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7958158 geminiani-art-of-playing-the-violin
7958158 geminiani-art-of-playing-the-violin
7958158 geminiani-art-of-playing-the-violin
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  • 1. FRANCESCO G E M I N I A N I THE ART O F PLAYING ON THE VIOLIN Facsimile Edition Edited, with an Introduction, by DAVID D. BOYDEN OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRES Music Department, 44 Conduit Street, London, W. I
  • 2. CONTENTS E D I T O R ' S I N T R O D U C T 1O N : the historical and technical importance of The Art o Playing on the Violin; the violin treatises of Geminiani; notes on the facsimile. f T H E FACSIMILE T I T L EA G E P PREFACE T E X T R E X A M P L E1SX X I V FO M u s ~ F O R E X A M P L E SX X I V c 1(The text is printed, paged 1-9, without any music examples. Then follow al1 the music examples, which, although csming directly after 9 pages of text, are paged 1-33. Thus pages 1-9 occur twice without distinction. The general topic common to each text example and to its corresponding music example is listed below. The page of the music example is given first; the page of the text example follows it in parentheses.) (EXAMPLE) The fingerboard. The 'Geminiani' grip. The seven 'orders' (positions of the hand). Different ways of stopping the same note Scales involving shifts of the hand. 13 scales both diatonic and chromatic. 4 diatonic scales transposed. 9 transposed scales, diatonic and chromatic. IV 4 diatonic scales transposed; different shifts. V 6 transposed scales, diatonic and chromatic. VI 14 scales using al1 diatonic intervals (2-10). VI1 VI11 20 scales for playing in time and tune. 16 variations for bowing, time, intonation, and exccution. IX Scales involving modulation and shifts of the hand. X Example X transposed and witli a different accompaniment. XI XII Shifting and bowing. XIII 'An 'affecting Discourse'. XIV 14 fast major and minor scales. The 7 positions used successively. XV XVI Different manners of bowing 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 notes. XVII Another example. XVIII 14 ornaments of expression. XIX Applied to a single (Adagio) note. _ Bowings proper to different tcmpi nnd note values. XX XXI Arpeggios of 3 and 4 notes. XXII Al1 double stops, unison to octave. XXIII Scales of double stops. XXIV Bowing exercise on open strings. ESSEMPIO IA IB IC ID IE 11 111 C O M P O S I T I O N1S X I I - v-xii
  • 3. 1 INTRODUCTION T H E followiiig pages reproduce in facsim'le a farnous violin method, Geminiani's The &oi Pluying on the Violin (Op. IX, London, 1751). First published just 200 years ago, Gerniiliani's treatise has for years been virtually irnpossible to obtain in an original edition, and while certain passages have been quoted again and again, the whole work has been read and studied relatively little in recent times. Arnong other reasons, Gerniiliaili's work has been ileglected because it describes a technique quite different frorn that of the present. T h e publication of this facsirnile and the recently published English translations of such treatises as those of Leopold Mozart and C. P. E. Bach may be attributed directly to an awakened interest in the dctails of eighteenth-century performance necessary to reproduce the sound of the rnusic approxirnately as the cornposer intended. But onc rnust never forget that the instructions given in eighteenth-century treatises are often rneaningless or rnisleading when studied apatt frorn the, instrurnents o'the time. In particular, the following facsirnile will rcrnain prirnarily a work of archaeological interest unless it is studied and practised by violinists who have taken the trouble to secure instruments and bows reconstructed according to conditions prevailing in the rnid-eighteenth century (cf. footnote 2, p. vii). T h e farne of this violin tutor rests not only on its historical position in violin playing but on thc inherent value of its contents and on th'e occasional cloquence of its language. The claini that Geminiani's book is the first violin rnethod has long since becn abandoned, but it is none the less one of the first mature expositions of violin playing. Within the scope of its relatively few pages is covered quite cornpletely the technical groundwork necessary to cope ' with alrnost any violinistic problern of its time except those posed by certain special effects and by rnusic requiring an exceptional virtuosity such as the 1,ocatelli Caprices. Geminiani's treatise clearly shows the Italian origin of its contents (cf. Notes concerning thg Facsimile, p. xii, note 4), and at the same time illuminates the considerable difference between the violin schools of France and Italy with respect to aesthetic ideas pnd technique, a difference that is part of the larger and recurrent struggle of French, and Italian music in the eighteenth ceiltury. The early French violin school exhibited a prosounced interest in dance music and a strong descriptive tendency. I n fact, the technical progress of French violin playing throughout the entire seventeenth century was impeded by thr natural lirnitations of dance music and by the notion that music was good only in proportion as it portrayed something. T h e abstract idea of the Italian sonata Ras at first incomprehensible and foreign to the French. It was not until after 1750 that French aestheticians generally conceded that music need not necessarily represent anything in con- e crete terms. However, during the early ycars of the century some French composers tacitly admitted tlic validity of thc Italian sonata by irnitating it, for about 1720 a strong school of French 'sonatistes' appeared (e.g. Leclair). Thus by, 1751, when Gerniniani published his treatise, the rivalry between the French and Italian violin schools was somewhat less pronounced. Even so, a residue of earlier anta&onism may be observed in c e r t a i l o f y , ~ g ~ ~ k " s . T T % F point 1s his 1n e o n to the so-called ' ~ u l of Down Bow', codified e b;-the French prirnarily for the correct bowing of dance rnusic. This rule states in effect that the first note of every , rneasure-or more generally, every rrietric$lly accented beat or part of a beat as far as the ternpo perrnits-should be played down bow. Strictly applied, this rule often results in consecutive down or up bows. Gerniniani's attitude towards such rational but restric'tive discipline is one of furious impatipce. I n Exarnple VI11 he instructs the pupil to bow the rnusic with alternate up and down bows 'taking Care not to follow that wretched Rule of drawing the Bow down at the first Note of every Bar'. Gerniiliani also opposes the French tendency towards the idea of irnitation in its rnost descriptive sense when he inveighs against 'irnitating the Cock, Cuckoo, Owl, and other Birds; or the Drurn, French Horn, Tromba-Marina, and the like'. Neverthcless, an irnitation of a more musical and less naive kind is irnplicit in severa1 passages. He considers the perfect tone on the violin that which rivals thc . 'rnost perfect h u m ~ y d Irnitation of spcech and ora-----" tory i m h e n he says with respect to piano and < X C. ~ p L* I. , ~ l = ? " s --- --.- >ecialsi~nificance Geminiani's insistence on the is " role of emotional e x p r e s s k . His method contains irnexpressive style of playing the portant Gnts-con-&e violin in the first part of the eighteenth century. Gerniniani's expressive attitude permeates his remarks on certain ornaments and bow strokes as well as his whole general view of music. It is striking that Geminiani achieves an irnpressive eloquence, quite rare in violin treatises, largely in those passages concerning the ernotional character of performance. For example, in the closing part of his description of the vibrato ('Close Shake') occur these remarkable words : 1 would besides advise, as well the Composer as the Performer, who is ambitious to inspire his Audience, to be first inspired himself; which he cannot fail to be if he chuses a Work of Genius, if he rnakes himself thoroughly acquaintcd with al1 its Beauties; and if while his Imagination is warm and glowing he pours the same exalted Spirit into his own Performance. (Example XVIII, 14th section.) 1
  • 4. vi THE ART OF PLAYIN G ON THE VIOLIN In Geminiani's eyes the technique of playing the violin was inseparable from the expressive intention of any particular piece of music. Different manners of playing the same passage are linked to different types of emotional expression (Le. the 'Affect'). His instructions with respect to the mordent ('Beat') begin 'This is proper to express several Passions'; and these passions, ranging from rnirth to horror, depend for their expression on the manner of performing the mordent. - A similar range of emotions may be noted in his description of the manner of performing the vibrato, in itself one of the most expressive devices of violin playing. Geminiani's attitude towards the vibrato is prophetic of the future. For the first time in the violin treatises there occurs in his works a reference to some kind of continuous vibrato: 'when it [the vibrato] is made on short Notes, it oniy contributes to make their Sound more agreable [sic] and for this Reason it should be made use of as often as possiU,<. Severa1 years earlier in his Rules for P G i n True Taste (Op. VIII), Geminiani not only makes the same remark, but emphasizes it by djstinguishing between the incipient continuous vibrato, recomrnended for the violin, and the vibrato as a specific ornament which he finds more appropriate to the German flute. The vibrato of the latter, says Geminiani, 'must oniy be made on long Notes'. Thus with Geminiani the violin vibrato as a s~ecificand occasional ornament is replaced by what is in principle the continuous vibrato. A considerable latitude of expression is indicated aiso in the discussion of other technicai matters. Of the nurnerous and varied bowings (cf. Example XX), none of the 'plain' bowings of individual notes, with thc exception of semiquavers in Allegro, is considered good. It is the bowings with nuance and those with slurrings or mixtures of bow: ings that are superior. Geminiani's discussion of the, appoggiatura, made indisputably clear by specific signs, shows that his normal concept of its performance was one of nuance from the appogiatura t i its main note. The length of this ornament is related to its 'Affect'. Herlearly prefers an appoggiatura of unusual length which is 'supposed to express Love, Affection, Pleasure, etc.'. He allows for the short appoggiatura but 'it will lose much of the aforesaid Qualities'. Geminiani's expressive ideas are not unique among violinists of the time; on the contrary, they were probably quite prevalent, especiaily among the Italians. I n spite of the mysterious scarcity of Italian violin methods before 1750, other accounts of rnusicians, theofists, and aestheticians clearly suggest that the true rnanner of performing the music is submerged beneath the bare surface of the printed notes of the scores. The performing artist was expected to exert his imagination not oniy in an expressive performance 'according to the intentions of the composer' but also in improvising within the framework of the printed notes of the composition itself, especially in Adagio movements. Corelli is a case in point. The notes of his printed scores suggest a dignified, simple, even, austere musif and a similar performance. But there is contemporary evidence that Corelli played his Adagios in a highly florid manner quite different from the printed notes, and that his manner of performance was a passionate one. The florid versions of the Adagios of Corelli's solo sonatas 'as he played them' were published in Amsterdam during his lifetime, and while their authenticity has been challenged, Pincherle in his book Corelli (1933) has demonstrated convincingly their probable genuineness. A vivid picture of Corelli as a performer is drawn by a contemporary :' 1 1never met with any man that suffered his passions to hurry him away so much whiist playing on the violin as the famous Arcangelo Corelli, whose eyes will sometimes turn as red as fire; bis countenance wiii be distorted, his eyeballs rol1 as in agony, and he gives in so much to what he is doing that he doth not look like the same man. It is in the sense of expressive performance as much as in the sense of technique that Geminiani preserves and furthers the Corelli tradition. In a broader sense, it is probable that The Art o Playing on the Violin of 1751 f furnishes the key to the expressive and technical performance of Itaiian violin music of the first part of the eighteenth century. Nevertheless, Geminiani exhibits a cautious sobriety towards'-ifnprovisation when he says 'playing in goocd Taste dothnot consist offrequent Passages [i.e. florid improvisation], but in expressing with Strength and Delicacy the Intention of the Composer'; and later, 'were we to make Beats [mordents] and Shakes [triils] continuaily without sometimes suffering the pure Note to be heard, the Melody would be too much diversified'. But this is simply a warning against excess of established practice, for Geminiani and others left examples of their embellishment of certain fast as well as slow movements of Coreili's w o r k ~ . ~ Compared to Leopold Mozart's Vmsuch einer gnindlichen Violinrchule, which appeared in 1756, Geminiani's treatise looks primarily to the past. Udike Leopold Mozart, Geminiani makes no mention of certain matters which are related to the technicai equipment of later violinists, for exarnple, consecutive trills, and trills in thirds and even sixths. He says nothing of harmonics (also disliked by Leopold Mozart), or of preserving the same tone colour throughout a passage by using the higher positions on one string. While extensive, Geminiani's varieties of bowing, their execution, and the types of bowings indicated by dots and vertical strokes cannot be compared with their treatment in Leopold Mozart's book. ' Franqois Raguenet, ParallBle des Ifaliens er des Fran~ais,1702; English translation and footnotes attributed to J. E. Galliard, 1709. The Mirsical Quarferly for July 1946 reprinted the English translation (cf. P. 419). Geminiani's beautiful ornamented version of an entire sonata of Corelli (Op. V, no. g) is printed in Sir John Hawluns's A General History o j the Science and i'racr~ce o j Music (reprinted, London, Novello, Ewer & Co., 1875)~ vol. u, pp. 9047. f 1" '
  • 5. vii THE ART O F P L A Y I N G O N THE V I O L I N Geminiani's manner of holding the violin is also relativcly old-fashioned. Although the French edition of 1752 shows a violinist (Geminiani?) holding the violin under the chin, approximately in the centre over the tail-piece (string holder), this manner of holding the instrument is not that.desc;ibed either in the French or in the English text both of which recommend holding the violin a; the collar-bone. Neither text says anything about holding the violin under the chin at the left side of the tail-piece,. as is . often claimed. By way of contrast, Leopold Mozart says that collar-bone position looks well but is insecure for the player; his preferred method is that of holding the violin ' under the chin at the right side of the tail-piece. The modern way of holding the violin under the chin at the left side of the tail-piece is advocated, apparently for the first timc, by L'Abbé le Fils (J. Saint-Sévin) in his Principes du violon (1761). T o be sure, theGerman translation of Geminiani's treatise tells the violinist to hold the instrument 'between the collarbone and the jawbone' with the chin 'at the right and not at the left side'if the stringholder'. But this translation could not have been issued before 1789 (see footnote 2, p. x), more than twenty years after Geminiani's death in 1762.' However, in view of the technical demands of the vibrato and of shifting, which in his examples require occasional awkward and large movements of the hand, Geminiani must have had an extrao . ~.* . -e , . h ~ *<: l & olici-f&ity in h -.and index finger; perhaps E l a p s e d o c c ~ a i r into the y position shown in the frontispiece of the French edition of 1752, reproduced on the cover of this book. Geminiani advocates the typical Italian bow grip of the first part ofthe eighteenth century. The French grip, which gradually became obsolete after 1725, placed the thumb under the hair of the bow with three fingers on the stick and the little finger sometimes bracing on the player's side of the stick. In contradistinction, Geminiani grasped the bow with the four fingers and the thumb, which was inserted between the bow stick and the hair. According, to his teit, the bow is 'to be held at a small distance from the nut [frog]', but the frontispiece of the French edition shows the hand at a considerable distance from the nut of the bow. Strength of tone comes from pressure by the index finger which, in the frontispiece at least, grasps the bow at the first joint. Although Geminiani's bow grip is 'modern' compared to the French grip, it is not that of the advanced school. For the latter one must look to Leopold Mozart, who describes a firmer grip in which thk bow stick is grasped 'at its lowest extremity between the thumb and the middle joint of the index finger, or even a little behind it'. As Mozart says, this grip permits a more robust tone, an ideal which is that of a later time. Another traditional feature of Geminiani's method is his inclusion of the fingerboard 'for learners' (Example IA). His information on the intonation s$tem is also more proper to the past in that in enharmonic pairs of notes he indicates such notes as G sharp lower in pitch than A flay (cf. Examples 11 and IV). B~ way of paradox, these edharmonic distinctions may possibly account for Geminiani's 'advanced' chromatic fingerings, discussed below, Viewed against the whole panora-ma of violin technique in the eighteenth century,' Geminiani's horizon is relatively limited, but on occasions his imaginative and inventive mind intuitively foresaw the future. He appreciated the inherent expressive possibilities of the continuous vibrato. By a single simple illustration, later known as the 'Geminiani' grip (see Example IB), Geminiani clarified and standardized for each individual player the correct position of the fingers of the left hand on the fingerboard of the violin. Significantly, L_EoO__Mozart =., adopts Geminiani's g r i e n the second edition of his~Z7i%I;u"te", ' ( 1 ~ 6 ~ - ~ 0 )l ; t h r , u m ~ e " t * f m tbe first (1756). a Geminiani's instructions with respect to fingering each note of chromatic passages with a separate finger was so far in advance of his time that this fingering had to be rediscovered in the twentieth century by Joseph Achron and expounded by Carl Flesch. í i Some of Geminiani's information is less revolutionary in implication, but it rekects relatively advanced practices. In his text and musical examples, Geminiani indicates seven playing positions of the hand ('orders'). Of particular interest is the example illustrating double stops that necessitates the use of the seven 'orders' on al1four strings. In his twelve compositions, however, Geminiani is somewhat more conservative. . Geminiani's invention and experimental attitude are shown in his fingerings for shifts, The various fingerings which are used to shift from one position to another appear to aim at presenting every pos'sible solution. The result of such systematic completeness is a bewildering confusion of choice. If any single dominating principle can be observed among the numerous fingerings for shifts, it is that the number of shifts is reduced by favouring shifts involving larger movements of the hand (e.g. fingerings I 2 3, I 2 3; or I 2 3 4, I 2 3 4). Geminiani includes but does not emphasize fingerings that are more 'modern' in that they involve smaller movements of the hand in the interest of greater legato and better intonation. The same kind of systematic completeness may be ' The date of Geminiani's death is firmly established, but the date of his birth has been the subject of much speculation. In 1934 the late Adolfo Betti finally showed beyond reasonable doubt that Geminiani Gontniani (Stabilimento was born in 1687. Sce Adolfo Betti, Frai~cesco grafico, A. M . Amedei, Lucca, 1g34), p. 9. Betti's larger work on Geminiani (La Vira e I'arre di Francesco Gemiriiali~) was announced for publication in 1933 but ir never appeared. T h e whole chronology of Geminiani's life should be re-examined. ' For background details, including those of the eighteenth-century violin and bow, see David D . Boyden, 'The Violin and its Technique in the 18th Century' (in The Musical Qua~tellyfor Jan. 1950). For a modern reconstruction of violin and bow according to eighteenthcentury playing conditions, sec Sol Babitz, 'Telltale Marks on Old Violins' (The Erude for Aug. 1951). For intonation systems, see David D. Boyden, 'Prelleur, Geminiani, and Just Intonation' (The Journal o rhe A~nertcanMusicological Soclety, Fall, 1951). f -- N rC -4WL-m d.-.II.C -
  • 6. ... vlll T H E ART O F P L A Y I N G O N T H E V I O L I N observed in his scales, in broken scales including skips over a string, and particularly in the variety ofhis fingerings for double stops. He gives al1 the possible double stops up to and including the octave (Example XXII) and including those unisons that require a whole tone extension of the little finger. Parenthetically, it is significant with respect to the performance of triple and quadruple stops, that chords involving three and four notes are shown mainly as arpeggiated (Example XXI). * His bowing variants of set passages exhibit a surprising variety of strokes (Examples IX, XVI, and XVII). Geminiani's first bowing exercise on the open strings (Example XXIV) can be and is used profitably at the present day. But Gerniniani's attitude towards the desirabilityofcertain bow strokes and their execution is difficult to understand. His Example XX classifies the various bow strokes with such designations as 'good', 'bad', and 'middling'. On what grounds these distinctions are made is not clear beyond the fact that bow strokes of individual notes without nuance are generally considered mediocre. Even more puzzling is his attitude towards the staccato in which 'the bow is taken off the strings at every note'. The use of this stroke is considered 'good' only for a series of staccato quaver notes in Allegro and Presto; al1 other examples of the staccato are labelled 'bad' or 'particular'. Strangest of all, Geminiani makes no provision whatever for detached strokes played on the string, the normal violin staccato of the eighteenth- century. Can it be that the latter is lurking under Gerniniani's sign (/) which indicates that 'the notes are to be play'd Plain and the Bow is not to be taken off the Strings'? If so, Geminiani admits no 'plain' legato stroke. Finally, Geminiani considers dots over notes under slurs 'particular', but in his text he does not even mention this bowing or its execution. A remark of some interest concludes his text on bowing. He warns against marking time with the bow, and says 'in playing Divisions, if by your Manner of Bowing you lay a particular Stress on the Note at the beginning of every Bar, so as to render it predominant over the rest, you alter and spoil the true Air of the Piece, and except where the Composer intended it, and where it is always marked, there are*very few Instances in which it is not very disagreeable'. Geminiani is exceptional in his protest against metrical accent, the use of which was commoniy recornrnended in treatises of the time. In presenting the material, Geminiani's text sets forth almost too briefly the basic information, illustrated by long music examples and complete pieces whose execution Geminiani leaves largely to the student. In using Gerniniani's work most violin pupils would need a good teacher without whom the problem of applying the basic principles of the text to the lengthy examples and the music would be too great for the average student's persistence and imagination. Geminiani's work has the important virtue of The most thorough discussion of Geminiani's music may be found i Marion E. McArtor's Francesco Geminiani Composer and Theorisr n a carefully ordered subject-matter that taken as a whole is systematic and relatively complete for his time. But it is unfortunate that his treatise suffers from a text that is inadequate in its explanation of the technical possibilities suggested by the music and particularly by the examples. As a result, Geminiani's treatise cannot be appreciated by a reading of the text alone. The latter by itself conceals the true technical magnitude of the work as a whole. The text comrnents not at al1 upon the great variety of fingerings for shifts indicated in the examples. Extensions of the h g e r s are required in the examples of double stops, but the text says nothing about them. The same is true concerning mysterious contractions of the hand (e.g. fingerings I 3 4 or I 2 4 on successive chromatic half-steps), apparently to facilitate shifting to lower positions, perhaps necessary when the violin is held at the coliar-bone without the firmness of chin support. The same paucity nr total lack of textual explanation may be noted with respect to certain technical problems inherent in numerous passages in the examples : fingering changes within single notes of double stops, the use of the modern half-position + hgering, use of the open string, and the surprising range of modulation in Example XV. While much must be inferred from the examples and the music, the text is sometimes quite explicit. His detailed explanation of the use of the wrist, arm, and shoulder, and their use in the bow strokes at different tempi is a model of clarity and conciseness. Gerniniani is also sometimes explicit about pedagogy. He appreciated the beginner's problem of co-ordinating the complicated physical movements of the right and left hand, and with this in mind, he recommends that the dficulties of the left hand bc practised first and separately, deferring the bowing problem until Example VII. In certain ways Gerniniani's text has the virtue of its defects. Geminiani must have realized that the very lack of concrete and mechanistic detail would force students to a healthy exercise of imagination and self-reliance in performing the examples and the music. Interpreted in this light, his text contains frequent instances of laconic and masterly understatement. Concerniag his double-stop example (XXII) Geminiani says, 'Those who, with Quickness and Exactness, shall execute this Example, will find themselves far advanced in thc Art of playing double Stops'. The same attitude may be observed in Geminiani's brief remark about the twelve pieces wliich follow the examples. He says, '1 have not given any Directions for performing them; because 1 think the Learner will not need any, the foregoing Rules and Examples being sufficient to qualify hirn to perform any Musick whatsoever'. The music given in Geminiani's treatise suggests that many current notions about him are based more on the random and casual evidence ofthe eighteenthcentury than on an examination of his music.' A want of invention is (unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1951).
  • 7. T H E ART OF P L A Y I N G ON T H E V I O L I N - ix There are occasional rich harmonic effects. Besides the not evident either in his musical materials nor in the variety of types of pieces given in the following facsimile. chromatic passages in the melodic line, certain altered there are 'twelve Pieces As Geminiani says in his ~reface, chords, for instance the Neapolitan-sixth chord and more in iiifferent Sfiles'. Among them are pieces in slow rarely the augmented-sixth chord, are used with telling 'pathetic' style full of expressive nuance. Severa1 of the effect. pieces are dances; and although they are not labelled as With the exception of two or three sectional dance such, one may recognize readily enough a Corrente, a pieces, the compositions given here have a continuous flow Gigue, and a Gavotte (Composition VIII). The latter is intimately connected with their highly integrated forms. really a Gavotte en rondeau, of which the Gavotte proper Some of these are contrapuntal or quasi-fugal. Others are is iiistinguished by a chromatic descending bass. Of the composed of melodic materials that are not sharply conseveral quasi-fuga1 pieces, the best is Composition XII, trasted in character and that form a continuum which mollelled on the fugues in Corelli's solo violin sonatas appears to be constructed out of music naturally evolving (Op. V). Compared to Corelli's fugues, Geminiani's fugue from itself. But, as in the case of J. S. Bach, one does not sense a monotony from this closely related material. Bemr>fe"dr"n-a=eX3iGdqíkETEf sides, the contrast of the underlying changes of key, which concerto character specializing in scales and in figures do not necessarily coincide with changes of melodic peculiar to the violin. Unlike Corelli's sonatas, the pieces material, contributes a subtle variety. It is noticeable that of Geminiani are al1 in one movement. Still, it is possible the new key is introduced strikingly soon after the first that Geminiani's three successive pieces eachin B minor statement. The opening and closing tonic sections are (IX, X, XI) are intended to comprise a single sonata da quite brief; the middle sections of these pieces are devoted chiesa. as a rule to modulation through severa1 closely related keys. , The slow pieces are primarily expressive in character, These compositions, rooted in the continuity of counterbut the fast pieces exhibit considerable boldness and point and in figured-bass harmony, can be regarded as dramatic power. T o the usual violin resources of arpegmature expressions of Baroque music. They have much giatcd figures played across or skipping strings, Geminiani less relation to the Classic sonata of the later eighteenth adds figures abruptly contrasting the high and low regiscentury. I n this sense of working within the mould of the ters of the violin, as well as special bowings which involve past, Geminiani is a conservative in his music as well as syilcopations, chromatic sequences, and even those bowin his exposition of violin technique. ings that use vertical strokes and dots under slurs. But historical criticism of this sort must not be con?'he prominent role of the continuo itself is a considerstrued as a qualitative judgement. If the perfection of anyable factor in the dramatic effect of some of these pieces. thing depends on the degree fÓ which worth-while ideas 'Tbt continuo is frequently of true obligato character and find their most appropriate formal expression, Geminiani's sometimes rivals in interest the solo part itself. In Commusic and technical information contained in his violin position V in particular the high register of the violoncello treatise deserve high praise. Geminiani, if not a genius, (exprcssly designated) is exploited, and its occasional was more than a maq of talent. His true stature has been penetration into the violin register, where it sometimes obscured for years by the faint praise of Burney and momentarily sounds aboye the violin, shows Geminiani's Hawkins and by unreliable eighteenth-century anecdotes. interest in instrumental colour and sonority. In the fuga1 But in the facsimile that follows Geminiani may speak for pieces, 'the continuo shares in the imitation, although as himself through the text, examples, and music of The Art a rule it reinforces the lower note of the double stops in o Playing on the Violin. f the solo violin. The interest attached to the continuo is implied by the fact that dynamic markings are given for the continuo, a quite unusual practice. Besides the dynamic indications in the continuo, certain T H E VIOLIN TREATISES OF special effects are suggested by Geminiani's distinctive use GEMINIANI of piano and forte. In addition to the usual echo effect of repeating a passage softly, Geminiani expressly indicates THE violin treatises attributed to Geminiani are remarkat times that passages are to be played continuously loud ably numerous. T o this fact and to their protean powers or continuously soft. For instance, Composition IV has a of change and reproduction may be ascribed the present forte expressly marked over the first note of seven succesincredible confusion concerning their dates and contents. sive measures, apparently to emphasize the chromatic proThe impressive number of 'Geminiani' violin methods gression of the harmony. Consecutive use of piano occurs comprises (1) those works indisputably genuine, their also. An even more curious dynamic marking is indicated translations and edited verqions; (2) those anonymous in Composition IX where three short phrases in stepwise works attributed to him and appearing during his lifetime; ascending sequence are marked p, non tanto, for., appaand (3) those post&umous works that rightly or wrongly rently meaning piano, tnezzóforte, forte-or perhaps even bear his name, and that are based largely on the anonya continuous crescendo. mous methods just mentioned. - 7 1
  • 8. P R E F A C E . T H E Intention of Mufick is not only to pleafe the Bar, but to expreíi Sentimeiits, itrike the Imagination, affeQ the Mind, and command the Pafions. The Art of playing the Violin coniiits in giving that Initrument a Tone that hall in a Manner rival the mof perfe& human Voice ; and in executing every Piece with ExaQneE, Propriety, and Delicacy of Exprefion according to the true Intention of Muíick. But as the imitating the C O C ~ , Cuckoo, Owl, and other Birds ; or the Drum, Frencli Horn, Tromba-Marina, and the like ; and alio fudden Shifts of the Hand from one Extremity of the Finger-board to the other, accompanied with Contortions of the Head and Body, and al1 other iuch Tricks rather belong to the Profeffors of Legerdemain and Poiture-mafters than to the Art -of Mufick, the Lovers of that Art are not to expeQ to find any rhing of that Sort in this Book. But 1 flatter myielf they will find in it whatcver is NeceíXary for the Infiitution of a juf and regular Performer on the Violin. This Book will alio be of Ufe to Perfonners on the Violoncello, and in fome Sort to thoie who begin to f u d y the Art of Compofition. After the ieveral Examplcs, 1 have added twelve Pieces in different Stiles for a Violin aiid Violoncello with a thorough Bafs for thc Harpiichord. 1 have not given any DireQions for the performing them ; becaufe I think the Learner will not iieed any, the foregoing Rules and Examples beiiig iufficient to qualify hiin to perform any Mufick whatioever. 1 have nothing farther to add, but to beg tlie Favour of al1 Lovers of Mufick to receive thisBook with the iarne Candour that it is oKered to them, by their M@ obedient humbk Servalzt, F. G. A Repreients the Finger-board of a Violin, on which are marked al1 thc Toiies and Semitones, within the Compaíi of that Initrument, according to the Diatonick Scale; they are 23 in Number, vix. three OQaves and a Tone ; and in every O&ave of tlle Dlatonick Scale there are five Tones and two of the greater Semitones. 1 would recommeiid it to rhe Learner, to have the Finger-board of his Violin marked in the fame Manner, wliich wl greatly facilitate his leariling to itop in Tune. il i ( 1 B íhews a Method of acquiring the true Pofition of the Hand, which is this : To place &e firR Finger oii the firf String upon F ; the iecond Finger on tlie fecond Stnng upon C ; the third Finger on the third String upon G ; and the fourth Finger on the fourth String upon D. This muit be done without raifing any of the Fingers, ti11 al1 four have been fer down ; but aftcr that, they are to be raiied but a little Diitance from the String they touched ; and by io doing the Poiition is perfe&. The Violin muit be reited juf below +e Collar-bone, tuming the right-hand Side of tlie Violin a litde downwards, T that there may be no Necefity of raifing the Bow very high, o when the fourth String is to be itruck, Obierve i'i " ,: l l 1) :+-.,
  • 9. Czl 4' Obferve alfo, tliat tlie Head of the Violin mufi be nearly Horizontal with that Part which ieRs againfi the Breafi, that die Hand rnay be ihifted with Faciliv and without any Danger of dropping the Infirument. The Toiie of the Violin principally Depends upon the right Management of the Bow. T h e Bow is to be hcld at a fmall DiRance from the Nut, betweeii the Thumb and Fingen, the Hair being turned inward againfi the Back or Outíide of the Thumb, in which Pofition it is to be held free and eafy, and not RifX T h e Motion ir to proceed from the JointS of the Wrifi and Elbow in playing quick Notes, ud very little or not at al1 from &e Joint of the Shoulder ; but in playing long ~'tes, where the Bow ir drawn from one End of it to the other, the Joint of the Shoulder is alfo a litde employed. T h e Bow m& always be drawn parallei with the Bridge, (which can't be done if it is held fiiff) and muíl be preffed upoii the Strings with the Fore-fingcr only, and not with the whole Weight of the Hand. T h e beít Performers are leafi fparing of their Bow ; and make Uii of the whole of it, from the Point to that Part of it under, and even beyond their Fingers. In an Upbow the Hand is bent a little downward from the Joint of the Wrifi, when the Nut of the Bow approaches the Stririgs, and the Wriit is immediately fireightned, or the Hand rather a little bent back or upward, as fooii as the Bow is began to be drawn down again. One of the principal Beauties of the Violin is the iwelling or encreafing and íoftening the Sound ; which is done by prefing the Bow upon the Strings with the Fore-finger more or leL. In playing al1 long Notes the Sound ihould be begiin foft, and gradually fwelled tiu the Middle, and from thence gradually ioftened ti11 the End. And laitly, particular Care mufi be taken to draw the Bow fmooth from uiie End to the other without any Interruption or fiopping in the Middle. For on this principally, and the keeping it always parallel with the Bridge, and preliing it only with the Fore-fiiiger upon the Strings with Difcretion, depends the fine Tone of the InRrument. ( c. > C fhews the 7 Orders. What 1 mean by an Order is a certain Number of Notes which are to be played without tranipofing the Hand. The firfi Order contains 17 Notes, and thc other íix Orders contain no more than ftxteen. Under the Notes of the firfi Order you will find their Names, and over the fame Notes Figures denoting the Fingers with which they are to be fiopped, and the Strings on which they are ítopped. i t muit be obferved that between the two black Notes is the greater Semitone, and betwten the others is the Tone, T h e Mark (o) denotes an opeii String. From the firit Order you are to begin to play. 'Tis neceiTq to place the Fingers exactly upon the Marks that belong to the Notes ; for on this depends the itopping perfe&ly in Tune, After having been pra&iied in the firfi Order, you mufi paíi on to the fecond, and then to the third; in which Care is to be taken that the Thumb always remain farther back than the Fore-finger ; and the more you advance in the otber Orders the Thumb mu[t be at a greater DiPiance ti11 it remains almofi hid under the Ncck of the Violin. i t is a confiant Rule to keep the Fingers as k m as poflible, and not to raile t h m , tiu thm is a Necefity of doing it, to place them fomavhere elie ; and the Oblervance of this Rule will very much facilitate the playing double Stops. T h e fingering, indeed, requires an earnefi Application, and therefore it would be rnofi pudent to uiidertake it without the Ufe of the Bow, which you hould iiot meddlc wi.itb till you come to the 7th Example, in which will be found the n e c e h and proper M & & of uíing it. It
  • 10. C31 I t cannot be iuppofed but diat t l i s Ranice without the Bow is diiagrcable, Ciiice it gives no SatisfaBioii to tlie Ear ; but tlic Benefit wliich, iii Time, will arife from it, will be a Recoinpence more than adequatc to the Diiguit it may give. D fhews the digerent Ways of ito piiig the f m e Note, and diicovers at the fame Time, that Traifpofition of the Hand cod s in p&ng from one Order to another. R A fov -Zxample, s If a Note ought to be itopped by the fourth Finger on any String whatfoever, in the firlt Order, and the iame Note be itopped by the third Finger, it will pa6 into the fecond Order ; and if by the iecond Finger into the third; and conieqiieiitly by ltopping it with tlie firft, it enters iiito the fourth Order. On the coiitrary, if the firfi Finger itopping a i y Note whatioever falls under the fourth Order ; by ftopping the h e Note with the fecond Finger it paffes into the third ; by itopping the iame with the third, into the iecond ; and finally by itoppiiig tlie {ame with the fourth Finger it enters into the M. This is iufficient to fhew what Tranfpofition of the Hand is. 1 have only now to recommend a good Execution of the whole, both in riiing and falliiig ; and grea ing the Hand, as alio i ~ the placing the Fingers exaQly on the Marks. i Praaitioner mufi by Degrees acquire Quicknei's. E contains feveral different Scales, with the Tranipofitioiis of the Hand, which ought to be made both in rifing añd falling. It muit here be obierved, that in drawing back the Hand from the 5th, 4th and 3d Order to go to the firfc, che Thumb cannot, for Want of I Time, be replaced in its natural Pofition; but it is neceffary it fhould be replaced at the iecond Note. A Sharp ! ) raiies the Note .to which it is prefixed, a Semitone higlier; as for Example, when a Sharp is prefixed to C, the Finger mufi be placed iii the Middle between C and D, and io of the reit, except B aiid E; for when a Sharp is prefixed to eitlier of tliem, &e Finger muR be ~ l a c e d upon C and F. A Flat ( b ) on the Coiitrary renders tlie Note to which it is pefixed, a Semitone lower: As for Example, when a Flat is prefixed to B the Finger miiit be placed in the Middle between B and A, aiid fo of tlie Refi except F and C; for when a Flat is prefixed to eirher of them the Fiiiger niufi be placed upon E and B natural. This Rule concerning the Flats aiid Sharps is iiot abfolutely exaB ; but it is thc and beR Rule that can be given to a Learner. Tliis Mark ( ) takes away the Force of both the Sharp and the Flat and refiores the Note before which it is placed to its natural Qality. 1 # 1 r Example II. In This Example tliere are I 3 Scales, compofed of the Diatonick and Cromarick Genera. Many may, perhaps, imagine that theie Scales are meerly Cromatic, as they may not know that the Cromatic S d e muit be compofkd oiily of the greater and leffer Seinitones ; aiid that the OAave alfo mufi be devided into 1 2 Semitones, that is, 7 of the greater 2nd 5 of the leffer ; but the prefe~it1 3 Scales being compoied of Toiies and tlie greater 2nd leffer Semitones, aiid the O&ave containing 2 Tones, 5 of the greater Semitoiies and 3 of the leifer, I cal1 them mixt. Take 1
  • 11. ( 4 1 mor or Take notice that the Sign (ma) fignifies Major or greater, and the Sign (mi) M' leffer . The Poíition of the Fingers marked in the. firfi Scale (which is that commonly praaifed) is a faulty one ; for two Notes caiinot be fiopped lucceí?ively by the fame Finger without Difficulty, efpecially in quick Time. Example 1 1 1. Coiltains 4 Scales of the Dintonick Genus tranfpofed; and here, not to burthen the Mernory of the Beginner, al1 the Flats ( b ) inRead of being marked at the beginning of the S t a 6 are marked immediately before the Notes tvhich they belong to ; but their true Situation rnay be feen at the End of the Staff. Exomple IV. In this Example are contained 9 Scales tranfpofcd, and compofed of the Diatonick and Cromatit Genera;1 have ufed the fame Method of marking the Flats in the firfi eight Scales, and the Sharp in the ninth Scale, as in tke former Example. 'Tis neceirary in this Example to be very exaA in obferving the Difiance between one Note and another, as alfo the Poíition of the Fingers, and the Traníjoíition of the Hand. T h e Poíition of the Fingers iii the laR Scale is extreainly faulty and is fet dokvii mecrly by Way of Caution to the Learner to avoid it. The Scales iil this Example begin at the Mark (m) and are to be praaifed backward as well as fonvard. Example V . In this there are 4 Diatonick Scales tranfpofed, and with different Tranfpoíitions of the Hand. Let it be obferved that after you have pradifed them in afcending they íhould be pra&ifed alfo back again. ExampZe VI. This Example contains 6 Scales compofed both ofthe Diatozick and Cromatic tranfpofed. Obferve when the Sign ( x ) comes before C, your Finger mufi be put upon D ; and whcn the fame Sign is before F, the Finger muR be upon G. ExampZe VII. This contains 14 Scales, compofed of, al1 the Intervals which belong to the Diatonick Genus. Iii which are variety of Tranfpofitions of the Hand. 1 mufi here remind you to let the Fingers refi as firm as poirible on the String, in the Manner already mentioned. Thefe Scales ihould be executed with the Bow, aild it will be therefore neceffary to praaice for fome Days, al1 that is contained in the z4th ~ x a m ~ lin ,order not to confound the e Execution of the Fingers with that of the Bow. Example VIII. In this are contained 20 Scales in different Keys, very ufeful for acquiring Time and the fiopping in Tune. Here it muR be obferved, that you are to execute them by drawing the Bow down and up, or up and down alternately; taking Care not to follow that wretched Rule of drawiiig the Bow down at the firfi Note of every Bar. Example
  • 12. Example IX. In this Example are contained 16 Variitions, moR ufeful in Rcgard to Time, to the Bowing, the ílopping in Tune and the Execution. Again you mufi be careful to keep the Fiilgers as firm as poíEble on the Shings, and alfo in bowing employ the WriR much, the Arm but little, and the Shoulder not a t all. Example X. This Example is compofed of Scales mixt with various Paffages and Modulations, which are often repeatcd with different Tranfpofitions of the Hand ; and is calcuIated to reildei the Labour of Praaice more pleafant. Exae~mpleXI. This Example is tranfpofed from the other, a Tone higher, io that the Melody may be faid to be the lame, but the Accompanyment is quite different. Example XII. 1 1 order to execute this Compofition well, 'tis neceffary ta examine very frequently the 1 Tranfpoíitions of the Hand in -ir, until they are entirely impreffed on the Mind ; and then to praaice the 24th Example for acquiring the fiee Ufe of the Bow, and after proceed to execute this Example, which will be then found not lo difficult as it may at firR be thought, Example XIII. ' f 1 ' ', ,' 1 ' d ,- This Movement ought to be executed in h c h a Manner'as to refemble an affeaing Difcourle, and cannot be juRly performed without having firR well comprehended and often pra&ifed what is contained in the I 8 th Example. Example XIV. In this are contained 14 Scales; fome of which are compoied in Keys with a third Majar, and the others i Keys with a third Minor. Theie Scales ought to executed with Quicknefi, n and in order to execute them well, you mufi take Care to put in PraAice the Rules laid down in the I 2th Example. ! II Example XV. II This contains the 7 Orders already mentioned, which proceed one after another without concluding or making any Cadence. Here alfo is introduced the Cmtnatic Flat, ( b ) and the Crpmatic Sharp. ( ) T h e Sign ( A )iigiifies the laR Note of the Order, and the Sign ( I ) the f i ~ fNote of the hiccceding Order, upon which the Hand is to be traníjoled. i 1 am fenfible that the Modulation of thefe Orders is fomewhat harih, but however very ufehl; for a good Profeffor of rhe Violin'is obliged to execute with Propriety and Jultnefi, every Compoíition that is laid before him ; but he who has never played any other Mufick than the agreeable and common Modulation, when he comes to play at Sight what is direaly oppofite to it, muR be ver- much at a Lofs. # I 1i i 4
  • 13. This Example fhews in ho2rnany different Dlanners af bowing you rnay play 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Notes. As for Initance, 2 Notes rnay be played in 4 different Manners, 3 'Notes in eight, 4 in I 6, 5 in 32, and 6 in 62. It mult .be obierved, that the Example marked with the Letter A is of 2 Notes, B, 3, C, 4, D, 5, and the Letter F, 6, Tlie Letter (g) denotes that the Bow is to be drawn downwards ; and thc Letter ( S ) that it muit be drawn upwards. The Learner fhould be indefatigable in praQifing this Example till he has made hiinlelf a perfeQ M d e r of the Art of Bowing. For it is to be held as a certain Principie that he who doer not poreí'i, in a perfe& Degree, the Art of Bowing, wiIl never be able the render the Melody agreeable nor arrive at-a Facility in the Execution. Example XVII. This Example only differs from the foregoing, as to what concerns Time and Compoíition ; in other RefpeQs it is the faine. Example XVIII. Contains al1 the ,Ornarnents of Exprefion, neceffary to the playing in a good Tafle. What is commonly call'd good Tafle in finging and playing, has been thought for fome Years paR to d e h o y the true Melody, and the Intention of their Compofers. It is fuppofed by many that a real good Tafie cannot pofibly be acquired by any Rules of Art ; it being a ~eculiar Gift of Yatufe, indulged only tÓ thoie who have naturall~ good a Ear : And as mofi Aatter thernfelves to have this Perfedion, hence it happens that he who iings or plays, thinks of nothing fo much as to make continually fome favouri~e Paffages or Graces, believing that by this Means he hall be thought to be a good ~erformer,not perceiving that playing in good Taite doth-not coníiíi of fiequent Pa@ges, I ~ u tin exprefing with Strength and Delicacy the Intention of the Conipoler. This Expreflion is what every one hould endeavour to acquire, and it rnay be egfily obtained by any B~rion,who is not too fond of his own Opinion, and doth nat obfiinately refifi the Force of trué~vidence. 1 would not however have it iuppofed that 1 deny the powerful EffeQs of a good Earjas 1have found in feveral Initances how great its Force is : 1 only anert th;it certain Rules of b r t are neceiTary for a moderate Genius, and rnay improve and perfeQ a good me.' To the End therefore that thofe who are Lovers of Mufick rnay with more E d e and Certainty arrive ar PerfeQion, 1 recommend the Study and ~ r a t t i c e the following Ornarnentr of Exprefion, of which are fourteen in Number ; namely, r R 'A plain Shake ( h.) zd A Turn'd Shake ( ) 3d A iuperior Apogiatura ( )) 4thAn inferior Apogiatura ( ) ) 5th Holding the Note ( -' 6th Staccato ( 1 ) 7th Swel) ling the Sound ( A ) . Dimininiing the Sound ( ) gth Piano ( p. ) loth Furte ( f. ) I I~~ th. Anticipation ( J' ) I ztb Separation ( j ) I 3th A Ekat ( // 14'~ A clofe Shike (u) From the following Explanation we may comprehend the Ninire of each Element in particular. + ath (Fifi Of the PLAINS I ~ A K E . T h e plain Shake is proper for quick Movements ; and it rnay be made upon any Nae, obferving after it to pals immediately ro the enfuing Note. ( Second ) Of the TURNED SHAKE. T h e turn'd Shake being made quick and long is fit to expreíi Gaiety ; but if you make it niort, and continue tlie Length of the Note plain and toft, it rnay then expreri fame of tlre inore tender Pafions.
  • 14. ('lhird) Of the Superior APOGIATURA. Tlie Superior Apogiatura is fuppofed to expreíi Love, AffcBion, Pleafure, @c. It ffiould be iiiade pretty loiig, giving it more than half the Length or Time of the Note it belongi to, obierving to iwell the Sound by Dcgrees, and towards the End to force the Bow a little: If it be nude íhort, it will lofe much of the aforeLid Qualities ; but will always have a pleafing Effeét, and it may be added to any Note you wili. ( Fot~~thOf the Inferior APOGIATUR ) A. T h e Inferior Apogiatura has the fame Qualities with thc preceding, except that it is much more confin'd, as it can only be made when the Melody rifes the Interval of a fecoiid or third, obIkrving to make a Beat on the following Note. Of Holding a NOTE. It is neceffary to ufe this often; for were we to make Beats and Shakes continually without fometimes fuEeríng &e pure Note to be heard, the Melody would be too much diveríified. f sixrh ) Of the STACCATO. This enpreffes Relt, taking Breath, o changing a Word ; aiid for this R d o n Singcra r í'hould be careful to take Breath in a Place where it may not interrupt the Senfe, ( 7ih and 8th ) Of S W E L L I N G SOFTENING SOUND. and the Thele two Elements may be ufed after each other ; they produce great Beauty and Variety in the Melody, and employ'd alternately, they are proper for any ExpreEon or MeaiLre. ; 1 ( 9th and I 0th ) Of PIANO FORTE. and They are both extremely neceFary to expreG the Intention of the Melody ; and as al1 good Mufick hould be compofed i Imitation of a Difcourfe, thefe two Ornaments are den iigned to produce the fame Effees that an Orator does by raiiiiiiig and failing his Voice. Anticipation was invented, with a View to vary the Melody, without altering its Iiiteiition: When it is rnade with a Beat or a Shake, and fwelling the Sound, it will have a greater EíG&, efpecially i you obfme to make ufe of it when &e Melody rifes or defcends the Inf terval of a Second. ( 7welfih) Of the SEPARATION. The Separation is only ddigned t give a Variety to the Meldy, and &es place moR o properly when the Note d e s a Second or Third; as alfo when it deicends a Second, and theii it will not be amirs to add a Beat, and to fwell the Note, and then make the Apogiatura I // to the following Note. By this Tendernefi is exprefs'd. kveral PaGons; as fm Example, if'it be perform'd with Btrength, This is proper to and mntinued long, it expreffer Fury, Anger, Reiolution, c . If it be play'd leis frong aiid
  • 15. LB1 and ihortcr, it expreffes Mirth, Satisfaltion, &c. But if you play it quite bft, and fwell the Note, it inay then denote Horror, Fear, Grief, Lamentation, @c. By making it Ihort and fwelliiig tlie Note gently, it may exprefs Affettion and Pleafure. ( Forcrteenih ) Of the Clofe SHAKE. This cannot pofibly be deicribed by Notes as in former Examples. T o perform it, you miifi preíi tlie Fiiiger itrongly upon tlie Striiig of the Inítrument, and move the Wriíi in nrid out flowly and equallyJ when it is long continued fwelling the Sound by Degrees, drawing the Bow nearer to the Bridge, and ending it very itrong it may exprels Majeity, Dignity, @c. But making it horter, lower and íofter, it may denote Afflittion, Fear, &c. and wlicn it is niade on íhort Notes, it only contributes to make their Sound more agreable and for tliis Reafon it í'hould be made ufe of as often as poirible. Men of purblind Underfiandings, and half Ideas may perhaps aik, is it pofible to give Meaiiing and ExpreGon to Wood aiid Wire ; or to beítow upon them the Power of raiiing aiid foothing the Pafions of rational Beings ? But whenever 1 hear fuch a QueAion put, whether for the Sake of Information, or to coiivey Ridicule, 1hall make no Difficulty to anfwer in tlie Affirmative, and without fearching over-deeply into the Caufe, hall think it fiufficient to appeal to the E&&. Even in coinmon Speech a Difference of Tone gives the fame Word a differeiit Meaning. And with Regard to muíical Performances, Experience has í'hewn that the Imagination of the Hearer is in general fo much at the Difpofial of the Maiter, that by the Help of Variations, Movements, Intervals and Modulation he may alinoit itamp what Imprefion on the Mind he lea fe s. Thefe extraordi~iaryEmotions are indeed mofi eaíily excited when accompany'd witli Words ; and 1 would beíides advife, as well the Compofer as the Performer, who is ambitious to infpire his Audience, to be firR infpired himfelf; which he cannot fail to be if he chufes a Work of Genius, if he makes hinifelf thoroughly acquainted with all its Beauties ; and if while his Imagination is warm aiid glowing he pours the fame exalted Spirit into bis owii Performance. Exarnple X I X . I n this is h e w n how a fingle Note (in h w Time) may be executed with different Ornaments of Exprefions. Example XX. This Example íhews the Manner of Bowing proper to the Minim, Crochet-quava and Semiquaver both in flow and quick Time. For it is not fufficient alone to give them their true Duration, but alfo the Exprefion proper to each of thefe Notes. By not coniidering this, it often happens that many good Compoíitions are fpoiled by thofe who attempt to execute them. You muR obferve that this Sign (/) denotes the Swelling of the Sound ; thc Sign ( ) , fignifies that the Notes are to be play'd plain and the Bow.is not to be taken off the Strings; and this ( ) a Staccato, where the Bow is taken off the Strings at every Note. Example XXI. I n this are Ihewn the different Way of playing hpeggios on Chords compofed of 3 or 4 Sounds. Here are compofed I 8 Variations on the Chords contaitied in N". 1. by which the Learner wl fee in what the Art of executbg the Arpeggio confis. il Examph r
  • 16. Example X X I I . In tliis Example are contained al1 the double Stops between the Uniron and the OAave, and thefe again are repeated many Times with different Pofitions of the Fingers ; fo that in any Order whatfoever where any one of them is found you may know how to pIay it. Thofe who, with Quickneis and ExaBneis, h a l l execute this Example, will find themfelves far advanced in the Art of playing double Stops. Example X X I I I . This contains two Compoíitions of ScaIes of double Stops, which are thrice repeated with different Tranfpofitions of the Hand, in order to remove al1 Pain and Difficulty in the Practice. It muit be obferved, that after having ihifted the Hand, you muit purfue what follows in the fame Order, ti11 the following Number points out a new Tranfpofition. Example X X I V . From this Example the Art of Bowing will eafily be acquired, and alfo that of playing in Time. T h e Letter ( g j denotes that the Bow is to be drawn downwards ; the Letter ( s j that it mufi be drawn upwards. T h e Sign iignifies a Repetition. You mufi (above al1 Things) obferve to draw the Bow down and up alternately. T h e Bow mufi always be drawn firait on the Strings, and never be raifed from them in ~ I a ~ i n ~ Semi-quavers. This PraAice of the Bow ihould be continued, without attempting any Thing elfe until the Learner is fo far Mafier of it as to be out of al1 Daiiger of forgetting it. Before 1 conclude the Article of Bowing, 1 mufi caution the Learner againit marking the Time with his Bow ; for if he once accuitoms himfelf to it, he will hardly ever leave it off. And it has a mofi diiagreeable EffeA, and frequently deitroys the Defign of the Come r As for Example, when the lait Note in one Bar is joined to the firit Note of the next by a Ligature, thofe two Notes are to be played exaEtly in the Gme Manner as if they were but one, and if you mark the beginning of the Bar with your Bow you d e b o y the Beauty of the Syncopation. So in playing Divfions, if by your Manner of Bowing you lay a particdar Streis on the Note at the beginning of every Bar, fo as to render it predoininant over the relt, you alter and fpoil the true Air of the Piece, and excep: ~vherethe Co~npoferintended it, and where it is always marked, there are very few Initances in which it is not very diiagreeable. (S) N. B. In the hventieth Example the Word Buono, fignifies Good ; Mcdiacrc, Middling ; Cattivo, Bad ; Cartivo, o Particolare, Bad or Particular ; Mexlio, better ; Ottimo, very good ; and Pcfimo, very bad.
  • 17. $6 6 -- sal
  • 18. C omp oCne IV.
  • 19. Reproduced and printed by Halstan & Co. Ltd., Amersham, Bucks.

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