Academic honesty in the digital age (sing)


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Presentation for SAIBSA at Edubridge Feb 1, 2014

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Academic honesty in the digital age (sing)

  1. 1. Academic Honesty in the Digital Age Mick Purcell
  2. 2. This paper investigates academic honesty in the digital age, and offers constructive advice, including tips, skills and policy guidelines, for international educators. Schools must focus on the promotion academic honesty rather than the punishment of academic dishonesty. Research shows that the single most important factor in promoting a school culture of academic honesty is the attitude of the students. If students value academic integrity then their peers are less likely to cheat or plagiarize. Students must be taught explicitly to value academic honesty and how to practice academic honesty in the digital age. Practical tips are given about how to create a culture of academic honesty in the digital age. Students and teachers should discuss and include academic honesty in their Essential Agreements from a young age. Teachers must learn precisely how to cite, write bibliographies, use the internet effectively, give references within presentations, or acknowledge a work of art. Strategies for integrating academic honesty into the curriculum are presented with examples or vignettes of successful methods, including Academic Honesty in the Primary Years. The best online tools are presented. Practical strategies are suggested for students, teachers, parents, teacherlibrarians, and administrators. There are tips about how to write a school’s Academic Honesty policy by involving the school community to reflect the school’s mission. There is a brief discussion of the importance of academic honesty as the bedrock of academic institutions in free societies, and the links between academic honesty, Ways of Knowing, the Learner Profile, and internationalmindedness.
  3. 3. slides: slideshare. net/Edubridge backchannel:
  4. 4. Primary Objectives: ● Learn about AH issues facing educators and schools ● Elevate conversation from details about Plagiarism to discussion about Integrity and Core Values ● Identify common student mistakes ● Identify common teacher mistakes ● Familiarize ourselves with IB Position on Academic Honesty
  5. 5. Secondary Objectives: ● Tips about specific skills to promote Academic Honesty for teachers and students ● Distinguish between citations, references, Bibliography, Works Cited, etc. ● Conversation about Wikipedia ● Gain skills in common applications, such as Microsoft Word or Google Docs
  6. 6. The most important learning: ● Promote academic honesty instead of punishing academic dishonesty ● Move from academic honesty to educational integrity and relate AH to LP, school values, being principled, etc. ● Begin young with student involvement ● Teach teachers about issues in the Digital Age
  7. 7. The importance of including sources first ● Get students to think about how their ideas are influenced by the ideas of others ● Basic Learner Profile Stuff: ○ inquirers, reflective, communicators, principled, etc.
  8. 8. Works Cited "Acadmic Honesty." Online Curriculum Centre. International Baccalaureate Organization, 2012. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. "APFEI | Asia Pacific Forum on Educational Integrity." APFEI, 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. Carroll, Jude. "Academic honesty in the IB." IB position papers. International Baccalaureate Organiztion, 21 Feb, 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. Nicolson, Malcolm, Personal Interview, 28 Aug, 2013. Skaar, Havard, and Hugo Hammer. "Why Students Plagiarise from the Internet." International Journal for Educational Integrity. APFEI, Dec. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014.
  9. 9. Asia Pacific Forum for Educational Integrity
  10. 10. Jude Carroll
  11. 11. Academic Honesty Policy
  12. 12. “We investigate hundreds of cases of academic dishonesty each year, and in the majority of cases the problem is that the student was not intending to cheat, but that they were never taught properly in terms of ATL skills. For example, the student was poorly taught how to cite, how to write a bibliography, how to reference a work of art, etc.” Malcolm Nicolson, Head of Development for the IBDP
  13. 13. The IB does not report figures on Malpractice. The IB maintains (without citing evidence) that “the vast majority of learners are honest” (OWTTE).
  14. 14. Håvard Skaar and Hugo Hammer from Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway (2013) ● investigate secondary school students' plagiarism of internet sources in essay writing: ○ 75% of students reported plagiarising from online sources; ○ plagiarism accounted for 25% of the total amount of text.
  15. 15. Håvard Skaar and Hugo Hammer from Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway (2013) ● ask: what factors correlate to incidence of plagiarism? ○ grades (better grades, less plagiarism) ○ explicit education about plagiarism and methods of citation (more education, less plagiarism) ○ bibliography (papers with a proper bibliography are significantly less likelyt to contain plagiarism) ● no significant correlation for gender
  16. 16. The past ten years: From Academic Honesty to Educational Integrity Naughties (00s): Tens (2010s) Academic Honesty Educational Integrity A few students plagiarized Many students are plagiarizing Plagiarism was deliberate Plagiarism is often unintentional Using plagiarism-detection systems The systems are flawed Focus on plagiarism Art, images, collusion, etc. Blame on students Blame on teachers and schools Reactive punishments Proactive lessons Addressed to the individual Addressed to the School Community Honesty is assumed as the norm Honesty is consciously developed
  17. 17. Summary of IB Position Paper (Jude Carroll, 2012) ● Support learners ○ most important lesson: students need help in this area ● Policies and procedures need to be especially clear ○ to teachers, too if plagiarism or collusionis suspected ● Learners need to develop specific skills ○ technology and timetabled lessons ● Schools should provide detailed guidance to learners ○ MLA, useful sites, etc. ● Create a local academic honesty policy ○ involve teachers and parents
  18. 18. In the PYP ● Essential Agreements ○ most important lesson: students need help in this area ● Relate to Learner Profile ● Involve Parents ● Age Appropriate Measures ○ promote understanding, not fear ● Teacher training and Modeling
  19. 19. In the MYP ● Relate to ATLs: ○ Research Skills, Bibliography, Citations, etc. ○ Thinking Skills: is this really your idea? ○ Communication skills ○ Social Skills ● Early Awareness and Understanding of Consequences ● Signed Pledge ● Increasing Stakes ● Specific Tasks and Lessons ● Technology Tools ● More teacher training
  20. 20. In the IBDP ● Very Clear Procedures ● Technical Terms: Collusion, Malpractice, etc. ● Guarded Use of Plagiarism Detection Services ○ teach students to submit ● ToK Discussions: What is Art ● Signed Pledge
  21. 21. Eleven Skills for Teachers and Students 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Writing a Bibliography using the school’s suggested format Writing Citations onto Images Explaining Sources in a Presentation Using Headings in a Word Processor Using the Research Tool in Google Docs or the References Tab in Microsoft Word Using the Creative Commons Search Engine Using “Reverse Image Search” in Google Distinguishing between Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary sources Publishing a document with an Open Source License, such as cc 3.0 Parenthetical Citations, including Page number Mastering unusual citations, such as films, interviews, lectures, class discussions, etc.
  22. 22. As educators, two of these three factors are within our control: Explicitly teaching students about academic honesty, methods of citation, and ESPECIALLY about how to write a proper bibliography (in timetabled lessons) is likely to reduce the frequency of plagiarism.
  23. 23. Educational Integrity Does a school honor its contracts and commitments? Do kids cheat or bully on the playground? Are teachers hired with honest promises? Does the school have policies to reduce conflict of interests? Are promotions and interviews conducted ethically? Is the school’s budget transparent? Do teachers cut and paste images from the web into their PPTs?
  24. 24. “You cannot teach what you do not know” proverb Wikimedia Commons File:Knowledage-Reid-Highsmith.jpeg retrieved 25 Aug, 2013 Artist is Robert Lewis Reid (1862–1929) Photographed 2007 by Carol Highsmith
  25. 25. Common Mistakes by Students ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● cut and paste overdependence on the internet not citing unusual sources, such as lecture notes not understanding “collusion” thinking about “not getting caught” doing Bibliography last minute saying mentally “I will cite that later” not using the Bibliography Database and other Word Processor tools ● thinking a URL is a reference ● inflating their Bibliographies, or not proofreading them
  26. 26. Tips for AH Policy ● ● ● ● ● ● ● community ionvolvement, including teachers the IB definitions of plagiarism, collusion and the duplication of work appropriate reference to the IB learner profile guidance on the distinction between legitimate collaboration and unacceptable collusion information on what action will be taken by the IB if a candidate is suspected of malpractice and subsequently found guilty an extract from the provisions of the Regulations relating to malpractice. a link should lead the reader to the IBO AH policy on our drive.
  27. 27. Basic Principles ● Honesty ● Consistency ● Using the right tools The purpose of referencing is two-fold: Firstly, you should acknowledge your sources because it is the right thing to do – that’s academic honesty. Secondly, you should let your reader know where to go for more information.
  28. 28. HONESTY By far the most important principle in referencing is HONESTY. Do NOT: ● Plagiarize ● Cut and paste from the internet ● Steal other people’s ideas ● Try to deceive the examiner ● An example: bloated bibliographies CREDIT: Chris Pirillo http://blaugh.lockergnome. com/cartoons/061013_internet_citing1.gif retrieved August 26, 2013
  29. 29. The Sydney Opera House is famous for not allowing photographers to use its image. I downloaded this photo from a Picasa site which seems to belong to someone named Zakia Karmal. I assume she is the girl in the photograph, but maybe not -- maybe she is the photographer, or the person who owns the camera, or the person who owns the boat, or the person who hired the boat and the photographer. Copyright law is complicated. As long as she is not using the photograph for “commercial purposes,” SOH won’t sue her , but if her photograph gets a million hits, and she becomes famous . . . .
  30. 30. Writer Sheila Skillman and her Family
  31. 31. Activity 1: In your groups of six: Take the handout, a “term paper” by a student named Orlov. For each of the 15 arrows, determine whether the student is correct, or incorrect, and give a reason. Enter your decision and your reason into the Google Doc: viewform
  32. 32. Common Mistakes by Teachers, Librarians and Administrators ● focus on punishing dishonesty instead of promoting honesty ● assuming children understand right and wrong ● oversimplifying the complexity of citing in the digital age ● the same mistakes student make, especially thinking about “not getting caught” ● not using the tools properly ● not enough professional development in this area ● overdependence on turnitin ● misreading turnitin
  33. 33. Scott Adams: Dilbert
  34. 34. Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Learn how to use Headings, Contents, the Bibliography Database and referencing tools in Microsoft Word Learn how to write a citation directly onto a jpeg using a web-based photo-editor Learn how to correct common errors when using MLA to write in-text citations Learn how to use the CC search engine and similar tools to find resources in the public domain Learn how to embed an image directly into your presentation without downloading or fussing with image files We may also discuss: 1. 2. Setting up a Google Accounts for Education account for your school Setting up a diigo or Pocket account for your school
  35. 35. Adams, Scott. Dilbert and the Way of the Weasel. New York: Harper, 2002. Print.
  36. 36. Referencing, and all that ● ● ● ● ● Citations References Footnotes Bibliography Works cited
  37. 37. This comes from the IB Extended Essay Guide ● ● ● Reference: the detailed and exact information about your source, found in the Bibliography Citation: a shorthand pointer to the reference, usually in-text, or “parenthetical” Footnote: extra information about a point that will be interesting to some readers
  38. 38. Bibliography or Works Cited? Works Cited, unless
  39. 39. Wikipedia
  40. 40. Footnotes or Endnotes? a matter of style
  41. 41. CONSISTENCY There are others: CSE, AMA, Turabian, etc. At Edubridge, we use MLA through Grade 10
  42. 42. FAQ from students ● ● ● ● ● How do I reference a book I read online, such as something from Google Books? How do I cite a letter from inside a book? Why did you mark me wrong when I wrote “Internet” as my source, or, “American, c.f.”? Should my in-text citation be at the end of the sentence or in the middle? How do I cite you?
  43. 43. Recommended Online Resources Hacker and Fister Purdue OWL CREDIT: