Web-based business models in 2013

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Slides of the lecture "Web-based business models" taught by Eduardo Larrain at HEC, a French business school (Strategic Management Master) during 4 classes in February 2013

2014 class with updated slides is here : http://fr.slideshare.net/EduardoLarrain/201402-web-based-business-models-lecture


1. What’s the web?
2. What’s a business model?
3. Why study Internet-based business models?
4. What are the key elements of a business model?
• Value proposition and revenue streams
• Drill-down of key Entertainment markets: music, video games, book publishing
• Customer channels, customer relationships, key partners, activities, resources, cost structure
5. What are the business models of Internet heavyweights: Facebook, Google, Zynga, Linkedin, Groupon
6. What are the most promising business models among the world’s most valuable companies: Digital 100, Twitter
7. Conclusion and farewell
8. Appendix: group project and individual test

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Web-based business models in 2013

  1. 1. WEB-BASED BUSINESS MODELS Slides of class #1 #2 #3 #4 – February 2013 Prof. Eduardo LarrainEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 1
  2. 2. This lecture was taught at a French business school by Eduardo Larrain Eduardo Larrain • HEC 2005 – Strategic Management • Founder of an Internet start-up called Kel Quartier • Strategy consultant at Roland Berger Strategy Consultants and Atos – 40 projectsEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 2
  3. 3. Agenda of the web-based business model lecture1. What’s the web? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….……… 42. What’s a business model? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 163. Why study Internet-based business models? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….……..… 234. What are the key elements of a business model? • Value proposition and revenue streams ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. 40 • Drill-down of key Entertainment markets: music, video games, book publishing ………………………………….………….. 82 • Customer channels, customer relationships, key partners, activities, resources, cost structure …….....….……….….. 1155. What are the business models of Internet heavyweights: Facebook, Google, Zynga, Linkedin, Groupon ……….…………… 1306. What are the most promising business models among the world’s most valuable companies: Digital 100, Twitter ..…… 1737. Conclusion and farewell ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1848. Appendix: group project and individual test ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..... 185Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 3
  4. 4. What’s the webEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 4
  5. 5. What’s the Web? ICT Internet WebDefinitions• Web (or World Wide Web or WWW) is a global set of documents, images and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks. Web = HTTP, HTML, CSS, JPEG,…• Internet (or Net) is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the Web and the infrastructure to support email. Internet = Web + mail + data transfer e.g. FTP incl. P2P, VoIP, streaming media, video conferencing, mobile apps (not HTML 5 based)• Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the use of computers and telecommunications equipment (IT) which also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones (C). ICT = Internet + IT + CWikipediaEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 5
  6. 6. Is Internet only about Web presence?• In the European Union, two-thirds of all businesses have a Web presence (McKinsey, 2011)• Exhibit - Looking at top 100 French websites: NEWS ECOMMERCE SOCIAL MEDIA BLOGS PORN TV SEARCH VIDEO PROFESSIONAL EVERYDAY LIFE LEGEND Category Ranking Unique visitors per monthTitiou Lecoq / Diane Lisarelli, Encyclopédie de la Web Culture, January 2011Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 6
  7. 7. Is Internet only about Web presence?• Exhibit - Looking at top 100 websites in UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Brazil, US and Australia Number of unique users, January 2010BBC, SuperPower: Visualising the internet, January 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 7
  8. 8. Is Internet only a distribution channel for online retail/ecommerce?• In retail alone, G-20 consumers researched online and then purchased offline (ROPO) more than $1.3 trillion in goods in 2010Boston Consulting Group, The Internet Economy in the G-20, March 2011Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 8
  9. 9. Internet is not just a distribution channel or just about Web presenceEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 9
  10. 10. Is Internet an Industry?• 75% of the economic impact of the Internet arises from traditional companies that don’t define themselves as pure Internet players (McKinsey, 2011)• Exhibit - Looking at top 100 USdes grandes through sociétés US Profits des 100 plus 100 plus grandes time: Chiffre daffaires companies sociétés US100% 100% Conglomerate Conglomerate Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Services Professional, Scientific, and Technical 90% 90% Finance and Insurance Finance and Insurance 80% 80% Information Information 70% HealthHealth Care andAssistance Care and Social Social Assistance 70% Wholesale Trade Trade Wholesale 60% 60% Retail Trade Trade Retail 50% Utilities Utilities 50% Transportation and Warehousing Transportation and Warehousing 40% 40% Manufacturing Telecommunication Manufacturing Telecommunication 30% 30% Manufacturing Automotive Manufacturing Automotive Manufacturing Manufacturing 20% 20% Metal Métaux Métaux 10% 10% PétrolePétrole Petroleum Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting 0% 0% Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting 1955 1955 1960 1960 1965 1965 1970 1970 1975 1975 1980 1980 1985 1985 1990 1995 1990 1995 2000 2000 2006 2006Analysis based on Fortune 500, 2007Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 10
  11. 11. Internet is not just an industry Internet is touching every part of the economy (like electricity)Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 11
  12. 12. Internet is a technology on which are based numerous activities acrossindustriesInternet-based activities1. Web activities using Web as a support • Ecommerce, content, online, advertising2. Tecommunication based on IP communication • Internet service providers3. Software and services activities linked to the Web • IT consulting, software development4. Hardware manufacturers, maintenance providers of Web-specific tools • Computers, Smartphones, hardware equipment, servers used for the InternetMcKinsey, Internet matters: The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs and prosperity, May 2011Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 12
  13. 13. Internet accounts for 3-4% of worldwide GDPExhibits – Economic impact of the Internet by McKinsey and BCGMcKinsey, Internet matters: The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs and prosperity, May 2011Boston Consulting Group, The Internet Economy in the G-20, March 2011Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 13
  14. 14. Though, the Internet economic impact goes beyond GDP generatingconsumer surplus when there is not monetary rewardReal economic impact of the Internet• Free services value are excluded from GDP: • Emails • Search • Collaborative services (wikis, blogs and social networks)• Similar to housewife activities excluded from GDP• E.g. • Craigslist has generated consumer value though reducing classified ad revenues of the US newspaper industry • Facebook has generated consumer valueMcKinsey, Internet matters: The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs and prosperity, May 2011Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 14
  15. 15. Question raised at class#1What’s the issue with mobile apps and HTML5?• HTML5 is a new technology that allows developers to build rich web-based apps that run on any device via a standard web browser• Go to www.audacy.fr or www.webformy.com using your smartphone browser to get a view on what is HTML5• For mobile applications, choosing a technology can have a large implications on your business model… • Native technologies (iOS, Android, RIM, Symbian, Windows) are great for: • Using the phone features (photo,…) • Using lots of data (offline mode) • Security (harder to crack) • When you need real time data • HTML5 technology is great: • When you want to launch fast and cheap a mobile application • Because you are not reliant on App stores indexation • Other technologies (Adobe AIR,… ) are great for other specific needs• … and those of main Applications Stores: iTunes App Store, Chrome Web Store, Facebook App CenterEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 15
  16. 16. What’s a business modelEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 16
  17. 17. What’s a business model?Basic definition • A business model is a coherent way to manage and develop an economic activity. • A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value. • A business model describes how an enterprise proposes to make money.Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 17
  18. 18. What’s a business model?Very basic definition • A business model is “show me the money”. • It is a simple expression of the strategy of the company on how to make money without going into too much details • In French, we use the english word « business model » rather than translations: • Modèle économique • Modèle d’activité • Modèle d’affaires • Modèle de revenus, modèle de profitEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 18
  19. 19. A Business Model is not a Business PlanWhat’s a Business Plan?• A Business plan is a document that describes how a project can be implemented.• A Business plan usually aims at selling the project because “you can’t have a funding without a Business Plan”• A Business plan usually includes a description of: • The team • The Business Model • A Financial Analysis (e.g. financial spreadsheets) • A Business Environment Analysis (e.g. market, competitors and competitive advantage analysis) • An Implementation roadmap (e.g. operation plan, milestones) • A Risk analysis (e.g. SWOT, Critical Success Factors)Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 19
  20. 20. A Business Model is not StrategyWhat’s Strategy?• Strategy is a plan of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying out these goals• Michael Porter’s view on Strategy: • Strategy is a plan to differentiate the company and give it a competitive advantage • “Competitive strategy is about being different. It means deliberately choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value” • Then decisions can only be defined as strategic if they involve consciously doing something “differently” from competitors and if that difference results in a sustainable advantage • e.g. making existing methods more efficient (“operational efficiency”) are not strategic since they can be easily copied by othersEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 20
  21. 21. A business model describes what makes an company unique looking from thevalue propositions to cost structureKey elements of a business modelAlexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 21
  22. 22. A business model is an ecosystemRationale beyond those key elements Cost-side Value-sideAlexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 22
  23. 23. Why study Internet-based business models Business Internet- Models basedEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 23
  24. 24. Business models have been studied for 30 yearsTraditional business models: trying to explain success with profit models 1. Customer Solutions 2. Product Pyramid 3. Multi-Component Invest to know the customer, create a solution, develop the At the base are products and services that are low price and Several of the components represent a disproportionate relationship high volume; at the top products and services that are high share of the profits E.g. GE price and low volume E.g. business seminars at hotels, advertising (Google, Yahoo, E.g. Air France Group: Air France for business and long haul Facebook)? Profit zone Profit flights, Transavia for leisure and Hop! for local flights Profit Basic activity 0 Other components Time Time 4. Switchboard 5. Time Profit 6. Block Buster profits Multiple sellers communicating with multiple buyers. The Takes advantage of uniqueness, profit margins erode as Revenue realized is so powerful and fast that in a quick more buyers and sellers join the great the organization competition seeks to imitate. Time profit companies must swoop the model pays for development and marketing costs builds on itself take the lead and maintain a "two year" lead over their E.g. movies, books E.g. eBay, Alibaba, Amazon, Monster, Seloger competitors E.g. Intel, Microsoft Or the opposite: desintermediation (Dell) F/unité Project return Seller Buyers Time Project typesAdrian Slywotzky and David Morrison, The profit Zone, 1998Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 24
  25. 25. Business models have been studied for 30 yearsTraditional business models: trying to explain success with profit models 7. Multiplier 8. Entrepreneur Profit 9. La spécialisation Strong customer brand Hierarchical design with multiple subsidiaries to maintain Specialist are several times more profitable than the E.g. Disney, Google closeness with the customer generalist. Characterized by lower cost, higher quality, E.g. Biotechnologies, Google stronger reputation, shorter selling cycles, and better price Small teams realization E.g. Home Depot Different offers Return Specialists Basic activity Generalists Key asset 10. Install Base 11. Defacto Standard 12. Brand Initial product sales or profits are slim and profit is realized The more players who buy that enter in the system, the The Company expends significant marketing investment in on the follow-up products and services more valuable the network order to build awareness and is reinforced by customer E.g. HP printers and Gillette Razors, Ryanair E.g. Microsoft, Oracle, Skype, Linkedin, spotify, Facebook experience. You know Brand is working when a consumer says, "I wont change because I trust AT&T". E.g. Google Margin Margin Price Complementary products Brand price Basic product Average market price Market shareAdrian Slywotzky and David Morrison, The profit Zone, 1998Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 25
  26. 26. Business models have been studied for 30 yearsTraditional business models: trying to explain success with profit models 13. Specialty 14. Local Leadership 15. Transactional Scale Specialty companies enjoy a higher premium for their Many businesses and their company economies are totally Transactions go up but the cost to provide the transaction products and services until competitors start to imitate local. Risk occurs when these companies fail to recognize does not go up as quickly E.g. Merck, 3M, Photoshop they are a local business model E.g. investment banking, real estate, transportation E.g. Wal-Mart Marge Local return Transaction return 5 years ago Nowadays Leading Leading Common 0 Common Local market share Transaction size 16. Value Chain 17. Cycle Profit 18. After-Sales Profit Industries characterized by distinct and powerful cycle. The The companys profit does not direct come from the sale of Specific activities pass through a chain of specialist offering company can not control the cycle, but it works to maximize hte product, but the after sale financing or services of the value its position within the cycles grip. As capacity tightens the product E.g. softwares, Intel companies lead price increases, as capacity loosens, its lag E.g. General Electric, banking price declines E.g. Dow Chemical, Toyota Return by unit produced After-sales offers Basic offer Capacity / OccupancyAdrian Slywotzky and David Morrison, The profit Zone, 1998Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 26
  27. 27. Business models have been studied for 30 yearsTraditional business models: trying to explain success with profit models 19. New Product Profit 20. Relative Market Share Profit 21. Experience Curve Profit As new products are introduced profit margins are high and Companies with high market share tend to be more Experience drives down the transactional cost growth rapid. As the product mature the profit margins fall profitable. Large companies have price advantages due to manufacturing experiences and volume economies, such as purchasing capability and economies of scale Diffusion Return Unit cost Time Relative market share Cumulated experience 22. Low Cost Business Design The company trives on reducing the cost per unit through cumulative experience E.g. Southwest Air, Dell, Internet as an channel distribution (fnac.com,…) Unit cost Traditional Low costAdrian Slywotzky and David Morrison, The profit Zone, 1998Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 27
  28. 28. Why study Internet-based business models?Two reasons i. The technological revolution increased exponentially the number of business models types: • Marginal cost of digital information comes closer to nothing • Long tail enables larger segmentation of customers • Better assets rotation can enable new businesses with low margin ii. After 30 years, we are better at understanding complex business modelsEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 28
  29. 29. (i)The technological revolution (IT, Internet, biotechnologies, nanotechnologies,…) Ray Kurzweil video on TED, 2005 The accelerating power of technology 14’00-19’10Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 29
  30. 30. Marginal cost of digital information comes closer to nothingBasic economics• In basic economics, price falls to the marginal cost which increases with production… Exhibit – Market supply and demand Exhibit – Costs of one company Price Price Marginal cost Supply Average cost Demand Quantity Quantity• … Though with the technological revolution, marginal cost of digital information comes closer to nothing • Moore law: “number of transistors on a chip doubles every 18 months”Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 30
  31. 31. • The great power of the eBay business model is the fact that a small number of salaried employees and outsource partners can handle a huge and growing volume of business: • Doubling of transaction volume can be accomplished with relatively modest investments • Software and servers do the heavy lifting eBay Headquarters, San Jose CaliforniaEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 31
  32. 32. Long tail enables larger segmentation of customersLong tail• Long tail is about selling less of more: • They focus on offering a large number of niche products, each of which sells relatively infrequently • Aggregate sales of niche items can be as lucrative as the traditional model whereby a small number of bestsellers account for most revenues • Long Tail business models require low inventory costs and strong platforms to make niche content readily available to interested buyers• Add-on by a student: Internet by lowering search costs and accessibility costs can even increase the size of the “Head”Chris Anderson, The Long Tail, 2006Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 32
  33. 33. • Amazon sells blockbusters products but also niche hard-to-find products (online book stores bring access to increased product variety) • Customer customization has enabled Dell to sell a large volume of products in small numbers Amazon warehouse, somewhereEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 33
  34. 34. Better assets rotation can enable new businesses with low marginBetter assets rotation• Technological revolution increase assets productivity decreasing the amount of assets immobilized Formula of Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) ROCE = Net Income (R) / Equity (K) ROCE = (R / K) * (Income / Income) * (Assets / Assets) ROCE = (R / Income) * (Income / Assets) * (Assets / K) ROCE = Gross Margin * Assets rotation * Financial leverEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 34
  35. 35. Better assets rotation can enable new businesses with low marginDesign to cost• Then, new business models with low margin can be designed and have the same return than more profitable activities • E.g. Logan, the low-cost brand new vehicule, was designed to be sold at 5 000€ (ultimately 8 000€ in France) Exhibit – Different business positioning with same ROCE Gross Margin Assets rotationEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 35
  36. 36. Better assets rotation can enable new businesses with low marginPyramid base: targeting tier 5 population• Developing countries are inventing new business models in regions with very low purchasing power where populations where traditionally excluded from any economical business modeling. E.g. Tata vehicule costing 2 500€ even cheaper than Logan• 4 billion people live with less than 1 500 USD per yearC. K. Prahalad, The Fortune at the Botton of the Pyramid, 2006Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 36
  37. 37. Better assets rotation can enable new businesses with low marginMobile banking case• Half population is unbanked worldwide leaving: • People with no official financial service to save or to borrow: • Unofficial lending rates range between 50% and 400% p.a, microfinance rates are 20-40% • One day per month is lost in Morocco to pay invoices • Enabling mass tax avoidance from States with low budgets • Raising the cost and complexity for companies t pay their employees• Though new mobile banking offer are emerging in developing countries. E.g. half public servant in Kenya are paid with mobile banking 120% Portugal Royaume-Uni Suède Irlande Moy. UE 110% Autriche Espagne Finlande Danemark Russie Allemagne Pays-Bas 100% Pologne Mobile penetration 2008 Belgique 90% Roumanie 80% Chili Afrique du Sud France Jamaïque Etats-Unis 70% Tunisie Algérie Colombie 60% Botswana Moy. Afrique Canada Mexique Brésil Maroc 50% Guatemala Guyane 40% Nicaragua Arménie Chine 30% Pakistan Namibie Sénégal Vietnam Egypte Côte dIvoire 20% Kirghizstan Kenya Lesotho Tanzanie Inde 10% Ouganda Djibouti 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Banked population 2008Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 37
  38. 38. Other big trends in creating new Internet-based companiesThree current trends • Pyramid based strategy: create a business model based on people very low purchasing power • Blue ocean strategy: look for a new ocean rethinking differentiation and low-cost and go beyond industry boundaries • Cloning strategy: clone successful internet sites and replicate them in other countriesEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 38
  39. 39. (ii) We are better at understanding business modelsOne Business Model CanvasAlexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 39
  40. 40. 1 - The proposition valueDefinition and scope• The value proposition describes the bundle of products and services that create value for a specific customer segment• Value proposition is marketing territory: • It can be functional (solves a customer problem, physiological need,…), social (need to belong, status,…), emotional, relationship… • It is an aggregation of the benefits that a Company offers customers (solve a customer problem or satisfies a customer need) minus sacrifices (price, technical process when buying or when recycling, travel time,…) • It is a unique combination of benefits and sacrifices • It is not a list of products and services, technologies or distribution channelsAlexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 40
  41. 41. 1 - The proposition valueElements that can contribute to customer value creation• Newness: some value propositions satisfy an entirely new set of needs that customers previously didn’t perceive because there was no similar offering. E.g. mobile phones, ethical investment funds• Performance: improving product or service performance. E.g. bringing more powerful PC, more disk storages and better graphics• Customisation: tailoring products and services to the specific needs of individual customers. E.g. mass customisation• Getting the job done: helping a customer get a certain job done. E.g. Rolls-Royce airline engines.• Design: a product may stand out because of superior design. E.g. fashion and customer electronics• Brand/Status: customers may find value in the simple act of using and displaying a specific brand. E.g. Rolex• Price: offering similar value at a lower price e.g. Bic• Cost reduction: helping customers reduce costs• Risk reduction: reducing risks customers incur. E.g. giving a one-year service guarantee• Accessibility: making products and services available to customers who previously lacked access to them. E.g. NetJets popularized the concept of fractional private jet ownership, RIP Merrill Lynch bring Wall Street to Main Street in the 60s• Convenience/Usability: making things more convenient or easier to use. E.g. iPod.Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 41
  42. 42. 1 - The proposition valueDefining a promise helps understanding the proposition valueDefining the promise or tagline• The promise is not only advertising territory but it shapes all the business model• A good promise or tagline must not only deliver a clear message but also advertise an offering truthfully • A good way to test the effectiveness and strength of a strategy is to look at whether it contains a strong and authentic promise or tagline• The promise can still be simple and concise even for large international and complex companies • Zara (Inditex) promise is “fast-fashion” which has shaped all the company operations• What are the promise of those companies? • Starbucks • Ikea • Easyjet / Ryanair • Toyota • Lego • Danone • Yves RocherEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 42
  43. 43. • Starbucks promise: a “third space” of conviviality between home and workEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 43
  44. 44. 1 - The proposition valueDefining a promise helps understanding the proposition valueCompany promise or tagline• What are the promise of those companies? • Starbucks • A “third space” of conviviality between home and work • Ikea • Functional home furnishing, low price and design • Easyjet / Ryanair • Simple airline flights at low price faster than the car • Toyota • Auto reliability • Lego • Learning though the joy of building • Danone • Health through food and beverages to a maximum number of people • Yves Rocher • Beauty based on plantsDenis Dauchy, 7 étapes pour un business model solide, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 44
  45. 45. 1 - The proposition valueThe proposition value has to take into account all customersTwo customers • Most of the time, the buyer is not the user of the product or service Customer 1 Customer 2  Distributor  Consumer Mass-market products or services Services to  Company  Employees corporations (food, transportation,…)  Students  Companies (management Web-based business consulting firms, investment models class banking,…)  Prescriber (dentist, general  Patients, social security Pharmaceutical drugs practitioner GP,…)Denis Dauchy, 7 étapes pour un business model solide, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 45
  46. 46. • Companies have long engaged in head-to-head competition in search of sustained, profitable growth • Yet in today’s overcrowded industries, competing head-on results in nothing but a bloody ”RED OCEAN” of rival fighting over a shrinking profit pool • This strategy is unlikely to create profitable growth in the future • Leading companies will succeed not by battling competitors but by creating “BLUE OCEANS” of uncontested market space ripe for growthEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website
  47. 47. 1 - The proposition valueDifferentiate from competitors or innovate within the valueRed Ocean Strategy vs. Blue Ocean Strategy• Similar to Michael Porter definition of strategy as a differentiation plan, Blue Ocean Strategy aims at changing the proposition value to gain profitable growth• Red oceans will continue to be an important part of a company’s strategy (a lot of tools and framework already exists) but invest in blue oceans will create profitable growthW. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy, 2005Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 47
  48. 48. 1 - The proposition valueDifferentiate from competitors or innovate within the valueFour questions to challenge an industry’s strategic logic and business model• First, capture the current state of play in the known market space in order to understand competition and the principal factors (price, quality, design…)• Second, reconstruct buyer value elements trading-off between differentiation and low-cost • E.g. is the company over delivering without payback? (typical of a company caught in the Red Ocean)W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy, 2005Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 48
  49. 49. • In the 80s, Circus was a declining industry with decreasing audiences because of increasingly attractive alternative forms of entertainment • There were star performers but none could compete with movie stars, multiple show arenas and a audience of families • There was also increasing sentiment against the use of animals in circuses by animal rights groups • Cirque du Soleil launched in 1984 and is now one of Canada’s largest cultural exports. Why?Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 49
  50. 50. 1 - The proposition valueCirque du Soleil created a new value curve offering the best of both circusand theater and eliminating or reducing everything elseCirque du Soleil canvas• By offering unprecedented utility, Cirque du Soleil has created a blue ocean and has invented a new form of live entertainment, one that is markedly different from both traditional circus and theater• Cirque du Soleil strategically priced its tickets against those of the theater because it attracted an adult theater audience• Cirque du Soleil tagline is: ”a mix of circus arts and street entertainment”W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy, 2005Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 50
  51. 51. • With which industry do Southwest airlines compete? • In what do they focus, in what they differ and what are they tagline?Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 51
  52. 52. 1 - The proposition valueSouthwest airlines created a new curve offering high-speed transport withfrequent and flexible departures at prices attractive to the mass of buyersSouthwest Airlines canvas and the low-cost model• Southwest Airlines created a blue ocean by breaking the trade-offs customers had to make between the speed of airplanes and the economy and flexibility of car transport• Southwest emphasizes only three factors (focus) and differentiate on four others factors from the industry’s average profile (divergence)• Southwest promise or tagline: “the speed of a plane at the price of a car… whenever you need it” DIVERGENCE FOCUSW. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, Blue Ocean Strategy, 2005Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 52
  53. 53. • With which industry do Logan compete? • In what do they focus, in what they differ and what are they tagline?Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 53
  54. 54. 1 - The proposition valueLogan created a new curve offering a new car for the price of an used-carLogan canvas• Logan promise or tagline: “for the price of an used-vehicule, have a new car” FOCUS DIVERGENCEHigh Low price new vehicule Used-vehicule LoganLow Price Spaciousness Garanty Resistance Design Accessories Status• Similarly, Amazon launched Marketplace not only to compete with second-hand cultural goods marketplace like eBay but to close the gap between new and second itemsEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 54
  55. 55. 2 – Revenue streamDefinition and scope• Revenue stream is the cash a company generates from each customer segment• A business model can involve two different types of Revenue streams: • Transaction revenues resulting from one-time customer payments • Recurring revenues resulting from ongoing payments to either deliver a Value proposition to customers or provide post-purchase customer supportEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 55
  56. 56. 2 – Revenue streamWays to generate revenue streams• Asset sale: selling the ownership rights to a physical product. E.g. Amazon selling a book• Usage fee: selling the use of particular service. E.g. A telecom operator charging by the minute• Subscription fee: selling continuous access to a service. E.g. Club Med Gym, WOW/World of Warcraft online• Lending/Renting/Leasing: temporary granting someone the exclusive right to use a particular asset for a fixed period in return for a fee. E.g. Autolib• Licensing: giving permission to use protected intellectual property in exchange of licensing fees. E.g. media industry• Brokerage fees: intermediation services performed on behalf of two or more parties. E.g. credit cart providers, real estate agents• Advertising: fees for advertising a particular product, service or brand.Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 56
  57. 57. 2 – Revenue streamEach revenue stream might have different pricing mechanismsPricing mechanismsAlexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur, Business Model Generation, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 57
  58. 58. How do you set a priceEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 58
  59. 59. Price is determined by what a buyer is willing to pay and the competition is allowing to be charged (not by markup on cost) Price is determined by strategyEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 59
  60. 60. 2 – Revenue streamReminderPricing strategy depending of the product life cycle• Product introduction: • Market skimming strategy setting up a very high price . E.g. Electronic goods, luxury • Or Penetration strategy: real low price even below cost to gain market share• Growth: decrease price because of volume• Maturity: decrease price because of competition• Decline: special offer because price is the main factor of valueChris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Milton Friedman, Theres no such thing as a free lunch,1975Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 60
  61. 61. How can a product be freeEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 61
  62. 62. 2 – Revenue streamIntroduction to FreeDefinition and scope• Free is giving without a cost… all included• Free is not to be mistaken with “free” used by advertisers when it’s not really free: • Free “buy one get one free” is just another way of saying 50 percent off when you buy two • Free gift inside • Free shipping• Basic economics: theres no such thing as a free lunch • The "free lunch“ refers to the once-common tradition of saloons in the United States providing a "free" lunch to patrons who had purchased at least one drink. All the foods on offer were high in salt (e.g. ham, cheese and salted crackers) so those who ate them ended up buying a lot of beer.• You can make money on free (revenue stream) but also free can lead to fast growth: • Before the 2000’s, Dell was known to be the first company to have reached one billion sales after been launched in less than 10 yearsChris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Milton Friedman, Theres no such thing as a free lunch,1975Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 62
  63. 63. 2 – Revenue streamIntroduction to FreeThe penny gap theory• The penny gap is the difference between cheap and free• For small payments, there is not a constant elasticity in price • Zero is one market and any other price is another market • Zero can attract lots of people because from the consumer’s perspective charging even a penny makes us think about the choiceChris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 63
  64. 64. 2 – Revenue streamIntroduction to FreeThe economics of abundance (vs. scarcity)• Digital technologies have become too cheap to meter creating a economy of abundance (e.g. information)• Digital free theory: • “If it’s digital, sooner or later it’s going to be free” • “When something halves in price each year, zero is inevitable” • “Waste is good” • “Every abundance creates a new scarcity” (e.g. time)• Though, externalities for the consumer still exist: technical process when buying or when recycling, travel time,…Chris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 64
  65. 65. 2 – Revenue streamIntroduction to Free4 revenue streams around: first two been very old but evolving and the last two are emergingwith InternetA. Direct Cross-Subsidies: give a free product that have high probability to make people pay for something elseB. The “three-parties” (or two-sided markets): one customer segment subsidizes another (the most common)C. Freemium: premium paid versionD. Non-monetary markets: people choose to give away with no expectation of paymentChris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 65
  66. 66. 2 – Revenue streamA – Direct Cross-SubsidiesDefinition and scope• This is the oldest and most familiar model where the cost of one product is shifted into the price of another• Free attracts customer in masses. Then cross-selling or up-selling validate the business model: • Give a product (equipment) and sell a service (maintenance) or another product (supplies)• Key success factor is the increase the equipment rate with products with better profitability• It has other names: Gillette and razor blades, Equipment and Supplies, Equipment and MaintenanceChris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 66
  67. 67. 2 – Revenue streamA – Direct Cross-SubsidiesHow can you sell airlines tickets far under cost?« People pay attention on ticket price not on the extra’s »Chris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 67
  68. 68. 2 – Revenue streamA – Direct Cross-SubsidiesFamous examples of direct-cross subsidies Free or far under cost Where the money comes from Companies Printer Ink Printer manufacturer Coffee machine Capsules Nespresso Razor Razor blades Gillette Real estate loan, credit card, Cross-selling because customer Retail banks savings account is stuck with the same bank for 20/30 years Airline ticket Hotel room, rental car, cruise Go Voyages, airline companies and vacation package Elevator Maintenance and security Elevator companies upgrades Alarms Electronic surveillance Security companies Equipement Reagent supplies Medical biology companies Telephone Communications CarrierEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 68
  69. 69. 2 – Revenue streamA – Direct Cross-SubsidiesMore examples of direct-cross subsidies• Give away services, sell products (Apple Store Genius Bar Tech support) • Or Give away products, sell services (free gifts when you open a bank account)• Give away software, sell hardware (IBM and HP’s linux offerings) • Or Give away hardware, sell software (video game console model)• Give away cell phones, sell minutes of talk time (many carriers) • Or Give away talk time, sell cell phones (many of the same carriers, with free nights and weekend plans)• Give away the show, sell the drinks (strip clubs) • Or Give away the drinks, sell the show (casinos)• Free with purchase (retailer “loss leaders” e.g. gas sold in a supermarket)• Free samples (gift boxes)• Free trials (magazine subscriptions)• Free parking (malls, supermarkets)• Free condiments (restaurants)Chris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 69
  70. 70. 2 – Revenue streamB – Three-parties or Two-sided marketsDefinition and scope• A third party pays participate in a market created by a free exchange between the first two parties. Thus one customer segment subsidizes another• The most common of the economies built around free is the three party system• Advertising is the most famous one where advertisers pay for media to reach consumers:Chris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 70
  71. 71. 2 – Revenue streamB – Three-parties or Two-sided marketsMarkets with three-parties revenue stream• Three-parties is not limited to advertising Market First-party Third-party Second-party Consumer examples Search Internet user Advertisers Google, Yahoo! Online recruitment Job seeker Recuiters Monster, cadreemploi, keljob Free newspapers Readers Advertisers Metro, 20 Minutes Free softwares Readers Software publisher Adobe Debit card Card owners Retail Banks Ecommerce platform Sellers Buyers eBay, Amazon marketplace Outdoor advertising Municipalities Advertisers JC Decaux, Clear ChannelDenis Dauchy, 7 étapes pour un business model solide, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 71
  72. 72. 2 – Revenue streamB – Three-parties or Two-sided marketsMore examples of three-parties• Give free voice calling (in the US), charge advertisers (Facebook Messenger app)• Give away content, sell access to the audience (ad-support media)• Give woman free admission, charge men (bars)• Give children free admission, charge adults (museums)• Give away listings, sell premium search (match.com)• Sell listings, give away search (craigslist housing)• Give away travel services, get a cut of rental car and hotel reservations (travelocity)• Give away house listings, sell mortgages (Zillow)• Give away content, sell information about the consumers (practice fusion)• Give away content, sell stuff (Thinkgeek)• Give away content, charge advertisers to be featured in it (product placement)• Give away resume listings, charge for power search (Linkedin)Chris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 72
  73. 73. 2 – Revenue streamC – FreemiumDefinition and scope• Freemium is giving a free basic version to most of people and charging for a premium version to a few people• Freemium or contraction of Free and Premium was invented by Fred Wilson in 2006.• Freemium is different with direct-cross subsidiaries because the ratio of free to paid is high (e.g. 90%, 95%) when giving free sample has a low ratio • This ratio is enabled by Internet because the cost of serving the basic version is close to zero • Si it’s not the same thing as "premium with a free sample.“• Freemium is one of the most common Internet-based business model even though not every product or service can work as freemiumChris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 73
  74. 74. 2 – Revenue streamC – FreemiumDifferent kind of limitation of the basic free version• Functionnalities • e.g. Linkedin, Flickr, Skype, Evernote, WordPress• Time • e.g. legal online streaming• Capacity • e.g. sending large files, DropBox (cloud backup system)• Storage • e.g. webmails• Others factors • e.g. • Spotify and Gmail invitations • Seat limited (first customers get free seats) • Customer type limited: free for small and young companies, universities (licence model)Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 74
  75. 75. 2 – Revenue streamC – FreemiumWhy go for Freemium business model?• Marketing: • By definition, having a free product makes it really easy to get customers • Even though a free user might not convert, they can invite other free users who might (referral)• Network effects (like fax): • A network effect is what happens when a product or service becomes more valuable the more people use it • A phone isnt very useful if you cant call anyone else with it. But once everyone you know has a phone, it becomes a pretty valuable thing to have • If youre in a market that lends itself to network effects youre going to want to have a free basic product because if you dont someone else will and will use the network effects to crush you • E.g. Skype has 600 million users who make calls for free over the internet and only a small percentage of those pay to make calls to landlinesBusiness Insider, What Is The Freemium Business Model, 04/2011Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 75
  76. 76. 2 – Revenue streamC – FreemiumKey success factors (if not, choose another business model)• Get lots and lots of free users: • Freemium is a numbers game: if only 1% of your users are going to pay you, then you need to have lots and lots of free users (millions, typically) to make that 1% enough money • If your product is more niche, go for premium instead of freemium • If your product is not sticky, go for advertising instead of freemium• Have a product or service whose value to users increases with time: • This is the biggest thing that most people • The value of your service needs to increase the more people use it • E.g. Spotify: where you create all your playlists and organize your music. Once youve done thatyoure much more likely to pay up. The value of Spotify to you has gone up from being just music to music, your playlists and your friends playlists, so paying starts to make sense• Keep costs low: • Freemium works because the marginal cost of each additional user is low, so you need to keep your operating costs correspondingly low• Time: • It takes a long time to be profitable because users take longer to convert as the value of the product to them increases over time, and because you keep adding (hopefully) new free users, freemium businesses take a long time to reach breakeven point • As people get older, people migrate into paying customer (premium part of freemium) because they get richerBusiness Insider, What Is The Freemium Business Model, 04/2011Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 76
  77. 77. 2 – Revenue streamC – FreemiumExamples of freemium• Give away basic information, sell richer information in easier-to-use form (BoxOfficeMojo)• Give away generic management advice, sell customized management advice (McKinsey)• Give away Web content, sell printed content (everything from magazines to books)• Give away online games, charge a subscription to do more in the game (penguins)• Give away demo software, charge for the full version (most video games)• Give away computer-to-computer calls, sell computer-to-phone calls (Skype)• Give away free photo-sharing services, charge for additional storage space (Flickr)• Give away basic software, sell more features (QuickTime)• Give away ad-supported service, sell the ability to remove the ads (Ning)• Give away "snippets" sell books (Google Books)• Give away virtual tourism, sell virtual land (Second Life)Chris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 77
  78. 78. 2 – Revenue streamD – Nonmonetary marketsDefinition and scope• People give away content with no expectation of Payment • Gift economy is based on the principle that the action of individuals have a global impact • People give for different reasons: to gain reputation e.g. blog writers, altruism e.g. Wikipedia or unintentionally/passively (web content helps Google) • Labor exchange: paying something with labor even without knowing it • E.g. free content in exchange of Captcha solving (used by spammer in exchange of free porn but also used by Google Street view to decipher street numbers, names and trafic signs) • E.g. voting on Digg, Yahoo Answers or using Google 411 (phone directory in exchange of speech sound) • Piracy: when piracy is so powerful that content producer have accepted that, form them, doing the activity is not a moneymaking business • E.g. online musicChris Anderson, Free the future of a radical price, 2009Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 78
  79. 79. • Google is getting the public to identify house numbers and signs from Street View photos as part of its reCAPTCHA anti-spam technology and feeding the data into its online mapping serviceEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 79
  80. 80. reCAPTCHA is a free CAPTCHA service that helps to digitize books,newspapers and old time radio showsAnswers to reCAPTCHA challenges are used to digitize textual documents Comparison of the accuracy of standard OCR versusExample of a CAPTCHA reCAPTCHA transcriptionsOCR: Optical Character Recognition programsEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 80
  81. 81. Features with poor usability can be an opportunity for revenuesCAPTCHA can also be used for advertising and generate revenuesAdyoulikeEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 81
  82. 82. • How’s the music industry going?Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 82
  83. 83. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the music industryGlobal recorded music sales are decreasing since end of the 90’s due to digital piracyExhibit – Global Recorded Music Sales (bn USD, trade value)IFPI, press report, 2012Synchronization rights: revenues from music acquired for movies, advertisements and music videosEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website
  84. 84. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the music industryMusic downloads still accounts for 80 per cent of digital music revenues but the market ismaturing• Piracy has made difficult of charging a price for listening songs or albums• Though consumers still find value in downloads from iTunes Music Store, VirginMega, FnacMusic and others because of the sacrifices of the free music downloaded illegally (quality, security, complexity, accessibility…)• Even if downloads of music from iTunes Store and others still account for 80 per cent of digital music revenues, this market is maturing and spending is flattening in all key territoriesEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 84
  85. 85. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the music industryStreaming and downloads make the digital proposition value• Consumers are finding great value in: • Having access to millions of songs (sellouts are impossible) • Creating and sharing playlists • Listening to music in on all devices everywhere (accessibility = cloud storage, remember Philipp comment on the “head” part of the long tail) • Listening to music even offline • Sharing his songs and getting recommendation on social networks• Fremium streaming music services such as Spotify will be the key growth drivers over the next years as usage and spending grow rapidly: • Spotify Open: free but limited in number of songs and number of hours • Spotify Unlimited: a monthly fee limited on a laptop • Spotify Premium: a monthly fee for listening to music in on all devices and even offline • All Spotify offers enable users to share easily on social networks such as Facebook:Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 85
  86. 86. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the music industryMusic streaming business model is already the largest market in Sweden, a country with arobust culture of Internet piracy• Music revenues are increasing the Swedish music industry market due to digital sales• Streaming is even cannibalizing downloads in Sweden• Music licensing for online videos is a growing market as more and more people watch videos that are accompanied by musicIFPI Svenska Gruppen, press report, 07/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 86
  87. 87. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the music industryDigital recorded music is expected to overtake physical sales in 2015PwC, Global Entertainment & Media Outlook, 2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 87
  88. 88. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the music industryWhat about content production and consumption?The amount of content being produced and consumed in music is believe to be growing• 11 M song tracks (stock) in 2001, 100 M in 2010 (Gracenote/Sony db > Shazam db)• Growth of the Gracenote database obviously includes a lot of older music that has only recently been indexed and that is been rediscovered – E.g. Oscar Wilde - Los Vidrios Quebrados (1967)• The trend still looks like the amount of music available to consumers is steadily growing• At the other side, overall sale of music (including albums, singles, digital tracks,…) exceeded 1.5 billion transactions in 2010 (up from 845 million transactions in 2000)Floor 64, The Sky Is Rising, 01/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 88
  89. 89. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the music industryWhat about musicians revenues?• Psy with its Gangnam Style song, viewed more than 1 billion times, would never had been a success outside South Korea without Youtube – It generated 8 M USD from advertising (50/50 split)• Ticket prices and merchandise have become major sources of income for many popular rock stars like Lady Gaga, Madonna, Bruce Springsteen and for bands like U2• It’s not easy to duplicate the experience of a live show, so concerts have become a source of revenue for musicians and aren’t negatively affected by the availability of free downloadable music - in fact, free music can encourage fans to attend live performances• There’s actual scarcity for live music• Other trends: – Algorithms may be replacing humans in some parts of discovering new talent (or at least discovering talent more cost-effectively) – Gracenote, Shazam,… are datamining music metadata in order to serve better music recommendations to consumers or to predict which artists will be popular with target demographic groupsFloor 64, The Sky Is Rising, 01/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 89
  90. 90. 2 – Revenue streamWhat has the Entertainment industry learned from the Music industry?Other Entertainment industries continued to grow in the past years when the Music industry,newspapers and consumer magazine publishing took a hitPwC, Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2012-2016, 2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 90
  91. 91. 2 – Revenue streamWhat has the Entertainment industry learned from the Music industry?Some Entertainment industries have found new business models successful with the Digitalera, others no… well not yet… thus a business model challenge• For consumers, today is an age of absolute abundance in entertainment due to the digital era and piracy• New business models based on Digital sales are emerging in each Entertainement industry to take over decreasing physical salesIFPI, press report, 2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 91
  92. 92. 2 – Revenue streamWhat has the Entertainment industry learned from the Music industry?Though not all new business models can be based on Advertising since advertising is ahuge but finite market and volatile (reliant on the economic situation )PwC, Global Entertainment & Media Outlook 2012-2016, 2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 92
  93. 93. • Has the internet decimated the entertainment industry, or are we living in a new gold age for both content creators and consumers? • Entertainment spending per households as a function of income is increasing from 4.9% in 2000 to 5.6% in 2008 (US) • The amount of content being produced in music, movies, books and video games is believe to be growing: • 1/4 M new books were available in 2002, 3 M in 2010 • 1.700 new movies p.a. in 1995, 7.000 in 2009 • 11 M song tracks (stock) in 2001, 100 M in 2010 (Gracenote db) • The Entertainment industry is growing though the value chain is being totally redesignedFloor 64, The Sky Is Rising, 01/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 93
  94. 94. • How’s the video game industry going?Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website
  95. 95. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryVideo games sales have grown with the digital revolution and cross the barrier of gender andage limitations• Globally, the amount that consumers spend on video games - for hardware, software and accessories - has grown from about $20 billion in 2000 to approximately $70 billion in 2011• The demographics of video game players has expanded greatly beyond the traditional core of boys and young men: – 53% of game players are male and 47% female – Average gamer player age is 30 – The amount of time kids are spending on video games has grown from 26 minutes per day in 1999 to 1 hour and 13 minutes in 2009 due to mobile device that has allow kids to squeeze more playing time into their busy days (Kaiser Family Foundation survey)• Worldwide, the population of gamers has exploded from 250 million in 2008 to 1.5 billion in 2011Floor 64, The Sky Is Rising, 01/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 95
  96. 96. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryPurchases of digital content are growing the video games industry• The traditional console business model, based on the installed based per the attach rate (number of games per owner), led to an elitist approach to game design since price of each game was high (40-60 USD) and hardcore gamers wanted a return for their investment• New video games digital segments have emerged: – Downloads: Steam is to games as iTunes is to music – Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) e.g. World Of Warcraft – Online / Casual – Mobile – Social• Digital sales (and rental delivery) now generate 40% of the industryESA, Essential Facts about the computer and the video game industry, 2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 96
  97. 97. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryLooking at the video game download business model• Piracy of video games has fewer benefits than music 2011 top-selling games at retail ranked by unit sales (VGChartz) and movie piracy: Piracy is an issue for single-player mode though the primary reason people buy games retail is for the multiplayer modes: – Most pirated games do not allow for multiplayer as the game often has to connect to an official server where its legitimacy can easily be verified by some sort of authentication service• Steam is to games as iTunes is to music: – Steam is a digital distribution, digital rights management, multiplayer and communications platform – Steam has an estimated 70% share of the digital distribution market for video games (competitor: EA’s Origin) – One PC game out of three is downloaded (average price not much lower than retail: -7%) – Steam is developed by Valve Corporation best known for a number of popular entertainment franchises such as Counter-Strike, Half-Life, Left 4 DeadEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 97
  98. 98. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryLooking at MMO business models• Massively Multiplayer Online game are video games in which a large number of players engage simultaneously in a persistent world• Value of an MMO is in the size of the community per life time (retention)• The hardcore game MMO revenue stream was invented by World of Warcraft: – Average customer lifetime of 18 months – Client box or download (50 USD) – Subscription fees (15 USD/m) – Virtual goods – Average full cost to complete WoW for a gamer is 300 USD• Few MMO have been able to replicate WoW model so they switch to F2P to lower entry barrier and get a sizable community e.g. Habbo Hotel, Kart Rider, Warhammer, Everquest,… – Average customer lifetime of 6 months – Free trial or free game – Subscription optional – Virtual goods for actions items (competition) and personalisation (expression) • Theory of engagement: « the longer a user plays the more chances there are he buys virtual items » – Items payable through micro-payments mainly inside the game (60%) and on an external web siteLuc Bourcier, Game in progress new business models for the videogame industry, 04/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 98
  99. 99. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryLooking at the online casual business model• Online casual games are games played online to “kill time, make a pause, relieves from stress”:• Free-to-Play (F2P) is the main business model (also for social games and some mobile games)• F2P is a freemium business model that can be based on: – Try-and-buy: limited access (time, levels,…), though games must be really addictive – Advertising with ads display on hosting sites or inside the game – Virtual goodsLuc Bourcier, Game in progress new business models for the videogame industry, 04/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 99
  100. 100. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryLooking at the mobile video game business model• Ten of thousands of mobile games for smartphones and tablets can be download on platforms such as the Appel App Store, Android MarketPlaces (Google Play), Amazon, Facebook Mobile and Playstation Suite• Distribution is bypassing carriers: 30/70 meaning the game app developer get 70% of sales revenue (vs. 45/55 in cell phone business) – An opportunity for mobile banking?• Mobile video game revenue stream is based on: – Average customer lifetime of 2 months – Selling the app (e.g. at 0.99 cent or F2P model) – Selling virtual goods – A little of advertising (average of 15%): • Offer walls • SponsoringLuc Bourcier, Game in progress new business models for the videogame industry, 04/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 100
  101. 101. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryLooking at social games• Social games are those games played primarily on social networking sites or games that can be played with a person’s real world social graph – E.g. CityVille, FarmVille (Zynga), EA (Sims)• Social video game revenue stream is based on: – F2P model with a logic of a massive audience – Virtual goods (50%) – Advertising (25%) – Lead-generation offers (25%): virtual currency incentives by marketers to social gamers in exchange of signing up for subscriptions, participating in surveys, or buying goods and services – Since virality is a key to success, notifications, invitations, sharing, gifting and other social network tools are used extensively to get new customers – Social games must work with a low retention rate (first day retention rate of 30% is a “huge success”)Luc Bourcier, Game in progress new business models for the videogame industry, 04/2012Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 101
  102. 102. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryLooking at the e-sports business model• Twitch launched 18 months ago borne out of Justin.tv, the largest online community to live streaming service to enable streaming video service embedded into popular games• Twitch provide instant broadcasting of user gameplay: 23 million unique viewers per month, viewers watched 6 billion minutes viewed in December 2012, average session time of 1.5 hours• Twitch is getting embedded in games such as Call Of Duty: Black Ops 2• Twitch business model is based on sharing advertising revenue with broadcaster and in growing the e- sports market e.g. Twitch has announced a new scholarship of $50,000 to five student gamersEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 102
  103. 103. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the video game industryWhat’s next for the game industry?• “Gamification” trend meaning that video games are no longer restricted to leisure: – Every part of our lives will eventually be turned into a game – Potentially encourage people to change their behavior to: • Benefit the environment • Perform their jobs better • Lose weight • Buy products • Perform almost any task imaginable• Games are even encroaching into vocational educationEduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 103
  104. 104. 2 – Revenue streamShort focus at online video servicesPurely online video services are not yet collecting revenues at the same scale as thetraditional TV and films industries, but the size of this audience is unquestionnably large• Two business models: – Based on subscriptions such as Vimeo • 150.000 paying subscribers in 2010 – Based on advertising such as Youtube • 400 M USD of adversitiving revenues in 2010• Online videos are also a substantial traffic driver to social networking (e.g. Facebook)Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 104
  105. 105. • How’s the book publishing industry going?Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website
  106. 106. 2 – Revenue streamLooking at the book publishing industrySales of e-books expected to compensate the decline of the physical books• Consumer and educational book publishing will increase by 0.6 percent compounded annually to 116 bn USD in 2016 from 112 bn in 2011 – E-books grow their share of global spending from 5% in 2011 up to 18% in 2016 – Print/audio consumer and educational books will continue to decline throughout the forecast period notably paperback books (“livres de poche” in French)• Publishers will need to provide eBooks in addition to paperbacks and the entire value process will be changing, from aggregation right to distribution• Piracy less likely to impact digital sales like in the music industry: demographic groups that are most often associated with digital piracy (generally men between 20 and 39 years old) and not the same than those associated with high-volume reading of mass market books (in general women age 40 and older)• New intermediaries are emerging to handle eBooks: – eBook platform (e.g. mass aggregators such as Amazon, Apple, and Google) – Handling of payments – Support for digital conversion – Establishment of a digital content systemPwC, Turning the Page - The Future of eBooks, 2010Eduardo Larrain - Linkedin - Website 106

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