1. Argumentative Paper
Should affirmative action still be
practiced in the United States?
Why or why not?
2. What is an Argument?
A spoken, written, or visual text that
expresses a point of view.
The use of evidence and reason to discover
some version of the truth.
*Argument is different from persuasion. When
you persuade someone you are attempting
to change his/her opinion, not necessarily
reveal the truth.
3. The Components of an Argument
Claim: A statement that asserts a belief or truth.
Most claims require supporting evidence.
Reason: A statement that expands on a claim by
offering evidence to support it.
Evidence: material offered to support an
argument (facts, data, expert opinion, etc.)
4. The Components of an Argument
Warrant: in Toulmin argument, the statement
that establishes the logical connection between
the claim and its supporting reason.
Claim: You should not eat that mushroom.
Reason: It’s poisonous.
Warrant: What is poisonous shouldn’t be
5. The Components of an Argument
Counterargument: The author’s recognition of the
position that opposes their central claim.
Rebuttal: an answer that challenges or refutes a
specific claim or charge that objects to the
6. Writing your paper
7. Make your point!
Author’s Claim (argument): It’s the thesis
statement in argumentative writing.
 Statement of position/Opinion statement Position must be clear and direct.
 Formula = issue + your position
 Cannot be a fact as facts cannot be
8. Why do you feel this way?
Give us the reasons for your position
Why did you choose the position that you did?
Are there other laws that protect minorities?
Are minorities still experiencing inequality?
Would minorities still have equal opportunities without
9. Prove it!
Opinions are meaningless without the
support of evidence, people!!
Evidence convinces the audience that
your position is the correct one
Use reliable sources
10. Be prepared.
Consider potential biases of your reader.
 Counterclaims should be addressed at
some point in the essay.
11. Be organized.
Paragraph 1 – Establish purpose
 Paragraphs 2 & 3 – Reasons and support
 Paragraph 4 – Address counterclaims
 Paragraph 5 – offer additional insight
12. Include Research
Use the libguide to help you
Beneficial databases and websites have been
located for you
Include a Works Cited Page
 When using in-text citations….
Use quotations around the authors words
Put the author’s name in parenthesis