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Presentation Kent Ohio Presentation Kent Ohio Presentation Transcript

  • Impacts of urban design aspects on urban microclimate and on the built environment Prof. Dr. Eduardo L. Krüger Graduate Program in Technology/ Master’s Program in Civil Engineering Department of Civil Construction Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba Brazil ekruger@utfpr.edu.br Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Outline • Principles and rationale • Sample studies – Curitiba, Brazil (since 1999) – Israel (2005-2006) – UK (2010-2011) • Current projects • Conclusions - topics for discussion • Future perspectives Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Context Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Context • Why this all matters? – Urbanisation trends, shrinking cities – Resilient buildings (climate change, UHI effects) – Energy simulation studies (“real” input data, input data accounting for UHI effects) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Context • Indoors (built spaces) – Bioclimatic Zoning – Building Performance Standards – Energy Efficiency Rating Systems (LEED, Green Building codes etc) • Outdoors – Municipalities, local agenda Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Outdoor “Comfort” • Urban form and comfort / life quality – effects on microclimate; daylighting availability at pedestrian level and in the indoor space; air quality issues; urban noise; accessibility ... • Relevant cause & effect factors – Morphology and wind profiles – Shape, orientation, thermal mass (storage), water bodies, albedo and microclimate – Vegetation, evapotranspiration and microclimate – Shape, orientation and shadowing/mutual shadowing effects Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Relevant factors Urban form and wind in urban settings Effects of urban form on air flow ROSSI (2004 ) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Relevant factors Thermal impacts of urban morphology OKE, 1978 Relevant factors Urban form and urban microclimate Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Relevant factors Urban form and implications on overshadowing Acoma Pueblo , New Mexico, looking northeast. Terraces, windows and doors face southward to capture the winter sun. (Drawing by Gary S. Shigemura in Energy and Form by Ralph L. Knowles.) More contemporary “solutions” for the problem of buildings casting shadows on others (detail shadow) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Relevant factors Urban form and pollutant dispersion Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Urban form parameters H/W = 0.33 H/W = 0.66 H/W = 1 H/W = 2 Height to Width Factor Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • SVF = 23% SVF = 46% Sky View Factor - SVF Urban form parameters Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research Methods  Field measurements and surveys (street user’s thermal perception)  Physical modelling  Simulation studies  Establishing linkages between urban form and observed effects (outdoors and indoors) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil (since 1999) Research carried out in Israel Post-doc (CAPES) (2005-2006) Research carried out in Glasgow, UK Visiting researcher (CAPES) (2010-2011) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Field measurements for heat mapping  Thermal perception surveys with pedestrians  Simulation studies (daylighting – solar envelope)  Simulation studies (pollutants dispersion/microclimate) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Field measurements for heat mapping (Rossi 2004) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Thermal perception surveys with pedestrians (Minella 2009; Rossi 2012) CNPq funded 2008-2010 Comfort questionnaire (based on ISO 10551) Date: ………… Time: ………… Part 1: background and personal information Gender (circle it): Male Female Age: ………… Weight: ………… Height: ………… Time of residency (Glasgow or UK, circle it): less than 6 months more than 6 months Time spent outdoors (minutes): ………… Part 2: current clothing garments (clothing ensembles as in ISO 9920) refer to Table Annex A Part 3: How do you feel at this precise moment? (-3) cold (-2) cool (-1) slightly cool (0) neutral (+1) slightly warm (+2) warm (+3) hot Part 4: Please state how you would prefer to be now: (+3) much warmer (+2) warmer (+1) a little warmer (0) neither warmer nor cooler (-1) a little cooler (-2) cooler (-3) much cooler Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Thermal perception surveys with pedestrians (Minella 2009; Rossi 2012) CNPq funded 2008-2010 - RESULTS Data Over 2000 surveys (approx. 1650 valid votes) Different seasons (Jan-Aug 2009) 15 urban situations SVF ranging 0.2-0.55 Resulting studies Applicability of comfort indices: Comparisons between actual thermal sensation versus selected comfort indices (including UTCI) Diurnal effect of SVF on outdoor comfort, Ta and Tmrt Ventilation profiles and air quality (simulations with ENVI-met, from calibrated model) y = 52.992x - 7.088 R 2 = 0.57 0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 SVF ΔMRT-T(°C) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Simulation studies (daylighting) (Suga 2005) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Simulation studies (daylighting) (Suga 2005) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Simulation studies (solar envelope) (Tamura 2010) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Curitiba, Brazil  Simulation studies (pollutants dispersion) (Rasia 2011) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Sede Boqer, Israel Post-doctorate (CAPES) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (2005-2006)  Physical modelling with OASUS  Simulation studies of impacts in the built environment Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Sede Boqer, Israel Post-doctorate (CAPES) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (2005-2006)  Physical modelling with OASUS (D. Pearlmutter) OASUS Open-Air Scaled Urban Surface Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Sede Boqer, Israel Post-doctorate (CAPES) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (2005-2006)  Physical modelling with OASUS (D. Pearlmutter) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Sede Boqer, Israel Post-doctorate (CAPES) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (2005-2006)  Simulation studies of impacts in the built environment Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Glasgow, UK Visiting researcher (CAPES) at Glasgow Caledonian University (2010-2011)  Urban Heat Island – Heat Mapping  Thermal perception surveys with pedestrians  Simulation studies (microclimate) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Glasgow, UK Visiting researcher (CAPES) at Glasgow Caledonian University (2010-2011)  Urban Heat Island – Inter-urban temperature differences Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Glasgow, UK Visiting researcher (CAPES) at Glasgow Caledonian University (2010-2011)  Urban Heat Island – Intra-urban temperature differences Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Glasgow, UK Visiting researcher (CAPES) at Glasgow Caledonian University (2010-2011)  Urban Heat Island – Results -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 TemperatureindegC Delta T T urban T rural Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Glasgow, UK Visiting researcher (CAPES) at Glasgow Caledonian University (2010-2011)  Thermal perception surveys with pedestrians Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • Research carried out in Glasgow, UK Visiting researcher (CAPES) at Glasgow Caledonian University (2010-2011)  Simulation studies (microclimate) Buchanan Street Nile Street Bath Street X (m) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 Y(m) 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 195 205 215 <Left foot> Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • CURRENT PROJECTS  MSc student 1: analysis of albedo modification under subtropical conditions (effect on microclimate and on indoor thermal conditions/HVAC use in commercial buildings) – simulation study Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  •  PhD student 1: simulation studies on urban microclimate with a focus on the use of vegetation and urban parks Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger CURRENT PROJECTS
  •  Simulation studies (microclimate) (Minella –ongoing) Procedure adopted for the SOVALP Project in Geneva, Switzerland Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger CURRENT PROJECTS
  •  PhD student 2: analysis of the impact of densification and human health aspects  Lack of daylight  Hormone production – The PhD student will analyze the impact of solar exposure on health conditions (hormone levels) of dwellers living in high rise buildings and by doing so study the influence of aspect ratios and street axis orientation on overall health conditions in residential buildings. This will be carried out firstly in Curitiba, Brazil, by means of field observations (data loggers, actimeters, collection of saliva samples – Salivette® kits). A follow-up study and the data analysis could be carried out at Kent State University. Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger CURRENT PROJECTS
  • CONCLUSIONS - TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION  Field measurements and surveys (street user’s thermal perception) as an aid to UHI analyses and as relevant database for calibrating and verifying existing comfort indices  Physical modelling : applicable under certain conditions  Simulation studies : important tool for checking daylighting potentials and solar accessibibility, somewhat limited yet with regard to urban microclimate modelling  Need for Establishing linkages between urban form and observed effects!!! Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • CONCLUSIONS - TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION  How to incorporate findings in master plans and urban design guidelines? How to promote a broader involvement of researchers in urban planning initiatives?  What possible lessons could be learnt from vernacular and/or innovative experiences in climate responsive urban design?  What consequences can be expected in indoor spaces from urban modifications (with implications on indoor thermal, lighting, air quality aspects and HVAC in buildings)? Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger RESEARCH:  Start/maintain research collaborations (Germany, UK, Brazil, US)  Start collaborative work with researchers at Kent State  Energy, Sustainability and the Environment research group  Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative (CUDC) (Possible research initiatives)  OPV integration in cities  Climate change research  Urban ecology/urban climatology  Solar passive systems (community participation)  Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative (CUDC) TEACHING:  Promote students’ involvement at Kent State (active learning, design studios, supervisions) – undergraduate and graduate students  Search for funding possibilities (State of Ohio’s Third Frontier Program, Humboldt Foundation, Brazilian “Science without Borders” program with students’ exchange and research fellowships)
  • FUTURE PERSPECTIVES (ongoing publications) Journal papers in ellaboration: • Johansson E, Emmanuel R, Thorsson S, Krüger EL. Instruments and methods in outdoor thermal comfort studies. The need for standardization. (invited paper for ‘Urban Climate’ journal) • Krüger EL, Matzarakis A, Minella FO, Emmanuel R. Analysis of different input data for assessing mean radiant temperature as relevant human-biometeorological factor in thermal comfort issues. (to be submitted to Theoretical and Applied Climatology) • Krüger EL, Fritoli CL. Analysis of paper decay rates in libraries under subtropical conditions. (to be submitted to Building and Environment) • Krüger EL, Suzuki EV, Rossi FA. Atmospheric stability effects on Urban Heat Island in a Subtropical location. (to be submitted to Theoretical and Applied Climatology) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • FUTURE PERSPECTIVES (ongoing publications) Conference papers in ellaboration (for PLEA 2013 – 29th Conference, Sustainable Architecture for a Renewable Future, Munich, Germany 10-12 September 2013) • Krüger EL, Broede P. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL URBAN MORPHOLOGY AND PREDICTED THERMAL PERCEPTION USING THE UNIVERSAL THERMAL CLIMATE INDEX UTCI. • Krüger EL, Matzarakis A, Minella FO, Emmanuel R. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT METHODS TO ASSESS THE MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE IN RAYMAN. • Krüger EL, Suzuki EV. ANALYZING THE OUTPUT OF A TROMBE WALL SYSTEM IN SUBTROPICAL LOCATIONS. • Krüger EL, Fritoli CL. ANALYSIS OF PAPER DECAY RATES IN A SUBTROPICAL LOCATION. • Minella FO, Krüger EL. USING COMPUTER SIMULATIONS FOR ASSESSING MICROCLIMATIC IMPACTS OF URBAN INTERVENTIONS. Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger
  • List of Publications (related to this presentation) Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger Journal papers (peer-reviewed) Bröde P, Krüger EL, Dusan F.”UTCI in practical application to the assessment of urban outdoor thermal comfort.” Geographia Polonica (in press). Krüger EL, Drach P, Emmanuel R, Corbella, O. 2012 “Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK”. International Journal of Biometeorology, DOI: 10.1007/s00484-012-0578-y (online version, in press). Krüger EL, Drach P, Emmanuel R, Corbella, O. 2012 “Urban heat island and differences in outdoor comfort levels in Glasgow, UK”. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-012-0724-9 (online version, in press). Emmanuel R, Krüger EL. 2012 “Urban heat island and its impact on climate change resilience in a shrinking city: The case of Glasgow, UK”. Building and Environment, v. 53, p. 137-149. Krüger, EL, Rossi FA. 2011 “Effect of personal and microclimatic variables on observed thermal sensation from a field study in southern Brazil”. Building and Environment , v. 46, p. 690-697. Bröde P, Krüger EL, Rossi FA, Dusan F. 2012 “Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI a case study in Southern Brazil”. International Journal of Biometeorology: Volume 56, Issue 3 (2012), Page 471-480. Krüger EL, Minella FO, Rasia F, 2010 “Impact of urban geometry on outdoor thermal comfort and air quality from field measurements in Curitiba, Brazil” . Building and Environment 46 (3): 621-634. Krüger EL, Pearlmutter D, Rasia F, 2009 “Evaluating the Impact of Canyon Geometry and Orientation on Cooling Loads in a High-Mass Building in a Hot Dry Environment”, Applied Energy, 87(6): 2068-2078. Krüger EL, Suga M, 2009 “Thermal and daylighting evaluation of the effect of varying aspect ratios in urban canyons in Curitiba, Brazil”, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy 1, 033108 (2009); doi:10.1063/1.3153900. Suga M, Krüger EL 2009 “Recommendations of Height Restrictions for Urban Canyons in Curitiba, Brazil” Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering 8: 1- 6. Pearlmutter D, Krüger EL, Berliner P, 2009 “The role of evaporation in the energy balance of an open-air scaled urban surface”, International Journal of Climatology 29(6): 911-920. Krüger EL, Pearlmutter D, 2008 “The effect of urban evaporation on building energy demand in an arid environment”, Energy and Buildings 40(11): 2090-2098. Krüger EL, Givoni B, 2008 “Thermal monitoring and indoor temperature predictions in a passive solar building in an arid environment” Building and Environment 43(11): 1792-1804. Krüger EL, 2007 “Local air temperature data, predicted energy consumption, and land use patterns” Clean Air Journal 8: 109-123., DOI: 10.1615/InterJEnerCleanEnv.v8.i2.20. Krüger EL, Givoni B, 2007 “Outdoor measurements and temperature comparisons of seven monitoring stations” Building and Environment 42(4): 1685-1698.
  • Thanks for listening! ekruger@utfpr.edu.br Kent State University College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) Applicant: Dr.-Ing. Eduardo L. Krüger