”, means that the left side of thebar is the port of delivery and the right side is the port of destination.11.1 A:– FCL – Full Container Loading (one user per container).11.2 B:– LCL – Less than Container Loading (multiple users percontainer).There is the combination of use; FCL/FCL – The same deliver andreceiver. LCL/FCL – Several deliverers to one receiver. LCL/LCL – Severaldeliverers to several receivers. FCL/LCL – One deliverer to several receivers.78
  • 76. Egberto F Ribeiro11.3– Contracts for transportation in containers should cite its mode;H/H – House to House, FCL/FCL, LCL/LCL. Its an operational information,regardless the transaction shall be FOB, CIF or any other mode by Incoterms.P/P – Pier to Pier and SC – Ships Convenience. These are the onlymode which are not written on Invoices and Bill of Ladings, because this meanthat the cargo arrived at the port without any container and that will bedelivered at the port of destination without any container. When there is thiskind of cargo in container, the procedure is to unload the container immediatelyand to provide a receipt of cargoes.11.4 – To officially understand the modal of a container at each port,the Invoice and B/L use a bar separating the two sides of both abbreviations.The left side refers to the port of shipment and the right side refers to the port ofdestination; FCL/FCL. The usual in all ports worldwide is to allow containersto be dispatched by importer to another city, or to another inland country underCustoms orders. That is to assure transporters and port operators for do notbreak its seal to open that container. If by any occurrence, that container shouldbe opened, the port Customs must be noticed by letter to provide an inspection.The abbreviation “FCL” means Full Container Loading, and declares thecontainer under this mode belongs to only one hirer. When a container in themode FCL arrives to any port, according the Bill of Lading, and after thenotification to importer to provide the dispatch, there is no answer. After threemonths, the terminal where the sealed container is, must send a letter to theCustoms to declare the abandonment of cargo. Thats for cargo not be storedindefinitely at the container terminal.79
  • 77. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS11.5 The abbreviation “LCL” means Less than Container Loading,it declares the container under this mode has goods belonging to severalimporters. This mode is used when several exporters hire one container to sendgoods to another port, where several importers will receive the goods withoutthe container. When containers under that mode LCL arrive at a port withimported goods, according the Bill of Lading, they must be sent to beunconsolidated in less than 24 hours to be dispatched by importers and theempty container be sent to its owner.11.6 The abbreviation “SC” means Ships Convenience, it declaresthe container is under the shipowner responsibility. This mode is applied whenthere is several small-volume lots to exportation. The carriers Agent offerscontainers for all small lots to be loaded into the port or Container Terminal,under the Customs authorization. These containers must be discharged at theport of destination and be sent to be unconsolidated in less than 24 hours. Themode SC has total unloading preference at the port of destination, where thegoods will be stored, while the importer provides the dispatching at theCustoms. For this reason the port terminals of containers should position themimmediately for unstuffing. The empty container must be delivered back to thesame ship, or to another container yard. That order must be under letter by theAgent and distributed to ports authority and Customs.11.7 FCL/LCL means that the goods were loaded into the exportfactory and should be unstuffed at the port of destination.80
  • 78. Egberto F Ribeiro11.8 LCL/FCL means that the goods were loaded at the port oforigin and must be unstuffed only in the importers establishment.11.9 A container FCL/FCL cannot be opened during the transitbetween the export factory and the imports establishment.11.10 The term of container leasing starts with the delivery to theexporter’s address for stuffing. The end of use happens at the port ofdestination or in the importer’s address, when the empty container must bedelivered to its owner, or to his order, according the terms of leasing.The Demurrage happens before stuffing or after the end of the trip atthe port of destination, caused by process tardiness. Generally the lay-time isnegotiated to 15 days after the ships departure, or twenty days, if the containeris in transit to another country. Daily penalties for container delay are $7.50 fortwenty-feet and $15.00 for forty-feet. There are too many cases in which thepenalties for delay time overcomes the value of goods, the importer is inducedto abandon it in the primary zone. When happens any trouble to imports, thecontainer must be unstuffed as soon as possible.11.11 Eventually some containers must be opened for physicalinspection, if there is any technical problem, the merchandise return deadlineprobably wont be met. There will be financial losses with operational delaytime, opening services payment, storage, loading and unloading each container.When a port or country is problematic, the most advisable container mode mustbe Port to Port.81
  • 79. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS11.12 The levying of port storage is a percentage for calculating theCIF value of the goods, multiplied by the number of days under guard.11.13 Despite the existence of various measures of containers,Brazilian law recognizes only the twenty and forty feet laid down by ISO(International Standard Organization) International Organization forstandardization.11.14. The high incidence of smuggling in Brazilian ports obliges theGovernment to take action, not always conducive to honest importers. Nationalcigarettes were found in containers said to contain toys; computer parts wherewas said to contain clothes.11.15 Governments should require importers or exporters ofcontainer cargo, weight and quality certificates provided by internationalcompanies control, in order to avoid the opening of containers and disasters byoverweight or in container loads. These companies have subsidiaries worldwideand accompany all operations with the goods contracted by interested parties.The certification for weight and quality is searched by qualified controllers,analyzing samples and notifying the owner of any changes that may occur.Certificate of weight and quality commitment extends from origin to theaddress of delivery. Upon arriving at their destination, the weight of thecontainer will be rechecked and the samples will be analyzed to see again thesame characteristics of the purchased products. These companies have goodinternational concept and can be used by Governments on the entire world.Thats the way to get the best monitoring of goods in containers.82
  • 80. Egberto F Ribeiro11.16 The importers and exporters must be careful with the correctname of each lot of goods, because any divergence with the NBM (BrazilianNomenclature of Goods) will be considered as false declaration and thesubsequent seizure of the goods: mistakes as T-shirt short sleeved by T-shirtlong sleeved, or shirt long sleeved by shirt short sleeved, already have been inmany Customs auctions.11.17 When goods are "forgotten" by the importer in the primaryzone for more than 90 days, it will be related by the depositary andcommunicated to Customs, which has to enter in contact with the rightfulowners, giving them 30 days to dispatch its cargoes. The process ofabandonment will be finished and the goods will be related in terms ofConfiscation and put up for auction.11.18 If any merchandise is in the container and be some legal issue,the user must request the immediate unloading to avoid the containersDemurrage. After unloading the cargoes from each container, the user mustremove the merchandise from the primary zone and transfer it to a Customsarea, in latter case, return the goods for exporter, or sell it to another company.11.19 There is also the possibility to export the goods which has notbeen nationalized yet, when there is the exemption of taxes. Depending on theperiod, this export only will have handling costs, lower than the importdispatching.11.20 Another practice not recommended, but that must be known iswhen shippers dont hire marine insurance on goods and containers, in order to83
  • 81. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSreduce the value of the calculation basis. It is not a question of tax evasion, butonly to escape a tribute levied on services abroad under penalty of taking theabsolute injury in an accident about merchandise, container and third parties.The values of international insurance premiums should be recorded in the DIsto be taxed along with the values of the freight and goods.11.21 There is one question, whether it is just or not, the tax paymenton freight, insurance and services provided outside the exporter’s countryborder on international waters? If the triggering event occurs abroad, seems tobe a required import of tax, freight and insurance provided outside the nationalterritory. Wouldnt it be more good way to reduce a percent amount of freightand insurance for 200 miles? It is more reasonable, when a government appliesits national law of taxes on freight, only into its territory, not overseas. Thecoast line of each country is legal for taxing, but beyond that limit, there is onlyinternational waters. This payment raises the price of goods, which becomeeach time much more expensive.11.22 The physical survey consists to offload the container from thestack at a certain time scheduled by Customs Auditor, who shall authorize theopening by the dispatcher. The regular procedure is to examine a sample of thecontents to confirm the product as those declared by the Invoice and B/L.11.23 After checking "in loco" the goods and their correspondencewith the Invoice and B/L, the Auditor officer shall authorize to close and returnthe container to the stacking.84
  • 82. Egberto F Ribeiro11.24 After analyzing the correct government income paymentservice; the Auditor will access the Siscomex that issues the receipt completingthe nationalization and getting the DI Number.11.25 If there is any change with the weight of the container, seal,difference in the number of seal or sign of stealing. These clues are checkedquickly at the point of the vessel discharge or at the time of physical inspectionat the storage, it will motivate the importer or the Customs to request anOfficial Inspection.11.26 The Official Inspection. The Auditor responsible for thesurvey will require in writing the presence of a Commission composed by thecarrier, the importer, the insurer and the depositary to appear in date, time andplace.11.27 At the time of the survey, the auditor should confirm thepresence of all those summoned. Personnel, equipment and location for theplacement of the goods to be unloaded must be provided by the depositary.11.28 The Auditor authorizes the survey, initiating with theverification of the seal and the general conditions of the container. If all iscorrect and there is no doubt, the Auditor authorizes to break the seals and toopen the container. The Invoice, the B/L or the packing list are the documentsthat will guide the separation of goods on pallets. The sequence of separationmust be registered on a notebook to allow the correct loading, otherwise, thecargo wont be loaded as it was.85
  • 83. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS11.29 Generally the auditor requests the presence of a technicianfrom his office to do that count, while at the end; the Auditor will emit the finalreport. Read carefully the report done by the Auditor. If there is any expressionthat means you have found nothing. You always have found anything, right orwrong.11.30 After completing the survey, the Auditor shall authorize theloading of the container and will print the “Term of Inspection” to be signed byhim and by all other members of the Commission. Members should readcarefully this Term of Inspection, when they may agree or not. By the way, it isfor they don’t sign their own sentences.11.31 If there is any divergence with the fact that it may involveundue blame to any member, any questions should be resolved while theCommission is still at the inspection. Try to resolve or clarify any questionslater, it will be very difficult, because the report will be issued probably on thesame day. Take care when you must ask for correction of the report, as this mayrise suspicion of the Auditor officer, or other members of the Commission. But,always there are some disputes proven to be favorable for your company.11.32 After inspection, all loaded containers should be sealed by theexporter with material provided by agent and/or by Customs.11.33 Documents for transportation of containers does not warrantthe existence of the declared goods, and for this, shippers use the terms "SayingContain" or "Said to Contain" that can be typed in capital letters, or stamp onits B/L. Such procedure is accepted worldwide. To exempt the responsibility of86
  • 84. Egberto F Ribeirotransporters and warehouse owners, who legally cannot open the containers toverify the veracity of declared content. Only on the INVOICE if the goodscontained thereon stated. That declaration assumes full responsibility for thecontent. The ships Commander receives the B/L and checks whether theobservation "Said to Contain" is on the document, to print the stamp “Clean obBoard”. The carrier is responsible for the transfer of the container sealed andsafe from one location to another.11.34 Brazilian laws have some difficulty in reconciling itself withthe international and soon arise from the basic issues of complaints in the courtsof London or Hamburg. At the time of the Empire and Colony Brazil, theCustoms guard-mayor was responsible for checking of seals and locks in theholds of ships in ports, before and after each period of loading or unloading.11.35 The modalities type House to House (H/H) rules the operationwhere the container is stuffed in the address of the exporter and to be unloadedat the house of the importer. This is the way to reduce operating costs and tolevel to zero the possibility of damage or theft.11.36 In the case of Brazil, the container can only be stuffed in aprivate warehouse called “EADI”, under the presence of customs supervision.EADI – Inland Customs Station. By that way, the modality House to House inBrazil does not exist; containers coming out of Brazil should be namedEADI/House. In practice, there are few inspectors to so many containers,resulting in inefficiency bottleneck causing futile expenses, lazy loading andhuge damage on cargoes.87
  • 85. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS11.37 The storage of goods in EADIs cause prejudice to the exporterand to the country that could export more in the same time. The event of thecarriage of goods from the place of origin to an Inland Customs Station offersseven possibilities of damages and costs.11.37.1 From the industry storage to the vehicle.11.37.2 Vehicle Loading.11.37.3 Transportation on truck body (several South Americancountries dont use sea container on inland transport).11.37.4 Vehicle Discharge.11.37.5 Vehicle to warehouse.11.37.6 Warehouse to container.11.37.7 Container on vehicle.11.37.8 If the goods were loaded in container since the origin, onlythe operations 6 and 7 would have happened.11.38 There is a possibility of merchandise for export in container berequested for inspection by the Siscomex (electronic choice) or by anyquestions from the Customs Officer (Auditor). In this case, the container willbe placed in the primary zone or EADI for counting, weighing and measuring.Several Brazilian exporters have lost their international marketcaused by excessive handling. You may ask to me. “Why doesn’t yourgovernment stop the EADI?” It should be done, if these politicians were not88
  • 86. Egberto F Ribeiropartners in several public services. They are “lucky” to sign secret contractsonly in certain business, without any possibility of failure.11.39 According Brazilian Imperial law, all goods on board of shipsgoing to, or coming from abroad nations, should be under the control of theImperial Customs. The Imperial government was changed to Republic at fewmore than one century. However, that same law is still in force. It should bechanged, but the fear of losing few million dollars in contraband closes themarket to billions of dollars every year. The goods in container coming fromany country are free to enter, but when are head for exportation, they are ruledby secular law.Brazilian merchandise in container sold to abroad nations should bedispatched without any inspection by Customs. The buyers are the naturalinspectors, nobody pretends for life, early or later, any company falls into itsown trap. Brazilian government does not have staff enough to sustaininspection on twenty million containers yearly. The actual model liberates 80%of all containers imported and a sample of 20% for inspection means halfmillion of sea containers.While nothing changes, the merchandise for export stuffed incontainer, will have to be taken out for separation, counting and storage at anyconventional Customs inspection. Under such condition, there will have fivepossibilities of damages:11.39.1 Take out the goods from the container.11.39.2 Transportation for storage of goods and container.89
  • 87. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS11.39.3 Handling to separate the lots for inspection.11.39.4 Bring back the container from storage.11.39.5 Stuffing the goods into the same container.11.40 Any company suffering such breathtaking battery at everyexportation, would have abandoned the international trade immediately.These difficulties are vicious that discourage several Brazilianexporters. They deem too expensive these procedures when they realize itsinappropriate to invest in exports, because they dont want to lend money frombanks to expend it with third persons without any reason. They prefer to sell alltheir production in the domestic market, in detriment of the Brazilian tradebalance, instead of to sell much more to abroad nations.11.41 We can see that too many exporters are displaced from theroad-maps of the foreign trade. The industries should be installed within onehundred kilometers from the primary zone, for do not require excessive delay inshipments of merchandise.11.42 In Brazil is possible to export directly from factory to shipwithout intermediate storage. Just doing the direct dispatch from industryslocal Customs and a close relationship between the exporter and the shippingagent. The exporter needs to be informed of the exact time of arrival of thevessel and the time at which the goods will be requested on board. But whengoods are in container, it doesnt work.90
  • 88. Egberto F Ribeiro11.43 A cargo vessel normally operates in 48 hours, during whichthe cargo is loaded in the sequence of ports of destination, being possible toestablish the exact time of each batch.11.44 Two days before the ship arrives at the port, it is possible toknow the time of shipment of each lot. There are specific calculations for eachtype of goods to be moved on each ship (see port operations). Thats the way toanticipate the real waiting time in the port when there are other ships alsowaiting on a queue for mooring. There is the inconvenience of rains, stops formechanical defective, electrical failure, or strikes of workers that may causeexcessive delay.11.45 These calculations are performed daily by maritime agentswho pass on the information to its customers in Europe. Exporters typicallyknow less about their goods and charters, than those ship owners and importersaround the world.11.46 Several countries have participated in rounds of internationalagreements done by the GATT (General Agreement on tariffs trade) providingthe Governments levies. International Trade terms (Incoterms) describe thevarious modalities of responsibility for delivery and payment:Understanding the purpose of the Bill of Lading, we note that inforeign trade, the national documents have little or no one value. As the onlyacceptable documents in the target countries are the Invoice and the Bill ofLading, Certificate of Origin, Phytosanitary Certificate, Forest Certificate,Animal Inspection, Weight and Quality Certificate, etc. All merchandise91
  • 89. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSreleased for export, cannot be marketed into its own domestic market, eitherwith Invoice or Bill of Lading.The release for direct shipment through any Customs office shouldbe the Invoice and Bill of Lading as single transit document from the factory tothe port. The Customs also recognizes the need for the Invoice in the clearanceof imported goods, however, does not apply as primary and unique documenton export. The Invoice and the Bill of Lading are registered at consulates andchambers of Commerce of the countries through which the goods andcontainers will be carried over.The goods or containers targeted to countries within continents,where there are no ports, the Invoice and the Bill of Lading are accepted andstamped at the customs entry and exit of each country. If Brazil wants toexpand the capital reserves and the national framework for jobs should gobeyond tax exemptions from the internal market. The invoice as the documentof internal use in our country, when it is used in the export, presents variouslaws exempting the exporter of various federal, State and municipal taxes,eliminating it completely. The Invoice, as single document works to the port,you can have the same numbering of obtaining in the Siscomex during theregistration process. The closing of the sale, Exchange and the Federal registryof Invoice will be simultaneous.92
  • 90. Egberto F Ribeiro12 – BONDED WAREHOUSEThe system of Bonded Warehouse is Brazil is being noticed as a wayto import and store the goods and sell gradually. The fact is that its not whatseems to be. The system of warehousing by Customs known as BondedWarehouse needs a country to sign a covenant agreement to install in theprimary zone a warehouse to the other country. The Customs warehousingprocedure is an agreement between two countries to authorize one country toinstall a warehouse in the customs primary zone of the other country, to use itas in its own country. The International transportation of goods directed to aCustoms warehouse is done by exporting companies, under the Governmentmanagement of the full transit from one country to other. The process isthrough the inspection of cargoes and application of seal.The document to be used is a simplified International CargoManifest – ICM. The warehousing regimen is called Customs Transit. Transitvehicles with goods may be trucks, wagons or containers with application ofCustoms seal. There is no incidence of taxes in the port of concession, only topay for machinery use and hands of work. The size of the warehouse in acountry does not need to be exactly the same size to other. Any act, accident or93
  • 91. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICStheft of goods in customs transit shall be reported to the Federal Police andCustoms of the municipality of occurrence. The Customs will send an Auditorto report the extension of damages in such accident, to liberate a new vehiclewith the remaining cargo to the Customs Warehouse of destination. Goodsdamaged in accidents should be inspected, loaded and sealed as is and returnedto origin, or brought to the target Customs Warehouse, whichever is the nearest.The recent construction of the Inter-oceanic route linking Brazil toPeru offers the opportunity for Brazilian Government to install in the best portof that country, a Customs Warehouse. Conversely, Brazil offers to Peru a portof its choice to install its Customs Warehouse. The international agreement tothis Warehouse is an agreement at full interest for each country to establish aport terminal in the primary zone of the other. Brazil has an agreement withParaguay for more than 50 years and has one port in that country; however,Paraguay has two ports in Brazil; one in Santos and other in Paranagua. Theadministrative staff of the terminal in the country which provides the customswarehouse is only to control the charges for services rendered. The entireoperating structure is done by account and risk of the country that uses thewarehouse. In such agreements, the private companies will operate as if theywere in their own country. However, the commercial relationship withcompanies of the other country are not allowed; as to sell and buy from anycompany.For historical, economic and cultural relationship, Brazil shouldestablish a customs warehouse in Asia, more precisely in Timor-East. Thecountry needs a support and its geographical location is strategically favorable94
  • 92. Egberto F Ribeirofor containers transshipment with Brazil. The extremes borders of the oldTordesilhas Treaty lay on both nations, called antipodes. Such long trips justifybig ships to sail without stops between nations in few days. Goods from farthestregions can be moved between Asia and the Occident in less than a month,without overtaxes.Brazil can also establish a Hub Port in the northern hemisphere, theseashore region from Orange Cape to the Amazon River. The region is servedby electricity and roads. A Hub Port aims to expand the geopolitics of Brazil inthe northern hemisphere, where countries of the Caribbean are expanding theirbusiness with the United States and Europe. The Brazilian Government orbusinessmen so far did not show projects or any interest in this area. Brazilianparticipation in the North Atlantic polygon will provide faster business betweenthe Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia, with the installation of regular lines forfeeders and Mega-ships.The purpose of a Hub-Port in the Atlantic North polygon holds asocial and political proximity among Nations, beyond to participate directlyinside their markets and Organizations. Vessels Feeders can make a round-tripfrom Europe or from the United States to the Hub Port in Amapa and return inless than two weeks. The rapidity of this operation will help European business,because there won’t have extra costs in maritime freight. There won’t havesurcharges for navigation in canals, permissions for traffic in waters of severalcountries, fuel surcharges, excess of pilots and tug boats, war and insurancesurcharges and risks of piracy.95
  • 93. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS13 – INVOICE13.1. This is the most important and acceptable worldwide tradeagreement. After the contacts for information about a product, the price andquality are defined on all terms of trading. The buyer closes the deal with theseller who provides the Invoice. This is a common paper which provides allinformation for dispatchers to begin the registers and to print the Bill of Lading(Original Negotiable) to get the register into Consulates, Commerce Chambersand banks for money transfer.13.1.1 Number: The seller registers the Invoice number.13.1.2 Date: The date of sale of the product.13.1.3 Address: Location of the seller and the buyer.13.1.4 Batch designation: The buyer or seller creates his code.13.1.5 Product description: As the international code of goods.13.1.6 Quantity: Units, packages, boxes, cartons and pallets.13.1.7 Type of packaging: Carton, bags, bottles, boxes, skids, etc.13.1.8 Unit Weight: volume (liter), kilogram, pounds.13.1.9 Gross weight: Add the weight of all goods and packaging.96
  • 94. Egberto F Ribeiro13.1.10 Price of goods: Price of each unit and the total cost of goods.13.1.11 Certificates: Origin, weight, quality, Phytosanitary etc.13.1.12 Form of payment: Cash, Letter of Card, Short or Long term,13.1.13 Mode of container: To say if the container is LCL or FCL.13.1.14 Number of container: The correct number of the container.13.1.15 Weight of container: Weigh of empty container.13.1.16 Gross weight: Add the weight of the container and goods.13.1.17 Shipping mode: The modality of sale if it is FOB, CIF etc.13.1.18 Ship: Ships Name and Voyage, (after freight calculation).13.1.19 Origin port: Port of shipment. (Local port of the exporter).13.1.20 Destination port: Port of unloading.13.1.21 Port of transhipment: Port where containers will be changedfrom ship to ship and destination.Type of goods and packaging are information for the type ofcontainer to be used. The cost of the packaging shall not be the cause forquestioning the quality of the product. Every object of sale ought to have itspackaging. Every object of sale ought to have its own packaging in a compoundof units inside a larger box or pallet. Both are distinct products, but with equallogistics value. Goods without packaging may suffer any damage and it isdisagreeable. When goods return to seller for damages caused by his fail ormistake, all expenses will be by his account.13.2 - USA-WPM. The United States required that packages withwooden material (WPM-Wood Packing Material) should be treated ingreenhouses at 56C° for half an hour (HT) or fumigated with Methyl Bromide97
  • 95. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS(MB). Wood packaging must be marked with the IPPC logo etched on thefaces of wood packaging. Ovens for this heating can be with hot air,microwave etc. This temperature for the time indicated is sufficient forcomplete sterilization of wood against insects and their means of reproduction,such as beetles and nematodes. The company registered for treatment musthave its registration number in the federal supervisory agency of each country.The recommendation of the "INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FORPHYTOSANITARY MEASURES" (ISPM15), where the woods are treatedshould be audited every six months.The items below are required:XX:- two houses for the kind of treatment against insects adopted:thermal (HT) or by fumigation (MB).000:- three houses to the ISO code of the country.YY:- two numbers from the company that made the treatment ofwood. IPPC – International Convention logo of IPPC plants Protection.98
  • 96. Egberto F RibeiroThe goods with wooden packaging that came in the territory of theUnited States, from 6/5/2006, the third step of this regulation, if they are indisagreement with the law will be returned to their country of origin.13.3 -General CargoThis is the most common cargo in the international trade. Thesecargoes are more expensive than those in bulk and they need special packing inseveral means.13.3.1 Boxes: Wooden boxes for heavy products or large size mustbe on pallets or beams for handling with crane, forklift or trucks.13.3.2 Bags: Packaging made of cotton, jute, raffia, plastic, or Kraftpaper for packing grains, sugar, synthetics, chemical or any other product ofmedium size.13.3.3 Carton: Are packages made of Kraft paper cardboard forsmall products with individual packages, such as food, clothing, electronics etc.The cartons are packed on pallets and film for transport in containers.13.3.4 Bales: Are individual packages containing a compressed,pressed and bound by steel tape or wire. The burden can be covered with somefabric, wood, paper, or with your own stuff like; wood, or steel plate. The wiredbales can be lifted by the boards with forklifts. Steel tapes and wires must bestrong enough to withstand its lifting by forklifts or cranes.13.3.5 Drums: There are barrels or plastic containers used for thetransportation of chemical products, canned food, oils and all kinds of liquids.99
  • 97. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS14 - CONTAINER STUFFING14.1 Nomenclature. From the English noun "stuff" born the verb tostuff and its derivatives as "stuffing", which means to fill up a container withgoods. A lot is a certain quantity of goods bought by someone and is beingshipped and is identified by its Invoice. The lot has numbers to identify it as:seller, buyer, destination and so on. This document supplies the informationwhich will be print on the Bill of Lading, the B/L. Customs apply on B/Lstamps of Federal warning, the number offered to each B/L for Declaration ofImports through personal office or Internet System, the shipper applies stampswith advises etc. This Customs number is sent by buyer to seller and it shouldbe printed on all wooden boxes, Invoice and Bill of Lading with the importeraddress. This document explains that the lot was allowed by the government.14.2 Technique of stuffing. To stuff a container is not only fill thecargoes inside the unit, but to make the correct distribution of weight of thegoods according to its capacity. All means of transportation will suffer seriousproblems of instability, if the merchandise inside the container is not steady.100
  • 98. Egberto F Ribeiro14.3 Inspection. To stuffing a container needs some care: keep thedoor frame open and on horizontal level. Inspect it outside and inside the walls,roof, doors, bolts of the locking bar guide (Notice if the bolts have sign of glue,or if they are loose, its a sign of theft in the warehouse or terminal). Verify ifthe floors wood is in good condition, chemical smell, insects or rust. Place apiece of wood below the corner fittings to prevent deformation with the cargosweight. Take care to close correctly the doors and apply your private seal.14.4 Risk of damage to the container. If the cargo is not well laidon the center of equilibrium, the container may break in the middle. It does notallow someone to think the cargo is light. Only with a scale is possible to havethe correct weight. To fill the container correctly, centralize the weight ofgoods for do not mix uneven cargoes to transport on trucks and forklifts. Whenthe cargo is incorrectly laid inside the container, the transport vehicles will tiltand fall down with the boxes. The excess of cargo, or bad position of thecontents, may cause rupture of the top when lifting, or tear the lower panel ofthe container. If there is too heavy cargo in skids, the best place for them isnear the stronger corners as the back panel and at the door, to counterbalancethe container without risk of accidents. If the cargo is too heavy, dont place iton the center of the container, because it may cause serious damage to the boxstructure or tear the container in the middle.101
  • 99. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS15 – STUFFING PRACTICE15.1 The buyer has goods with same size and weight.There are several computer programs for stuffing containers, so, youmust understand how does it work. Shippers have to know how manycontainers will be stuffed; they must obey the limit of cargo in countries andborders, where the container will have to go through. The cargo and containerof 20 gross weigh is 12tons, cargo and container of 40 gross weight is 24tons.Make a plan on a paper or on the computer. Draw a table of 12,15cm x30,00cm (2.43m x 6m – 20 container measure) and divide in cells with themeasures of the cartons of your lot. Draw an “L” and place the cargoesaccording their real size, then multiply the larger size of the "L" by the smallerside of the "L". Youll find the grand total of units for the first layer, it issuitable for containers of 20, 40, wagons, trucks, barges, airplane etc. Dividethe height of the container’s back panel by the height of one carton to knowhow many layers of cartons can be put one on the other. Multiply the cartons of102
  • 100. Egberto F Ribeirothe first layer by the number of possible height to know how many cartoonswill fit inside each container. Calculate the weight of cartons, if it is less than12tons or 24 tons, you can define the numbers of container for stuffing.15.2 The same buyer has different lots, sizes and weights.Make a plan on a paper or on the computer. Draw a table of 2.43m x6m and divide in cells with the measures of each lot. Separate the sizes andcalculate the square measure and weight of each lot. Add the weights andsquare measure of all lots to know the number of containers to load. Calculatehow many units of each lot can fill each container and weigh. If the lot isheavier than the container weight, but in the total there is a lack of lots tocomplete other containers, divide the heavier lot in equal parts for othercontainers.Take part of each lot to complete all containers for 12 tons andregister on all packing lists. Review your calculations and begin the stuffing inrows from back panel to door. Open any table program, draw two containers2.43m x 6m seen side by side and from upside. The heavier lot should bedivided in equal parts and laid on the middle of all containers. Paint the tablewith blue color for heavier weight, brown for medium weight and yellow forlight weight. Put part of the heavier lot in the center of all containers, nothing atthe back panel and nothing at the door. Part of the middle weigh will put on theheavier and near back panel and door. The lighter weight will be put on themiddle weight till complete the stuffing. Review the calculations for 12 tonsand begin stuffing in rows from back panel to door.103
  • 101. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSBegin stuffing with light weight at the back panel, after first row laymedium and lighter, in the third row at middle lay heavy, medium and light.Finish at the door with light weight. Do the same in all containers. Registereach number of cartons or boxes and weight in a Packing-List and keep a copyin envelope inside the container and other in the envelope holder at thecontainers door. It will help to calculate the correct weight and the inventoryinside each container. When it does not happen and the container is opened byCustoms, the buyer will face a great trouble to explain why the cargo is notcorrectly declared, or why does the cargo said to be in one container is found inanother. It is considered false declaration and all the goods will be arrested.This procedure is an international agreement practiced on all the world.15.3 The buyer has two lots of heavy goods in 10 pallets with thesame size and one lot of cartons has different sizes and has light weight.Make a plan on a paper or on the computer. Draw a table of 2.43m x6m and divide in cells with the measures of each lot. Separate the sizes andcalculate the square measure and weight of each lot. The resistant package inpallets will be on the floor from the back panel to the door. The lighter lot willbe put on the pallets till complete the stuffing, there will have small blankplaces. Review the calculations and begin stuffing.15.4 The goods are in 20 pallets with same size, but differentweights in a total of 12 tons.Draw a line of 2.43m x 6m and divide in 20 cells with the measuresof each lot. The cargo has the same size in 20 pallets with three different104
  • 102. Egberto F Ribeiroweights. Draw on a paper or the six heavier pallets to be put in the low middleof the container. Four pallets with middle weight will be put at the back paneland at the door. The lighter 10 pallets will be put on all 10 with heavierweights. To put some goods inside a containers, the shipper must have someinformation:15.4.1- What kind of packaging will be put inside the container;pallets, bags, boxes, cartons?15.4.2- How many units of goods?15.4.3- What is the weight and resistance of each unit?15.4.4- What is the total weight?15.4.5- What is the container gross weight acceptable in the countryof address for transportation on trucks?15.5 How many containers will be stuffed?To begin the work, you must answer all the questions above. Toknow the weigh accepted in the country of destination, the buyer must offerthat information. If he doesn’t know, consider for example the weight acceptedin England 12tons for container 20’ and 24tons for container 40’.15.5.1- Place some units on the container’s floor at the back.15.5.2- Place some units at the container’s side panel from back todoor forming the letter “L”.15.5.3- Multiply the units on the back floor by the side units, getting105
  • 103. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSas a result the total volumes to cover the floor (1st layer).15.5.4- The container loading capacity is divided by the total cargoof the first layer.15.5.5- Divide the total number of boxes, bags or pallets by the valueof the ballast.15.5.6- Define how many units of height will be laid and centralizethe remaining on the last layer.15.5.7- Start the definitive operation and put the goods as wascalculated to reach the ceiling.15.5.8- This procedure in containers is even practiced on body-truck,vans and wagons.15.9. Prohibitions in stuffing.15.9.1. Dont place fragile loads with heavy loads.15.9.2. Dont put foods with chemicals.15.9.3. Do not put wet loads with dry loads.15.9.4. Do not place loose round or conical or cylindrical parts, orloose heavy oval; place them in wooden boxes on pallets and tie-up them.15.9.5. Do not put loose stones or marbles flat pieces.106
  • 104. Egberto F Ribeiro16. SAFE CONTAINERIZATION16.1 How to Identify Dangerous Cargoes?16.1.1 Following the rules of the International Organization ofOMCI maritime commerce and obey the laws of each country where thecontainer goes thorough, not only the country of destination.16.1.2. Legislation of the country of origin.16.1.3. The legislation of the country of destination.16.1.4. Laws of the countries where the container will be carried.16.2. Basic standards of Palletization.16.2.1 Wooden boxes and cardboard boxes must display the labelstags, lots, port of destination, real weight (never use estimated weight) and thethree dimensions (length, width and height).16.2.2. The invoices must to present these measures to enable thedesign of the cargo.107
  • 105. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS16.2.3. Cardboard boxes must have weights and measurescompatible with the Container. It means that the boxes or pallets must tooccupy all the container, from side to side. If there is an excess in the measure,the boxes wont fit inside the container, the cargo will lose space. The worst isthat the shipper will have to make a wooden wall to complete the lack ofcargoes. The main rule is do not make boxes larger than 1,10m, or 2,20mwide and 2,20m in height.16.2.4. The loading of loose cargoes or loaded on pallets, packedwith steel strapping (rust spots), plastic or lashed in marino-sling may have thefollowing measures: 1,00 m length by 1,00m height by 1,20m wide.16.2.5. When draw the project with pallets, leave free space in theceiling for operation with forklift and access of the last two units below thesuperior locking bar keeper. Take care for do not destroy the container with theforklift.16.2.6. When the last four pallets dont fit at the door; break thepallet wooden block and lay it on the first pallet and to place them at the door.Repeat the same method for the second pallet.16.3 Unit Goods.16.3.1 Loose goods inside a container can be separated by plywoodand overlapped as many layers as possible. For example when the cargoes aresmall plastic drums with chemicals. How to do: put some drums till near 2.00mfrom the back panel, cover it with plywood and repeat the operation of 2,00meach turn till complete the cargo.108
  • 106. Egberto F Ribeiro16.3.2. There are several corner fixing eyes inside the container toattach cargoes. Large boxes must be tied on the floor and wall for do not tiltand hit against the containers walls. If the goods are large and very close to thewalls, there is no need of tying.Containers are viable to transport cars, which must be blocked bypieces of wood in wedge shape as large as the tire, they must be nailed on thefloor in the front and rear of each wheel. The front and rear axles are tied withropes on fixing eyes, use a piece of wood for each rope and inserted betweenthe two lines of each rope at ¼ near the floor on each axle. Twist the woodseveral times till it be very well tightened and let one side of the wood to stopsecurely against the floor. The container in normal movement wont hit the sideof the car against the container.16.3.3. The wooden floor joists should be nailed on the floor toprotect the boxes.16.3.4. The wooden rafters can be docked on the sides of corrugatedcontainer to the locking of small goods.16.4. Containerization with Pallet.16.4.1. A 20 container holds 10 pallets 2,20m width, length of1,10m and 1,10m of height.16.4.2. A 20 container can carry 20 pallets of 1,10m and total weightnot exceeding road scales, in Brazil it is 25,5tons/3 axles, or 12 tons inEngland.109
  • 107. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS16.5. Pallet larger than 2,20m in 20 container.16.5.1. This is an incorrect operation, because it will cause the literaldestruction of the merchandise. As the packages are larger than 2,20m, there isno stability to the cargo on forklift arms, so its pushed without care. Atdestination, how will it be unloaded, where there is no place to someone tiewith a rope?16.5.2. A 20 container is 6,00m long, it can hold 2 rows of palletsmeasuring from 2,20m to 3,00m. Sometimes, the pallet are pieces of woodlatched with steel belts, which always break when is dragged.16.5.3. People without experience are always doing the easier way toload a container, they are technical to apply forbidden methods that will causedamages to the cargo. Sometimes, the bundles or boxes are laid on longposition inside the container and pushed till to smash.People are used to lay one or two unities over the other with aforklift in two ways:First; the forklift lays one bundle over the other inside the containerwith long arm, from back panel to door. At destination, the cargo will be takenout with common forklift and will cause damages.Second; the shipper uses a forklift to lay the first tier and covers itwith plywood to separate them. For the second tier, he lays the upper palletsand pushes with the forklift. The cargo can slide and to stop at the containerswall. When the plywood is not very well placed, or moved by the forklift, the110
  • 108. Egberto F Ribeirocargo is blocked. When it happens, the forklift will apply extra power to pushthe cargo that will break the packaging and goods. This method isn’trecommended, because it destroys the cargo and the packaging.16.5.4 Use special forklift for 10tons (higher than the container) witharms of 6 meters long and warn the receiver to do the same. The importer costswill increase.16.5.5 Without this machine, tilting the pallet till turn over or justplace the burden and push with the help of a piece of beam.16.5.6 After the first layer is ready, cover it with sturdy wood andretry the operation pushing, there will have severe damages.16.5.7 The volume and gross weight must be less than the totalcapacity of the container.16.6 Conclusion about the operation.16.6.1 We can realize that the measure 2,44m wide, is not suitable toforeign trade in container.16.6.2 Since 1980, the Paraguayan exports of plywood havemeasures appropriate for container, through its bonded warehouse at theParanagua Port.16.6.3 Environment. The accomplishment of environmental lawsstarts at the beginning, before the cutting of trees. Certificates of origin arerequired, without which the goods are not released. The procedure fordispatching and release of wooden bundles is the same as for containers. The111
  • 109. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSdispatching of wood is independent if it is in container or not.16.6.4 Wood lot is inspected by IBAMA (Brazilian Institute ofEnvironment) in the warehouse. This procedure is common to all countries.16.6.5 Wood in container is inspected “in loco”, on a truck orchassis.16.6.6 Inspection will identify the species of wood and measures asset out in the Export Declaration.16.6.7 After inspection of the wood in the warehouse, the IBAMAtechnician places an inspection label on the lot.16.6.8. After the label, the container is loaded and closed, sealed anddelivered for shipment.16.7 The Seal After Inspection.The seal with number is provided by the ships agent to be registeredon the B/L and can not be changed. If the seal will come to suffer any damage,or somebody else breaks it to fill into the container another part of the lotforgotten in the warehouse, it will be a serious problem at destination port. Thecontainer will be inspected again and it will cost a lot to importer. For suchreason, the seal must be applied only after the inspection is done. For shippersecurity, there must be one private seal to keep in safe the operation. Thecontainer can be stewed on the vehicle or on the floor. The truck must approachat the warehouse door or platform with the container’s door free to open.112
  • 110. Egberto F Ribeiro16.8 Phytosanitary Certificate. The Ministry of Agricultureprovides certification for fresh or processed cereals. Requests are made directlyin the establishment of this federal agency at each port, to the correspondingissue of the certificate.16.9 Certificate of Origin. To verify the origin of goods for exports.Nations have international agreements regarding protections and constraints ontrade affairs. This document is of commercial interest and shall inform theimporters rights, or which match the standards involved, if preferential or non-preferential. The present Certificate of Origin is requested directly to industrialfederations of each State.16.10. Physical Inspection of the Container. The shipper has toinspect each container arrived to his warehouse. This inspection is necessary,for do not receive charges for damages caused by the last user. The terminalinspection must survey the outside of the container, its floor and roof, as well asthe type, size, cleanliness. Open the doors to verify odors, door seal (rubber),door bars, screws, rivets, bolts, crumpled (till 5cm is normal), scratches (alsonormal), broken floor, deformation in the structure, bent or broken bars, thesafety lockers arms and the general state as is. Dont try to repair any thing, asholes, pierced or torn, just order back to change for a new one, the insurancewont accept to cover goods inside damaged containers. To measure a crumpledside of the container, just put a plain piece of wood on it and with a ruler seethe deepness of that damage. If you dont care for any damage on the container,the owner will charge your company.113
  • 111. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS16.11 Return of Container. If the container is not in order, thereturn notification must be done by phone, the fastest as possible. The costs ofthese changes are paid by who gave the container unsuitable, misguided ordefective to be loaded with cargoes for exportation.16.12 Expense for Devolution. The terminal should preserve itsbest storage service, checking carefully each supplying of container, under therisk to lose credibility. Each container will have the return freight paid by theterminal supplier.16.13 Forklift for Container. The forklifts applied to carry cargoesinside the containers will have capacity for 2, 5 tons and must be equipped withlow tower. The operator must be careful for doesn’t to pierce the roof of thecontainer with the top of the tower.16.14 Weight of the Pallet. To load cargoes in pallets into containerwith forklift of low tower for 2,5tons, probably at destination the pallets will betaken off by the same model of forklift. However the delivery will be done by adriver which will move it with truck-pallet. Therefore, the gross weight of eachpallet shouldn’t be more than 1 ton.16.15 Pallet with Overweight. The goods with more than 200 kgmust be fastened on pallets and bound with straps of metal, plastic or filmwrapped. After the container is unloaded for dispatching, the straps will bebroken and the delivery will be done with truck-pallet.16.16 Boxes and Pallets. Wooden boxes shall be settled on twobeams away ten centimeters from the edges, imitating a pallet. There is a114
  • 112. Egberto F Ribeirostatistical data from the last century that is estimated a loss of 11% in spacewith palletized packaging or two tons in a container or truck.16.17 Recyclable Pallets. The pallets are resistant enough to be usedseveral times. There are billions of pallets and dollars being recycled every yearon the entire world. Other cargoes packages are also recycled as nylon straps,big bags, steel drums, plastic drums and boxes. Pallets can be made in wood,metal, cardboard, recycled plastic or wood pellets for trays. There are severalmeasures of pallets, the most used are (EUR1 – ISO1 – 0.80m X 1,20m);(EUR2 – ISO2 – 1,20m X 1,00m).16.18 Pallets and Skids. Some cargoes should not be used loosed onpallets, as round metal products, pieces of iron, conical shape, spherical units,they are unstable and will cause heavy damages into the container. Theseproducts must be packed in small wooden boxes, reinforced with joists andsteel straps (skids), so they can be put on pallets and loaded in containers.16.19 Pallets driving down costs. The use of pallets is not so new,but it is older than a century. Since the World War III, the use of pallets in theUnited States have been growing year after year. The firsts statistics showed thefood transport on pallets had reduced its operating costs at $15.00/tones. Thetime for loading and unloading of cargoes for transportation was reduced to 1/3of the usual and the damages were reduced to 30% of the total.16.20. The Chassis Center of gravity. The responsibility forknowing the correct center of gravity of a chassis belongs to the driver. Thecrane or transtainer operator can assist the driver which is less habituated with115
  • 113. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSthe container transport on chassis. The Center of gravity of a chassis isn’texactly the middle of the platform, but on the first of the three or two axes. Forthis reason, the goods must be correctly placed inside the container, for do notcause any accidents during the trip.16.20.1 Front Diving. If the 20 container is correctly loaded and islowered on the middle of the chassis, the weight will focus on the front, makingthe cabin stay in diving position. It is really very difficult to drive a truck whenit is on front wheel cargo, lights and mirror will have to be corrected.16.20.2 Front raise. If a loaded 20 container is lowered on theextreme back of the truck, the gravity center will move to the rear of thechassis. The container will raise the cabin and the driver loses the wheelingcontrol. The lights and mirrors will have to be corrected.16.20.3 Is The Truck Drivable. After loading, the driver mustobserve the driving on flat terrain, if there is any difficult to drive. The drivercan notice if the load is "too back or front". While the driver is in the terminal,he has time to change the container position.116
  • 114. Egberto F Ribeiro17 – ISO CONTAINERSThe identification of a container is on its registration number, as theplate of a vehicle. However, there is another individual encoding for each typeof container, indicating to which merchandise it is appropriate. On the doorsand on the sides of containers are painted the encoding number of each unit. Ina first set of three letters and four numbers, we identify the country to which theowner belongs and the four numbers is the type of container. According theISO standard, the three letters in uppercase identifies the country, but there areother owners who doesn’t follow the ISO rules. The place for country may havefewer letters, but the remains to complete three letters should be supplementedwith "X". Currently, some owners leave blank the place of the letter "XFXX 2210The codified type and dimension is displayed with four digits (2210).* The first digit “2” indicates the length 20 feet; if its 4 indicates 40 feet.* The second digit “2” indicates the height.117
  • 115. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS* The third digit “1” indicates the type of the container.* The fourth digit “0” indicates the containers material “steel Corten”.17.1. Code Numbers for Types of Container0 – Closed (dry cargo) This container is fully closed, without any airinlet. It is indicated to transport a product which exhales some odor, orflammable gas. With such security, there will be no possibility ofcontaminating the environment or set fire.1 – Closed ventilated (vented dry)This container has four small holes on the high side of the walls tokeep the circulation of air from inside to outside. The environment changeswith the containers temperature, from the hot to cold. The temperaturevariation results in the concentration of moisture on the sides and on the roofwhich drops on the cargo. For this reason the goods should be covered withplastic for protection against undesirable humidity.2 – Thermal insulation (dry bulk)As well as thermos bottle keeps liquids in cold or hot temperature forseveral hours, there are thermal containers transported by trucks which alsokeep the products chilled for several hours. Thermal containers are hermeticallysealed, for do not lose temperature and are indicated for the transportation offrost food or heated goods. Some cold cargoes are kept at low temperature withthe resource of cold packs inserted inside each box. The cold pack of3 – Cooled (refrigerated)Shippers must have great care when receive reefer containers; the118
  • 116. Egberto F Ribeirofirst inspection is mandatory, beyond the following items: any sign of dirty orsmell inside the unity, broken panel, smashed cables, or lack of components, orbroken parts at the back panel, dont try to clean or repair, give it back to thesupplier, because you are not responsible for that. The merchandises must be atits proper temperature, is impossible to wait for days until it reach at therequired temperature. Take care with the position of the door before thestuffing, to avoid unwanted openings of the door which will cause loss oftemperature. Refrigerated containers are equipped with compressors to keepthe cargo under controlled temperatures, as meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, juicesand several kinds of foods. The freezing process of foods begins from the wallsto the center at –25ºC as in any reefer warehouse. To freeze from 20ºC to –12ºCany cargo into a container will delay two to three days, time enough to grow upany fungus. These electric motors accept voltages ranging from 220v, 380v,440v and the power sockets can be connected to existing terminals in industriesyards, or at transport companies yards, highway gas stations or terminals. Theseengines work according the product to keep the programmed temperature foreach kind of food, and notice the compressor runs for more hours under thesun. On the rear panel of these containers are the connecting cables on averageof 50m, also the digital or analog thermometers are equipped with data loggersto continuously print the variations of temperature when the compressor worksand stops. If for some reason, the containers are not connected to energy supplyand the temperature rises too much, will happen the loss of the product quality,it frozen foods will be checked by the registers at the panel and some samplesinside the cargo will be analyzed at the laboratory. If the cargo is rejected by119
  • 117. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSbad supply of energy, the container will be returned and the shipper or thecarrier will be responsible for all expenses. For do not fail in such deal, followcorrectly the international contract with a good container and perhaps, you willbe asked to place several thermometers amid the cargo inside the container;near the back panel, in the center and at the door.4 – Refrigeration removable (Insulated, clip-on)The removable container is hermetically sealed and has two valves atthe back panel; a lower entry for admission of cold air for circulation inside ofthe container to be pushed out by the upper exhaust pipe. Both openings areequipped with valves to prevent the escape of temperature. The frozen goodsare loaded into the container and sent for shipping in less than 20 hours,without losing temperature. After this period, the container must be connectedto an integral unit of refrigeration supplier with forced cooling. A cryogeniccentral of cooling supplies the insulated containers. This system is the sameused in ships, store yards, roads, railways and terminals. There are othermeanings not qualified to attend this system and must be excluded from normaluse, as small electric compressor attached on opening valves, or diesel coolingengine on a cart to circulate cold air into the container.5 – Free Ceiling (open top)This is a special container, because it will not be accepted in allships. Goods with heights or weights that are incompatible with the closedcontainer should be carried in "Open Top or Free Ceiling”. The goods shouldbe protected against bad weather, with wooden packing and covering by canvas120
  • 118. Egberto F Ribeiroor plastic, since the container will not offer protection against rain. The simplecanvas cover must be fastened with thin steel cables, fit to seal it through ringson the covering and the container wall. The door of these containers must alsobe sealed and all numbers must be registered on the Bill of Lading.6 – Platform Container (flat rack)This is a special container because is not acceptable in all ships, cause by itsheavy weight, it has two retractable headboards that when are lifted they get thesame measure of a dry container. When the merchandise is a large wooden boxor a large machine, it must be carried in containers, or "flat rack". Thiscontainer has a chassis to support up to 60 tons and to move it, only withspecial cranes. The merchandise or equipment should be fixed by wide steelbelts, sealed and covered with tarps.7-Tank Container (tank non dangerous)The container tank is suitable for the transport of liquids or gases,because it provides security for the multimodal, besides being widely used byall countries.8-Bulk/cattle (dry bulk)The code "8" indicates the livestock service or also the bulktransport, although they are quite different, the number is the same. Thelivestock has place for animal food, water tank and cleaning drains, while thebulk container is equipped with funnels for grain removal drawer by action ofgravity.121
  • 119. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS9-Ventilated (vented)Ventilated container serves for shipping of products that require highcirculation of air, like fruits, vegetables or products which exhales strong odor.All sides from bottom to high have small rectangular openings to make easy theair circulation and protect the load.122
  • 120. Egberto F Ribeiro18 - HUB PORTSHub Port is a special terminal to proceed the transshipment ofcontainers between antipodes ports; from one extreme of the Earth to other.Such system must be able to move a full cargo carried by larger ships than aNew Panamax, loading and unloading simultaneously near 16.000 TEUsweighing 224.000 tons in almost 40 hours of work. The Panama Canal tax costsUS$200,00 per TEU and is being enlarged from 32m to 49m, although Mega-ships are wider than 59m. All containers unloaded by actual Mega-ships, alsocalled Triple-E (Economy, Efficiency, Environment) are moved to smallervessels called feeders.That huge shipment of container is faster than a shipment of grain inbulk carriers. Thats because grain terminals operate with two ship loaders atspeed of 3.000tons/h, while container vessels load with ten gantry cranes at thesame time near 400 TEUs per hour, it means 5.600tons/h. The actual use oflarger gantry cranes with double spreaders moves two 40, or four 20containerat each movement, 2 TEUs x 3min = 20 movements/h x 2TEUs = 40TEUs/hour. If each TEU weighs 14 tons, there will be 560tons/h per crane,multiplied by ten cranes, the amount will be of 5.600tons/hour, its almost two123
  • 121. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICStimes faster than a grain carrier with two ship loaders. This is the dream ofsmall farmers to sell their products is Asia, where in a diameter of 4.000 mileslives half of the global population. Traditional European wholesalers work inBrazil for half century and always say18.1 Organic ProductsCoffee trade should support the genetic technology to get moreproductive varieties of coffee, implementing modern farming systems free ofchemical fertilizers, pesticides etc. Mechanized harvesting with forced dryingoffers products in the international market with prices up to four times higherthan in BM&F.Global consumers always pay more for good organic productswithout chemicals fertilizers and toxic products. This is a new market beingexplored by thousands of farmers. In the Italy Shopping in Curitiba there is the"Terra Verdi Organic Coffee", the first store of organic coffee in the country.At the standard level exported to Japan, the taster expert will find productsmade under pesticide-free technology. The own roasting center offers severalcoffees at three levels of color according to the standards of internationalblends. If the customer wishes to take home the product prepared in fewminutes will notice that the packs are fitted with valves that guarantee thevalidity of consumption for twelve months.Other traditional products as crystal light and dark sugar, ordistilled cachasa, all produced from organic sugar cane. There are fruit jelliesand caramels also being produced in the organic system and valued with124
  • 122. Egberto F Ribeiroelegant packaging, as the marketing on consumers appeal. The high quality ofthese products open a valuable and select coffee shops market worldwide,making exports of the product ready for consumption (production cost in Brazilis inferior to the first world) in quantities of five hundred pounds or 1 palletmeasuring 1,00mX1,20mX1,10m in a container LCL/LCL.The Brazilian production of sugar and cattle are according theorganic preference of quality on products without chemicals for growing orpesticides. The sugar cane is from species of grass, as wheat and corn andbelongs to the poaceae family and genus saccharum. The sugar cane was verywell adapted to the warm Brazilian lands for its favorable rain. The sugarproduction was preferred by producers for its perennial regrowth for almostfive years, without the need of a new plantation after each crop. The samehappens to the grass to feed the cattle whose regrowth is continuous. The farmswith sugar cane and fields with grass for cattle are natural and free ofchemicals for its production. The organic meat and sugar are offered byBrazilian farms from the inland, where there are no industry residuals ofchemicals in the air, where the water are clean and natural pasture.18.2 The Hub PortThe Hub Port should have facilities for one or several Mega-ships tooperate full cargo out and in, without wasting time between all gantry cranes(15 minutes is the acceptable time of operation from first to the last gantrycrane). The cargo plan has to follow the correct ETA (Estimated Time ofArrival), because the tide must be known exactly to determine the board ofoperation. The actual method of shipping is programmed for two or six gantry125
  • 123. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICScranes. All ships have a cargo plan to follow the correct pre-stacking bays, tiersand rows. Every captain knows that, but sometimes the shipowners orders theagent for do not lose time on waiting line or the correct tide, but to dock theship by any means, so it causes panic to all cargo planning.18.3 Hub Ports With Shelf and Bridge.While in all countries the depth of ports are near to 30 feet, the HubPort must be deeper than 50 feet. It is too expensive to keep dredging a laneyear after year. A quick calculus says that the dredging operation costs $50.000dollars a day. After ten yeas of work, a Hub Port will have expended withdredging, as much as its own costs of building. There will be a new strategy forthese ports, not only to be near the main town, but on a good place betweencountries.The seashore landscape offers good pictures, paintings and movies,with waves covering reefs and rocks, near deep waters. This is the perfectscenery to be cut and to build a new Hub Port.A Hub Port must be each time more automatized than ever. Therewill have few service for common wheeled machinery. The open top containersfor special cargoes as overweight or over height will not be allowed on Mega-ships. Lets understand; special container is not the same as special cargoes, asdangerous products warned by IMO.Special containers are those that may cause delay and losses forcarriers and must be abolished completely. Ex: an industry loads in a containeran oversized beer distillery and wants to deliver it to America through a HubPort. This kind of container will not be accepted by any feeder to a Hub Port,126
  • 124. Egberto F Ribeirobecause the Mega-ship’s Captain will send it back and will not sign its B/L. InEurope there is a persistent use of 15% of special containers; their industriesmust to adapt their product to the size of a dry container. If a beer distillery canbe divided in two or three parts to be assembled at destination, it will be alrightfor feeders to transport it to a Hub Port. Somebody may say that the freight ofspecial container has the same cost of dry containers, as it will be chargedaccording the numbers of place used on board. The trouble isn’t the cost, butthe disturbance caused to any port operation. The port operation plan forloading and unloading special containers requires exclusive time and place formoving equipment. It means that others containers will have to stop theiroperation, while a private crane for heavy cargo slides slowly on the wharf. Theoperation with heavy equipment is not with automatic spreaders, but with steelcables handled by stevedores.The Triple-E ships need a worldwide port infrastructure, not only toremold the actual system, but an exigence to begin a new shape, from the pre-stacking to the quay. Its an advice to warn ships owners to the nearest days ofhigh technology in maritime transportation. There is a general need toaccelerate the import and export operations, reducing the time of trip and costsof freights, with specialized vessels and ports. Hub Port is a container terminalwith a unique structure for operation of Mega-ships that move 16 thousands ormore TEUs in each trip. Many States in Brazil want to install its own HubPorts, so they plan a terminal with roads, rails infrastructure to serve theseports. However, a Hub Port is not a regular port, but a new class of port, highlyspecialized with the only concept of transshipment.127
  • 125. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS18.4 Hub Port is Bureaucracy FreeEach Bill of Lading has the citation of the Hub Port for transhipmentand the name of the ship feeder that will take the container to final destination,in another city, State or country. There is no need of Customs inspection ofcontainers, unless there is any accident and loss of cargoes, or any content offorbidden goods, when the container will be removed and given to governmentcare. There is no dispatch for transshipment, unless the container will go toinland or has to return to its port of shipping.18.5 Hub Port is Full Automatized.Different management on transhipment must be the electronicinspection of each unity by pictures from all faces and seals, to prevent anyfuture demand against the terminal. Each unity must be X-ray scanned andweighed at the receiving from both arrivals; feeders and Triple-E ships. Thereceiving of containers results in a report to be send immediately to its ownerby SMS. Such kind of operation is common in all ports and are only informedby letter to Customs to get authorization and tax formalities.18.6 Hub Port for TransshipmentThe Antipodes Transshipment process cannot be confounded withTemporary Admission, that is a permission for any goods from abroad to stay128
  • 126. Egberto F Ribeiroin a country during few months. The container in transshipment does not leavethe primary zone of the port, it is allowed to go only to the specific ship writtenon its B/L. The containers cargoes arrived in process of transshipment dont goto domestic market and may not stay in the port waiting for nationalization. Theusers of Hub Ports will feel comfortable to receive their cargoes in so shorttime, than in conventional trips. The cost of freights will be very lower thanthose offered by containers ships doing voyages between antipodes regions.18.7 Hub Port as Final PortHowever, if the Hub Port is near a large center of consumption and isthe final port of destination, the Hub port becomes an excellent resource toimport and re-export goods. Port for Temporary Admission to other countries,than those for transshipment written on its B/L is not a predicate of a Hub Port.For this reason, the Hub Port port structure doesnt need to be connected to aneasy access such as: vehicles, wagons, boats etc. If the Hub Port hascharacteristics of final port, with few ships for transshipment is necessaryStations of Consolidation and Deconsolidation, beyond the necessaryinfrastructure for transportation.18.8 Hub Port is Customs AreaContrary to conventional ports,where there are one or two warehouses for imported goods, the Hub Port isfully bonded, but there is no place for regular stuffing, except in cases ofaccidents on board or into the terminal. All containers arrived and stored in a129
  • 127. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSHub Port, even for domestic market in other national port, or abroad cannot beopened, but all will be surveyed by scanner. The containers to be nationalizedin the next port can be transported in ships or by other vehicles, under CustomsTransit Declaration. The containers destined for other countries or othernational ports will be loaded on Feeder ships, guaranteeing agility in everytranshipment operation.18.9 Hub Port is Strike FreeIf there will have any strike by government employees in thecountry, it will not cause any delay on a Hub Port, because there wont have toomany government employee enough to sustain a strike. The Customs Officersin a transshipment Hub Port develop their work in fast time, because thousandsof Bill of Ladings are not analyzed, only its Master Bill of Lading with detailsof port of arrival and delivery port are considered. The presence of CustomsOfficers are needed at their offices only in effective inspection of documents,there will have few or almost nothing of physical inspections of goods. If acontainer with forbidden goods as guns, drugs will be caught by scanners, theCustoms Officers will have to examine, to arrest those goods and to identify itsowners. The containers delivery in a Hub Port has the complete operation doneis few days before the ships arrival, so there wont have the need of largenumber of Customs Officers. There will have no delay time for loading thearrived containers, because its contents wont be nationalized for re-export.130
  • 128. Egberto F Ribeiro18.10 Port Pre-Stacking and Intermodal AreaThe system of containers shipment with expected location forshipment on board allows the staking of the units in the vicinity of gantry crane.These piles are called pre-stacking and do not allow changes. Each containerwill be carried by chassis, Straddle Carrier or directly lifted by the gantry cranespreader to be taken on board according the Cargo Plan. This process involvesaccuracy in the organization of cells in the pre-stacking to prevent removals.The pre-stacking can be organized outside the terminal, as reefer containers.Other containers are deposited in areas near the ship, but with a certain restrainton the equipment, because they are loaded with special cargoes; as over weightor over length. These containers will be shipped with on-board cranes or othershore heavy equipment.18.11 Pre-Stacking.18.11.1 Intermodal. The pre-stacking Intermodal is the interfacebetween the modals: Rail, Road and Waterways. This operation consists ofloading the containers on wagons, or transfer for light trucks (chassis) inTerminal and park them in the sequence of arrival. The chassis are placed sideby side in adequate and numbered parking. The loaded chassis with containersready for shipping are parked at an angle of 45 ° to 60 ° (fish spine) betweentwo streets. The containers on chassis can be called for loading in wagons, orship or to be delivered to the Supply Chain anytime. This system allows faster131
  • 129. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSshipments and discharges, beyond its able to receive and to send containersimmediately. The parking slots are painted on the ground and each containerwill have its number of deposit registered as vacant. When some containers areprompted for loading on board, the containers on chassis will be located in theparking and transported by trucks or tractors for the quays gantry cranes. Thistype of storage is available for Intermodal terminals, but can also be applied inthe store-yards of transport companies and industries.If the terminal using Portainer tires on the cement floor should bestrengthened and plan. When used Transtainer on rails, one must provide thegap precipitation of 2%. The railway terminals must have end-of-lines paralleland with enough space for Gantry Cranes make the frequent changes.The preparation of the operation of the vessel shall be as specifiedTerminal to receive the containers. The deposits in the pre-stacking will beaccording to the criteria of cost and speed.Special care when parking and uncouple the chassis on level ground:1 – Parking in the square indicated.2 – Engage the parking brakes of the truck and chassis.3 – Stop the engine.4 – Loosen the shoes and lock them with pins.5 – Disconnect the electric cables and brakes hoses.6 – Unlock the 5thwheel.7 – Start the engine and remove the vehicle.8 – Check if the chassis is secure.Connecting the chassis in the parking, the procedure is reversed until132
  • 130. Egberto F Ribeirothe king pin locking in the 5th wheel. Do not raise the shoes beforereconnecting the brake hoses and electric cables and see if the lights areworking. After those checks, raise the shoes and lock it with the pins.18.11.2 Port Pre-Stacking The ships Agent delivers to the Terminalor Operator which will do the loading, the File of Cargoes to Load (RDC). Thedocument is a data relating: the ship and her equipments, the cargoes, theexporters, the quantity, the port of destination and the containers measures.That information guides the correct stowage and the copy of all Bill of Ladingsand letters concerning to the discharge: Removal, Dangerous Goods, emptycontainers etc. Usually the closing of cargoes for loading is done by the Agentand its a little slow, and day after day the Agent sends new engagements.The terminals work as the date and time of ships arrival, so they canbook the squares and to make the Cargo Plans and determine the start and endtime for receiving the containers for shipment. After the Agent declares theclosing of all DRC for shipments, he sends all letters regarding the cargoes forloading in the denominated ship: Dangerous Cargoes, empty containers,Transshipment, removal of containers or hatch cover aboard etc. These lettersof consent should be signed and stamped by the Customs. The containers mustbe logged in the Shipping Orders or Execution Order which is a documentprepared by the Dispatcher containing some data extracted from the Bill ofLading. The Order regards the cargo is in legal for loading, through whichmake sure the cargoes will be released by the Customs in the port ofdestination. Every terminal is co-responsible with the exporters or importersbefore the IRS.133
  • 131. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSA pre-stacking area should be as close as possible to the berth(wharf) for mooring the vessel. The arrangement of containers on this locationshould be according to the equipment of each terminal, positioned in parallelblocks or perpendicular to the vessel. The containers will be positionedaccording to the following measurements: ship, port of destination and weight.For security in the pre-stacking during the loading, should not be grouped in thesame (Row) more than sixty containers, or half bay. Because, if happens anymechanical failure at the time of shipment, all the row will be blockedimpeding the operation by other equipments. Likewise, do not arrange in thepre-stacking different ports, or weights, or bays in the same row. Diversifyingthe rows, you can proceed with the shipment container from another row.The containers will be deposited, recorded on the map of pre-stacking (Bay, Row, Tier and Height) and cannot be removed, except when anyrepositioning is required. The special containers: refrigerated, oversize,overweight, or with dangerous cargo must be in appropriate areas near thecranes, free and ready for shipment, in any case of emergency it can be draggedaway. The containers with hazardous cargo for loading on board or removalshall have the letters checked by the technicians to take safety precautionsduring operation. If you need the presence of fire team, must be requested inadvance in writing to the PA.The LCL have to be sent for immediate unloading. Reefer containersshould be sent to its electric panel to connect for maintaining the recommendedtemperature. Observe in the containers files, or in chips, check lists or bar-code:134
  • 132. Egberto F RibeiroShips B/Ls, Containers Measures, Importers, Cargoes, Bays, Row,Tier, Date, Seal etc.The positioning of containers in the pre-stacking will apply thefollowing criteria for loading on board:1-Ship2-Port3-WeightThe arrangement of the containers will be depending on the type ofequipment used, if the pre-stacking must be as stepped. There should be anopening of half meter to avoid damaging the doors and secure escape forworkers. Containers should be staggered from the middle of the height till thetop. It must be done in all tiers (columns) from the street to the bays end. If thefloor and the equipment are adequate, the pre-stacking can be raised to tall six.Container Data: In the Cargo Plan and Cargo Manifest, thecontainers are marked as follows: (Notice the gross weight= tare + cargo).ST 20CTIU 346568-2N.York 8t15-82-06There is a color code to identify the weight of each container:Blue= HeavyBrown= Half weight135
  • 133. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSYellow= LightRed= Dangerous CargoGreen= ReeferIs usual the abbreviation to identify the kind of container:ST= Standard, DryOT= Open TopR= ReeferHZ= HazardousOG= Other GroupEach container must be positioned as the sequence of shipment andnot according the time of arrival at the terminal. Thus, when the containers arecalled for each port (order to ship), there is no need to make removals in theterminal. This problem has happened in the Port since the seventies. When theagents asked a specific container, it could not be provided, as in that time therewas no plan for pre-stacking and it was in the middle of some other stacking.The Agent wanted the Port to do the removal of a complete stack for free. TheAgents responsibility was to provide the correct order for stacking.Another time, an agency wanted to prepare the pre-stacking beforethe ships arrival, but did not want to pay the required removal at every newcontainer reached at the stacking.136
  • 134. Egberto F Ribeiro19. - CARGO PLANCargo Plan or Discharge Plan is a map with lots of general cargoaddressed to ports in sequence of docking. The loading begins from the lastport to the immediate port. The map describes the exact disposition of thecargoes in the holds and decks of the ship.If the Cargo Plan is designed for only one port of destination, oneplan will be made. If there are multiple ports as part of the same plan, thisshould be for loading and unloading. This occurs when the last lot is shipped inthe last port of departure to be included in the plan for discharge at the next portof destination. If the trip is loaded for unloading in various ports, the Agent willmake only a single plan of loading and unloading. In this case, the ship shouldreturn empty for a new shipment.A Cargo Plan can be made during the loading or can be prepared bythe shipowner. This map features the hatches on a ships design, the holds floorand twin decks, where are the various goods. The vertical columns 1, 2, 3, 4 arethe holds numbers counted from the forecastle to stern. The horizontal lines A,B, C, D and E are twin decks from the top to the bottom of each hold. Theencoding of terminals shows the goods, the freight, and voyage number.137
  • 135. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSInformation common are the Agent, ship, port of departure, port ofdestination, date of departure and voyage number. Cargo Plans for bulk carriersfollow the rules of pool. In this system, exporters have their goods merged withthe other participants. The ports which operate with grain exportation, generallyapply the system of “pool”, when corn from one region is mixed with corn fromother regions. For this reason, Paranagua Port did the great effort physical andpolitical to keep separated the transgenic lots in their own terminals, from silosto ships holds, keeping them isolated for do not contaminate those grains notgenetically modified. During the shipment of bulk cargoes in the holds, theseparation is only nominal. It is up to each exporter to know the beginning andend and basements which are their lots. Sometimes the ship is charter andlessor offers place for several exporters to chose the sequence of lots forloading, from the larger lot to the smaller one. Exporting companies do notsend their employees to ports, they leave all the service in charge of the PortOperator and certified inspectors to give them the Certificate of Weight andQuality.The shipment of general cargo complies a list of lots with goodsidentified by each exporter and port of destination. The goods are identified bynumbered lots assigned to each buyer. In addition to this appointment, there areseparations by country and port. A small lot with 5tons, or large lot with100tons or more occupy defined places in the hold. If the lot is larger, above1000 tons, it can be heavier than the holds capacity and will be loaded in morethan one hold and will get all attention during the cargo loading.The Cargo Plan follows a script according the ports where the ship138
  • 136. Egberto F Ribeirowill stop. The lots are loaded on board: the last port for first, lots for thepenultimate port embark per second, lots for the first port embark for last.Eventually, it may happen that all lots for multiple ports will bestowed in a single hold. In this case, the heavier lots are stowed for first in thelower hold and the lighter lots will be placed over the heavier. About goodstargeted at recent ports are placed lots for ports initials.The cargoes to different ports can be stowed in the same level of thehold. Its weight should obey the center of the ships balance. The last cargoes ofthe route or for intermediate ports can be stowed on the sides of the hold, orforward or afterward. Cargoes which will be unload at the penultimate portshould be in the center of the hold. The cargoes to discharge for first portshould be at the top of the loads, just below the hatch cover.139
  • 137. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS20. – MOORINGThe PA Mooring Act defines the rules for preferential berthing. TheFull-Container vessels are those one that will operate only with containers. Thequeue for preference berthing of vessels follow these rules; general cargo, grainin bulk according its terminal, Ro/Ro, reefers, agricultural fertilizers, vegetableoil, Full-container. Full-container with different cargoes than container, doesnot enter on a line for preferential mooring, the ship is disqualified and loses itsarrival date to be changed to begin on a new line for general cargo ships.20.1 CF. Cargo File is the document submitted by the ships agent tonotify the Port Authority the existence of cargoes for loading and request theorder for mooring. The CF is sent after each new lot was closed for export. TheAgent may distribute several CF during the days before the ships arrival. ThisCF is sent in multiple copies distributed to terminals, sindicates, governmentministeries, ship chandlers and public and private agencies. A copy is sent toPA Mooring Programming along the Request for port services. The ship isregistered in the MDE (Daily Movement of Vessels), participating in a queue140
  • 138. Egberto F Ribeirowith other ships according his cargo. The CF prevents the use of trucks andwagons from inland by exporters non registered, whose cargoes are not listedon any waited ships for loading. The cargoes arriving to the port without shipsfor loading limit the offering of vehicles for crop transportation, it is alwaysused by freight speculators, but it denounces the intention of smuggling ofcargoes.20.2 DMV. Daily Movement of Vessels is a file of ships updatedevery morning by the Port Authority and provides information of cargoesactivities in the sequences: "Expected in Next 48 Hours" - "Ships atAnchorage" – "Ship scheduled for Mooring" – "Docked Ships" - "DispatchedShips."The item "Docked Ship" informs the general data of the ship, themain freight tonnage moved in the previous day, the total accumulated and therest balance for loading.The MDE is checked daily by numerous companies to effect thecalculation of ETD to predict the exact time of departure from the quay for allships and to share this information to the shipowners abroad.20.3 ETA / ETD During the voyage, all cargo ships or passengerships, charter or regular line, with direction to any port in the world, mustinform their Agents about the day and hour of arrival, known as ETA(Estimated Time of Arrival). The local Agent will proceed all legalrequirements at the Port Authority, Navy, Customs and government services toschedule berth for mooring. Since the departure from the last port, the captainannounces by telegraph, radio, fax or email, the ETA. He reports the expected141
  • 139. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSdate of arrival to his agent, keeping this information updated daily. TheProtector Agent keeps close contact with those responsible for mooring plan,analyzing the probable berth at day and time for mooring. Lets understand thatthe PA has to receive several ships, so all Protectors Agents also must tocalculate their ships ETA. The PA programmers are daily updating theinformation of ships operations along the wharf. The main reason is becausethe captains notification of arrival are always correct, but all of them arecalculating the expected time of delivering of the ships in operation. When theships are moored, all maritime agents involved in the port want to calculate thedeparture time of each ship, to have elements to calculate the free berth for theirships. The ETD or (Estimated Time of Departure), is the most probable time forvessels departure, allowing users to inform the Shipowners they represent. TheShipowners abroad will know immediately, if their ship will be docked asplanned, or if they will lose their mooring right to another ship.The agent always send fax or e-mail to exporters notifying themabout the ships arrival, asking their engaged cargoes to be delivered and toprovide the customs clearance for loading on board. This procedure is repeateduntil five days before the ships arrival. When the arrival of the engaged cargoat the port delays too much, the maritime Agent issues an ultimatum toexporters saying that, if the engaged cargoes wont arrive within three days, theloading of cargo on board will be canceled. Thats the main exportersresponsibility to provide the cargo with customs clearance and ready forloading.142
  • 140. Egberto F RibeiroThe calculation of ETD is employed for all kinds of ships andcargoes. When the maritime agent has to schedule his ship for mooring, hecalculates the operational time of work for those ships docked at the berth hewants. The operational time includes the crane movements for changing ofholds, discharge of hatch cover, or movements of containers, the time forloading various cargoes and tonnage per hour, because sometime a ship doesnot accomplish its speed of work. Beyond the operational time, there are someextras to add as: accident, damage, rain, lack of energy, equipment failure, etc.The purpose of this calculation is to know all the wharf occupation, to reportfor his client. The skilled agents know exactly the operation, including to visitthose ships in operation to be assured about the ETD before the morning reportby PA, so he can notify shipowners in Europe, America or Asia.This is the practical work for agents to follow the Mooring Act itemwhich prohibits the mooring of the ship without 50% of cargoes free forloading. According the Act, the ship without 50% of cargoes ready forshipment receives a penalty: to lose his turn in the queue and goes to the lastposition. Thats why the Agent write daily to exporters to have their cargoes inorder for loading. During this period, the agent will distribute all documentsrelating to the shipment and discharge to all agencies involved and will makeall necessary requests and letters:1-Pilots Association (Pilot)2- Navy (Lighthouse and buoy taxes)3- Ministries of Health (Disease on board)4- Agriculture (Inspection of holds for cereals)143
  • 141. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS5- Federal Police (List of Crew and passengers)6- IRS (List of Crew and personal effects)The ships arrival at the ocean anchorage, at the bar or into the bay isstipulated by the Navy in blocks of 200m separation between two ships. Whena ship arrives on the block and launches irons near the sea waiting buoy, thePilot writes on the Log Book (Board Diary) the date, hour, minute (GMT) andthe local anchoring coordinates obtained by GPS, or other instrument forreading.This information will be issued by telegram, telex, fax or e-mail viasatellite to the agent. The most common method was by radio to his agent toarrange a fax stating that the ship is at the waiting buoy “Ready for Loading”.The agent sends a fax to the PA where is registered the day and hour of arrival,updating her position in the queue with other ships anchored in dispute for thesame berth. During the waiting days, the ship can carry out repairs, cleaning orpainting in the holds till the scheduled day for mooring.When the queue for loading is more than 10 days, the Captain of theship just arrived issues the Statement of Ready for Shipment to ensure his turnin the queue line, while he orders to repair the machine propulsion. Thechanging of pistons, rings, or to the alternative are done at this time. After thecall from the ship to enter in the bay and to launch anchor, the holds will beinspected by the Ministry of Agriculture. If the holds are unable to receivegrain in bulk, the ship loses her berthing time to the next ship behind. Allinformation that defines the order of berthing between agents are analyzed inthe daily meetings office. The changing data will be printed in the MDE to144
  • 142. Egberto F Ribeiroexplain all readers.If there is no queue, the ship can dock directly without anchoring atwaiting buoy or in the block on the bay of evolution. There are preferentialberths to ensure exclusive place for mooring; reefer, full-container, grainsterminals, fertilizers terminals, sugar terminals etc. Sometimes, a ship needs aberth which is occupied, but there is a preferential which is empty, waiting forthe arrival of a ship in few hours. The Shipowner orders his Agent to asks forconditional mooring for his ship. It means that when the ship with preferencearrives, the Shipowner knows his ship will leave the berth by his own expenses.If the calculation of space is correct, there is the possibility to move the ships toanother berth by the changing of mooring bollards. The shifting will be done inone or two hours, it will be done alongside the quay, preventing the completeseparation of the ship from the quay, which involves loss of time and expenseswith pilots and tugs. It isnt advisable for ship to use her propeller, because itwill move faster than the gang with cables can follow her.The rules for mooring considers a free space of 20m or 10% of theships length at quay between two ships. But the rule is obeyed only during themooring operation, because just after that, the ships will be joined, sometimesin negative measures, when the stern of one ship in docked bellow theforecastle of the other. This method is so usual, that when there are ten ships atquay with 20m of space, there is place for shifting till negative measures, youllget space for mooring another one.20.4 Shifting. Every time when the ship is docked, the mooring gangwill measure the distance between the next ships ahead and at the next ship at145
  • 143. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSstern. This measure are gotten by the length of cables from head stacks. Whenthere is a vacant berth for docking a waited ship, but there is no security space(20m at the bow and 20m stern), there is the possibility to calculate allmeasures to shifting various ships until there is enough space for safe berthing.At the end of the shifting, all ships will return to each berth. This operation isone of the items from the long list of Operating Standards Act of the PA, whereall users acknowledge and accept without restrictions. The costs resulting fromthis maneuver will be paid on account of the benefited ship. The confined spacefor mooring shall be free, without cranes or towers for dont compromise thesecurity. All shipping cranes and towers should be removed to return later. Ifthere is no suitable place to position the cranes, the option is to let themamidships. After mooring the ships ladder will be lowered and installed thesafety nets. When the gangway ladder is laid on the quay and the stevedores areallowed to go on board, it characterizes the end of the docking and from thismoment, the ship is docked and starts the clock operation, according thechartering.There are ships which meet regular routes between continents andports, with dates scheduled for months or one year before. These ships haveagents at all ports that can inform routes, cargoes, freight rates and operatingcosts. There are chartered vessels for exporting to only one trip, which are thebulk carriers for shipping during the harvest of grains. The charter contractsmention the place and time the ship will be ready for shipment, any occurringof rain delay, or problems on board will be deducted from the time ofchartering. However, contractual penalties happens every day at the port. The146
  • 144. Egberto F Ribeiroamount of the fine varies according to the type of ship, seriously compromisingthe gains of the charterer. To avoid these losses, the company that charters avessel for shipment of their products, subleases vacancy in tonnes or cubicmeters to other companies, dividing proportionally among all of them thevalues of fines to be paid.20.5 3rd Flag Ship. Eventually, there is the appearance of a ship atthe waiting buoy without the Notice of Arrival. Sometimes, it happens cause byany problem on board, machine failure, lack of fuel, food supply, fresh water,arrival of crew members, disease, or simply waiting for exporters, or anexporter company, or a broker. These vessels are known by the name of Third-Flag Ships, but as their arrival are always anonymous, they are forbidden toenter to the ports, without previous permission by the Port Authority. Theseships must appoint an agent to represent them. During this period, the shipshould wait on the anchorage at the waiting buoy, while a maritime agent offershis service. The condition of 3rdflag does not give right on the ships line, norpart of any other queue, even if she is ready for shipment.20.6 Mooring.A docking operation is controlled by a Pìlot on board, assisted bytugs and ground workers with tractor for tying cables on bollards. The Pilotsbelong to an association and have a unique company that offers excellentinfrastructure for operational support, from the days prior to the ships arrival tothe port, till the time of the ships departure. The Pilot service has the existencefor over a century and a half, when they were requested by commanders of thefirst steamships arriving at the port. The island fishermen at the bay entrance147
  • 145. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSwere chosen as the first Pilots, because they knew very well the bay and theanchorage and had good knowledge about the channel bars, the dangerousundersea with sand banks, rocks, tides, channels deepth, water streams, windsetc. For several decades, due to the huge increase in the number of shipsarriving to the ports, the old Pilots invited other fishermen to join the newassociation. For more than sixty years, the Navy conducts examinations foradmission of new Pilots. Since the last thirty years, the Navy adopted a newrequisite and changed the choice method, only allowing the access for thosecandidates who were graduated by the Merchant Marine School.Few years ago, some companies have tried to use their own personalas private Pilots to proceed the arrival and departure of their ships. The eventwas sent to the Tribunal and the companies have lost the cause by the Justice.148
  • 146. Egberto F Ribeiro21. PORT OPERATIONThe Port Operation involves services of loading and unloading ofcargoes. Specialized terminals have discharges of fertilizers and chemicalsevery year, these are the agricultural inputs for the sustaining of exportation ofgrain in bulk. Beyond the general cargo for shipments, bulk cargo, containers,frozen meat, fruits and numerous other goods. The port operation at seashorehas different rhythm as at river terminals, where there isnt regular tides, butthere is the long up and down of rivers, which alter the calculations in the timeof operation. The security during times of floods or droughts can guaranteeoperations for several days or prevent to move cargoes and equipments. Theregular Port Operation shall be defined as cargoes and equipments:Cargo PlanContainerBulk grainGeneral CargoFrozen CargoEquipment149
  • 147. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS21.1 Container Cargo OperationThe shipowner must send a copy of the Cargo Plan to his agent at theport of destination to organize the ships operation. This plan will be reviewedby staff Terminal, Port Operator, Supervisors or the tally clerks chief. Theservices also include the request on the day before the service of all personneland equipment needed to work on board and ashore. The cranes, ship loaders organtry cranes must be out of the mooring area and correctly positioned afterthat. The start of the operation consists in the containers unleashing and tounlock the twist lockers by stevedores. The unloading of containers begin fromthe borders of each bay to the center, followed by the removals of units and thehatch cover, to begin the discharge from the holds.Looking from the stern to the bow, port side is the left and Starboardis the right side. On land, the imported containers have seals which must beinspected by tally clerks from the terminals and by the Customs, for do notgather too many people on dangerous place. Damages will be registered on theDischarge Receipt, one for each lot, signed by the Terminal and by the Agent.This receipt is a Customs document and is valid only if signed in 24hours afterdischarge of damaged cargo. Sometimes the Agent denies to sign it, theTerminal must use a stamp saying “The Agent didnt appear to Sign”. For donot suffer penalty by Customs, the Agent applies another stamp saying “TheTerminal didnt call the Agent to sign”. The guilty continues the same. Theopening of the hatch cover is performed by the ships crew and the removal ofhatch cover on the quay is accomplished by the stevedore gang.150
  • 148. Egberto F RibeiroThe captain is the ships commander, he is the highest authority onboard and legal responsible for the country of registry of the ship, it isconsidered as a country, or a consular building. There are very often peoplepersecuted in their country that run aboard for political asylum request onforeign ships. The first officer is the manager of operation and has authority forthe correct positioning of cargoes and correct loading on the ship and should beconsulted whenever difficulties arise. If any unwanted change appear in theoriginal plan, in such terms is called for the presence of the Agent to mediatethe issue. If there is any persistent of the Captains will for do not allow workersto enter on board, or any disruption on the vessels operation, or if the ship isdisturbing the normal work and that will result in the stopping of the queue ofships, the PA must to adopt severe measures to order the ship to leave the quayat the anchorage in two hours. No attitude will be taken by the Captain whenthe ship is at anchor, while the authorities are discussing further decisions.The containers into the hold are guided by corners, as a drawer, theship must be always on perpendicular. Notice that a 40 container can be put ontwo 20 containers, but never put one or two 20 containers on a 40. Thecontainers into the hold can only be moved on perpendicular, if the ship isleaning to one side dont move it, avoid blocking itself at the corner guides. Themodern ships have automatic system to control the ballast tanks to maintainbalance. The supervisor or manager in charge of the operation aboardcoordinates the loading and unloading of containers in the ship. Thesatisfactory equilibrium, or not is shown by one of the two lamps: red and greenplaced below the windows of the command bridge.151
  • 149. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSThe modern ships have external lamps red and green below thecommand bridge at portside and at starboard to indicate the ships criticalleaning for officers or operators on deck. The side where red light turns onindicates that the loading operation must be moved to the opposite side til thegreen light turns on. The operator changes the loading side till show the greenlight indicating that the equilibrium was restored. This always happens in anyloading or unloading operation.We can not accurately determinate the time of operation for eachdevice existing on each ship, but everyone can establish according tocalculation basis. The cranes can only be placed after the ships mooring, but itdoes not impede the team to be ready for work, to reduce the time after themaneuver. All gantry cranes must have known their speed of operation toestablish the correct movements each equipment will do during the operation.21.2 Direct Loading.Most loads are deposited in the ports for shipment within three tofifteen days without storage costs. Some loads, however, have direct shipment.This occurs when the goods are dispatched in advance at the industries, beforegoing to the port. When the cargoes enter in the port facilities, they are justready for loading. The reels of paper can be delivered from the factory onembarkation position; vertical or horizontal.The frozen goods can be delivered for loading on pallets, as well assugar bags, cotton bales, etc. Containers with frozen cargoes can be deliveredready for loading. The advantage of this type of shipment is the eliminating ofhandling cargoes in storage and transportation for stuffing, which generates152
  • 150. Egberto F Ribeirounnecessary expenses on services plenty of risks and damages.21.3 Grain in Bulk.The Ship-Loader is a machine weighting 600 tons on average andmoves on rails. The nominal speed of shipment is 1,500 tons/hour. Generally,two Ship Loaders are working on each ship. The boom consists of a telescopicconveyor and a flux funnel. The funnel has a rotary cylinder which has a curvedtube for flowing at long distance the bulk grains. This system operates only bythe gravity effect, through which, the grain in bulk can reach all sides of theships hold. An operator controls the ships equilibrium, moving the funnel andthe telescopic boom on the hatch. His position is working on the hatch, andcontrols the release of the bulk in the exact position, sometimes to a board,sometimes to another, he also has contact by phone to the ship-loader operator.21.4 Operation to Change the Cargo Holds.To keep every ship in operational conditions, there is the need tochange the cargos hold partially loaded. Never load a hatch completely at once.21.4.1- Divide the weight of the cargo to go on board in lots of onethousand tons. This procedure is the same for loading and unloading.21.4.2- If one or two hatches were being loaded completely at theforecastle, the ship will break in the middle, while she is still moored at quay.21.4.3- To begin the loading or unloading operation of all hatches atthe same time is the most safe.21.4.4- To begin the loading or unloading with two ship loaders, oneloader must be positioned to the middle hatch and the other at the forecastle.21.4.5- Each hatch must receive no more than one thousand tons.153
  • 151. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS21.4.6- To operate in a ship with nine hatches with two ship loaders,use one ship loader for the first five hatches and the second ship loader to thelast four hatches. After the first thousand tons, each ship loader changes to thesecond hatch backward. After the first lot of one thousand tons for SL1 (shiploader 1) finishes in the hatch #1, than it goes to hatch #2. The second shiploader after finish the first one thousand tons in the hatch #6, it goes to hatch#7. Both ship loaders will do the same operation until reach the last hatch, then,return to load one thousand tons in the next hatch forward.21.4.3- Alternating the sides of loading to keep the ships balance.When a ship is on loading or unloading there is the tilt movement and theleaning to one side, to keep the vertical position, is mandatory the correction ofcargoes with the ballast water pumps or with the changes of the side ofoperation. If in a loading operation the ship leans to the left side, change theloading to the right side. If in an unloading of cargo at starboard (right side), theship leans to port-side (left side), the unloading must be changed to the leftside.The operator at the flux scale panel should be called every nextchange of holds, which are receiving cargoes from the SL1 or SL2 (Ship-Loader #1, or Ship Loader #2). If the operator at the control panel is told at thelast second, there will have the spillage of bulk cargo, causing downtime forcleaning. The belts are assembled in cascade where several of them join the siloto the ship. The silo is the high side and the ship is the lower side. It means thatthe grain cargo from one side falls on the belts to the other side, even if thecargo goes upward, or to the right side or to the left side. Despite that very154
  • 152. Egberto F Ribeirooften the loading belts in cascade carry the grains upward. The general rulesays that while there is cargoes in bulk falling down in the hold, or scaleballoon, or into any silo, all the belts must to run and can not be turned off.When the belts are stopped with cargo, the electric motors wont bear to restartand the platinum will melt itself, or cause damage to the engine breaking theelectric motor shaft, or will break the reduction box, or will break thecounterbalance of the belts. During the loading of grain in bulk, the shutdownsequence must begin from the silo, till the grain carriers run free, without cargo.After the belts are completely empties, the hold operator or the SL operatorgive the order to turn off the belts for the change of hatches. If only the last beltis turned off, the Ship-Loader of the bulk cargo will continue receiving thegrain, but it will be spilled out of the belts.Generally, ships arriving from other ports have some hatches alreadyhalf loaded with the same cargoes. The operation of loading the cargoes cancontinue til complete the hatches. When the ship arrives completely empty,each change will happen at every 1.000 tons of grain loaded on board.21.5 Ship-Loader Changing of Ships Holds.The operator of the flux scale at the control panel, after receiving thenotice to change the ships holds, he closes the silos drawers and the belts willmove until stay completely empties. The Ship-Loader operator awaits all thecargo be loaded till the belt become clean, when there is no more material tocome, he turns off the belts to the SL. The SL operator needs the support ofworkers on the ground to ensure the free movement of Ship Loader on thequays rails. The rail must be clean, without people, vehicles, or electrical155
  • 153. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICScables to block the movement of the SL. The operator will trigger themovement engines to reach the determined hatch. Then, he will restart the beltsand authorize the operator of the Control Panel to open the drawers of the silo.This may take up to 15 minutes.21.6 Overload.If for some reason the shipping lines are disconnected under load, thereset will be of extreme risk, occurring energy overload. The axes of the beltsmoved by 100HP engines and elevators be damaged, or the platinum be melted.21.7 Equilibrium.A ship hold carries an average of five thousand tons of bulk cargo. Ifa hold is fully loaded while others remain empty, ship is at risk to break in themiddle. Always the news notice that a ship docked in any country was split inhalf by operational error with discharge of grain in bulk. The care to keep thebalance of the ship in the loading, is the same when unloading. The modernships have green and red lights for the guidance of the current state of balanceand tilt of the ship. The tally clerk chief reads or another responsible for thevessel should verify the correct load distribution in the hatches.21.8 Trimming.The end of each hold loading requires the correct load distributionbellow the hatch cover to the upper ballast tanks. This work can be manual by astevedore gang or by mechanized equipment. When the material is being spreadin the hatches mouth, it must be trimmed for the best stowage factor, the Ship-Loader should be unladen. Therefore, the operation of trimming has to be donewith the belts completely empties, while the stevedores spread the cargo.156
  • 154. Egberto F Ribeiro21.8.1 –The tally clerk chief calculates the amount of cargo to bespread in the mouth of the hatch cover by the stevedores. He asks the operatorof the flux scale, to send 8,5 tons to complete the shipment, it is less than theamount of the capacity of the scale balloon which is 12 tons.In trimming and changing of hatches, the scale at the ControlPanel of the silo works in manual mode, controlled by the flux scale at theship, do not use the automated system, because the cargo will be loadeddrop by drop.21.8.2 – The operator of the center panel of the silo opens the drawerto fill the balloon during the seconds needed to send less than 12 tons. If theoperator exceeds this weight of cargo, the balloon will open automatically andthe total cargo of the primary balloon will flow down into the secondaryballoon, for weighing. If the operator closes the entrance of the primaryballoon, the excess material that was sent from the silo is discharged outside theballoon, causing loss of time by cleaning. To avoid all of that, the estimatedtime should be correct, the weight of cargo sent is less than 12 tons to enter inthe balloon to be sent for weighing. In this operation, the cargo flows to thesecond balloon and the digital gauge will show the exact asked weight. As soonas the cargo enters in the hatch, it is spread by the stevedore gang. Therepetition of the operation will done till the end of the 8,5tons to complete theshipment.21.8.3 –In detail, the operation occurs as follows: Upon completionof the weighing, the operator closes the silo drawer balloon in the silo andopens the drawer to send the material to the flux scale at the quay. The primary157
  • 155. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSdeposit of the flux scale at the quay is also called balloon, with capacity fortwelve tons. The second balloon is where there is the scale, which receives thecargo from the first one. The second balloon remains closed the deposit when isweighing the cargo arriving from the first balloon, when the desired weigh is onthe digital gauge, the first balloon is closed and the cargo inside the secondballoon is ready to be sent to the ships hold.21.8.4 –The operator of the flux scale opens the drawer of the secondballoon where the material is entering. The operator checks the weighing on thedigital gauge to close the first balloon, when the total of weight requested is ok.21.8.5 –The operator verifies on the digital gauge the desired weightand closes the first balloon. The scale weighs the cargo arrived and after theregistration, he opens the drawer of the second balloon to launch the material inthe belt to the Ship-Loader. After this procedure, he waits for new instructionfrom the ship until a new request till the end of the shipment.This process will be repeated until all holds complete the shipment.The latter weighing of cargoes will be of few tons each one to complete theships hold. Like all ships holds go through this process, the trimming of thefirst hatch will be held for stevedores, while the Ship-Loader is loading anotherships hold without the wasting of time.21.8.6 –During the normal shipment, the transit time of grains inbulk between various silos and the flux scales is from ten to twenty minutes.The skill of the operator is to control correctly the four Ship-Loaders at thefinal moments of shipment, when the trimming operations occursimultaneously. The personnel involved in these operations can not be stressed158
  • 156. Egberto F Ribeiroby excessive hours of work, because certainly serious errors will occur. Someoperators of flux scale at grain bulk terminal are less effective and cause seriousdamages. They usually change the kind of grains, or to load the grains for onehold to another, or even grains for one ship to load in another.The classical error is the blends of grains in the ships hold, whichmust be completely removed and weighed for the loading to continue.Generally, few tons loaded in seconds will take several hours to be unloadedfrom board. The unloading requires personnel and equipment not provided.21.8.7 –To finalize the shipment, the flux scale weighs cargoesabove 5,0 (five) kilograms. The residual cargo on the belts between the fluxscale and the ship will be removed and taken out to the silo through pay-loaders. If the grain in bulk stays sprawled on the ships deck, additional costswill occur for unloading it. The weight of the cargo will be deduct from thetotal shipped, or transferred to another ships hold with the rental of a small beltto work on the deck to help to move the cargo to another hold.The gang requested for trimming, will not do the extra service andthe Agent Operator should have to request another gang. The OGMO doesntaccept the request out of the schedule times. The Agent Operator shouldprevent it, or negotiate with the Syndicate foreman for the removal of that load.21.8.8 –The loading of round grains as soya, or corn are easy to load,but other kind of products as soya bean pellets, or soya meal is difficult,because it makes a tower of cargo into the ships holds and needs a bulldozer tospread the cargo. The machine is heavy and has to be loaded on board by craneon tires strong enough to lift the bulldozer at 15 meters high and to reach thirty159
  • 157. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSmeters. Generally there is a pontoon alongside the ship till the middle of thehold. You should know exactly the weight of the bulldozer for choosing theappropriate crane. The Pilot is required to drive the ship out of the port inaccordance with the ETD. However, upon arriving on the ship, he will wait forhours to finish the trimming, till the dispense of gangs and removal of stairs.There is a variation in the proportion of time/ton of different goods.Generally, the Ship-Loader works at 1,500 Tons/hour with heavy bulk grainscargoes as soybean, corn and almost the half of that with very light cargoes inbulk as soya meal with low protein. There is a serious problem with lightcargoes in bulk, because it vanishes by the wind from the sea. In one hour ofwork, the scale weighs 125 times from 6 to 12 tons. The soya meal spilled intothe sea serves as food for the fish, making this site a marine nursery, keepingactive food chain.21.9 Frozen Cargoes –Reefer Ships are the low cost seatransportation for frozen meat, fruit, juice and other frozen products. The holdsof ships refrigerators are traditional tween decks of the general cargo vessels,but with thermal chambers coated by aluminum. The floor is covered withgalvanized steel pallet to allow circulation of cold air and to support the weightof the gas or electric forklifts. The gases expelled by forklifts used forpalletized cargo must be removed from the holds with electric fans. Shipmentsof frozen cargoes in loosen boxes are stacked in chambers by gangs ofstevedores. or manually21.10 Reefer Chambers –The initial shipments of refrigeratedgoods were in refrigerated trucks for direct shipment to refrigerated chambers160
  • 158. Egberto F Ribeiroin conventional cargo ships. The general cargo ships usually have reeferchambers for any eventual fright of frozen goods. However, if there are nofrozen goods, the cold chambers are turned off and loaded with general cargo.21.11 Reefer Terminal –Some companies have installed reeferterminals in warehouses at the retro-port. Sadia rented two warehouses in theAPPA and installed a reefer terminal able to load two reefer shipssimultaneously. Initially, these warehouse had been built for general cargoes upto four thousand tons, later some grain exporters used for grain exporting nomore than four thousand tons. Currently, each warehouse has the capacity forsix thousand tons of frozen goods in pallets, allowing better utilization of thearea.21.12 Personal –The personal to work in reefer ships generally aregangs of six men to attend one hatch on the quay. There are the gangs to attendeach hatch, generally are 21 stevedores. The reefer ships operate with six holdswhere the gangs have rotary time of work at -20°, they always claim to keep thehatch covers open to reduce the temperature to -10°. Workers assigned to thesix ships hold are more than two hundreds workers for each six-hours period.These workers are from union as dock workers, stevedores on board, checkers,truck drives. Others are employees of the harbor, private companies, forkliftoperators, and Reefer Terminal.21.13 Reefer Loading from Retro Area –The refrigerated goodscan be brought to the port coming from retro-port for direct shipment by truckor syndicate trucks or private trucks. These loads are palletized and coveredwith thermal blankets. The pallets are removed from the truck by forklift and161
  • 159. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSplaced under the cranes with boom to be shipped.The terminals receive trucks with refrigerated frozen goods comingfrom slaughterhouses. These trucks bring goods into loose boxes to bepalletized at the port terminal or arrive already palletized and ready forshipment. Boxes with the frozen goods are placed on pallets, labeled anddeposited in separate lots. These terminals operate with containers where thecargoes are loaded in the dry port system.21.14 Operation of Reefer Ship –The beginning of the shipmentdepends on favorable weather, without rain. The ship chambers must be in thetemperature bearable to the stevedores, around -10°. Lots must be sent toboarding as the Cargo Plan. The Reefer Terminal operators take the pallet withelectric forklifts from the chambers and move them to the warehouse door. Theforklifts on the quay take the pallets at the warehouse door and move to theship. The shipment can be by cargo boom, cranes on board, or shore cranes.There are marine pallets returnable and cargo pallets one way. The pallets areunloaded in the hold and the forklift or stevedores will deposit at the positionsdefined by the Cargo Plan. Different lots are separated with nets. Uponcompleting each chamber, the internal temperature is lowered to -30°.162
  • 160. Egberto F Ribeiro22. WAREHOUSINGThe methods of general warehouse facilities are based in cargoeswith high movement, from industries to consumers. Every day new productsenter the market and new equipments and storage methods are adopted. Thus,storage is a flexible activity on four solid bases: 1-goods, 2-equipment, 3-warehouses, 4-Destination.22.1 List of Cargoes. The logistics applied to freight ships requirescertain information in a list of exporters, weights, measures and destinations toallow the managing of storing squares; both for domestically and abroaddelivery. The depositary of goods must identify each lot arrived. The user mustprovide the list of cargoes which is a document with the Invoice information:seller, buyer, ship goods, lot, quantity and weight. Thus, the depositary will beable to prepare the equipment and the storage location. A warehouse suited tothe requirements of the shipper shall be designated to receive lots of generalcargo cited by the List of Cargoes. The same warehouse should have enoughsquares for the entire lots to be received.163
  • 161. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS22.2 Designating Warehouses for General Cargo. In a port ordelivery center with several warehouses, there is the convenient choice amidmany warehouses for several lots for delivery or for goods for several ships, orfor a complete cargo for a single ship. The warehousing in delivery centers arebased in the shelf system, where the automatism is the manager.But the correct choice of warehousing is for do not have idle workersor equipments during the receiving or during the shipment of cargoes. Thewarehouse manager should provide a plan for the best occupation of squares,for one or more ships operate simultaneously. The sane for center of delivery.22.2.1 For one ship, a full warehouse is available to divide by ports.In the center of delivery it is considered by the same size and weight of thegoods.22.2.2 For two ships, divide the space in two parts according the sizeof lots and divide them by ports. In the center of delivery divide the shelves fordelivery according: size, weight and destination.22.2.3 For three or more ships, divide the space according the size oflots and divide them by ports.The ships and center of delivery use the same organization forshelves; from the middle, looking from the entrance door, or from the stern ofthe ship, the odd side of the streets are to the right side and the eve numbers toleft side.To allow that possibility, the manager has to know the space tooccupy for do not store goods in a square for one ship and several ports. Thesquares are separated by ships and by ports and if you have to load the cargo164
  • 162. Egberto F Ribeirofor one ship in a compact place, while you are sending cargoes to other ships,you have to stop one ship to load the other.22.2.4 To operate with both ships, one side of the warehouse is forone ship and the other side to other one.22.2.5 Take care for do not place goods for a destination, in front oflots to different ships and destinations. If there is any change in the ships cargoplan, a separation of cargoes will happen during the loading and you dont havewhere to put the cargo to remove.22.2.6 Never send goods to different destinations or ports in thesame chassis or truck because the shipment may be done through wrong way.22.2.7 The vehicles for shipment at the delivery center may carrysmall lots with different destinations; the lots delivered by vans, or trucks arestored in proper drawers with separation.22.3 Export and Import.The port warehouse for consolidation and deconsolidation must beseparated, because the IRS does not allow export cargo with imports. Thestores must have two front doors and an inside corridor for transit of trucks. Ifthere is constant leftover space may be used side doors for loading andunloading docking with normal height for trucks. However, if there is the needof corridors at the side doors, the option is to enter and exit through the doorsfor the central or main aisle.22.4 Period of Warehousing. Most of the ports adopts a periodwithin 3 to 15 days before the ships arrival to begin receiving the goods asmentioned in the Cargo List. Goods sent within period pay by the services of165
  • 163. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSdischarge (truck or car) and loading (for the ship). However, the period will betax free for storage. If for some reason the ship doesnt to arrive, or the lot wontgo to embark on board, after 15 days will begin the counting the days of storagefor payment, after the goods will be loaded on another ship or to return to theexporter. It is worth clarifying that this payment is inefficient, because itprevents the movement of other goods that will yield greater profit to thedepository. Sometimes, there are lots or rest of cargoes into the warehousewithout any definition of its destination by the owner. lf the lots are importedcargoes, after three months, the goods must be listed and sent to the Customs,which will considered it as abandoned cargoes and will sell it in public auction.If the cargo is for exportation, the owner must be called to pay the fees and takeaway all the cargoes, under penalty to loose the goods to the depositary.Generally, the exporters want to keep all their cargoes in the primary zone,because the warehousing fees are less than all the costs of transportation to takeout, to store in private warehouse and to bring back later it for exportation. Thisis a common practice in all general cargoes terminals, and silos, and grainwarehouses. The exporters always sell their goods, or lend to third exporters.The loans of cargoes are obtained through a letter from the exporterto the Depositary stating that his lots with the stored weight are being loaned tothe Exporter Company, that will do the loading on board within 15 days. Thisletter is endorsed by the IRS and delivered to the depositary which will executethe transfer to load on board. The costs and expenditures involved will bedirected to the Exporter Company.166
  • 164. Egberto F Ribeiro23. LOADING OF GENERAL CARGO23.1 Operation with Chassis. The low trailers (chassis, carts ormafis) pulled by tugs or mechanical horses, trucks and wagons offer greatermobility of goods for shipment with bridges, or gantry cranes on deck. Wagonsand carts are loaded for loading and unloading simultaneously. A self load shipoperates with two bridges, or two gantry cranes on board, one for shipment ofgoods on mafis or chassis pulled by trucks at the farther distance from the ship.Another mean of shipment can be done by wagons pulled by a locomotive atthe nearest rails alongside the ship.23.2 Operation with wagons. The composition will occupy the 1strail alongside the ship. Each wagon can be shipped in three minutes andrequires two locomotives for shunting.A long composition with twenty wagons can be loaded in 60minutes. The terminal should have another composition ready to keep the flowrail. If not, other trucks can fill this lack.How many carts and wagons will be needed? It is important toanalyze the output row after unloading wagons, not to delay the entry of thenew train.167
  • 165. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS23.3 Operation with Crane. The transportation of cargo comingfrom distant warehouses to quay, where the loading will by ship Gantry-cranerequires this simple calculation to determine how many trucks will be needed toreach 300 tons/hour. A quay with 25 meters wide has a railway to be reachedby the ship Gantry-cranes. On the quay can be installed other railways, forexample three lines separated by 5 meters. The first railway for wagons must bethe one alongside the ship. The second railway can also be used for trucks andchassis, allowing the reach of the board crane. The third transit line is theremaining space for the movement of wagons and other vehicles. The chassisand trucks should be positioned on the 2nd line on the quay, so the vehicles canmove freely. For each operation of loading or unloading, that is the calculationwith forklift and truck from the warehouse to the side of the ship and return.1- How many tons per hour each truck with chassis can carry?2- How many trucks with chassis will be needed to 300tons/hour?3- Loading time in the warehouse.4- Transit time from the warehouse to the ship.5- Offload time at the ship.6- Time to return empty from the ship to the warehouse.Shipments with carts and chassis, or wagons offer the possibility ofshipment be ready before the ships arrival. Generally lots of cargoes aretransported in trucks of 25 tons and can be stored directly on the wagon orchassis. This operation requires a small area covered, reinforced concrete floorsand two forklifts. The chassis to be loaded with four forklifts, two at each side.Must be opened as many delivery team as necessary for loading.168
  • 166. Egberto F Ribeiro23.4 Warehousing of Staggered Goods.If the package of goods are narrow or irregular, the batches arestacked in staggered format. When drawing a plan for stacking, dont forget tokeep one meter between the first pallet line to the wall. For security reasons,never let the cargo touch the wall. Draw a plan since the first tier with plainoccupation of the space and calculate how many boxes of height will be. Afterthe first and second tiers, the stack will have one step less in front and at theback, the count must be according its stability, but always on staggered form.The stacking will be at the half height of the second tier upward, or 2/3 of thetotal. If the goods are large, solid and doesnt wobble, the lot can be stacked inthe total capacity of the forklift height without requiring staggered format.7- The height of the bundles or pallets will be determined by thecapacity of the forklift. The “momentum effect” is observed when the forklift isstrong to approach the tower to lift the cargo and bends the tower backward, butcant is lift the cargo when the tower is bent forward.8- The same type of machine used for unloading the trucks andstoring the goods in high stack, shall be the same used for loading the cargoesto vessel. Observe carefully the capacity of the machines.9- Do not stack with triplex (telescopic) to 5.5 meters high, duringthe loading someone rents a single cylinder 4 meters in that shipment, whichwill not reach the stacking.10- The goods will be told for tax clearance during shipping.11- Do not put two small volumes of "top" in the middle of largevolumes, because only one will be counted. Because the invoices were properly169
  • 167. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSendorsed and the count was found missing load, probably the whole lot will beremoved to recount, all by the depositary. To avoid these disorders, we placethe volumes separated by sizes.23.5 Reels of Paper Kraft. Lots to board ships are calculatedaccording to existing spaces and can never be mixed on the ships hold. Thereels are stacked in the hold at the height from five to fifteen meters or more.If there is any difference in the height at the first row, in the shipshold, it will be impossible to correct it until the end and there will be significantloss of space. If the ship has two meters of height to complete, the first officerorders the warehouse to send reels of 1.5m plus 0.50m, or two of 1.0m each.23.6 Import of Reel of Paper Kraft. The lots of reels paper Kraftmust be separated by height for correct delivery. The depositary must keep fullattention and control on operators and checkers during the receiving of cargoesfrom the ship. The representative of the importer must know the measures ofthe goods to receive. The importer should inform the identification of each lotto the depositary, through the packing-list and this should be responsible whenseparate the goods correctly.The basic rules for the separation of imported lots:23.6.1 Ship. A warehouse can contain lots of reels of paper fromvarious ships, but each lot has to be separated by size and ship.23.6.2 Voyage. The same ship does several trips in a year and allshould be identified through the respective number. Do not consider to referonly the name of the ship, but her voyage.170
  • 168. Egberto F Ribeiro23.6.3 Port. Do not put two lots from different ports in the sameplace, even if the goods have the same size, in height and weight. Each lot hasspecific identification with labels and texts painted on its sides.23.6.4 Measure. The measures of reels of paper Kraft are calculatedfor certain positions in the hatch, although it is a small lot, there is no way tomix them with other lots.23.6.5 Marks. The goods of the same marking must obey the rulesof separation, because it will be done as in the Plan.23.7 Export. The rules for storing reels of paper are peculiar andmust be separated by height, even when the difference are only twocentimeters. The representative of the exporter must provide the depositarywith the full list of lots of steps and ports. The exporter has responsibility tosend the list of lots of goods with weight and measures to the depositary.23.7.1 Shipment. If during the shipment there will have the need forseparation of reels of paper for lack of instruction of storing, the expenses willbe paid by the exporter.23.7.2 Separation. The areas reserved for each measure are inaccordance with the diameter and height of the reels of paper. The measuresoffers the elements to calculate the area needed for all stacking.23.7.3 Floor Plan. The depositary shall make a draw of the floor toconfigure the deposit of reels of paper by diameter and heights for each lot.Leftovers can be placed in front of the stacking or on a place amid other reels.23.7.4 The discharge. The storage of reels of paper starts one meterfrom the wall to form a small aisle. This space will be enough for the passage171
  • 169. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSof fire extinguishers in case of fire and for daily checking of storage conditions.23.7.5 Labels. The reels arrive on trucks and are first deposited onthe ground to change the position from vertical to horizontal and vice-versa. Atthis point, the checker makes the verification of marks, lots and heightaccording the label attached on the side.23.7.6 Stacking. After identification of each reel of paper, theoperator must take each the reel to the right stack. The reels should beaccurately layered till the maximum height established by the plan. Inspection. Between each two stacks of reels of differentbatches, leave a space of at least half meter, or two feet, to allow the passage ofa person for verification of measure and counting.23.7.8 Drivers License. The forklift operators must have his drivelicense and should know properly how to handle the controls of the forklift orclamps, to grab and release, to spin for horizontal and vertical position and allthe controls offered by the equipment. If the operator does not know how tooperate the controls properly, there will be irreparable damage to the reelstubes. If he is not skilled enough, the depositary should ask for another driver.23.8 Vegetable Oil. The storage of vegetable oil follows the safetystandards of fuel oils. The measurement of the fuel tank is made by meter tapeand by pendulum with reagents for water. The measurement of oil tankscontains a rule-driven buoy for reading the tonnage contained on a digital oranalogical gauge. The operations with vegetable oils just arrived to terminal intank-trucks and tank-wagons have to go to scale for gross weight of the loadedvehicles and after unloading, the empty vehicles will go to scale again to get the172
  • 170. Egberto F Ribeironet-weight and to record the values on the weight list of vehicles, in Portuguesethat list is known as “Romaneio”.Ships for general cargo have tanks for transportation of vegetable oiland are assembled with serpentine needed to keep high temperature for thetransportation of dense oils. These vessels carry dense products such as soylecithin, or pastes as palm oil for industries of margarine. If the lot is small, itcan be embedded in general cargo ships with tanks for this kind of cargo.Shipments of vegetable oil can be directly from the terminal to theship, or through truck-tankers. The terminal tanks are provided by gauges formeasurement method to the record the level before and after each work period.The tanks aboard are separated by oil type and tonnage. Different ports ofdestination receive cargoes of the same product in a same tank and the totalswill be recorded according the Cargo Plan.During the direct shipment in tankers for full loading, there is alsothe changing of tanks to keep the stability of the ship, as in the grain bulk cargoloading operation.23.8.1 Mooring of Ship for Vegetable Oil: Before the arrival of theship, the quay is inspected to verify that the rail lines and cranes will not beused during the loading with bombs on the quay. Caused by the use of pumpsand hosepipes, the mooring should be preferential.23.8.2 Terminal with Pipeline: The Terminal for vegetable oilsmust install its network through the underground nearby or far from the quay,for direct shipment with connectors for hoses from the quay. This method isfaster, safer and cheaper.173
  • 171. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS23.8.3 Tank Trucks or Tank wagons: Shipments by Electricpumps can be attached directly to the truck or wagon, but there is the risk ofhose occlusion. To avoid this, unload the oil from tank in an intermediatecontainer for oil to be pumped aboard.23.8.4 Oil pumps. The capacity of the pumps in HP will be the basisfor the charges of the energy consumption for loading.23.8.5 Direct Loading from Terminal: The boarding system fordirect pumping is similar to flammable initially pipeline will be filled withwater, followed by a separator rubber (pork) and the end, the oil pumped by theterminal. In this system also uses a tap to verify passage of water and oil.23.8.6 Electronic Weighing of vehicles: Trucks and wagons can beweighed at the terminal of oils by electronic scales, or at the port area. Modernrailways use scales with precision on electronic weighing up to 99.8%, withinthe standards INMETRO. In that way, the use of information by SMStechnology to notice the exporters. The loading and weighting on the same rail,where the train moves on scale at the speed of 20 km/hour eliminates thetraditional facilities.23.8.7 Weighing in the Oil Terminal: Beyond the weighing in thescale for vehicles entering into the terminal, the cargo will be checked byreading the cubic footage registered by the digital gauge.23.8.8 Certificates: The terminal appreciate the monitoring andCertifications by public departments and Companies of Certifying Quality.174
  • 172. Egberto F Ribeiro23.8.9 Security: The employees should read carefully the letters andmanifests from the ship before her arrival, to be sure there is no flammablecargoes on board or for loading in the following port.23.8.10 Weighing List of Vehicles (Romaneio): This is theweighing list of vehicles when arrive or depart loaded with goods forexportation and importation for storage. The vehicle must arrive with Invoiceand its own information on bar-codes for instant verification. The datacontained in this Invoice are the basis for assembling the program for eachcompany. The scales have automated this report printing the list for eachcompany in the system in-time communication through SMS or e-mail. Eventhough, the system is automated, it doesnt state the discharge of the products,which must have the record of the exact time of entry and exit. Any differencein the time of discharge should block the weighing operation. Unscrupulousterminals, weigh trucks and wagons loaded and remove them to otherwarehouses. After the discharge, the trucks and wagons return to the previouswarehouse and complete the weighing as if they had discharged in the firstwarehouse. The issuance of SMS report to the exporter may intimidate thosecriminals. This is the reason to check the scheduled time of weighing, not onlythe cargoes. Compare the time the terminal spent to weigh your cargoes, withthe time spent by others companies, in the same day and period. When toomany explanations are given, without the fundamental truth, changeimmediately the warehouse, or silos or ports.175
  • 173. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS24. CONTAINERS TERMINALReceipt and delivery of sealed containers or loose cargo must bethrough a computerized system installed at the gates and access Siscomex torelease confirmation. The staff working at the gates should know all theseprocedures. The control at the gate is the most fragile step of the internationaltrade, so its always attacked by fraudulent persons. There is no way to receivecargo or empty containers without registration in Siscomex or authorizationcards with the RFB. The containers must be controlled by bar-code. With theinstallation of new equipment at the ports, you can multiply several times thecurrent drive, which in past years Paranagua were on average almost twohundred thousand TEUs. Having a better political support that definitely releasebarriers of foreign trade, each ports will reach quickly the mark of one millionTEUs per year.For the current two hundred thousand TEUs in 2001, there wasapproximately 3,850 TEUs per week or 550 TEUs per day or 30 TEUs per hour176
  • 174. Egberto F Ribeiroat times not rationalized. However, if operations occur only during regularhours, would have a huge traffic, because a normal year with 285 days oftwelve hours or 3420 hours, or nearly one container per second. Consideringthe movement of containers and for do not forget their content, knowing thattoo many containers are LCL. In this case, there are approximately five B/Lsper container that will multiply five times the movement of vehicles throughthe gates. In a gross calculation, for normal hours of work, will have onethousand deliveries. How many gates will be needed for a future so near?Calculate to add the length of stay of each container in the terminal.If each container for export stays for two days, and analyzing ninety-twothousand TEUs for export in a year, there was an average of 511 TEUs per day.Multiplying these containers by five or ten, what will be the adequate area insquare meters? Analyzing the area for import containers, we must considerseveral factors that increase the seasonal stay of imports. Strikes at ports,changes in currency values or insufficient tax are the most critical cases. If weconsider 10 days of stay for imports, the nominal capacity of 5000 TEUs tothree high, divide by the days of the year, each TEU daily stays 365/10, or 36periods multiplied by 5000 equals 180,000 TEUs per year. If there areinsufficient places we can use new areas or to rise the equipments and stacks upto six high. However, we can not only measure the harbor, but all terminals thatoperate with containers. The lack of control in the receipt or delivery ofcontainers, empty or loaded can be the cause of wrong deliveries. The lack ofcontrol can lead the terminal to assume for faults occurred in other places, orseveral other serious problems only by negligence of the terminal.177
  • 175. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS25 - TRAYTAINERThe name Traytainer means a tray for container, which is a steelplatform to work as a codified interface to be moved by diamagnetic field onlanes for transportation of containers, machines, cargoes and vehicles. It ismade of steel in a flat shape similar to those existing in containers, strongenough to bear thirty tons with eight lockers to block two 20 containers or one40 container. The Traytainer measures 0,25m high, 2,45m wide and 12,25mlong. The Traytainer is provided of corners opening for twist-locks to attach onchassis, its stackable in the ships shelf, terminal or on each other. This systemsecures the containers by electromagnets, so it does not need lashingequipments as lashing bars, chains, wires, double stacking cones, nor twist-locks on board of ships. The shelves have sensors to lock the Traytainers byelectromagnets on steel base of the bottom rails of the lanes.The Traytainer has a system of levitation by 24 electromagnets orpermanent magnet of 1kg each one with North pole attached at the side of thebottom rail and the South pole is attached in the middle. The diamagnetic178
  • 176. Egberto F Ribeirosystem is the lowest cost benefit offered by its fast and full automatedoperation. The diamagnetic pieces are strong enough to raise 1,300 times byeach one Kilogram.Electrical Wireless. The electrical system can be made by coils fedby batteries. As the floating distance between the Traytainer over the lane isnear 10cm (three inches), the wireless system can feed the coils.Loading Capacity. The Traytainer is able to carry two TEUs; onecontainer of 40, or two containers of 20, or four containers of 10.Driving. The Traytainer has magnetic coils for linear traction at fourdirections (forward, backward, right and left).Secure corners. There are eight magnetic locks on corners andmiddle for locking the Traytainer inside the shelves in ships, in the pre-stacking, in a container terminal or Intermodal or on a chassis.Stackable. When the Traytainers are empties, the electromagnetlocks at the corner can secure the units on pre-stacking, on ships board and oneabove each other for storage of empties unity.Energy Consumption. The magnetic locks work in continuouscurrent at low voltage and are used for safety and low cost, because can be fedby battery recharged anytime in its bays.The Traytainer can be guided by the control center with definedroute on lanes, whose permanent magnets will be frost to give levitation ondiamagnetic mattress. The Traytainer may have its route changed by reversiblekeys to a new lane following anytime the flowing of Traytainers to forward,backward, right side, left side, locked, unlocked, reverse or to stop. To stop a179
  • 177. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSTraytainer in movement, just to change the key to "reverse” and “stop". As itapproaches to the correct place on the pre-stacking, the sensors locate it andselect the "reverse" position until it stops in front of its wall, or to change thedirection, or to stay locked in the shelf.To reduce the cost of operation, the exporter can ask some 40 or 20containers just locked on Traytainer to load in the factory to deliver atimporters door. This could be a new container mode, but there are risks ofdamage when it is misused for lack of equipments. The Traytainer weights halfton, but cant be moved by steel cables hooked on its corners fittings, only byspreader with locker or magnetic lock on corners to lay down on a chassis. Theforklift with spreader can load or offload a container on a Traytainer. Theforklift can load or offload carefully a 20 container by its pockets on aTraytainer.To use a Traytainer for loading a 40 container on chassis at thestore-yard there are several events which require care for do not cause damagesto the unity. The most advisable is do not handle the Traytainer by forklift, ithas coils between the floor and when broken, they are out of work and must bechanged. Traytainer has two front sides, each one is available on the chassis orwagon.25.1 How to Use the Traytainer for 40 containers:25.1.1 The empty Traytainer is taken from the stacking by magneticlocker and laid on a chassis and locked on its four corners.25.1.2 The empty 40 container is laid on the Traytainer with thedoor to the chassis back side and locked. The containers door panel is the back180
  • 178. Egberto F Ribeiroside of the unity.25.1.3 Before stuffing it is sent to electronic flat scale for weighing,following after to the factory for stuffing.25.1.4 The containers door-sill will be 25cm higher than normal.After stuffing, the chassis with the 40 container loaded on a Traytainer is sentback to the scale, when will have its empty weight deduced from its grossweight to have known its cargo net weight, the ticket will be send to theterminal. (The true weight is mandatory).25.1.5 Its fast the operation to stuff the container with Traytainer onchassis. After stuffing, the container is closed and sealed for weighing.25.1.6 The container can be lifted by spreader and laid on the floor.After stuffing, the container is closed, sealed and loaded on the Traytainer.25.2 How to use a Traytainer for two 20 containers.25.2.1 To assure safety against robbery and the seals protection, theunits must be laid on the Traytainer with the doors to the middle. (mouth tomouth).25.2.2 To lift a set of two containers and Traytainer is possible withTranstainer for double spread attached to all containers lockers.25.2.3 The forklift for 30ton can offload one 20 containers each timeby its pockets or with spreader.25.3 Restriction – To bend a Traytainer smashes the coils.25.3.1 Do not lift by crane with beam and steel cables with hooks infour corners of two 20 containers, it will bend the Traytainer.25.3.2 Do not lift up two 20 containers from a Traytainer with181
  • 179. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSspreader for one container of 40, it will bend the Traytainer.25.3.3 Do not lift up two containers with spreader by the middlelockers, it will bend the Traytainer.25.3.4 Do not lift up two containers of 20 with spreader on 40position, it will bend the Traytainer.25.3.5 Do not offload or lift up the Traytainer with forklift by its lowpanel, only by electromagnetic devices in the middle and at the corners.25.3.6 The damages caused by misuse will be paid by user.25.4- How to load two 20 containers on Traytainer:25.4.1 The empty Traytainer is taken from stacking and loaded on achassis, locked on four corners and sent to a flat scale to get the tare.25.4.2 Two empties containers of 20 requested according the userneeds are taken from the stacking and loaded on the Traytainer.25.4.3 Notice that the sea container and Traytainer have tare andmax cargo weight painted on front panels, however to get the correct grossweight with cargoes, only after weighing.25.5 How to stuff two unitized 20 containers (FCL/FCL).25.5.1 The Traytainer on chassis is loaded with two 20 emptiescontainers to load the same lot. The containers can be ordered on the Traytainerwith doors to front and back, for stuffing directly on the chassis.25.5.2 The chassis is sent to a scale to get the net weight of theunitized set of chassis; two empties containers and one Traytainer.25.5.3 The arrival at the factory for stuffing as planned; exporter, lot,port of destination, weight and buyer.182
  • 180. Egberto F Ribeiro25.5.4 Offload the containers from the Traytainer, by forklift, or onlyto separate the truck for loading on chassis for stuffing.25.5.5 Offloading the containers for stuffing at the factory: unlock the two 20 container and lift up by spreader to layon the floor alongside the other with free space to open the doors. verify the containers operational condition and cleanness. if it is damaged or dirty, dont try to repair, send it back. if OK, begin and finish the stuffing plan. close the doors and apply the ships seal. the chassis is positioned to load the unitized Traytainer withtwo stuffed containers. The Traytainer is lifted up by spread and lowered on thechassis and locked. The two containers are lifted and lowered on Traytainer andlocked. The analysis of weight and equilibrium are mandatory. after stuffing and the containers sealed, both containersmust be laid with doors to the middle of the Traytainer. The Traytainer is sentto electronic flat scale to get the gross weight and to subtract the chassis netweight to get the correct weight of the unitized set of containers and Traytainer.The gross weight of the unitized set of Traytainer and two stuffed containerswill be print on B/L as one.25.6 How to stuff and deliver two 20 unitized containers.(LCL/LCL) The Traytainer will be sent for a HUB port to a defined Triple-eship and at the HUB port of destination. Two containers are received fromdifferent feeders in a HUB port to be shipped by Traytainer on a Triple-e shipand sent for another HUB port to be delivered by two feeders for the seaports183
  • 181. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSof destination.25.6.1 Containers for transshipment LCL/LCL arrive on chassis at acontainer terminal, Intermodal, or HUB port:25.6.2 The trucks and containers are identified,25.6.3 The trucks and containers are scanned by portal of x-ray,25.6.4 The trucks drives slowly on a flat scale for weighing,25.6.5 The trucks stops alongside the loading shelf lane.25.6.6 The containers are identified and lifted by spreader and placedon the defined Traytainer with its doors against doors, locked and driven bylanes to its codified pre-stacking and stops inside the shelf on the laneaccording the orders: ship, weight, tier, row and port of destination.25.6.7 The Triple-e ships arrives, loads and sails to the Hub port ofdestination and proceeds the discharge.25.6.8 If the feeder is moored, the Traytainer is driven to the firstfeeder, where the identified container with known weight is unlocked and takenon board. If the feeder is not moored, the container will be sent to a gantry-crane to be changed to a new Traytainer in the pre-stacking for that waitedfeeder.25.6.9 The Traytainer is driven to the second feeder to be loaded byship to shore gantry crane. The identified container with known weight isunlocked and taken out of the Traytainer and the container is loaded on board.The empty Traytainer goes for stacking.The Traytainer is a resource of the method of unitization and wasidealized to be used by Triple-e ships in Hub Ports. But it is also suitable for184
  • 182. Egberto F Ribeirosmall ships (feeders) and barges which are heading to ports to operate under thesame method of work. If the feeder is at a Hub Port and receives its containerson Traytainer, but she doesnt work under the same method of operation, thecontainer is unlocked and lifted by gantry crane without the Traytainer, whichreturns for storage. The released container is sent to the conventional pre-stacking at quay for shipping, or loaded directly on the feeder.The containers can be loaded on a Traytainer inside the industry, orloaded at the container terminal and be sent to a seaport shelf for loading onfeeders. The loaded Traytainer are sent to a Hub Port for transshipment througha Triple-e ship to the Hub Port at the country of destination. There will have thenecessity to change the containers from a port to a Hub Port, because severalports dont have drought enough for Post Panamax ships or Triple-e ships andfew seaports in the world can receive them. The Traytainer reduces de cost ofoperation and increases the speed of the port operation. The Traytainer offersthe possibility to move two TEUs from one Intermodal Terminal at the origin toanother at the destination, from different countries or inside the same country inthe sequence as shown: Warehousing at industry > Intermodal > ShallowSeaport > Homeland Deep sea Hub Port > Abroad Deep sea Hub Port >shallow Seaport > Intermodal > Warehousing > Delivery.25.7 The Traytainer is not self commanded. The Terminal Controloperates the Port Shelves, or by the ships bridge of command when goes onboard. The energy is applied when necessary to levitate and to move, or when itis stored inside the shelf on board of a vessel. It must always be locked on theshelf, even on calm sea or under bad weather.185
  • 183. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSBefore the beginning of the operation, the Traytainer must bechecked by the control center. The test is done with the locks “on”, for do notmove from its bay. If any light in the panel of instruments is red, the unitywont be moved. The software must be developed according these rules.25.7.1 To check the levitation25.7.2 To check the movement to front and back,25.7.3 To check eight locks for security.25.8 The Traytainer inside the shelf. At the port terminal, theTraytainer has the lock "turned off" and must "turn on" always when there iswind disturbance up to 20km/h or any unexpected swaying.26.9 To prevent sensors malfunction. The energy fail or unstablecondition, the recommendation is to keep an emergency energy supply, alwaysin order to enter anytime in operation.25.10 If the Traytainer is levitated by cryogenic system. The coilswill be fed by batteries. If there is any fail of energy, it wont stop the work.The Shelf System at the port and in the ship has four corner sensors for bar-locks for each Traytainer, this method eliminates the need of twist-lockers andcables. When the container is locked on a Traytainer, it is securely attached fortransportation on the shelf and quickly unlocked when it is called to unload.25.11 Traytainer can also be used for vehicles transportation atports, according its size and capacity, but in special units with special front andrear ramp, equipped with quick-lock or self-lock for attaching the wheels. Thelane for Traytainer can be used in ships, pre-stacking, containers terminals,Intermodal yard, on lanes alongside highways and rails. On lanes alongside a186
  • 184. Egberto F Ribeiroroad or rail must be on safe height for do not be blocked by persons or animals.For vehicle transportation, the user will pay a toll and load his car on aTraytainer, while the company owner of the system does the transportation. Theuser can send his vehicle in one day to a defined city, in the following day orweek, he flies to that city, where his car waits for him. This is a safe trip,without the risk of accidents, stress and generating economy on fuelconsumption and the consequent reduction of its price. There is the possibilityto transport vehicles with passengers trough downtown, but for long trips, itwill be available with stops.25.12 All Traytainers are free. When a reefer is laid on aTraytainer, its cable is connected to the energy supply. When the Traytainerenters and stops on its lane in the shelf, the connection for energy supply isdone automatically. There are double set of energy connectors, because theTraytainer has double front, each one can be connected for all controls. Thereare cameras installed near the Traytainers for reading of the container numbersto be checked by operators. It will happen on store-yard, pre-stacking and onboard to be seen through a web site. The connectors for energy supply installedat the shelf for reefers offers reports of the containers working time, for theoperator get the correct information of the energy consumption. The Traytainerdata transmission when sliding on the lanes are by radio with antennas installedin all shelves.25.13 How to work with Cryogenic SystemThe Traytainers moved by cryogenic system has some care to betaken before the movement to begin the operation on a defined tier and row:187
  • 185. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS25.13.14.1 The central of operation will read the unloading cargoplane in the computer screen the tracks from the Triple-e ship. The Triple-e ship has twenty tracks with different colorsfor each feeders shelf. Each level of tier has colors from lower to upper, fromdarker to lighter colors. Check the linear motor forward and backward. Open the liquid nitrogen for the magnets of the orderedlane with twenty Traytainers to freeze till the correct temperature. Check the eight locks, one side each time. The correct temperature of the diamagnetic on the lanestarts the order to unlock the Traytainers and to move them to the bridge. After unloading twenty Traytainers from both rows,begins the loading from the pre-stacking to fill the empty rows.All tests are done automatically, if exists any malfunction, all thelane will stop. If the tests are in order, all twenty Traytainers will be unloadedto the feeders pre-stacking with the light color of the higher tier. This is theprocedure for all tiers.The implementation of clip-on containers in the shelves, where thereis liquid nitrogen distributed in tubes offers fast freezing and quick loading ofunits. There are some thousand connectors for clip-on containers on TraytainersTraytainers. The shelves on board and on terminals will be covered forprotection of the containers against sun heating.188
  • 186. Egberto F Ribeiro25.14 The Shelf System.The Shelf System is a steel or concrete structure to install the laneswhere the Traytainer will slide on. The vertical structure has three beams "I"connected by steel bars for supporting two rows of ceramic permanent magnetswith the north pole at the outside and the south pole installed in the middle,between both beams "I". The ceramic permanent magnet will be installed onthe lane and frost by liquid Nitrogen distributed by tubes, without to lose in theair a single litter. This should be the most economic and advanced system oflevitation in the world. The electric coils for linear traction are on the surface ofthe lane, below the Traytainer and have speed controlled by sensors.The steel structure can be assembled to operate in every port withcontainer terminal, on board of ships as Lash, Roll-on/Roll-off, ferry boats,Mega ships, feeders and several other vessels with wide holds and large backdoors, through where the Traytainers will enter and leave the ship carrying oreminerals, containers, vehicles etc. The movement of Traytainers from terminalto a ship at seaport, river or lake are done through a bridge, whose operationmust obey the vessels stability.The diamagnetic lane has ceramic magnets to be frost by liquidnitrogen to elevate the Traytainer up to 10cm to slide free of rails or cables.This is a way to preserve the container integrity and its cargoes withoutshaking.The Shelf System has horizontal lanes made of steel with separationat the side and middle for do not retain water and to reduce weigh. Thediamagnetic effect grabs the Traytainer, but it needs guard rails for protection.189
  • 187. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSThe Traytainers will slide smoothly, even when has to do the changing of lanesas on a highway. The guide is the diamagnetic field intensity from bothmagnets on the lane and under the Traytainer, which pushes the unity to themiddle of the lane giving safe run over the steel structure.The Traytainer is the interface of the Shelf System which works verywell over horizontal lanes and is also secure to go up and down by incliningramps with angle no higher than 15%. However, the movement up and down ina shelf can also be done by elevators. The average speed of each Traytainer ona lane is from 10km/h to 15km/h, according the tier for heavy or lowcontainers. That speed are enough to cross 500m in two or three minutes to apre-stacking, ready to go on board of feeder ships. The Shelf System is acomplex interface that operates through the shelves from the Triple-E ship, tothe bridge and to a defined pre-stacking, or to several pre-stacking of feeders atthe same time. The bridge works between the pre-stacking, the Triple-e shipsand the feeders.The Magnetic System which moves the Traytainer has a levitationmattress generated by Permanent magnets attached in the Traytainer. Thelockers are turned on by electromagnetic system fed by batteries, because it canbe locked and unlocked by the center of operation and are secure resource forstacking the empties units.The superconductors for levitation are permanent magnets made ofceramic rare earth. The set is attached on the lane and the electromagnets areattached bellow the Traytainer. The center of control moves and controls thelinear motor speed, power and direction. The Magnetic System has been190
  • 188. Egberto F Ribeiroapplied successfully in several countries for passengers transportation, thisproject is for cargoes as containers and vehicles.Vehicles with size smaller than the Traytainer can be locked totransport workers, visitors and technicians to install or repair parts. After thetrip, the vehicle leaves the Traytainer and can go away. Mechanicalmaintenance is not expected to be very often, but electrical coils and cablesmust be clean by a special car for cleaning. The Traytainer must run free ofobstacles on the lane, where the surface of the magnetic mattress must be cleanby broom and vacuum after every end of work and inspected at the beginningof operation. The installation must be protected against animals, humidity,broken tubes, smashed lanes, loosen coils and to protect the cables againstthieves etc.Today, the containers on board of ships are laid one over the other ina system of vertical drawer with rails. The movement of waves under badweather causes a sequence of ups and downs on the vessel. When a wave liftsup the forecastle, it pushes the containers upwards by the rails. In few seconds,the upper containers fall on those on lower tiers. After two days of bad weather,some containers will be smashed and the cargoes will be lost. When it happenson deck, the containers are smashed to one meter and a half, it release the steelcables and the entire stack of containers turns aside and falls down into sea,causing lost of cargoes. This is a serious risk and too dangerous for navigation,the worst is that it is the responsible of the general increases on the cost of theinsurances.191
  • 189. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS25.15 Port Operation for Full-containersConventional ships operate with a gantry crane alongside the ship,unloading and loading bay after bay. The size of a bay is the same on everyship, the differences are on the width and height of each bay. The bayscodification is a sequence of vertical drawers with the size of 40 and 20containers counted from the ships forecastle to stern. The bays for containershave the same number inside the hold and on the deck. The bays are numberedon sequence order 1, 3, 5... for each sea container of 20 and the sequence orderof 2, 4, 6... for each sea container of 40. TEU means one container of 20 andone container of 40 means two TEUs. Remember for do not lay two 20 overone 40 container.25.15.1 Codification. Each level of the stack of container is a “tier”and are counted in different levels, in the holds and on the deck. The tiers in theholds are counted from two and two as 02, 04, 06... The numbers of tiers beginfrom the center of the hold and deck, looking from stern to forecastle. Into thehold, the tiers are odd numbers 01, 03, 05... are for containers at starboard orright side, and the even numbers 02, 04, 06... are for containers at port side orleft. On the deck level, the tiers are also counted from two and two, but theeven numbers begin on 82, 84, 86... and the odd numbers on 81, 83, 85,87...The center of the hatch cover has the code Sequence. The ports always have predominant cargoes andweights and must have statistical analysis to ensure the correct distribution foreach tier in the shelves at the port. The actual reality in economy has changedall statistical data and to prepare a pre-stacking must be after a stowage plan192
  • 190. Egberto F Ribeirogiven by the ships Agent, or by the terminals software.25.15.3 Heavy cargoes. The care with containers loaded with heavyweight cargoes must be positioned in the lowers 02 to 06 tiers in the holds. Thisheight can be changed according each port of discharge.25.15.4 Medium cargoes. Containers loaded with cargoes at amedium weight will be positioned on the hatch-cover from 08,10 and 82 to 84tiers.25.15.5 Light cargoes. Containers loaded with cargoes at a lowweight or empties will be loaded from the tier 86 to 90 or higher than that.25.15.6 The Port Operation. It is defined according the ships size,weigh and equilibrium to organize the pre-stacking for simultaneous work onseveral rows, even when a mechanical trouble stops a forklift. The loading willbe according the numbers of rows on each vessel and according the planning bythe vessels Agent or by the port planners to give safe navigation. The cells arecarefully analyzed very before the ships arrival, when is calculated her ETD(Estimated Time of Departure). It means that despite of the ship does not haveyet arrived, the operators know exactly the day and hour she will be delivered.The unloading and loading sequence follow the containers weigh, size andports of destination.The operation of a full-container happens only to parts of the totalcargo on board, sometimes only 20% from the total will be discharged and thesame quantity for loading. This kind of ship has several ports to leavecontainers and to take others. The beginning of the operation is mandatory totake out all steel cables and to release all twist-lockers to let the containers free193
  • 191. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSbefore unloading. Several accidents happen very often when the twist-lockersor cables are not taken out. To begin the operation unloading all the upper tierfrom both sides of the bay; from starboard and port-side, in direction to center,from the upper tier to the hatch-cover, which is unloaded to quay, when thehold is open to unload the containers into the holds.After the unloading begins the loading, from the center to both sidesand loading all tiers and all rows till finish the hold and to close the hatch-cover. The following containers are loaded on the hatch-cover and deck, fromthe center to both sides till the upper tier, when the gantry crane is moved to thenext bay. The calculations of all that operation is done always before the shipsarrival and must obey the order of priority to finish all gantry cranes operationin the same time, no more than 15 minutes from the first crane to the last. Whenthere are several containers to unload or to load in the same hold, it is necessaryto place another gantry crane to accelerate the operation to all gantry cranesfinish together the operation.A bad cargo plan is when the only one container to unload from abay is into the hold. To execute such operation is necessary to remove near onehundred containers from the hatch to open the hatch-cover to unload the desiredcontainer and to load again the containers removed. To remove containersmeans to do a double work, to unload and to load again. Considering the timeof 30 TEUs per hour, will be spent six hours of work, only to discharge onecontainer. When two or three containers were loaded in the hold by mistake andto remove them will cause great expenses, the most reasonable is to let them onboard til the next voyage or do the transfer in another port, where arrive ships194
  • 192. Egberto F Ribeirocoming to this port.The Triple-e ship with 16.000 TEUs operating with ship to shoregantry cranes to four TEUs each movement will have 4.000 movements forunloading and 4.000 movements for loading, but in the terminal the movementswill be one after other:25.15.7 The complete quay and terminal operation: lifting from exporter chassis to pre-stacking, 16K times. lowering from pre-stacking to chassis, 16K times. to lift from chassis for loading on board, 4K times. lowering on ships bays for loading, 4K times. lifting from ships bays for unloading, 4K times. lowering to chassis to store-yard, 4K times. lifting from chassis at the store-yard, 16K times. lowering to chassis for delivery to importer, 16K times.The ship to shore quay crane with spreader to four container willhave the quantity of 8K movements for unloading (4K up from cell + 4K downon chassis) and 8K movements for loading (4K up from chassis + 4K down oncell).Considering that a ship to shore quay crane moves 4 TEUs in fourminutes, it will move 60 TEU/hour or 8K TEUs in 134h, to be divided by thenumber of cranes in operation. There are also the stop time of 30 minutes foropening and closing of holds, beyond 5 minutes for changing of bays. A fullcomplete operation will be in almost 14 hours in good conditions of work, butto understand the global operation in the terminal and on board, lets consider195
  • 193. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSthe time of operation in 16 hours. It means that the terminal has to send andreceive 32K TEUs in 16 hours, or two thousand TEUs by hour to feed correctlyall quay gantry cranes. The operation team can be informed about bad weather,lack of energy, or faulty mechanical crane, that will change all the time ofwork.If there is no ship to shore quay cranes to move four containers, oreven two containers at once, the operation will be dramatically increased from32K to 128K movements for each ship. If the operation happens under oneTEU for each movement, there will have 16K TEUs for unloading and 16KTEUs for loading, at 8 movements for a complete operation, the grand total willbe of 128K movements. The Triple-e ship are too high and too wider, it slowsthe operation, because in such condition of work, the speed of loading from 60TEU/hour will be reduced to 40 TEU/hour. The Ports Authority will ask to thePort Operator to improve the plank (table of minimum cargoes operation perhour), because the smaller ships will be working faster than the Mega-ships.The actual port operation for loading one container is completed intwo to three minutes, but to move four containers at once the speed will bereduced to 4 minutes for movement in one hour for each ship to shore gantrycrane in a total of 15 movements, or 60 TEUs per hour. Taking the example offeeder ships or in modern Triple-e ship at present method of operation tounload and load 16.000 TEUs there is a maximum of 128.000 movements and aminimum of 16.000 movements.196
  • 194. Egberto F Ribeiro25.16 Port Operation of Shelves SystemThe Shelves System has its own method of work, where there are nohatch-cover on board, the shelf has rows at eighteen tiers of height. The ship ismoored by stern and the operation begins by the upper tier and two rows fromstarboard and port side at the same time. The shelf on board have code for rowand tier for all bays, from the forecastle to stern. The system was idealized andprojected to operate from 2 to 20 or more lanes simultaneously on the same tier.Each lane on board through all bays will store twenty Traytainers or more andits weight must be considered for do not cause any fail on the shipsequilibrium. The Traytainers which are positioned on the upper tier of the shipsshelves are empties or low weight and will unload faster than those below theships shelf, where the heavier Traytainers will unload at low speed. But,according each vessel, there will have less or equal TEUs inside the hold andon the deck. The main project for ships to move Traytainers is that one whichallows the shelf to be assembled for operation by stern.25.16.1 The Operation. The ship operation begins by the higher tieron the stern, the first two lanes of discharge are from both sides: right and left,or starboard and port-side, or rows 21 and 22, each one has near twentyTraytainers. After the last two Traytainers to leave both lanes, begins theloading to fill the same two lanes at right and left. The following step is tounload the rows 19 and 20 (looking from the stern, the right side are the oddnumber and left side are the even numbers). After the last Traytainer enters inthe lane, begins the third lane from both sides, or rows 17 and 18 following thesequence till the last two cells on the top of the ships shelf. Notice that in so197
  • 195. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSshort time of work, there is no effect of tides.25.16.2 Electronic Fail and Repair. When a Traytainer suffers anelectronic failure during the operation in shore shelf, all row behind it will bestopped and immediately locked, the Traytainers in front of it will go on. Therepair team with the support car goes to the Traytainers tier and row. When thefailure is on board, the ships electrician will lock the row to repair, or ifnecessary the land technician team will be called. The operations to other rowsand tiers may to continue, if there is no need of stop to help the repair. Whilethe defective Traytainer is being fixed, all Traytainers on the lane remainstopped. For safety measure, the Traytainers only will be unlocked anddelivered in safe by the chief of operation or by the technician on board. Afterthe repairs are done, the bridge may be working at several tiers below. By theend of the operation, the bridge will be elevated at such tier to finish theunloading and loading, following the sequence line of Traytainer on hold in theshelves on board and in the terminal. To re-start the operation, the entire line ofTraytainer will be unloaded and loaded in the sequence.The operation sequence of discharge and loading begins fromoutside to inside. A shelf line with twenty Traytainer are more than 240m longto unload from the first to the last one in two minutes. When the workers willhave developed good skillfulness in this system, and with strong and steadybridge, all TEUS on Traytainers from one tier can be discharged at once, itmeans 400 TEUS in two to five minutes. The ship operates moored by her sternand despite of unloading such amount of Traytainers, she will be kept in safe.After the higher tier has finished the discharge and loading, begins198
  • 196. Egberto F Ribeirothe next one just below. There will be few minutes to separate the bridge, if it isby elevator system for one tier, and from the ship and to lower on the next tier,attach again the bridge to the ship and start the operation for more few minutes.The actual pre-stacking system on ports and on board is a compactblock of containers ready to load and discharge. There is no possibility to movea single container, without disturbing the entire stacking and the lost of timewith personal and equipments for hours. There is a margin of errors on everyseaport, where containers are lost without any registration.The Shelves System is a structure of steel or concrete columns,lanes, bays and cells made in three thickness, strong enough to allow Traytainerto slide on lanes and protective guard rails. This system offers an easy accessinto the complex of bays, tiers and rows, where the TEU on a Traytainer can bemoved anytime with few movements by the center of control. The Shelves inIntermodal, Container Terminal, Port pre-stacking and on board must becovered to protect the structure and the electronic system against bad-weather,dust, birds, rats and rain. The pre-stacking on a Shelves System is a block offrames for bays, tiers and rows for lines of Traytainer ready for shipping, fromthe higher tier on starboard and port-side at the same time. As the shelf side isopen, garnished only by guard-rail is possible to see the figure of the ship as inthe "cargo plan".The Shelves System has separate lanes for each row pair and impair,for Traytainer do not touch itself. The Shelf System is provided by one bridgewith twenty or more lanes attached at the stern of the Mega-ship or feeder. Thebest cargo speed is gotten by a forecastle door, to allow the export Traytainer to199
  • 197. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSenter through forecastle, while the import Traytainer leaves the vessel by sternat the same time, or inverse. When discharge begins, there is no matter for whatfeeder the Traytainer are going to, each one after leaving the bridge enters inanother lanes existing at the side of the port Shelves to the previous chosenfeeder.There is one Shelf (pre-stacking) for each Mega-ship, with a bridgeon the quay with dimensions to attend from two to twenty or more rows onboard simultaneously. This system gives the possibility to deliver allTraytainers immediately to go on board of the feeders.The Shelves System is served by two side lanes at all tiers, whichworks for emergency access. When necessary to move a container from one tierto other, there is one ramp and one elevator with rack and gearing.Each shelf will be enough to store one entire Mega-ship for loadingand lanes heading to shelves for transshipment to feeders. The port will attendone Mega-ship by stern to land and six feeders alongside her pre-stacking,enabled to work at the same time.The system of shelf and Traytainer protects against the pounding ofcontainers into the holds. The Traytainers are locked on shelves by magneticlocks and steel bars which impede the containers from hitting itself up anddown and one side to other. The system of Shelf and Traytainer will reduce theloss of container and cargoes on board of full-containers ships.The shelf structure must be built directly on rock or concrete base,strong to offer resistance during storms, protection against lightnings,earthquakes and walls with strength and height enough to bear Tsunami. The200
  • 198. Egberto F Ribeiroshelf structure on board must have columns and beams strong to support itsown weigh, the Traytainers (Max gross weight 30tons), the accessories, windsand operational shaking. The shelf has four classes of resistance; heavy fromtier 02 to 08, medium from tiers 10 to 20, light from tiers 21 to 28 and emptiesthe different use of lighter Traytainers are stored on the top25.17 Ship and Stacking ShelvesThe Shelves System installed on Mega-ships can offer good way towork in parallel with Gantry crane on Feeders. The Mega-ship has ownstructure of shelves without deck. The best ship for shelves are those providedby wide hold and high hull, like roll-on/roll-off, Lash vessels, ferry-boats andso on.The Lash vessels are the most modified ships I have seen, frombarges to heavy cargoes or to warfare. I suggest to modify once more, she mustbe remolded and after few adaptation to install the shelf and covering, she maysurvive on a new project, without barges or cranes and with a pit of audacity,with doors at line water at stern and at the forecastle. The frames, hull andengine are ready to a modern vessel for container operation, without thebottleneck effect. In this new system, a ship with the Lash size may operate tounload and load 400 TEUs (800 TEUs) in faster time than to load a single bargeon board; 15. The movement of 400 TEUs wont cause any damage to Lashvessels, used to move her huge crane. Although the Lash project was made fordo not work at quay, in this new project, she must be moored by stern tooperate connected to a bridge, naturally without its traditional barges and supercrane. In this new system of sea transportation of containers, the Lash ship is201
  • 199. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSthe same, but in a new method of operation. Its not only to fill up the ship withcontainers, it has to be operationally automated for easy and fast port operation.However, people who work at the ports are always cautious with new methods,because they are afraid to loose their jobs for automated facilities, but in thismethod of work wont have any damage on jobs. It wont reduce the existingwork force, instead, it will increase the jobs with new ports entering inoperation in reduced time.25.18 Traytainer on Magnetic lanes.There are several engineering projects to analyze and to chose whichone offers an efficient supplying of parts. The electromagnetic system is asource of long trays with electromagnetic north pole coils installed at right andleft side of the tray and the south pole is installed in the middle. To move theTraytainer, a linear motor with magnetic field turns-on by the approaching ofthe Traytainer and turns-off, as soon as the unity slides out, attracted by thenext field. The lane is a compound of electromagnetic coils where theTraytainer slides on. The power and speed for each Traytainer is individuallycontrolled by computer. Every Traytainer has to collect an identified containerto deliver it in a bay previously chosen.25.19 Port Operation with TraytainerIn the actual system of operation, the ships are moored alongside thequay for easy operation of the gantry cranes, at the nearest location from thepre-stacking to the ships holds. In the Shelf System, the operation begins andfinishes by the stern. The Traytainers will be in a row and tier on all bays fromthe stern to forecastle to be load an unloaded simultaneously, as a train202
  • 200. Egberto F Ribeirocomposition. Each Traytainer is moved by itself, so there is no need of links.The Shelf System with Traytainer is a complex method of workwhere the export containers on Traytainer and stored in a shelf with its frontside to the quay and its back inside to the terminal with lines to several feederspre-stacking. The Shelf System ship is moored with her stern directly to theterminal shelf. There is a quay bridge on rails that is the interface between theport and the ship, it is flexible to fit for any ship in height and width. The bridgeis always far from the ships berth and only approaches after mooring.The pre-stacking of a Shelf system loaded with Traytainer is ready togo on board, when all Traytainer are positioned according the planning ofstorage offered by each ships Agent, following the correct and adequate weightfor equilibrium, series of destination ports. But as there are several kind ofships, the loading must be flexible to accept all of them with theirparticularities. If a new class of ship higher than the bridge and shelf is created,the bridges legs are enlarged and the shelf will have some new tiers to assembleand all the complex is ready for operation. The modification of the ships size,will alter the width of the shelf and bridge. When the bridges enlargement isalongside or upward, it will cause disparity between the quays size and thebridge. To keep the proportion of measures in 50% of the ships width, theshelfs face must be cut to allow the bridges enlargement.The shelf system admits changes without great disturbance in theshelves; to take out a container or to receive a new one. As the complete line ofall bays, one row and one tier have almost twenty five Traytainers, this is theeasiest way to change anytime the Traytainers, without great disturbance on203
  • 201. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSboard. For example: there are only three Traytainers in the middle of the bays22.24.26, at rows 08, 08 and 10 on tier 10 to be discharged. Unload theTraytainers from lanes at rows 08 and 10 from tier 10, from last ships bays 26till the bay 24 and 22. Separate and store in two empties lanes in the shore shelfthree Traytainers and others. Keep three on a separate lane and loadimmediately those just stored.The port operation only works with identified containers onTraytainer from its bay on the ship to the feeders pre-stacking or vice-verse,there wont have container from one ship to be loaded to another. The operationis followed by the Control Panel, where the Traytainers sliding on the lanes aremonitored and warned by flickering the lights of the feeders ships colors on theentire route, from one side to the other. When the Traytainers arrive to theircodified bays, the flickering stops, remaining only a green light on ControlPanel to data indication. The transit of each Traytainer on the lane is controlledby monitoring without touching the other.25.20 Shelf System Operation25.20.1 Ready- As soon as the ship is at the anchorage going to bemoored with all Traytainers locked, the first officer orders the checking of themagnetic system on board, without abnormalities, the Captain declares thevessel is ready for mooring and for operation.25.20.2 Fail- If there is any trouble, the Ports Authority is advised ofthe waiting time and the ship remains at anchor for the necessary repair. If thetrouble can be fixed without impeding the operation, the ship must be moored.Is advisable to notice the PA about any trouble and time for repairs,204
  • 202. Egberto F Ribeiroeven when it doesnt cause any delay for operation.25.20.3 Mooring- The ship is ordered for mooring as the plan.25.20.4 Back Doors- The Mega-ships back doors are opened to leftand right, or up, never on the quay where are the rails.25.20.5 Locks “on”- The Traytainers on board to unload remainwith electromagnetic locks “on”. but ready to be released from its higher tier tothe bridge.25.20.6 Spread Ramps- After mooring, the bridge approachesbetween the shelves and spreads its ramps with lanes at the higher tier and thecorrect lock to the ship and shore shelves are “on”.25.20.7 Open Cryogenic- The ships operator opens the cryogenicline to both lanes from stern to forecastle and checks the levitation and lockers.25.20.8 Checking locks- The terminal operator opens the cryogenicline and checks the lockers and levitation of the lanes on the shelf. If both; theshore and ship are ready, the green light is “on” to begin the operation.25.20.9 Order to unlock- The operator in the center of operationorders to unlock twenty Traytainers from the ships shelves at port-side andtwenty at starboard, while all lanes on ship and shore shelves are “stop”.25.20.10 Operation for Unloading 2 Rows- The panel shows thelevitation of both lines of Traytainers are “OK”, the power afterward level ofthe control panel is moved to “on” and the Traytainers from both sides begintheir movement at 10km/hour to the bridge.25.20.11- Sequence- The sequence of order for unloading beginsfrom the rows at the sides to the middle. The sequence order for loading is from205
  • 203. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICScenter to sides.25.20.12- Operation for Loading 2 rows- As soon as all the tier ofTraytainer from all both first lanes are discharged and the bridge lanes are free,the first two lines of Traytainers are sent for loading.25.20.13- Cryogenic locked- As soon as the last two Traytainers forboth lanes of loading enters on board, the cryogenic lines for both rows areclosed and the Traytainers are locked.25.20.14- Unloading Last 2 Rows- The following movements arefrom the next lines of rows of the second two rows begin the discharge.25.20.15- Loading Last 2 Rows- After the last Traytainer is movedto the Terminal Shelves begins the loading of the last twenty Traytainers.After unloading and loading all bays of the highest tier on both sides,the following movement is to unload the rows of the tier below.25.20.16- Changing of Tier- The bridge is unlocked from the shelfand from the ship. The bridge retract the ramps to move them below till thenext tier. The lanes ramps are spread and locked again at the ship and shelf tobegin the unloading and loading of rows from both sides.This is the way to unload and load all rows at each tier, till thecomplete operation of all tiers.The next example of operation will be according the workersskillfulness and the software developed for this system, when they will able toattend, by monitoring, twenty bays on the highest tier at the same time.25.20.17- Unloading Twenty Rows- All the highest tier will beunloaded at once, from the first bay to to the last one. The general rule is to206
  • 204. Egberto F Ribeirodischarge both boards simultaneously by the highest tier from each board. OneTraytainer and a half over each lane will be on the Bridge, its weight will be themaximum of 14 tons + 7 tons = 21 tons X 20 lanes GT 420 tons on the bridge.To compare to other equipments, a ship loader with four legs weights 600 tons,the Lash crane weighs 700 tons, the Bridge weights 250 tons.25.20.18- Loading Twenty Rows- The following is to load theempties tiers. The cargo plan of discharge and loading must be done correctly,from the mega-ship to feeders. Notice that twenty Traytainers are carrying forty20 containers, whose weights range from 200 tons to 560 tons.25.21 Bridge25.21.1- The bridge accepts to move pairs of lanes by turn to keepthe bridge and ships equilibrium.25.21.2- The pair can be multiplied by two, four, till ten when all thelanes will be unloading and loading in few minutes.25.21.3- This movement is not so fast, but keeps the low speed of10Km/hour, as waited for that operation.25.21.4- The bridge guides the line for twenty Traytainers to leavethe ship by each lane.25.21.5 After the last unity leaves the ship, the Traytainers plannedfor both sides of the ship enter on the bridge and go to each row of that tier.25.21.6 Twenty full lines of Traytainers from port-side to starboardenter in sequence; four hundred Traytainers are going on board, twenty aftertwenty. During this time, all lanes are fed by the cryogenic system that controlsthe temperature, sometimes opening and closing the circulation of liquid207
  • 205. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSnitrogen to guide the Traytainers. That’s the operation through only one shelfplatform. But the Bridge can be assembled with several others platforms, whichwill multiply the speed by five times, or by ten times per hour.25.21.7 After the last Traytainer leaves the tier, begins the loadingcontainers arrived by the lanes directly from the shelves till the end ofoperation.25.21.8 The unloaded Traytainer follows the lane to leave the bridgeto enter on the magnetized lane which guides the unity to the curve of theplanned feeders pre-stacking.The Traytainer for cryogenic system can to drive on lanes to everyside, even on cross lanes.25.21.9 How to drive the Traytainer25.21.9.1 Drivable. Choose the side to change direction of theTraytainer on cryogenic system, it can be driven on lanes to every side, even oncross lanes. Chosen Unity. The direction is controlled by the center ofoperation where the chosen Traytainer goes on one defined lane and has tochange to another at a side to enter. Key. The place where the Traytainers changes its directionis called “Hexagonal key”, where the diamagnetic devices to drive the units areassembled on the points of levitation to change the directions of theTraytainers. The Traytainer will follow only the lanes magnets turned on. How to Guide. The curve is done by turned on which willguide the desired unity from the sides of one Hexagonal key to others, while the208
  • 206. Egberto F Ribeiroothers coils are turned off for do not produce any undesirable magnetic field. Safe Changing. The diamagnetic system holds theTraytainer on the electromagnetic field below to run free over the lanesfollowing the changing of lines near the corner to turn around. Diagonal. The Traytainers can be guided over somediagonal lanes, till arrive to the desired route. Lower Speed. Several lanes where the Traytainer will goreduce its speed to slow, its to give time to the Traytainer to change its lane.Only the previously chosen route will be kept "turned on". Higher Speed. After the Traytainers enter on the exactlane, the magnets to guide the others Traytainers will be “turned on” to move athigher speed, while those out of work will be “turned off”. Interval. The sequence of Traytainers to enter on thebridges lanes from one bay can be alternate, while in the interval, the bridgemoves one Traytainer to another bay. This interval is to do a change on the planfor a Traytainer from one row to the feeders stacking. If a complete line ofbays containing heavy cargo was unloaded and the ship needs to changecargoes from an upper tier to fill that empty row. All the Traytainers from theupper line are unloaded to the terminal shelf for a short trip till the lower tier,while the bridge is moved downward, when maneuver is finished, theTraytainers will be loaded into the empty bays. This kind of operation can beforeseen by cargo planners at the port of loading.The terminal shelf system ends in a bridge on the quay to link theterminal to the stern bays of the ships shelf. This principle of work is the low209
  • 207. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSconsumption of energy to move a container on horizontal transportation,instead of on vertical. The bridge has a platform with lanes to join the terminalsshelf to the ships shelf. The bridge has legs to move the platform up and downto serve each tier of the ships shelves, from the upper tier to inferior, from port-side to starboard. The bridge is not stationary, but has rails on the quay formoving away from the ship to prevent accidents during the ships mooring bythe stern. The bridges movement can be from the pre-stacking to the ship, or onthe quay from the right to left sides. The bridge has lanes on the platform asmuch as those existing in the ships, with possibility to enlarge at anytime.For better operation, only two lanes must operate simultaneously inthe beginning, from the outside to the middle of the ship; from starboard andport-side to the center. The lanes on the bridge have fine adjustment to stayaway or to approach to the ships shelves. The operation must be careful for donot cause the ships instability. The operation is fast and do not suffer the effectof tides up and down, because the movement of tide compared to eachoperation on tier isnt enough to disturb the unloading and loading each tier.The bridges position offers condition to operate two rows in thesame tier. The upper tier always begins the operation to unload from the outsiderow, where are the lighter containers. After completing the operation ofunloading and loading both bays of that tier, begins the second row till the end.After all rows from the upper tier are done, the bridge is unlocked from theships shelf and from the pre-stacking shelves to be lowered till the next tier.The bridge is lowered three meters to the next tier below and locks its lane atthe ship and at the pre-stacking shelf to begin the operation.210
  • 208. Egberto F Ribeiro25.22 Pre-Stacking.A new pre-stacking for container terminals is necessary for shelfsystem. The structure is a compound of rows, bays and tiers assembled in onebig shelf of 60,0m wide, 500m long and 55m high. There will have ten shorterpre-stacking shelves joined to each Mega ship, it is necessary to feed each oneof the ten feeders to operate simultaneously. The track lines from the Mega shipconducts to feeders ships are diamagnetic lanes of 2,50m wide each one, wherethe Traytainers float over them. The standard structure for shelf shore has thesame number of tiers and rows as those on board.The pre-stacking structure for feeders have the same number of tiersand rows as the ship. When feeders are smaller than the shelf, the number oflanes used into the shelf will be according the number of row and tier existingin the feeder. If a new model of ship will have shelf wider than the existing, theports facility must to assemble new parts to its shelf to serve new ships. Theshelf may have its measures enlarged so many times as need.The shelf has twenty lanes to store the Traytainers in free connectionto the bridge and to the ships lanes. The normal operation on two completerows of twenty Traytainers each one in sequence of unloading and loading isexpected to finish in ten minutes. It means that the operation to unload twocomplete lines with 40 Traytainers or 80 TEUs and to load two complete lineswith 40 Traytainers or 80 TEUs lasts long 10 minutes. When the operators willbe skilled, all 20 rows with 400 TEUs will be unloaded and 20 rows with 400TEUs will be loaded simultaneously in “ten minutes”.211
  • 209. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICS25.23 Storage.There is one pre-stacking for Mega-ship with 20 thousand cells.There are ten pre-stacking with three thousand cells for each feeder. These pre-stacking are assembled together, one to each other. There is the possibility toinstall the pre-stacking at kilometers far from the quay. The pre-stacking closeto the ship has lanes for loading, that actuate as avenues to the end of thestorage shelves. When is necessary to change from one tier to other, there areelevators to change any Traytainer from its previous tier to a new one from topto the lowermost cell, or from ground to higher tier. The elevators are verticalwith platforms at steel chains, located at the end of a shelf.The empties chassis are moved in a bundle of eight units,magnetically attached and stored in front of the ships without shelves. The quaywithout bridge has shelves and lanes to operate with gantry crane to lift thecontainer from its bay and to lower it on a chassis placed on the lane. Theloading movement begins when the chassis with container arrives behind thegantry crane, unlocks the chassis to lift up the container. The empty chassis aresent to a near store.25.24 Operational Container Storage.This is a new concept of storage on a pre-stacking, which must bebuilt according the height of the average of Triple-E ships. For do not waste timeand to spend energy lifting, lowering, and trucks for boxes transportation. Abridge is the link between the pre-stacking to the stern of the ship moored at thequay. The new store system moves all Traytainers on lanes to serve each shipstier. The pre-stacking is divided by a flexible rate of weight, according the ship:low (5tons), medium(8tons) and heavy (12tons). The quay level can bear 25 tons.212
  • 210. Egberto F Ribeiro25.25 Ships Bays.The new concept for sea and land transportation has a new way tomove containers on a mattress sustained by electromagnetic levitation system.Every container with regular weight and size can be loaded on board on a steelpallet called Traytainer attached by electromagnetic devices at the four corners.The latest advanced system is the diamagnetic mattress to move the Traytainerwith permanent magnet moved by induction motor. As the Traytainers aremoved and stopped on previous defined cells activated by sensors, all theTraytainers electrical quick connectors are checked by the control center. Thebridge has the same width as the shelves on board and shore; 60m with 20 lanesfor levitation which assembles a road for Traytainers. The height will be from36m to 55m tall with 12 to 18 tiers, and length 30m from wharf’s corner to theshore shelf.The structure for each bay receives heavy containers on low tiers ofthe shelves; above are for medium weight and higher lanes for low weight andempties containers. Three thousand containers, from Mega-ships to feeders arestored on shelves for pre-stacking to each feeder. The quantity of bays forstorage yard is larger than those existing in Triple-E ships. As the Mega shipsare several times larger than a feeder, the most advisable is to have a pre-stacking for 20 thousand TEUs for each Triple-E ship. The feeders need to havetheir containers loaded in Mega ships, so they must to arrive for first tocomplete the pre-stacking. As soon as the Triple-e ship is moored, her firstoperation is to send the cargoes to the feeders, till to open place and begin thereceiving of cargoes from the feeders. The position of Traytainers for loading is213
  • 211. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSin front of the ship, the unloading goes out by lanes leading to both sides to pre-stacking of all feeders. The ship-height for storage shelf will be according thefeeders size. The ships bridge is necessary on the forecastle, flags or antennapoles are always higher than the cargo level.25.26 The Hub PortThe new container terminal can be built from the quays ground, orbetween the inner quays wall as a dyke from the dry bottom bellow the sealevel, without the traditional and expensive landfill. If the quay soil, at 15meters bellow the sea level has stones, there is the possibility to build theshelves without landfill. The container terminal will be made inside a strongquay bellow the sea level, with reinforced wall to install the shelf forTraytainers at the same height of the ships hold at the first tier; # 02. TheTriple-E ship with length of 400m needs only 120m of quay for mooring bystern. The total height of the shelf will be for 18 containers, the quays widthwill be the half of the ships width for best bridge equilibrium and safeoperation.The containers on transhipment are unloaded from the Mega-ship, orTriple-E and sent to pre-stacking of Feeders, where they are stacked in thesame system of shelf. The Hub-Port must have Gantry cranes and StraddlesCarriers and pre-stacking to prevent any failure and special cargoes. There willhave several pre-stacking areas for ships Feeders as those programed by theMega ship. The ship Triple-E (Energy Efficiency, Economy of Scale &Environmentally Improved) has bays for more than fifteen thousand TEUs(Twenty Empty Units).214
  • 212. Egberto F RibeiroThe location of a Hub Port is critical, because this place must becalm, without too many private boats and ships around all the time. Theretraffic must be only for heavy Triple-E ships and smaller vessels feeders andeasy access to airport. The Hub-Port facilities beyond machinery, should offerfuel, energy supply, medical center, supply of energy, food and fresh water,ground reservoir as filter for contaminated cargoes and water sewerage. Theport area needs security wall of 5m high of ready-made in concrete, vehiclescanners, transponder, cameras, specialized personnel for port security, boats,cars, fire brigade with trucks, sensors, satellite surveillance, communication byradios, cellphone, fast internet, radar, electronic reading of labels for containersand technical resource and software systems for administration. The area alsoneeds military protection on land and sea. The Hub Port works as a city withoutimmediate help, so it has to be self-sufficient.All goods directed to a Hub Port, should arrive by ship or bargeFeeder with crane, never direct by wagons or trucks. A Hub-Port must beinstalled near deep waters, to reduce drastically the expensive dredges. Thefront sea must be protected by stone barrier as upstream pier, far from the quayat the triple of the ships length. The installation must not be in any region, buton strategically studied to attend several interests of governments, users andenvironment, as well equipped for service:Gantry cranes for ships Triple-EGantry cranes for vessels Feeders.Gantry cranes for pre-stacking215
  • 213. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSStraddle CarriersTop LoaderFront Stacker.Floating Cranes to 200 tonsBarges with cranesHorses-mechanical and ChassisShelf SystemChassisBridgesEnergy Supply25.27 The Shelf System ShipThis is not a new class of ship, its the same Mega-ship being built inseveral shipyards on the entire world. The good news are the methods to stackthe containers and how to move them. The ships bridge of command can beassembled over the covered shelf level, from stern to the forecastle. The twinengines can be assembled bellow the stern door, with 10% ramp downwardsloping directly into the shelf, where begins the tier # 02 (ramps to decks as inro/ro). The tiers are assembled one over the other till 55 meters high, tall 18(eighteen or more tiers).The shelves do not have the same height for do not increase thestowage factor, so there are complete tiers for standard containers loaded and216
  • 214. Egberto F Ribeiroempty and for high cube containers loaded and empty, however the Traytainersare the same. The shelf on board offers speed for operation and coveringprotection, allowing the vessel to sail in safe under bad weather. The shelf onboard is assembled from the keel and side frames directly upward, withoutdeck, nor hatch cover, till tier eighteen or more in a solid and compactstructure. The Traytainers can cross directly from the pre-stacking shelf tobridge and to the shelf into the ships bays. If the ship has stern doors andremovable forecastle, the speed of operation will be two times faster, becausewhile the Traytainers for unloading will leave the ship through one side,simultaneously the Traytainers for loading will be entering by other side. Thatswhy the ships and ports must to belong to the same owner.The first difficult seen on sea container transport, is the use of twist-lockers to attach one container to the other. The Traytainer was developed to beattached by electromagnetic lockers. It opens a wide possibility of work by theship shelf, or by the terminal shelf. The system will be according the bestsystem to each one, but the Traytainer is the same as its connectors, locks andmagnets.25.26.1 Cell. The cell is the place in the bay where the Traytainerwill be sit and locked on the lane. This place is the compartments division withnumbered bays to codify the location.25.26.2 How the Traytainer Locates the Cell. The unity can stop atany cell when read by sensors, following the orders by automated control fromthe terminal center of control or by a single joystick on board. As soon as theunity arrives to its cell on the lane, it has to turn off its linear motor to stop and217
  • 215. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSturn off the cryogenic feed, the last action is to turn on the locks. The storedistance between a line of Traytainers on the lanes is 30cm, or one foot. As therows and bays are closed by the shelf structure, the rows at both side on portside and starboard can be stacked till the hulls frames. The self control bysensors is available on all the system on board and in the terminal.Magnetic lock. The Shelf System does not use manual twist-lockers,the Traytainers have electromagnetic locks at its corners to attach on the lane,whose effect continue without energy and to unlock, only when it is energizedand released.Check in cross. When the Traytainer stops into the shelf on board onin another terminal, its four locks are turned on, only before the unloading, theywill be checked in cross method: one from the door and other from the front,than change the locks. The Traytainer into the shelf is seen by sensors and holdby locks for do not slip or to fall, jump, hit, or to pound. The locking operationis done by the terminal bridge, but it can be done by the ships bridge. As soonas the chassis stops, the bay is codified and registered.The shelf is laid on the ships main frame from the keel between thedivision bulkheads to the uppermost position, the same as the vertical rails forcontainers. The ship doesnt have deck nor hatch-cover, from stern holds toforecastle, but the shelves are covered to reinforce and protect the shipsstructure. The side of the ship is covered from the hull to the top of the shelves.To attend the terminal bridge and shelves operation there are hydraulicweather-tight doors which opens for unloading and loading. This door servesevery bay pair, so it has 12m and opens upward as those existing in cargo218
  • 216. Egberto F Ribeiroairplane.The chassis with container is locked into its bay, row and tier. Thequantity of chassis in a bay doesnt affect its security, as each one is locked tothe ships shelf by the terminal bridge. Above the hull level, there are portholesat the starboard and port-side to reach the shelves, which opens upside at eachtime for unloading and loading.The system of doors keeps the ship all closed during the trip, withoutallowing rain water or sea water to wet the containers, that very often wet alsothe cargoes. This covering is also to protect the electric system and to keep thenormal temperature, beyond the protection against excess of water for do notrust the structure and lanes.25.28 Cryogenic Operation on ShelfThe cryogenic system offers the best economic result and benefit forits low cost and high efficiency of levitation. The new generation ofsuperconductors have 1300 times the capacity to elevate its own weight. Itmeans that a plate of 1kg is enough to elevate 1300kg. This plate should beinstalled below the Traytainer, while the iron permanent magnets undercryogenic temperatures of 196ºC should levitate the Traytainer pushed by linearmotor to slide on the lane. The shelf of the port facility will be installed near thebridge and the ship favoring a cryogenic center for distribution of LiquidNitrogen to freeze the permanent magnets. The distribution system opens a tubeto freeze the permanent magnets on the lane, only when necessary.The distribution of Liquid Nitrogen through tubes will keep the lowtemperature for the desired time. It gives the possibility to a line of Traytainers219
  • 217. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSfrom board to the shelf and to load a line in the sequence from the pre-stackingto the ship. This work does not need to be too fast, but to work in safe mode,from one side to the other. The shelf system with Traytainer offers a service at1/3 lower than normal costs. The shelf on board of all ships will operate in thesame system, even on slow movement, will be faster than any other knownsystem of loading and unloading containers.The system of lanes to move the Traytainer on electromagneticdevices has some troubles to cross other lane, it needs a steel guard rail at theside for protection. The cryogenic lanes have the frozen plates joined on acommon field which connects one to each other, to attract and to repeal. Whenthe plates are not frost on critic temperature, the Traytainer changes naturallyits direction to follow only the frost plates. The center of command builds thecomplete lines on all lanes for trips from the Mega-ship to several feeders. Toanalyze a unity amid four hundreds units, just follow the colors of each one.220
  • 218. Egberto F Ribeiro26- STATISTICSTo every ship, the port operation doesnt happen only at the quay, butfrom industry store-yard to ships loading, in a round trip plenty of risk anddelays. The statistics in Brazil only account of cargoes movements whichhappen at the quay; from the quay to ship and from ship to the quay. Thestatistics dont consider the operation which happens in the Primary Zone,between the gates of access and the quay, where the cargoes for exportation areunloaded and wait for the ships arrival and where the imported cargoes areloaded and delivered to inland. The support services as inspection of containers,when cargoes are taken out of the container, verified and stuffed again, or theVessels Convenience containers or Less than Container Loading must beaccounted their double work. While on the entire world the account of cargoesmovements refers to the quay, where the cargoes get in/out by ships andthrough the gates, where the cargoes are received for exportation and thosedelivered as importation. Thus, when a Brazilian sea port statistics declares themovement of one million of containers, in the rest of the world is understoodthere was the movement of half million TEUs, but the real throughput were on221
  • 219. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICStwo million TEUs. The port receives and delivers through the gates one millionof TEUs and receives and delivers through the wharf one million of TEUs.When the grain exportation is announced as 40 million tons, in the rest of theworld is understood as 20 million tons, but the real throughput were on 80million tons.This is a vicious in the Brazilian statistics for more than a hundredyears, undisclosed by the emperor, or by civilian and military governments.The 40 million tons of bulk cargoes discharged from trucks and wagons, storedin silos and warehouse before the ships arrival dont exist. As do not exist themillions of tons from imports for agricultural inputs, cargoes in containers orindustrial raw materials delivered to inland.The organized ports are on areas where the cargoes for export andimport are moved from one side to other, in statistics account it is called"throughput". Because there is no production nor consumption of products on aquay, there is no plantation nor industries in a port, even though there areindustries alongside the quay, they cant belong to the quay. The ports have twooperations with the same cargo to the same direction. When imports arrive at aport, there are equipments and workers to unload the ship, when the cargoes aredelivered to inland through the gates, there are other team of workers. Thiswork is done in two different time. When products for exportation arrive at aport, there is a team of workers to unload the trucks and wagons to receive thecargoes, when these cargoes are going to be loaded on board of ships, there areother equipments and workers to load the ship. Always there will be twoservices in different time, or in sequence from arrival to loading.222
  • 220. Egberto F Ribeiro27- CONCLUSIONThere are several wooden cranes in ports of Europe which rememberthe bright engineering to lift up the masts for sailing boats. Later these craneswere used to hoist cargoes on ports and on board of ships. There are much morelarge wood cranes at seashore as museum, than on board of sailing boat. Itmeans that the sea carriers have shorter life, not caused by its low resistanceagainst the weather, but because the sea transportation is faster and dynamic.The ports worldwide had to buy the same cranes moved by hands, feet oranimals, steam and electricity, always following a way to supply the shipsneed.The nowadays world transportation have to operate in similar ways,since the beginning to the end, this is the thinking of the UNCTAD. It is for donot happen that some goods which were loaded at the origin may not beunloaded at destination, which will cause a change of ports or several otherequipments, reducing the freights viability. The new sea transportation hasbrought not only better vessels for cargoes transportation, but a new challengeto the ports to offer conditions to supply the Triple-e ships needs. WithDiaMag-ships and DiaMag-ports, the technical challenge is over and all Triple-e ship are welcome at any port.223
  • 221. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSBIBLIOGRAPHYEgberto Fioravanti Ribeiro was born in Antonina, Parana–Brazil in1950, where began his studies. Son of a railroad telegrapher and accountLourival Ribeiro and the former clerk at the Parana Telephone Company andelementary teacher Maria Augusta. At six years old, the railroad companyRVPSC moved his father to Paranagua, in a new position of trust service toattend the growing up of the coffee exportations. Three years later, all thefamily was also moved to Paranagua, where the Author lived for forty years,and where was graduated as Portuguese and English teacher and inAdministration. In professional life, the Author worked to some grain exporterscompanies, including the Port of Paranagua till be retired, when he moved hisfamily to Curitiba in 1999. In 1970, he knew Maurigilda and five years laterthey got married. They are the parents to Ricardo, who works in Rio de Janeiroas TV Editor at the Globosat. The daughter Leyre lives in USA, where she gotmarried and has two sons. The Author has written seven books with ISBN bythe Brazilian National Library in Rio de Janeiro and has translated three ofthem into International English.224
  • 222. Egberto F RibeiroEnd225
  • 223. NEW METHOD FOR PORT LOGISTICSNew Method for Port Logistics1stEditonRio deJaneiro - BrazilEgberto Fioravanti Ribeiro2013egfior@hotmail.comHome phone: 55-0212131786641 Cell phone: 55-0212179586312226