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the_wealth_of_nations_by_adam_smith Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ELECBOOK CLASSICS An Inquiry into theNature and Causes ofTHE WEALTHOF NATIONS Adam Smith
  • 2. ELECBOOK CLASSICS ebc0072. Adam Smith: Wealth of NationsThis file is free for individual use only. It must not be altered or resold. Organisations wishing to use it must first obtain a licence. Low cost licenses are available. Contact us through our web site © The Electric Book Co 1998 The Electric Book Company Ltd 20 Cambridge Drive, London SE12 8AJ, UK www.elecbook.com
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  • 4. An Inquiry Into the Natureand Causes of theWealth of Nations Adam Smith
  • 5. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 4 Contents Click on page number to go to ChapterIntroduction and Plan of the Work ....................................................12Book One: Of The Causes Of Improvement In TheProductive Powers Of Labour, And Of The OrderAccording To Which Its Produce Is NaturallyDistributed Among The Different Ranks Of The People ...............16Chapter 1. Of the Division of Labour ................................................17Chapter II. Of the Principle which gives occasion tothe Division of Labour..........................................................................29Chapter III. That the Division of Labour is limited bythe Extent of the Market......................................................................35Chapter IV. Of the Origin and Use of Money...................................41Chapter V. Of the Real and Nominal Price ofCommodities, or their Price in Labour, and their Pricein Money.................................................................................................50Chapter VI.Of the Component Parts of the Price ofCommodities..........................................................................................73Chapter VII. Of the Natural and Market Price ofCommodities..........................................................................................83Chapter VIII. Of the Wages of Labour ............................................96Chapter IX. Of the Profits of Stock ................................................127Chapter X. Of Wages and Profit in the differentAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 6. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 5Employments of Labour and Stock .................................................142 PART 1.......................................................................................................... 143 Inequalities arising from the Nature of the Employments themselves................................................................................................. 143 PART 2.......................................................................................................... 169 Inequalities by the Policy of Europe........................................................... 169Chapter XI. Of the Rent of Land .....................................................203 PART 1.......................................................................................................... 206 Of the Produce of Land which always affords Rent .................................... 206 PART 2.......................................................................................................... 227 Of the Produce of Land which sometimes does, and sometimes does not, afford Rent ................................................................................. 227 PART 3.......................................................................................................... 245 Of the Variations in the Proportion between the respective Values of that Sort of Produce which always affords Rent, and of that which sometimes does and sometimes does not afford Rent ................. 245 Digression Concerning The Variations In The Value Of Silver During The Course Of The Four Last Centuries ..................................... 248 First Period.......................................................................................... 248 Second Period ...................................................................................... 267 Third Period ........................................................................................ 269 Variations In The Proportion Between The Respective Values Of Gold And Silver ............................................................................... 292Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 7. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 6 Grounds Of The Suspicion That The Value Of Silver Still Continues To Decrease.......................................................................... 299 Different Effects Of The Progress Of Improvement Upon Three Different Sorts Of Rude Produce.................................................. 301 First Sort.............................................................................................. 301 Second Sort.......................................................................................... 304 Third Sort............................................................................................ 317 Conclusion Of The Digression Concerning The Variations In The Value Of Silver .............................................................................. 330 Effects Of The Progress Of Improvement Upon The Real Price Of Manufactures........................................................................... 337 Conclusion Of The Chapter ................................................................... 344Book Two: Of the Nature, Accumulation, andEmployment of Stock ........................................................................359Chapter I. Of the Division of Stock..................................................363Chapter II. Of Money Considered as a ParticularBranch of the General Stock of the Society, or of theExpense of Maintaining the National Capital ................................374Chapter III. Of the Accumulation of Capital, or ofProductive and Unproductive Labour ............................................438Chapter IV. Of Stock Lent at Interest.............................................465Chapter V. Of the Different Employment of Capitals...................477Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 8. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 7Book Three: Of the Different Progress of Opulence inDifferent Nations ................................................................................499Chapter I. Of the Natural Progress of Opulence ...........................500Chapter II. Of the Discouragement of Agriculture inthe ancient State of Europe after the Fall of the RomanEmpire ..................................................................................................507Chapter III. Of the Rise and Progress of Cities andTowns after the Fall of the Roman Empire ....................................523Chapter IV. How the Commerce of the TownsContributed to the Improvement of the Country..........................538Book Four: Of Systems of Political Economy ................................556Introduction.........................................................................................557Chapter I. Of the Principle of the Commercial, orMercantile System ..............................................................................558Chapter II. Of Restraints upon the Importation fromForeign Countries of such Goods as can be produced atHome.....................................................................................................589Chapter III. Of the extraordinary Restraints upon theImportation of Goods of almost all kinds from thoseCountries with which the Balance is supposed to bedisadvantageous..................................................................................617 PART 1.......................................................................................................... 617 Of the Unreasonableness of those Restraints even upon the Principles of the Commercial System ......................................................... 617Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 9. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 8 Digression Concerning Banks Of Deposit, Particularly Concerning That Of Amsterdam ............................................................ 625 PART 2.......................................................................................................... 639 Of the Unreasonableness of those extraordinary Restraints upon other Principles.......................................................................................... 639Chapter IV. Of Drawbacks................................................................654Chapter V.Of Bounties ......................................................................662 DIGRESSION CONCERNING THE CORN TRADE AND CORN LAWS ....................................................................................... 686Chapter VI. Of Treaties of Commerce ............................................715Chapter VII. Of Colonies...................................................................732 PART 1.......................................................................................................... 732 Of the Motives for establishing new Colonies ............................................ 732 PART 2.......................................................................................................... 744 Causes of Prosperity of New Colonies........................................................ 744 PART 3.......................................................................................................... 780 Of the Advantages which Europe has derived from the Discovery of America, and from that of a Passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope ................................................................................... 780Chapter VIII. Conclusion of the Mercantile System ....................852Chapter IX. Of the Agricultural Systems, or of thoseSystems of Political Economy which represent theProduce of Land as either the sole or the principalSource of the Revenue and Wealth every Country........................880Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 10. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 9Appendix ..............................................................................................917Book Five: Of the Revenue of the Sovereign orCommonwealth ...................................................................................921Chapter I. Of the Expenses of the Sovereign orCommonwealth ...................................................................................922 PART 1.......................................................................................................... 922 Of the Expense of Defence......................................................................... 922 PART 2.......................................................................................................... 946 Of the Expense of Justice........................................................................... 946 PART 3.......................................................................................................... 963 Of the Expense of Public Works and Public Institutions ............................. 963 ARTICLE 1.................................................................................................... 964 Of the Public Works and Institutions for facilitating the Commerce of the Society And, first, of those which are necessary for facilitating Commerce in general. ......................................... 964 Of the Public Works and Institutions which are necessary for facilitating particular Branches of Commerce. ............................................ 976 ARTICLE II ..................................................................................................1013 Of the Expense of the Institutions for the Education of Youth....................1013 ARTICLE III.................................................................................................1049 Of the Expense of the Institutions for the Instruction of People of all Ages....................................................................................................1049Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 11. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 10 PART 4.........................................................................................................1088 Of the Expense of Supporting the Dignity of the Sovereign .......................1088 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................1088Chapter II. Of the Sources of the General or PublicRevenue of the Society.....................................................................1091 PART 1.........................................................................................................1091 Of the Funds or Sources of Revenue which may peculiarly belong to the Sovereign or Commonwealth ...............................................1091 PART 2.........................................................................................................1103 Of Taxes ..................................................................................................1103 ARTICLE I ...................................................................................................1107 Taxes upon Rent. Taxes upon the Rent of Land.........................................1107 Taxes which are proportioned, not to the Rent, but to the Produce of Land...................................................................................1119 Taxes upon the Rent of Houses .............................................................1124 ARTICLE II ..................................................................................................1135 Taxes on Profit, or upon the Revenue arising from Stock...........................1135 Taxes upon as Profit of particular Employments ...................................1142 Appendix to ARTICLES I and II. ...................................................................1151 Taxes upon the Capital Value of Land, Houses, and Stock.........................1151 ARTICLE III.................................................................................................1159 Taxes upon the Wages of Labour ..............................................................1159Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 12. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 11 ARTICLE IV .................................................................................................1164 Taxes which, it is intended, should fall indifferently upon every different Species of Revenue.....................................................................1164 Capitation Taxes ..................................................................................1164 Taxes upon Consumable Commodities ..................................................1167Chapter III. Of Public Debts ..........................................................1222Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 13. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 12 Introduction and Plan of the WorkT he annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniences of life which it annually consumes, andwhich consist always either in the immediate produce of thatlabour, or in what is purchased with that produce from othernations. According therefore as this produce, or what is purchased withit, bears a greater or smaller proportion to the number of thosewho are to consume it, the nation will be better or worse suppliedwith all the necessaries and conveniences for which it hasoccasion. But this proportion must in every nation be regulated by twodifferent circumstances; first, by the skill, dexterity, and judgmentwith which its labour is generally applied; and, secondly, by theproportion between the number of those who are employed inuseful labour, and that of those who are not so employed.Whatever be the soil, climate, or extent of territory of anyparticular nation, the abundance or scantiness of its annual supplymust, in that particular situation, depend upon those twocircumstances. The abundance or scantiness of this supply, too, seems todepend more upon the former of those two circumstances thanupon the latter. Among the savage nations of hunters and fishers,every individual who is able to work, is more or less employed inuseful labour, and endeavours to provide, as well as he can, theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 14. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 13necessaries and conveniences of life, for himself, or such of hisfamily or tribe as are either too old, or too young, or too infirm togo a hunting and fishing. Such nations, however, are so miserablypoor that, from mere want, they are frequently reduced, or, atleast, think themselves reduced, to the necessity sometimes ofdirectly destroying, and sometimes of abandoning their infants,their old people, and those afflicted with lingering diseases, toperish with hunger, or to be devoured by wild beasts. Amongcivilised and thriving nations, on the contrary, though a greatnumber of people do not labour at all, many of whom consume theproduce of ten times, frequently of a hundred times more labourthan the greater part of those who work; yet the produce of thewhole labour of the society is so great that all are often abundantlysupplied, and a workman, even of the lowest and poorest order, ifhe is frugal and industrious, may enjoy a greater share of thenecessaries and conveniences of life than it is possible for anysavage to acquire. The causes of this improvement, in the productive powers oflabour, and the order, according to which its produce is naturallydistributed among the different ranks and conditions of men in thesociety, make the subject of the first book of this Inquiry. Whatever be the actual state of the skill, dexterity, andjudgment with which labour is applied in any nation, theabundance or scantiness of its annual supply must depend, duringthe continuance of that state, upon the proportion between thenumber of those who are annually employed in useful labour, andthat of those who are not so employed. The number of useful andproductive labourers, it will hereafter appear, is everywhere inproportion to the quantity of capital stock which is employed inAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 15. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 14setting them to work, and to the particular way in which it is soemployed. The second book, therefore, treats of the nature ofcapital stock, of the manner in which it is gradually accumulated,and of the different quantities of labour which it puts into motion,according to the different ways in which it is employed. Nations tolerably well advanced as to skill, dexterity, andjudgment, in the application of labour, have followed verydifferent plans in the general conduct or direction of it; thoseplans have not all been equally favourable to the greatness of itsproduce. The policy of some nations has given extraordinaryencouragement to the industry of the country; that of others to theindustry of towns. Scarce any nation has dealt equally andimpartially with every sort of industry. Since the downfall of theRoman empire, the policy of Europe has been more favourable toarts, manufactures, and commerce, the industry of towns, than toagriculture, the industry of the country. The circumstances whichseem to have introduced and established this policy are explainedin the third book. Though those different plans were, perhaps, first introduced bythe private interests and prejudices of particular orders of men,without any regard to, or foresight of, their consequences upon thegeneral welfare of the society; yet they have given occasion to verydifferent theories of political economy; of which some magnify theimportance of that industry which is carried on in towns, others ofthat which is carried on in the country. Those theories have had aconsiderable influence, not only upon the opinions of men oflearning, but upon the public conduct of princes and sovereignstates. I have endeavoured, in the fourth book, to explain, as fullyand distinctly as I can, those different theories, and the principalAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 16. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 15effects which they have produced in different ages and nations. To explain in what has consisted the revenue of the great bodyof the people, or what has been the nature of those funds which, indifferent ages and nations, have supplied their annualconsumption, is the object of these four first books. The fifth andlast book treats of the revenue of the sovereign, or commonwealth.In this book I have endeavoured to show, first, what are thenecessary expenses of the sovereign, or commonwealth; which ofthose expenses ought to be defrayed by the general contribution ofthe whole society; and which of them by that of some particularpart only, or of some particular members of it: secondly, what arethe different methods in which the whole society may be made tocontribute towards defraying the expenses incumbent on thewhole society, and what are the principal advantages andinconveniences of each of those methods: and, thirdly and lastly,what are the reasons and causes which have induced almost allmodern governments to mortgage some part of this revenue, or tocontract debts, and what have been the effects of those debts uponthe real wealth, the annual produce of the land and labour of thesociety.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 18. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 17 Chapter I Of the Division of LabourT he greatest improvement in the productive powers of labour, and the greater part of the skill, dexterity, and judgment with which it is anywhere directed, or applied,seem to have been the effects of the division of labour. The effects of the division of labour, in the general business ofsociety, will be more easily understood by considering in whatmanner it operates in some particular manufactures. It iscommonly supposed to be carried furthest in some very triflingones; not perhaps that it really is carried further in them than inothers of more importance: but in those trifling manufactureswhich are destined to supply the small wants of but a smallnumber of people, the whole number of workmen mustnecessarily be small; and those employed in every different branchof the work can often be collected into the same workhouse, andplaced at once under the view of the spectator. In those greatmanufactures, on the contrary, which are destined to supply thegreat wants of the great body of the people, every different branchof the work employs so great a number of workmen that it isimpossible to collect them all into the same workhouse. We canseldom see more, at one time, than those employed in one singlebranch. Though in such manufactures, therefore, the work mayreally be divided into a much greater number of parts than inthose of a more trifling nature, the division is not near so obvious,and has accordingly been much less observed.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 19. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 18 To take an example, therefore, from a very triflingmanufacture; but one in which the division of labour has beenvery often taken notice of, the trade of the pin-maker; a workmannot educated to this business (which the division of labour hasrendered a distinct trade), nor acquainted with the use of themachinery employed in it (to the invention of which the samedivision of labour has probably given occasion), could scarce,perhaps, with his utmost industry, make one pin in a day, andcertainly could not make twenty. But in the way in which thisbusiness is now carried on, not only the whole work is a peculiartrade, but it is divided into a number of branches, of which thegreater part are likewise peculiar trades. One man draws out thewire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifthgrinds it at the top for receiving the head; to make the headrequires two or three distinct operations; to put it on is a peculiarbusiness, to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itselfto put them into the paper; and the important business of makinga pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinctoperations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed bydistinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimesperform two or three of them. I have seen a small manufactory ofthis kind where ten men only were employed, and where some ofthem consequently performed two or three distinct operations.But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferentlyaccommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, whenthey exerted themselves, make among them about twelve poundsof pins in a day. There are in a pound upwards of four thousandpins of a middling size. Those ten persons, therefore, could makeamong them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. EachAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 20. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 19person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousandpins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundredpins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately andindependently, and without any of them having been educated tothis peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them havemade twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day; that is, certainly, notthe two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thousand eighthundredth part of what they are at present capable of performing,in consequence of a proper division and combination of theirdifferent operations. In every other art and manufacture, the effects of the division oflabour are similar to what they are in this very trifling one;though, in many of them, the labour can neither be so muchsubdivided, nor reduced to so great a simplicity of operation. Thedivision of labour, however, so far as it can be introduced,occasions, in every art, a proportionable increase of the productivepowers of labour. The separation of different trades andemployments from one another seems to have taken place inconsequence of this advantage. This separation, too, is generallycalled furthest in those countries which enjoy the highest degreeof industry and improvement; what is the work of one man in arude state of society being generally that of several in an improvedone. In every improved society, the farmer is generally nothing buta farmer; the manufacturer, nothing but a manufacturer. Thelabour, too, which is necessary to produce any one completemanufacture is almost always divided among a great number ofhands. How many different trades are employed in each branch ofthe linen and woollen manufactures from the growers of the flaxand the wool, to the bleachers and smoothers of the linen, or to theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 21. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 20dyers and dressers of the cloth! The nature of agriculture, indeed,does not admit of so many subdivisions of labour, nor of socomplete a separation of one business from another, asmanufactures. It is impossible to separate so entirely the businessof the grazier from that of the corn-farmer as the trade of thecarpenter is commonly separated from that of the smith. Thespinner is almost always a distinct person from the weaver; butthe ploughman, the harrower, the sower of the seed, and thereaper of the corn, are often the same. The occasions for those different sorts of labour returning withthe different seasons of the year, it is impossible that one manshould be constantly employed in any one of them. Thisimpossibility of making so complete and entire a separation of allthe different branches of labour employed in agriculture isperhaps the reason why the improvement of the productivepowers of labour in this art does not always keep pace with theirimprovement in manufactures. The most opulent nations, indeed,generally excel all their neighbours in agriculture as well as inmanufactures; but they are commonly more distinguished by theirsuperiority in the latter than in the former. Their lands are ingeneral better cultivated, and having more labour and expensebestowed upon them, produce more in proportion to the extentand natural fertility of the ground. But this superiority of produceis seldom much more than in proportion to the superiority oflabour and expense. In agriculture, the labour of the rich countryis not always much more productive than that of the poor; or, atleast, it is never so much more productive as it commonly is inmanufactures. The corn of the rich country, therefore, will notalways, in the same degree of goodness, come cheaper to marketAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 22. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 21than that of the poor. The corn of Poland, in the same degree ofgoodness, is as cheap as that of France, notwithstanding thesuperior opulence and improvement of the latter country. Thecorn of France is, in the corn provinces, fully as good, and in mostyears nearly about the same price with the corn of England,though, in opulence and improvement, France is perhaps inferiorto England. The corn-lands of England, however, are bettercultivated than those of France, and the corn-lands of France aresaid to be much better cultivated than those of Poland. But thoughthe poor country, notwithstanding the inferiority of its cultivation,can, in some measure, rival the rich in the cheapness andgoodness of its corn, it can pretend to no such competition in itsmanufactures; at least if those manufactures suit the soil, climate,and situation of the rich country. The silks of France are betterand cheaper than those of England, because the silk manufacture,at least under the present high duties upon the importation of rawsilk, does not so well suit the climate of England as that of France.But the hardware and the coarse woollens of England are beyondall comparison superior to those of France, and much cheaper tooin the same degree of goodness. In Poland there are said to bescarce any manufactures of any kind, a few of those coarserhousehold manufactures excepted, without which no country canwell subsist. This great increase of the quantity of work which, inconsequence of the division of labour, the same number of peopleare capable of performing, is owing to three differentcircumstances; first, to the increase of dexterity in every particularworkman; secondly, to the saving of the time which is commonlylost in passing from one species of work to another; and lastly, toAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 23. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 22the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate andabridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many. First, the improvement of the dexterity of the workmannecessarily increases the quantity of the work he can perform; andthe division of labour, by reducing every man’s business to someone simple operation, and by making this operation the soleemployment of his life, necessarily increased very much dexterityof the workman. A common smith, who, though accustomed tohandle the hammer, has never been used to make nails, if uponsome particular occasion he is obliged to attempt it, will scarce, Iam assured, be able to make above two or three hundred nails in aday, and those too very bad ones. A smith who has beenaccustomed to make nails, but whose sole or principal businesshas not been that of a nailer, can seldom with his utmost diligencemake more than eight hundred or a thousand nails in a day. I haveseen several boys under twenty years of age who had neverexercised any other trade but that of making nails, and who, whenthey exerted themselves, could make, each of them, upwards oftwo thousand three hundred nails in a day. The making of a nail,however, is by no means one of the simplest operations. The sameperson blows the bellows, stirs or mends the fire as there isoccasion, heats the iron, and forges every part of the nail: inforging the head too he is obliged to change his tools. The differentoperations into which the making of a pin, or of a metal button, issubdivided, are all of them much more simple, and the dexterity ofthe person, of whose life it has been the sole business to performthem, is usually much greater. The rapidity with which some ofthe operations of those manufacturers are performed, exceedswhat the human hand could, by those who had never seen them,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 24. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 23be supposed capable of acquiring. Secondly, the advantage which is gained by saving the timecommonly lost in passing from one sort of work to another is muchgreater than we should at first view be apt to imagine it. It isimpossible to pass very quickly from one kind of work to anotherthat is carried on in a different place and with quite different tools.A country weaver, who cultivates a small farm, must lose a gooddeal of time in passing from his loom to the field, and from thefield to his loom. When the two trades can be carried on in thesame workhouse, the loss of time is no doubt much less. It is evenin this case, however, very considerable. A man commonlysaunters a little in turning his hand from one sort of employmentto another. When he first begins the new work he is seldom verykeen and hearty; his mind, as they say, does not go to it, and forsome time he rather trifles than applies to good purpose. Thehabit of sauntering and of indolent careless application, which isnaturally, or rather necessarily acquired by every countryworkman who is obliged to change his work and his tools everyhalf hour, and to apply his hand in twenty different ways almostevery day of his life, renders him almost always slothful and lazy,and incapable of any vigorous application even on the mostpressing occasions. Independent, therefore, of his deficiency inpoint of dexterity, this cause alone must always reduceconsiderably the quantity of work which he is capable ofperforming. Thirdly, and lastly, everybody must be sensible how muchlabour is facilitated and abridged by the application of propermachinery. It is unnecessary to give any example. I shall onlyobserve, therefore, that the invention of all those machines byAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 25. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 24which labour is so much facilitated and abridged seems to havebeen originally owing to the division of labour. Men are muchmore likely to discover easier and readier methods of attaining anyobject when the whole attention of their minds is directed towardsthat single object than when it is dissipated among a great varietyof things. But in consequence of the division of labour, the wholeof every man’s attention comes naturally to be directed towardssome one very simple object. It is naturally to be expected,therefore, that some one or other of those who are employed ineach particular branch of labour should soon find out easier andreadier methods of performing their own particular work,wherever the nature of it admits of such improvement. A greatpart of the machines made use of in those manufactures in whichlabour is most subdivided, were originally the inventions ofcommon workmen, who, being each of them employed in somevery simple operation, naturally turned their thoughts towardsfinding out easier and readier methods of performing it. Whoeverhas been much accustomed to visit such manufactures mustfrequently have been shown very pretty machines, which were theinventions of such workmen in order to facilitate and quickentheir particular part of the work. In the first fire-engines, a boywas constantly employed to open and shut alternately thecommunication between the boiler and the cylinder, according asthe piston either ascended or descended. One of those boys, wholoved to play with his companions, observed that, by tying a stringfrom the handle of the valve which opened this communication toanother part of the machine, the valve would open and shutwithout his assistance, and leave him at liberty to divert himselfwith his playfellows. One of the greatest improvements that hasAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 26. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 25been made upon this machine, since it was first invented, was inthis manner the discovery of a boy who wanted to save his ownlabour. All the improvements in machinery, however, have by nomeans been the inventions of those who had occasion to use themachines. Many improvements have been made by the ingenuityof the makers of the machines, when to make them became thebusiness of a peculiar trade; and some by that of those who arecalled philosophers or men of speculation, whose trade it is not todo anything, but to observe everything; and who, upon thataccount, are often capable of combining together the powers of themost distant and dissimilar objects. In the progress of society,philosophy or speculation becomes, like every other employment,the principal or sole trade and occupation of a particular class ofcitizens. Like every other employment too, it is subdivided into agreat number of different branches, each of which affordsoccupation to a peculiar tribe or class of philosophers; and thissubdivision of employment in philosophy, as well as in every otherbusiness, improves dexterity, and saves time. Each individualbecomes more expert in his own peculiar branch, more work isdone upon the whole, and the quantity of science is considerablyincreased by it. It is the great multiplication of the productions of all thedifferent arts, in consequence of the division of labour, whichoccasions, in a well-governed society, that universal opulencewhich extends itself to the lowest ranks of the people. Everyworkman has a great quantity of his own work to dispose ofbeyond what he himself has occasion for; and every otherworkman being exactly in the same situation, he is enabled toAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 27. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 26exchange a great quantity of his own goods for a great quantity, or,what comes to the same thing, for the price of a great quantity oftheirs. He supplies them abundantly with what they have occasionfor, and they accommodate him as amply with what he hasoccasion for, and a general plenty diffuses itself through all thedifferent ranks of the society. Observe the accommodation of the most common artificer orday-labourer in a civilised and thriving country, and you willperceive that the number of people of whose industry a part,though but a small part, has been employed in procuring him thisaccommodation, exceeds all computation. The woollen coat, forexample, which covers the day-labourer, as coarse and rough as itmay appear, is the produce of the joint labour of a great multitudeof workmen. The shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool-comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the weaver,the fuller, the dresser, with many others, must all join theirdifferent arts in order to complete even this homely production.How many merchants and carriers, besides, must have beenemployed in transporting the materials from some of thoseworkmen to others who often live in a very distant part of thecountry! How much commerce and navigation in particular, howmany ship-builders, sailors, sail-makers, rope-makers, must havebeen employed in order to bring together the different drugs madeuse of by the dyer, which often come from the remotest corners ofthe world! What a variety of labour, too, is necessary in order toproduce the tools of the meanest of those workmen! To saynothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, themill of the fuller, or even the loom of the weaver, let us consideronly what a variety of labour is requisite in order to form that veryAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 28. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 27simple machine, the shears with which the shepherd clips thewool. The miner, the builder of the furnace for smelting the ore,the seller of the timber, the burner of the charcoal to be made useof in the smelting-house, the brick-maker, the brick-layer, theworkmen who attend the furnace, the mill-wright, the forger, thesmith, must all of them join their different arts in order to producethem. Were we to examine, in the same manner, all the differentparts of his dress and household furniture, the coarse linen shirtwhich he wears next his skin, the shoes which cover his feet, thebed which he lies on, and all the different parts which compose it,the kitchen-grate at which he prepares his victuals, the coalswhich he makes use of for that purpose, dug from the bowels ofthe earth, and brought to him perhaps by a long sea and a longland carriage, all the other utensils of his kitchen, all the furnitureof his table, the knives and forks, the earthen or pewter platesupon which he serves up and divides his victuals, the differenthands employed in preparing his bread and his beer, the glasswindow which lets in the heat and the light, and keeps out thewind and the rain, with all the knowledge and art requisite forpreparing that beautiful and happy invention, without which thesenorthern parts of the world could scarce have afforded a verycomfortable habitation, together with the tools of all the differentworkmen employed in producing those different conveniences; ifwe examine, I say, all these things, and consider what a variety oflabour is employed about each of them, we shall be sensible that,without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands, thevery meanest person in a civilised country could not be provided,even according to what we very falsely imagine the easy andsimple manner in which he is commonly accommodated.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 29. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 28Compared, indeed, with the more extravagant luxury of the great,his accommodation must no doubt appear extremely simple andeasy; and yet it may be true, perhaps, that the accommodation of aEuropean prince does not always so much exceed that of anindustrious and frugal peasant as the accommodation of the latterexceeds that of many an African king, the absolute master of thelives and liberties of ten thousand naked savages.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 30. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 29 Chapter II Of the Principle which gives occasion to the Division of LabourT his division of labour, from which so many advantages are derived, is not originally the effect of any human wisdom, which foresees and intends that general opulence to whichit gives occasion. It is the necessary, though very slow and gradualconsequence of a certain propensity in human nature which has inview no such extensive utility; the propensity to truck, barter, andexchange one thing for another. Whether this propensity be one of those original principles inhuman nature of which no further account can be given; orwhether, as seems more probable, it be the necessary consequenceof the faculties of reason and speech, it belongs not to our presentsubject to inquire. It is common to all men, and to be found in noother race of animals, which seem to know neither this nor anyother species of contracts. Two greyhounds, in running down thesame hare, have sometimes the appearance of acting in some sortof concert. Each turns her towards his companion, or endeavoursto intercept her when his companion turns her towards himself.This, however, is not the effect of any contract, but of theaccidental concurrence of their passions in the same object at thatparticular time. Nobody ever saw a dog make a fair and deliberateexchange of one bone for another with another dog. Nobody eversaw one animal by its gestures and natural cries signify to another,this is mine, that yours; I am willing to give this for that. When anAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 31. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 30animal wants to obtain something either of a man or of anotheranimal, it has no other means of persuasion but to gain the favourof those whose service it requires. A puppy fawns upon its dam,and a spaniel endeavours by a thousand attractions to engage theattention of its master who is at dinner, when it wants to be fed byhim. Man sometimes uses the same arts with his brethren, andwhen he has no other means of engaging them to act according tohis inclinations, endeavours by every servile and fawningattention to obtain their good will. He has not time, however, to dothis upon every occasion. In civilised society he stands at all timesin need of the co-operation and assistance of great multitudes,while his whole life is scarce sufficient to gain the friendship of afew persons. In almost every other race of animals each individual, when it isgrown up to maturity, is entirely independent, and in its naturalstate has occasion for the assistance of no other living creature.But man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren,and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only.He will be more likely to prevail if he can interest their self-love inhis favour, and show them that it is for their own advantage to dofor him what he requires of them. Whoever offers to another abargain of any kind, proposes to do this. Give me that which Iwant, and you shall have this which you want, is the meaning ofevery such offer; and it is in this manner that we obtain from oneanother the far greater part of those good offices which we standin need of. It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, thebrewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from theirregard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to theirhumanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our ownAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 32. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 31necessities but of their advantages. Nobody but a beggar choosesto depend chiefly upon the benevolence of his fellow-citizens.Even a beggar does not depend upon it entirely. The charity ofwell-disposed people, indeed, supplies him with the whole fund ofhis subsistence. But though this principle ultimately provides himwith all the necessaries of life which he has occasion for, it neitherdoes nor can provide him with them as he has occasion for them.The greater part of his occasional wants are supplied in the samemanner as those of other people, by treaty, by barter, and bypurchase. With the money which one man gives him he purchasesfood. The old clothes which another bestows upon him heexchanges for other old clothes which suit him better, or forlodging, or for food, or for money, with which he can buy eitherfood, clothes, or lodging, as he has occasion. As it is by treaty, by barter, and by purchase that we obtainfrom one another the greater part of those mutual good officeswhich we stand in need of, so it is this same trucking dispositionwhich originally gives occasion to the division of labour. In a tribeof hunters or shepherds a particular person makes bows andarrows, for example, with more readiness and dexterity than anyother. He frequently exchanges them for cattle or for venison withhis companions; and he finds at last that he can in this manner getmore cattle and venison than if he himself went to the field tocatch them. From a regard to his own interest, therefore, themaking of bows and arrows grows to be his chief business, and hebecomes a sort of armourer. Another excels in making the framesand covers of their little huts or movable houses. He is accustomedto be of use in this way to his neighbours, who reward him in thesame manner with cattle and with venison, till at last he finds it hisAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 33. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 32interest to dedicate himself entirely to this employment, and tobecome a sort of house-carpenter. In the same manner a thirdbecomes a smith or a brazier, a fourth a tanner or dresser of hidesor skins, the principal part of the nothing of savages. And thus thecertainty of being able to exchange all that surplus part of theproduce of his own labour, which is over and above his ownconsumption, for such parts of the produce of other men’s labouras he may have occasion for, encourages every man to applyhimself to a particular occupation, and to cultivate and bring toperfection whatever talent or genius he may possess for thatparticular species of business. The difference of natural talents in different men is, in reality,much less than we are aware of; and the very different geniuswhich appears to distinguish men of different professions, whengrown up to maturity, is not upon many occasions so much thecause as the effect of the division of labour. The differencebetween the most dissimilar characters, between a philosopherand a common street porter, for example, seems to arise not somuch from nature as from habit, custom, and education. Whenthey came into the world, and for the first six or eight years oftheir existence, they were perhaps very much alike, and neithertheir parents nor playfellows could perceive any remarkabledifference. About that age, or soon after, they come to beemployed in very different occupations. The difference of talentscomes then to be taken notice of, and widens by degrees, till at lastthe vanity of the philosopher is willing to acknowledge scarce anyresemblance. But without the disposition to truck, barter, andexchange, every man must have procured to himself everynecessary and conveniency of life which he wanted. All must haveAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 34. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 33had the same duties to perform, and the same work to do, andthere could have been no such difference of employment as couldalone give occasion to any great difference of talents. As it is this disposition which forms that difference of talents, soremarkable among men of different professions, so it is this samedisposition which renders that difference useful. Many tribes ofanimals acknowledged to be all of the same species derive fromnature a much more remarkable distinction of genius, than what,antecedent to custom and education, appears to take place amongmen. By nature a philosopher is not in genius and disposition half sodifferent from a street porter, as a mastiff is from a greyhound, ora greyhound from a spaniel, or this last from a shepherd’s dog.Those different tribes of animals, however, though all of the samespecies, are of scarce any use to one another. The strength of themastiff is not, in the least, supported either by the swiftness of thegreyhound, or by the sagacity of the spaniel, or by the docility ofthe shepherd’s dog. The effects of those different geniuses andtalents, for want of the power or disposition to barter andexchange, cannot be brought into a common stock, and do not inthe least contribute to the better accommodation and conveniencyof the species. Each animal is still obliged to support and defenditself, separately and independently, and derives no sort ofadvantage from that variety of talents with which nature hasdistinguished its fellows. Among men, on the contrary, the mostdissimilar geniuses are of use to one another; the differentproduces of their respective talents, by the general disposition totruck, barter, and exchange, being brought, as it were, into acommon stock, where every man may purchase whatever part ofAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 35. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 34the produce of other men’s talents he has occasion for.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 36. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 35 Chapter III That the Division of Labour is limited by the Extent of the MarketA a it is the power of exchanging that gives occasion to the division of labour, so the extent of this division must always be limited by the extent of that power, or, in otherwords, by the extent of the market. When the market is very small,no person can have any encouragement to dedicate himselfentirely to one employment, for want of the power to exchange allthat surplus part of the produce of his own labour, which is overand above his own consumption, for such parts of the produce ofother men’s labour as he has occasion for. There are some sorts of industry, even of the lowest kind, whichcan be carried on nowhere but in a great town. A porter, forexample, can find employment and subsistence in no other place.A village is by much too narrow a sphere for him; even an ordinarymarket town is scarce large enough to afford him constantoccupation. In the lone houses and very small villages which arescattered about in so desert a country as the Highlands ofScotland, every farmer must be butcher, baker and brewer for hisown family. In such situations we can scarce expect to find even a smith, acarpenter, or a mason, within less than twenty miles of another ofthe same trade. The scattered families that live at eight or tenmiles distance from the nearest of them must learn to performthemselves a great number of little pieces of work, for which, inAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 37. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 36more populous countries, they would call in the assistance of thoseworkmen. Country workmen are almost everywhere obliged toapply themselves to all the different branches of industry thathave so much affinity to one another as to be employed about thesame sort of materials. A country carpenter deals in every sort ofwork that is made of wood: a country smith in every sort of workthat is made of iron. The former is not only a carpenter, but ajoiner, a cabinet-maker, and even a carver in wood, as well as awheel-wright, a plough-wright, a cart and waggon maker. Theemployments of the latter are still more various. It is impossiblethere should be such a trade as even that of a nailer in the remoteand inland parts of the Highlands of Scotland. Such a workman atthe rate of a thousand nails a day, and three hundred workingdays in the year, will make three hundred thousand nails in theyear. But in such a situation it would be impossible to dispose ofone thousand, that is, of one day’s work in the year. As by means of water-carriage a more extensive market isopened to every sort of industry than what land-carriage alone canafford it, so it is upon the sea-coast, and along the banks ofnavigable rivers, that industry of every kind naturally begins tosubdivide and improve itself, and it is frequently not till a longtime after that those improvements extend themselves to theinland parts of the country. A broad-wheeled waggon, attended bytwo men, and drawn by eight horses, in about six weeks’ timecarries and brings back between London and Edinburgh near fourton weight of goods. In about the same time a ship navigated bysix or eight men, and sailing between the ports of London andLeith, frequently carries and brings back two hundred ton weightof goods. Six or eight men, therefore, by the help of water-Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 38. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 37carriage, can carry and bring back in the same time the samequantity of goods between London and Edinburgh, as fifty broad-wheeled waggons, attended by a hundred men, and drawn by fourhundred horses. Upon two hundred tons of goods, therefore,carried by the cheapest land-carriage from London to Edinburgh,there must be charged the maintenance of a hundred men forthree weeks, and both the maintenance, and, what is nearly equalto the maintenance, the wear and tear of four hundred horses aswell as of fifty great waggons. Whereas, upon the same quantity ofgoods carried by water, there is to be charged only themaintenance of six or eight men, and the wear and tear of a ship oftwo hundred tons burden, together with the value of the superiorrisk, or the difference of the insurance between land and water-carriage. Were there no other communication between those twoplaces, therefore, but by land-carriage, as no goods could betransported from the one to the other, except such whose pricewas very considerable in proportion to their weight, they couldcarry on but a small part of that commerce which at presentsubsists between them, and consequently could give but a smallpart of that encouragement which they at present mutually affordto each other’s industry. There could be little or no commerce ofany kind between the distant parts of the world. What goods couldbear the expense of land-carriage between London and Calcutta?Or if there were any so precious as to be able to support thisexpense, with what safety could they be transported through theterritories of so many barbarous nations? Those two cities,however, at present carry on a very considerable commerce witheach other, and by mutually affording a market, give a good deal ofencouragement to each other’s industry.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 39. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 38 Since such, therefore, are the advantages of water-carriage, it isnatural that the first improvements of art and industry should bemade where this conveniency opens the whole world for a marketto the produce of every sort of labour, and that they should alwaysbe much later in extending themselves into the inland parts of thecountry. The inland parts of the country can for a long time haveno other market for the greater part of their goods, but the countrywhich lies round about them, and separates them from the sea-coast, and the great navigable rivers. The extent of their market,therefore, must for a long time be in proportion to the riches andpopulousness of that country, and consequently theirimprovement must always be posterior to the improvement of thatcountry. In our North American colonies the plantations haveconstantly followed either the sea-coast or the banks of thenavigable rivers, and have scarce anywhere extended themselvesto any considerable distance from both. The nations that, according to the best authenticated history,appear to have been first civilised, were those that dwelt round thecoast of the Mediterranean Sea. That sea, by far the greatest inletthat is known in the world, having no tides, nor consequently anywaves except such as are caused by the wind only, was, by thesmoothness of its surface, as well as by the multitude of its islands,and the proximity of its neighbouring shores, extremelyfavourable to the infant navigation of the world; when, from theirignorance of the compass, men were afraid to quit the view of thecoast, and from the imperfection of the art of shipbuilding, toabandon themselves to the boisterous waves of the ocean. To passbeyond the pillars of Hercules, that is, to sail out of the Straits ofGibraltar, was, in the ancient world, long considered as a mostAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 40. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 39wonderful and dangerous exploit of navigation. It was late beforeeven the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, the most skilfulnavigators and ship-builders of those old times, attempted it, andthey were for a long time the only nations that did attempt it. Of all the countries on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea,Egypt seems to have been the first in which either agriculture ormanufactures were cultivated and improved to any considerabledegree. Upper Egypt extends itself nowhere above a few milesfrom the Nile, and in Lower Egypt that great river breaks itselfinto many different canals, which, with the assistance of a little art,seem to have afforded a communication by water-carriage, notonly between all the great towns, but between all the considerablevillages, and even to many farmhouses in the country; nearly inthe same manner as the Rhine and the Maas do in Holland atpresent. The extent and easiness of this inland navigation wasprobably one of the principal causes of the early improvement ofEgypt. The improvements in agriculture and manufactures seemlikewise to have been of very great antiquity in the provinces ofBengal, in the East Indies, and in some of the eastern provinces ofChina; though the great extent of this antiquity is notauthenticated by any histories of whose authority we, in this partof the world, are well assured. In Bengal the Ganges and severalother great rivers form a great number of navigable canals in thesame manner as the Nile does in Egypt. In the Eastern provincesof China too, several great rivers form, by their different branches,a multitude of canals, and by communicating with one anotherafford an inland navigation much more extensive than that eitherof the Nile or the Ganges, or perhaps than both of them putAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 41. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 40together. It is remarkable that neither the ancient Egyptians, northe Indians, nor the Chinese, encouraged foreign commerce, butseem all to have derived their great opulence from this inlandnavigation. All the inland parts of Africa, and all that part of Asia which liesany considerable way north of the Euxine and Caspian seas, theancient Scythia, the modern Tartary and Siberia, seem in all agesof the world to have been in the same barbarous and uncivilisedstate in which we find them at present. The Sea of Tartary is thefrozen ocean which admits of no navigation, and though some ofthe greatest rivers in the world run through that country, they areat too great a distance from one another to carry commerce andcommunication through the greater part of it. There are in Africanone of those great inlets, such as the Baltic and Adriatic seas inEurope, the Mediterranean and Euxine seas in both Europe andAsia, and the gulfs of Arabia, Persia, India, Bengal, and Siam, inAsia, to carry maritime commerce into the interior parts of thatgreat continent: and the great rivers of Africa are at too great adistance from one another to give occasion to any considerableinland navigation. The commerce besides which any nation cancarry on by means of a river which does not break itself into anygreat number of branches or canals, and which runs into anotherterritory before it reaches the sea, can never be very considerable;because it is always in the power of the nations who possess thatother territory to obstruct the communication between the uppercountry and the sea. The navigation of the Danube is of very littleuse to the different states of Bavaria, Austria and Hungary, incomparison of what it would be if any of them possessed the wholeof its course till it falls into the Black Sea.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 42. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 41 Chapter IV Of the Origin and Use of MoneyW hen the division of labour has been once thoroughly established, it is but a very small part of a man’s wants which the produce of his own labour can supply. Hesupplies the far greater part of them by exchanging that surpluspart of the produce of his own labour, which is over and above hisown consumption, for such parts of the produce of other men’slabour as he has occasion for. Every man thus lives by exchanging,or becomes in some measure a merchant, and the society itselfgrows to be what is properly a commercial society. But when the division of labour first began to take place, thispower of exchanging must frequently have been very muchclogged and embarrassed in its operations. One man, we shallsuppose, has more of a certain commodity than he himself hasoccasion for, while another has less. The former consequentlywould be glad to dispose of, and the latter to purchase, a part ofthis superfluity. But if this latter should chance to have nothingthat the former stands in need of, no exchange can be madebetween them. The butcher has more meat in his shop than hehimself can consume, and the brewer and the baker would each ofthem be willing to purchase a part of it. But they have nothing tooffer in exchange, except the different productions of theirrespective trades, and the butcher is already provided with all thebread and beer which he has immediate occasion for. Noexchange can, in this case, be made between them. He cannot beAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 43. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 42their merchant, nor they his customers; and they are all of themthus mutually less serviceable to one another. In order to avoid theinconveniency of such situations, every prudent man in everyperiod of society, after the first establishment of the division oflabour, must naturally have endeavoured to manage his affairs insuch a manner as to have at all times by him, besides the peculiarproduce of his own industry, a certain quantity of some onecommodity or other, such as he imagined few people would belikely to refuse in exchange for the produce of their industry. Many different commodities, it is probable, were successivelyboth thought of and employed for this purpose. In the rude ages ofsociety, cattle are said to have been the common instrument ofcommerce; and, though they must have been a most inconvenientone, yet in old times we find things were frequently valuedaccording to the number of cattle which had been given inexchange for them. The armour of Diomede, says Homer, cost onlynine oxen; but that of Glaucus cost an hundred oxen. Salt is said tobe the common instrument of commerce and exchanges inAbyssinia; a species of shells in some parts of the coast of India;dried cod at Newfoundland; tobacco in Virginia; sugar in some ofour West India colonies; hides or dressed leather in some othercountries; and there is at this day a village in Scotland where it isnot uncommon, I am told, for a workman to carry nails instead ofmoney to the baker’s shop or the alehouse. In all countries, however, men seem at last to have beendetermined by irresistible reasons to give the preference, for thisemployment, to metals above every other commodity. Metals cannot only be kept with as little loss as any other commodity, scarceanything being less perishable than they are, but they canAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 44. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 43likewise, without any loss, be divided into any number of parts, asby fusion those parts can easily be reunited again; a quality whichno other equally durable commodities possess, and which morethan any other quality renders them fit to be the instruments ofcommerce and circulation. The man who wanted to buy salt, for example, and had nothingbut cattle to give in exchange for it, must have been obliged to buysalt to the value of a whole ox, or a whole sheep at a time. He couldseldom buy less than this, because what he was to give for it couldseldom be divided without loss; and if he had a mind to buy more,he must, for the same reasons, have been obliged to buy double ortriple the quantity, the value, to wit, of two or three oxen, or of twoor three sheep. If, on the contrary, instead of sheep or oxen, hehad metals to give in exchange for it, he could easily proportionthe quantity of the metal to the precise quantity of the commoditywhich he had immediate occasion for. Different metals have been made use of by different nations forthis purpose. Iron was the common instrument of commerceamong the ancient Spartans; copper among the ancient Romans;and gold and silver among all rich and commercial nations. Those metals seem originally to have been made use of for thispurpose in rude bars, without any stamp or coinage. Thus we aretold by Pliny,1 upon the authority of Timaeus, an ancient historian,that, till the time of Servius Tullius, the Romans had no coinedmoney, but made use of unstamped bars of copper, to purchasewhatever they had occasion for. These bars, therefore, performedat this time the function of money.1 Historia naturalis, xxxiii, 3.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 45. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 44 The use of metals in this rude state was attended with two veryconsiderable inconveniencies; first, with the trouble of weighing;and, secondly, with that of assaying them. In the precious metals,where a small difference in the quantity makes a great differencein the value, even the business of weighing, with proper exactness,requires at least very accurate weights and scales. The weighing ofgold in particular is an operation of some nicety. In the coarsermetals, indeed, where a small error would be of little consequence,less accuracy would, no doubt, be necessary. Yet we should find itexcessively troublesome, if every time a poor man had occasioneither to buy or sell a farthing’s worth of goods, he was obliged toweigh the farthing. The operation of assaying is still more difficult,still more tedious, and, unless a part of the metal is fairly melted inthe crucible, with proper dissolvents, any conclusion that can bedrawn from it, is extremely uncertain. Before the institution ofcoined money, however, unless they went through this tedious anddifficult operation, people must always have been liable to thegrossest frauds and impositions, and instead of a pound weight ofpure silver, or pure copper, might receive in exchange for theirgoods an adulterated composition of the coarsest and cheapestmaterials, which had, however, in their outward appearance, beenmade to resemble those metals. To prevent such abuses, tofacilitate exchanges, and thereby to encourage all sorts of industryand commerce, it has been found necessary, in all countries thathave made any considerable advances towards improvement, toaffix a public stamp upon certain quantities of such particularmetals as were in those countries commonly made use of topurchase goods. Hence the origin of coined money, and of thosepublic offices called mints; institutions exactly of the same natureAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 46. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 45with those of the aulnagers and stamp-masters of woollen andlinen cloth. All of them are equally meant to ascertain, by means ofa public stamp, the quantity and uniform goodness of thosedifferent commodities when brought to market. The first public stamps of this kind that were affixed to thecurrent metals, seem in many cases to have been intended toascertain, what it was both most difficult and most important toascertain, the goodness or fineness of the metal, and to haveresembled the sterling mark which is at present affixed to plateand bars of silver, or the Spanish mark which is sometimes affixedto ingots of gold, and which being struck only upon one side of thepiece, and not covering the whole surface, ascertains the fineness,but not the weight of the metal. Abraham weighs to Ephron thefour hundred shekels of silver which he had agreed to pay for thefield of Machpelah. They are said, however, to be the currentmoney of the merchant, and yet are received by weight and not bytale, in the same manner as ingots of gold and bars of silver are atpresent. The revenues of the ancient Saxon kings of England aresaid to have been paid, not in money but in kind, that is, in victualsand provisions of all sorts. William the Conqueror introduced thecustom of paying them in money. This money, however, was, for along time, received at the exchequer, by weight and not by tale. The inconveniency and difficulty of weighing those metals withexactness gave occasion to the institution of coins, of which thestamp, covering entirely both sides of the piece and sometimes theedges too, was supposed to ascertain not only the fineness, but theweight of the metal. Such coins, therefore, were received by tale asat present, without the trouble of weighing. The denominations of those coins seem originally to haveAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 47. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 46expressed the weight or quantity of metal contained in them. Inthe time of Servius Tullius, who first coined money at Rome, theRoman as or pondo contained a Roman pound of good copper. Itwas divided in the same manner as our Troyes pound, into twelveounces, each of which contained a real ounce of good copper. TheEnglish pound sterling, in the time of Edward I, contained apound, Tower weight, of silver, of a known fineness. The Towerpound seems to have been something more than the Romanpound, and something less than the Troyes pound. This last wasnot introduced into the mint of England till the 18th of Henry VIII.The French livre contained in the time of Charlemagne a pound,Troyes weight, of silver of a known fineness. The fair of Troyes inChampaign was at that time frequented by all the nations ofEurope, and the weights and measures of so famous a marketwere generally known and esteemed. The Scots money poundcontained, from the time of Alexander the First to that of RobertBruce, a pound of silver of the same weight and fineness with theEnglish pound sterling. English, French, and Scots pennies, too,contained all of them originally a real pennyweight of silver, thetwentieth part of an ounce, and the two-hundred-and-fortieth partof a pound. The shilling too seems originally to have been thedenomination of a weight. When wheat is at twelve shillings thequarter, says an ancient statute of Henry III, then wastel bread of afarthing shall weigh eleven shillings and four pence. Theproportion, however, between the shilling and either the penny onthe one hand, or the pound on the other, seems not to have beenso constant and uniform as that between the penny and thepound. During the first race of the kings of France, the French souor shilling appears upon different occasions to have contained five,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 48. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 47twelve, twenty, and forty pennies. Among the ancient Saxons ashilling appears at one time to have contained only five pennies,and it is not improbable that it may have been as variable amongthem as among their neighbours, the ancient Franks. From the time of Charlemagne among the French, and fromthat of William the Conqueror among the English, the proportionbetween the pound, the shilling, and the penny, seems to havebeen uniformly the same as at present, though the value of eachhas been very different. For in every country of the world, Ibelieve, the avarice and injustice of princes and sovereign states,abusing the confidence of their subjects, have by degreesdiminished the real quantity of metal, which had been originallycontained in their coins. The Roman as, in the latter ages of theRepublic, was reduced to the twenty-fourth part of its originalvalue, and, instead of weighing a pound, came to weigh only halfan ounce. The English pound and penny contain at present abouta third only; the Scots pound and penny about a thirty-sixth; andthe French pound and penny about a sixty-sixth part of theiroriginal value. By means of those operations the princes andsovereign states which performed them were enabled, inappearance, to pay their debts and to fulfil their engagements witha smaller quantity of silver than would otherwise have beenrequisite. It was indeed in appearance only; for their creditorswere really defrauded of a part of what was due to them. All otherdebtors in the state were allowed the same privilege, and mightpay with the same nominal sum of the new and debased coinwhatever they had borrowed in the old. Such operations,therefore, have always proved favourable to the debtor, andruinous to the creditor, and have sometimes produced a greaterAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 49. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 48and more universal revolution in the fortunes of private persons,than could have been occasioned by a very great public calamity. It is in this manner that money has become in all civilisednations the universal instrument of commerce, by the interventionof which goods of all kinds are bought and sold, or exchanged forone another. What are the rules which men naturally observe in exchangingthem either for money or for one another, I shall now proceed toexamine. These rules determine what may be called the relative orexchangeable value of goods. The word value, it is to be observed, has two differentmeanings, and sometimes expresses the utility of some particularobject, and sometimes the power of purchasing other goods whichthe possession of that object conveys. The one may be called“value in use”; the other, “value in exchange.” The things whichhave the greatest value in use have frequently little or no value inexchange; and, on the contrary, those which have the greatestvalue in exchange have frequently little or no value in use.Nothing is more useful than water: but it will purchase scarceanything; scarce anything can be had in exchange for it. Adiamond, on the contrary, has scarce any value in use; but a verygreat quantity of other goods may frequently be had in exchangefor it. In order to investigate the principles which regulate theexchangeable value of commodities, I shall endeavour to show: First, what is the real measure of this exchangeable value; or,wherein consists the real price of all commodities. Secondly, what are the different parts of which this real price iscomposed or made up.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 50. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 49 And, lastly, what are the different circumstances whichsometimes raise some or all of these different parts of price above,and sometimes sink them below their natural or ordinary rate; or,what are the causes which sometimes hinder the market price,that is, the actual price of commodities, from coinciding exactlywith what may be called their natural price. I shall endeavour to explain, as fully and distinctly as I can,those three subjects in the three following chapters, for which Imust very earnestly entreat both the patience and attention of thereader: his patience in order to examine a detail which mayperhaps in some places appear unnecessarily tedious; and hisattention in order to understand what may, perhaps, after thefullest explication which I am capable of giving of it, appear still insome degree obscure. I am always willing to run some hazard ofbeing tedious in order to be sure that I am perspicuous; and aftertaking the utmost pains that I can to be perspicuous, someobscurity may still appear to remain upon a subject in its ownnature extremely abstracted.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 51. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 50 Chapter V Of the Real and Nominal Price of Commodities, or their Price in Labour, and their Price in MoneyE very man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessaries, conveniences, and amusements of human life. But after the division of labourhas once thoroughly taken place, it is but a very small part of thesewith which a man’s own labour can supply him. The far greaterpart of them he must derive from the labour of other people, andhe must be rich or poor according to the quantity of that labourwhich he can command, or which he can afford to purchase. Thevalue of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it,and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchangeit for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which itenables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is thereal measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities. The real price of everything, what everything really costs to theman who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it.What everything is really worth to the man who has acquired it,and who wants to dispose of it or exchange it for something else, isthe toil and trouble which it can save to himself, and which it canimpose upon other people. What is bought with money or withgoods is purchased by labour as much as what we acquire by thetoil of our own body. That money or those goods indeed save usthis toil. They contain the value of a certain quantity of labourwhich we exchange for what is supposed at the time to contain theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 52. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 51value of an equal quantity. Labour was the first price, the originalpurchase-money that was paid for all things. It was not by gold orby silver, but by labour, that all the wealth of the world wasoriginally purchased; and its value, to those who possess it, andwho want to exchange it for some new productions, is preciselyequal to the quantity of labour which it can enable them topurchase or command. Wealth, as Mr. Hobbes says, is power. But the person whoeither acquires, or succeeds to a great fortune, does notnecessarily acquire or succeed to any political power, either civilor military. His fortune may, perhaps, afford him the means ofacquiring both, but the mere possession of that fortune does notnecessarily convey to him either. The power which that possessionimmediately and directly conveys to him, is the power ofpurchasing; a certain command over all the labour, or over all theproduce of labour, which is then in the market. His fortune isgreater or less, precisely in proportion to the extent of this power;or to the quantity either of other men’s labour, or, what is thesame thing, of the produce of other men’s labour, which it enableshim to purchase or command. The exchangeable value ofeverything must always be precisely equal to the extent of thispower which it conveys to its owner. But though labour be the real measure of the exchangeablevalue of all commodities, it is not that by which their value iscommonly estimated. It is of difficult to ascertain the proportionbetween two different quantities of labour. The time spent in twodifferent sorts of work will not always alone determine thisproportion. The different degrees of hardship endured, and ofingenuity exercised, must likewise be taken into account. ThereAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 53. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 52may be more labour in an hour’s hard work than in two hours’easy business; or in an hour’s application to a trade which it costten years’ labour to learn, than in a month’s industry at anordinary and obvious employment. But it is not easy to find anyaccurate measure either of hardship or ingenuity. In exchanging,indeed, the different productions of different sorts of labour forone another, some allowance is commonly made for both. It isadjusted, however, not by any accurate measure, but by thehiggling and bargaining of the market, according to that sort ofrough equality which, though not exact, is sufficient for carryingon the business of common life. Every commodity, besides, is more frequently exchanged for,and thereby compared with, other commodities than with labour.It is more natural, therefore, to estimate its exchangeable value bythe quantity of some other commodity than by that of the labourwhich it can purchase. The greater part of people, too, understandbetter what is meant by a quantity of a particular commodity thanby a quantity of labour. The one is a plain palpable object; theother an abstract notion, which, though it can be made sufficientlyintelligible, is not altogether so natural and obvious. But when barter ceases, and money has become the commoninstrument of commerce, every particular commodity is morefrequently exchanged for money than for any other commodity.The butcher seldom carries his beef or his mutton to the baker, orthe brewer, in order to exchange them for bread or for beer; buthe carries them to the market, where he exchanges them formoney, and afterwards exchanges that money for bread and forbeer. The quantity of money which he gets for them regulates, too,the quantity of bread and beer which he can afterwards purchase.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 54. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 53It is more natural and obvious to him, therefore, to estimate theirvalue by the quantity of money, the commodity for which heimmediately exchanges them, than by that of bread and beer, thecommodities for which he can exchange them only by theintervention of another commodity; and rather to say that hisbutcher’s meat is worth threepence or fourpence a pound, thanthat it is worth three or four pounds of bread, or three or fourquarts of small beer. Hence it comes to pass that the exchangeablevalue of every commodity is more frequently estimated by thequantity of money, than by the quantity either of labour or of anyother commodity which can be had in exchange for it. Gold and silver, however, like every other commodity, vary intheir value, are sometimes cheaper and sometimes dearer,sometimes of easier and sometimes of more difficult purchase. Thequantity of labour which any particular quantity of them canpurchase or command, or the quantity of other goods which it willexchange for, depends always upon the fertility or barrenness ofthe mines which happen to be known about the time when suchexchanges are made. The discovery of the abundant mines ofAmerica reduced, in the sixteenth century, the value of gold andsilver in Europe to about a third of what it had been before. As itcosts less labour to bring those metals from the mine to themarket, so when they were brought thither they could purchase orcommand less labour; and this revolution in their value, thoughperhaps the greatest, is by no means the only one of which historygives some account. But as a measure of quantity, such as thenatural foot, fathom, or handful, which is continually varying in itsown quantity, can never be an accurate measure of the quantity ofother things; so a commodity which is itself continually varying inAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 55. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 54its own value, can never be an accurate measure of the value ofother commodities. Equal quantities of labour, at all times andplaces, may be said to be of equal value to the labourer. In hisordinary state of health, strength and spirits; in the ordinarydegree of his skill and dexterity, he must always lay down thesame portion of his ease, his liberty, and his happiness. The pricewhich he pays must always be the same, whatever may be thequantity of goods which he receives in return for it. Of these,indeed, it may sometimes purchase a greater and sometimes asmaller quantity; but it is their value which varies, not that of thelabour which purchases them. At all times and places that is dearwhich it is difficult to come at, or which it costs much labour toacquire; and that cheap which is to be had easily, or with verylittle labour. Labour alone, therefore, never varying in its ownvalue, is alone the ultimate and real standard by which the valueof all commodities can at all times and places be estimated andcompared. It is their real price; money is their nominal price only. But though equal quantities of labour are always of equal valueto the labourer, yet to the person who employs him they appearsometimes to be of greater and sometimes of smaller value. Hepurchases them sometimes with a greater and sometimes with asmaller quantity of goods, and to him the price of labour seems tovary like that of all other things. It appears to him dear in the onecase, and cheap in the other. In reality, however, it is the goodswhich are cheap in the one case, and dear in the other. In this popular sense, therefore, labour, like commodities, maybe said to have a real and a nominal price. Its real price may besaid to consist in the quantity of the necessaries and conveniencesof life which are given for it; its nominal price, in the quantity ofAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 56. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 55money. The labourer is rich or poor, is well or ill rewarded, inproportion to the real, not to the nominal price of his labour. The distinction between the real and the nominal price ofcommodities and labour is not a matter of mere speculation, butmay sometimes be of considerable use in practice. The same realprice is always of the same value; but on account of the variationsin the value of gold and silver, the same nominal price issometimes of very different values. When a landed estate,therefore, is sold with a reservation of a perpetual rent, if it isintended that this rent should always be of the same value, it is ofimportance to the family in whose favour it is reserved that itshould not consist in a particular sum of money. Its value would inthis case be liable to variations of two different kinds; first, tothose which arise from the different quantities of gold and silverwhich are contained at different times in coin of the samedenomination; and, secondly, to those which arise from thedifferent values of equal quantities of gold and silver at differenttimes. Princes and sovereign states have frequently fancied that theyhad a temporary interest to diminish the quantity of pure metalcontained in their coins; but they seldom have fancied that theyhad any to augment it. The quantity of metal contained in thecoins, I believe of all nations, has, accordingly, been almostcontinually diminishing, and hardly ever augmenting. Suchvariations, therefore, tend almost always to diminish the value of amoney rent. The discovery of the mines of America diminished the value ofgold and silver in Europe. This diminution, it is commonlysupposed, though I apprehend without any certain proof, is stillAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 57. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 56going on gradually, and is likely to continue to do so for a longtime. Upon this supposition, therefore, such variations are morelikely to diminish than to augment the value of a money rent, eventhough it should be stipulated to be paid, not in such a quantity ofcoined money of such a denomination (in so many pounds sterling,for example), but in so many ounces either of pure silver, or ofsilver of a certain standard. The rents which have been reserved in corn have preservedtheir value much better than those which have been reserved inmoney, even where the denomination of the coin has not beenaltered. By the 18th of Elizabeth it was enacted that a third of therent of all college leases should be reserved in corn, to be paid,either in kind, or according to the current prices at the nearestpublic market. The money arising from this corn rent, thoughoriginally but a third of the whole, is in the present times,according to Dr. Blackstone, commonly near double of what arisesfrom the other two-thirds. The old money rents of colleges must,according to this account, have sunk almost to a fourth part oftheir ancient value; or are worth little more than a fourth part ofthe corn which they were formerly worth. But since the reign ofPhilip and Mary the denomination of the English coin hasundergone little or no alteration, and the same number of pounds,shillings and pence have contained very nearly the same quantityof pure silver. This degradation, therefore, in the value of themoney rents of colleges, has arisen altogether from thedegradation in the value of silver. When the degradation in the value of silver is combined withthe diminution of the quantity of it contained in the coin of thesame denomination, the loss is frequently still greater. InAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 58. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 57Scotland, where the denomination of the coin has undergonemuch greater alterations than it ever did in England, and inFrance, where it has undergone still greater than it ever did inScotland, some ancient rents, originally of considerable value,have in this manner been reduced almost to nothing. Equal quantities of labour will at distant times be purchasedmore nearly with equal quantities of corn, the subsistence of thelabourer, than with equal quantities of gold and silver, or perhapsof any other commodity. Equal quantities of corn, therefore, will,at distant times, be more nearly of the same real value, or enablethe possessor to purchase or command more nearly the samequantity of the labour of other people. They will do this, I say,more nearly than equal quantities of almost any other commodity;for even equal quantities of corn will not do it exactly. Thesubsistence of the labourer, or the real price of labour, as I shallendeavour to show hereafter, is very different upon differentoccasions; more liberal in a society advancing to opulence than inone that is standing still; and in one that is standing still than inone that is going backwards. Every other commodity, however,will at any particular time purchase a greater or smaller quantityof labour in proportion to the quantity of subsistence which it canpurchase at that time. A rent therefore reserved in corn is liableonly to the variations in the quantity of labour which a certainquantity of corn can purchase. But a rent reserved in any othercommodity is liable not only to the variations in the quantity oflabour which any particular quantity of corn can purchase, but tothe variations in the quantity of corn which can be purchased byany particular quantity of that commodity. Though the real value of a corn rent, it is to be observed,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 59. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 58however, varies much less from century to century than that of amoney rent, it varies much more from year to year. The moneyprice of labour, as I shall endeavour to show hereafter, does notfluctuate from year to year with the money price of corn, butseems to be everywhere accommodated, not to the temporary oroccasional, but to the average or ordinary price of that necessaryof life. The average or ordinary price of corn again is regulated, asI shall likewise endeavour to show hereafter, by the value of silver,by the richness or barrenness of the mines which supply themarket with that metal, or by the quantity of labour which must beemployed, and consequently of corn which must be consumed, inorder to bring any particular quantity of silver from the mine tothe market. But the value of silver, though it sometimes variesgreatly from century to century, seldom varies much from year toyear, but frequently continues the same, or very nearly the same,for half a century or a century together. The ordinary or averagemoney price of corn, therefore, may, during so long a period,continue the same or very nearly the same too, and along with itthe money price of labour, provided, at least, the society continues,in other respects, in the same or nearly in the same condition. Inthe meantime the temporary and occasional price of corn mayfrequently be double, one year, of what it had been the yearbefore, or fluctuate, for example, from five and twenty to fiftyshillings the quarter. But when corn is at the latter price, not onlythe nominal, but the real value of a corn rent will be double ofwhat it is when at the former, or will command double thequantity either of labour or of the greater part of othercommodities; the money price of labour, and along with it that ofmost other things, continuing the same during all theseAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 60. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 59fluctuations. Labour, therefore, it appears evidently, is the only universal, aswell as the only accurate measure of value, or the only standard bywhich we can compare the values of different commodities at alltimes, and at all places. We cannot estimate, it is allowed, the realvalue of different commodities from century to century by thequantities of silver which were given for them. We cannot estimateit from year to year by the quantities of corn. By the quantities oflabour we can, with the greatest accuracy, estimate it both fromcentury to century and from year to year. From century tocentury, corn is a better measure than silver, because, fromcentury to century, equal quantities of corn will command thesame quantity of labour more nearly than equal quantities ofsilver. From year to year, on the contrary, silver is a bettermeasure than corn, because equal quantities of it will more nearlycommand the same quantity of labour. But though in establishing perpetual rents, or even in lettingvery long leases, it may be of use to distinguish between real andnominal price; it is of none in buying and selling, the morecommon and ordinary transactions of human life. At the same time and place the real and the nominal price of allcommodities are exactly in proportion to one another. The moreor less money you get for any commodity, in the London marketfor example, the more or less labour it will at that time and placeenable you to purchase or command. At the same time and place,therefore, money is the exact measure of the real exchangeablevalue of all commodities. It is so, however, at the same time andplace only. Though at distant places, there is no regular proportionAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 61. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 60between the real and the money price of commodities, yet themerchant who carries goods from the one to the other has nothingto consider but their money price, or the difference between thequantity of silver for which he buys them, and that for which he islikely to sell them. Half an ounce of silver at Canton in China maycommand a greater quantity both of labour and of the necessariesand conveniences of life than an ounce at London. A commodity,therefore, which sells for half an ounce of silver at Canton maythere be really dearer, of more real importance to the man whopossesses it there, than a commodity which sells for an ounce atLondon is to the man who possesses it at London. If a Londonmerchant, however, can buy at Canton for half an ounce of silver,a commodity which he can afterwards sell at London for an ounce,he gains a hundred per cent by the bargain, just as much as if anounce of silver was at London exactly of the same value as atCanton. It is of no importance to him that half an ounce of silver atCanton would have given him the command of more labour and ofa greater quantity of the necessaries and conveniences of life thanan ounce can do at London. An ounce at London will always givehim the command of double the quantity of all these which half anounce could have done there, and this is precisely what he wants. As it is the nominal or money price of goods, therefore, whichfinally determines the prudence or imprudence of all purchasesand sales, and thereby regulates almost the whole business ofcommon life in which price is concerned, we cannot wonder that itshould have been so much more attended to than the real price. In such a work as this, however, it may sometimes be of use tocompare the different real values of a particular commodity atdifferent times and places, or the different degrees of power overAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 62. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 61the labour of other people which it may, upon different occasions,have given to those who possessed it. We must in this casecompare, not so much the different quantities of silver for which itwas commonly sold, as the different quantities of labour whichthose different quantities of silver could have purchased. But thecurrent prices of labour at distant times and places can scarce everbe known with any degree of exactness. Those of corn, thoughthey have in few places been regularly recorded, are in generalbetter known and have been more frequently taken notice of byhistorians and other writers. We must generally, therefore, contentourselves with them, not as being always exactly in the sameproportion as the current prices of labour, but as being the nearestapproximation which can commonly be had to that proportion. Ishall hereafter have occasion to make several comparisons of thiskind. In the progress of industry, commercial nations have found itconvenient to coin several different metals into money; gold forlarger payments, silver for purchases of moderate value, andcopper, or some other coarse metal, for those of still smallerconsideration. They have always, however, considered one ofthose metals as more peculiarly the measure of value than any ofthe other two; and this preference seems generally to have beengiven to the metal which they happened first to make use of as theinstrument of commerce. Having once begun to use it as theirstandard, which they must have done when they had no othermoney, they have generally continued to do so even when thenecessity was not the same. The Romans are said to have had nothing but copper money tillAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 63. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 62within five years before the first Punic war,1 when they first beganto coin silver. Copper, therefore, appears to have continued alwaysthe measure of value in that republic. At Rome all accounts appearto have been kept, and the value of all estates to have beencomputed either in asses or in sestertii. The as was always thedenomination of a copper coin. The word sestertius signifies twoasses and a half. Though the sestertius, therefore, was originally asilver coin, its value was estimated in copper. At Rome, one whoowed a great deal of money was said to have a great deal of otherpeople’s copper. The northern nations who established themselves upon theruins of the Roman empire, seem to have had silver money fromthe first beginning of their settlements, and not to have knowneither gold or copper coins for several ages thereafter. There weresilver coins in England in the time of the Saxons; but there waslittle gold coined till the time of Edward III nor any copper till thatof James I of Great Britain. In England, therefore, and for thesame reason, I believe, in all other modern nations of Europe, allaccounts are kept, and the value of all goods and of all estates isgenerally computed in silver: and when we mean to express theamount of a person’s fortune, we seldom mention the number ofguineas, but the number of pounds sterling which we supposewould be given for it. Originally, in all countries, I believe, a legal tender of paymentcould be made only in the coin of that metal, which was peculiarlyconsidered as the standard or measure of value. In England, goldwas not considered as a legal tender for a long time after it was1 Pliny, xxxiii, 3.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 64. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 63coined into money. The proportion between the values of gold andsilver money was not fixed by any public law or proclamation; butwas left to be settled by the market. If a debtor offered payment ingold, the creditor might either reject such payment altogether, oraccept of it at such a valuation of the gold as he and his debtorcould agree upon. Copper is not at present a legal tender except inthe change of the smaller silver coins. In this state of things thedistinction between the metal which was the standard, and thatwhich was not the standard, was something more than a nominaldistinction. In process of time, and as people became gradually morefamiliar with the use of the different metals in coin, andconsequently better acquainted with the proportion between theirrespective values, it has in most countries, I believe, been foundconvenient to ascertain this proportion, and to declare by a publiclaw that a guinea, for example, of such a weight and fineness,should exchange for one-and-twenty shillings, or be a legal tenderfor a debt of that amount. In this state of things, and during thecontinuance of any one regulated proportion of this kind, thedistinction between the metal which is the standard, and thatwhich is not the standard, becomes little more than a nominaldistinction. In consequence of any change, however, in this regulatedproportion, this distinction becomes, or at least seems to become,something more than nominal again. If the regulated value of aguinea, for example, was either reduced to twenty, or raised totwo-and-twenty shillings, all accounts being kept and almost allobligations for debt being expressed in silver money, the greaterpart of payments could in either case be made with the sameAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 65. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 64quantity of silver money as before; but would require verydifferent quantities of gold money; a greater in the one case, and asmaller in the other. Silver would appear to be more invariable inits value than gold. Silver would appear to measure the value ofgold, and gold would not appear to measure the value of silver.The value of gold would seem to depend upon the quantity ofsilver which it would exchange for; and the value of silver wouldnot seem to depend upon the quantity of gold which it wouldexchange for. This difference, however, would be altogether owingto the custom of keeping accounts, and of expressing the amountof all great and small sums rather in silver than in gold money.One of Mr. Drummond’s notes for five-and-twenty or fifty guineaswould, after an alteration of this kind, be still payable with five-and-twenty or fifty guineas in the same manner as before. Itwould, after such an alteration, be payable with the same quantityof gold as before, but with very different quantities of silver. In thepayment of such a note, gold would appear to be more invariablein its value than silver. Gold would appear to measure the value ofsilver, and silver would not appear to measure the value of gold. Ifthe custom of keeping accounts, and of expressing promissorynotes and other obligations for money in this manner, should everbecome general, gold, and not silver, would be considered as themetal which was peculiarly the standard or measure of value. In reality, during the continuance of any one regulatedproportion between the respective values of the different metals incoin, the value of the most precious metal regulates the value ofthe whole coin. Twelve copper pence contain half a pound,avoirdupois, of copper, of not the best quality, which, before it iscoined, is seldom worth sevenpence in silver. But as by theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 66. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 65regulation twelve such pence are ordered to exchange for ashilling, they are in the market considered as worth a shilling, anda shilling can at any time be had for them. Even before the latereformation of the gold coin of Great Britain, the gold, that part ofit at least which circulated in London and its neighbourhood, wasin general less degraded below its standard weight than thegreater part of the silver. One-and-twenty worn and defacedshillings, however, were considered as equivalent to a guinea,which perhaps, indeed, was worn and defaced too, but seldom somuch so. The late regulations have brought the gold coin as nearperhaps to its standard weight as it is possible to bring the currentcoin of any nation; and the order, to receive no gold at the publicoffices but by weight, is likely to preserve it so, as long as thatorder is enforced. The silver coin still continues in the same wornand degraded state as before the reformation of the gold coin. Inthe market, however, one-and-twenty shillings of this degradedsilver coin are still considered as worth a guinea of this excellentgold coin. The reformation of the gold coin has evidently raised the valueof the silver coin which can be exchanged for it. In the English mint a pound weight of gold is coined into forty-four guineas and a half, which, at one-and-twenty shillings theguinea, is equal to forty-six pounds fourteen shillings andsixpence. An ounce of such gold coin, therefore, is worth £3 17s. 101/2d. in silver. In England no duty or seignorage is paid upon thecoinage, and he who carries a pound weight or an ounce weight ofstandard gold bullion to the mint, gets back a pound weight or anounce weight of gold in coin, without any deduction. Three poundsseventeen shillings and tenpence halfpenny an ounce, therefore, isAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 67. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 66said to be the mint price of gold in England, or the quantity of goldcoin which the mint gives in return for standard gold bullion. Before the reformation of the gold coin, the price of standardgold bullion in the market had for many years been upwards of £318s. sometimes £3 19s. and very frequently £4 an ounce; that sum,it is probable, in the worn and degraded gold coin, seldomcontaining more than an ounce of standard gold. Since thereformation of the gold coin, the market price of standard goldbullion seldom exceeds £3 17s. 7d. an ounce. Before thereformation of the gold coin, the market price was always more orless above the mint price. Since that reformation, the market pricehas been constantly below the mint price. But that market price isthe same whether it is paid in gold or in silver coin. The latereformation of the gold coin, therefore, has raised not only thevalue of the gold coin, but likewise that of the silver coin inproportion to gold bullion, and probably, too, in proportion to allother commodities; through the price of the greater part of othercommodities being influenced by so many other causes, the rise inthe value either of gold or silver coin in proportion to them maynot be so distinct and sensible. In the English mint a pound weight of standard silver bullion iscoined into sixty-two shillings, containing, in the same manner, apound weight of standard silver. Five shillings and twopence anounce, therefore, is said to be the mint price of silver in England,or the quantity of silver coin which the mint gives in return forstandard silver bullion. Before the reformation of the gold coin,the market price of standard silver bullion was, upon differentoccasions, five shillings and fourpence, five shillings andfivepence, five shillings and sixpence, five shillings andAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 68. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 67sevenpence, and very often five shillings and eightpence an ounce.Five shillings and sevenpence, however, seems to have been themost common price. Since the reformation of the gold coin, themarket price of standard silver bullion has fallen occasionally tofive shillings and threepence, five shillings and fourpence, and fiveshillings and fivepence an ounce, which last price it has scarceever exceeded. Though the market price of silver bullion has fallenconsiderably since the reformation of the gold coin, it has notfallen so low as the mint price. In the proportion between the different metals in the Englishcoin, as copper is rated very much above its real value, so silver israted somewhat below it. In the market of Europe, in the Frenchcoin and in the Dutch coin, an ounce of fine gold exchanges forabout fourteen ounces of fine silver. In the English coin, itexchanges for about fifteen ounces, that is, for more silver than itis worth according to the common estimation of Europe. But asthe price of copper in bars is not, even in England, raised by thehigh price of copper in English coin, so the price of silver inbullion is not sunk by the low rate of silver in English coin. Silverin bullion still preserves its proper proportion to gold; for the samereason that copper in bars preserves its proper proportion tosilver. Upon the reformation of the silver coin in the reign of WilliamIII the price of silver bullion still continued to be somewhat abovethe mint price. Mr. Locke imputed this high price to thepermission of exporting silver bullion, and to the prohibition ofexporting silver coin. This permission of exporting, he said,rendered the demand for silver bullion greater than the demandfor silver coin. But the number of people who want silver coin forAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 69. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 68the common uses of buying and selling at home, is surely muchgreater than that of those who want silver bullion either for theuse of exportation or for any other use. There subsists at present alike permission of exporting gold bullion, and a like prohibition ofexporting gold coin: and yet the price of gold bullion has fallenbelow the mint price. But in the English coin silver was then, inthe same manner as now, under-rated in proportion to gold, andthe gold coin (which at that time too was not supposed to requireany reformation) regulated then, as well as now, the real value ofthe whole coin. As the reformation of the silver coin did not thenreduce the price of silver bullion to the mint price, it is not veryprobable that a like reformation will do so now. Were the silver coin brought back as near to its standard weightas the gold, a guinea, it is probable, would, according to thepresent proportion, exchange for more silver in coin than it wouldpurchase in bullion. The silver coin containing its full standardweight, there would in this case be a profit in melting it down, inorder, first, to sell the bullion for gold coin, and afterwards toexchange this gold coin for silver coin to be melted down in thesame manner. Some alteration in the present proportion seems tobe the only method of preventing this inconveniency. The inconveniency perhaps would be less if silver was rated inthe coin as much above its proper proportion to gold as it is atpresent rated below it; provided it was at the same time enactedthat silver should not be a legal tender for more than the change ofa guinea, in the same manner as copper is not a legal tender formore than the change of a shilling. No creditor could in this casebe cheated in consequence of the high valuation of silver in coin;as no creditor can at present be cheated in consequence of theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 70. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 69high valuation of copper. The bankers only would suffer by thisregulation. When a run comes upon them they sometimesendeavour to gain time by paying in sixpences, and they would beprecluded by this regulation from this discreditable method ofevading immediate payment. They would be obliged inconsequence to keep at all times in their coffers a greater quantityof cash than at present; and though this might no doubt be aconsiderable inconveniency to them, it would at the same time bea considerable security to their creditors. Three pounds seventeen shillings and tenpence halfpenny (themint price of gold) certainly does not contain, even in our presentexcellent gold coin, more than an ounce of standard gold, and itmay be thought, therefore, should not purchase more standardbullion. But gold in coin is more convenient than gold in bullion,and though, in England, the coinage is free, yet the gold which iscarried in bullion to the mint can seldom be returned in coin to theowner till after a delay of several weeks. In the present hurry ofthe mint, it could not be returned till after a delay of severalmonths. This delay is equivalent to a small duty, and renders goldin coin somewhat more valuable than an equal quantity of gold inbullion. If in the English coin silver was rated according to itproper proportion to gold, the price of silver bullion wouldprobably fall below the mint price even without any reformation ofthe silver coin; the value even of the present worn and defacedsilver coin being regulated by the value of the excellent gold coinfor which it can be changed. A small seignorage or duty upon the coinage of both gold andsilver would probably increase still more the superiority of thosemetals in coin above an equal quantity of either of them in bullion.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 71. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 70The coinage would in this case increase the value of the metalcoined in proportion to the extent of this small duty; for the samereason that the fashion increases the value of plate in proportionto the price of that fashion. The superiority of coin above bullionwould prevent the melting down of the coin, and would discourageits exportation. If upon any public exigency it should becomenecessary to export the coin, the greater part of it would soonreturn again of its own accord. Abroad it could sell only for itsweight in bullion. At home it would buy more than that weight.There would be a profit, therefore, in bringing it home again. InFrance a seignorage of about eight per cent is imposed upon thecoinage, and the French coin, when exported, is said to returnhome again of its own accord. The occasional fluctuations in the market price of gold andsilver bullion arise from the same causes as the like fluctuations inthat of all other commodities. The frequent loss of those metalsfrom various accidents by sea and by land, the continual waste ofthem in gilding and plating, in lace and embroidery, in the wearand tear of coin, and in that of plate; require, in all countrieswhich possess no mines of their own, a continual importation, inorder to repair this loss and this waste. The merchant importers,like all other merchants, we may believe, endeavour, as well asthey can, to suit their occasional importations to what, they judge,is likely to be the immediate demand. With all their attention,however, they sometimes overdo the business, and sometimesunderdo it. When they import more bullion than is wanted, ratherthan incur the risk and trouble of exporting it again, they aresometimes willing to sell a part of it for something less than theordinary or average price. When, on the other hand, they importAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 72. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 71less than is wanted, they get something more than this price. Butwhen, under all those occasional fluctuations, the market priceeither of gold or silver bullion continues for several years togethersteadily and constantly, either more or less above, or more or lessbelow the mint price, we may be assured that this steady andconstant, either superiority or inferiority of price, is the effect ofsomething in the state of the coin, which, at that time, renders acertain quantity of coin either of more value or of less value thanthe precise quantity of bullion which it ought to contain. Theconstancy and steadiness of the effect supposes a proportionableconstancy and steadiness in the cause. The money of any particular country is, at any particular timeand place, more or less an accurate measure of value according asthe current coin is more or less exactly agreeable to its standard,or contains more or less exactly the precise quantity of pure goldor pure silver which it ought to contain. If in England, for example,forty-four guineas and a half contained exactly a pound weight ofstandard gold, or eleven ounces of fine gold and one ounce ofalloy, the gold coin of England would be as accurate a measure ofthe actual value of goods at any particular time and place as thenature of the thing would admit. But if, by rubbing and wearing,forty-four guineas and a half generally contain less than a poundweight of standard gold; the diminution, however, being greater insome pieces than in others; the measure of value comes to beliable to the same sort of uncertainty to which all other weightsand measures are commonly exposed. As it rarely happens thatthese are exactly agreeable to their standard, the merchant adjuststhe price of his goods, as well as he can, not to what those weightsand measures ought to be, but to what, upon an average, he findsAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 73. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 72by experience they actually are. In consequence of a like disorderin the coin, the price of goods comes, in the same manner, to beadjusted, not to the quantity of pure gold or silver which the cornought to contain, but to that which, upon an average, it is found byexperience, it actually does contain. By the money-price of goods, it is to be observed, I understandalways the quantity of pure gold or silver for which they are sold,without any regard to the denomination of the coin. Six shillingsand eightpence, for example, in the time of Edward I, I consider asthe same money-price with a pound sterling in the present times;because it contained, as nearly as we can judge, the same quantityof pure silver.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 74. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 73 Chapter VI Of the Component Parts of the Price of CommoditiesI n that early and rude state of society which precedes both the accumulation of stock and the appropriation of land, the proportion between the quantities of labour necessary foracquiring different objects seems to be the only circumstancewhich can afford any rule for exchanging them for one another. Ifamong a nation of hunters, for example, it usually costs twice thelabour to kill a beaver which it does to kill a deer, one beavershould naturally exchange for or be worth two deer. It is naturalthat what is usually the produce of two days’ or two hours’ labour,should be worth double of what is usually the produce of one day’sor one hour’s labour. If the one species of labour should be more severe than theother, some allowance will naturally be made for this superiorhardship; and the produce of one hour’s labour in the one waymay frequently exchange for that of two hours’ labour in the other. Or if the one species of labour requires an uncommon degree ofdexterity and ingenuity, the esteem which men have for suchtalents will naturally give a value to their produce, superior towhat would be due to the time employed about it. Such talents canseldom be acquired but in consequence of long application, andthe superior value of their produce may frequently be no morethan a reasonable compensation for the time and labour whichmust be spent in acquiring them. In the advanced state of society,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 75. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 74allowances of this kind, for superior hardship and superior skill,are commonly made in the wages of labour; and something of thesame kind must probably have taken place in its earliest andrudest period. In this state of things, the whole produce of labour belongs tothe labourer; and the quantity of labour commonly employed inacquiring or producing any commodity is the only circumstancewhich can regulate the quantity exchange for which it oughtcommonly to purchase, command, or exchange for. As soon as stock has accumulated in the hands of particularpersons, some of them will naturally employ it in setting to workindustrious people, whom they will supply with materials andsubsistence, in order to make a profit by the sale of their work, orby what their labour adds to the value of the materials. Inexchanging the complete manufacture either for money, forlabour, or for other goods, over and above what may be sufficientto pay the price of the materials, and the wages of the workmen,something must be given for the profits of the undertaker of thework who hazards his stock in this adventure. The value which theworkmen add to the materials, therefore, resolves itself in thisease into two parts, of which the one pays their wages, the otherthe profits of their employer upon the whole stock of materials andwages which he advanced. He could have no interest to employthem, unless he expected from the sale of their work somethingmore than what was sufficient to replace his stock to him; and hecould have no interest to employ a great stock rather than a smallone, unless his profits were to bear some proportion to the extentof his stock. The profits of stock, it may perhaps be thought are only aAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 76. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 75different name for the wages of a particular sort of labour, thelabour of inspection and direction. They are, however, altogetherdifferent, are regulated by quite different principles, and bear noproportion to the quantity, the hardship, or the ingenuity of thissupposed labour of inspection and direction. They are regulatedaltogether by the value of the stock employed, and are greater orsmaller in proportion to the extent of this stock. Let us suppose,for example, that in some particular place, where the commonannual profits of manufacturing stock are ten per cent, there aretwo different manufactures, in each of which twenty workmen areemployed at the rate of fifteen pounds a year each, or at theexpense of three hundred a year in each manufactory. Let ussuppose, too, that the coarse materials annually wrought up in theone cost only seven hundred pounds, while the finer materials inthe other cost seven thousand. The capital annually employed inthe one will in this case amount only to one thousand pounds;whereas that employed in the other will amount to seven thousandthree hundred pounds. At the rate of ten per cent, therefore, theundertaker of the one will expect a yearly profit of about onehundred pounds only; while that of the other will expect aboutseven hundred and thirty pounds. But though their profits are sovery different, their labour of inspection and direction may beeither altogether or very nearly the same. In many great worksalmost the whole labour of this kind is committed to someprincipal clerk. His wages properly express the value of this labourof inspection and direction. Though in settling them some regardis had commonly, not only to his labour and skill, but to the trustwhich is reposed in him, yet they never bear any regularproportion to the capital of which he oversees the management;Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 77. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 76and the owner of this capital, though he is thus discharged ofalmost all labour, still expects that his profits should bear a regularproportion to his capital. In the price of commodities, therefore,the profits of stock constitute a component part altogetherdifferent from the wages of labour, and regulated by quitedifferent principles. In this state of things, the whole produce of labour does notalways belong to the labourer. He must in most cases share it withthe owner of the stock which employs him. Neither is the quantityof labour commonly employed in acquiring or producing anycommodity, the only circumstance which can regulate the quantitywhich it ought commonly to purchase, command, or exchange for.An additional quantity, it is evident, must be due for the profits ofthe stock which advanced the wages and furnished the materialsof that labour. As soon as the land of any country has all become privateproperty, the landlords, like all other men, love to reap where theynever sowed, and demand a rent even for its natural produce. Thewood of the forest, the grass of the field, and all the natural fruitsof the earth, which, when land was in common, cost the laboureronly the trouble of gathering them, come, even to him, to have anadditional price fixed upon them. He must then pay for the licenceto gather them; and must give up to the landlord a portion of whathis labour either collects or produces. This portion, or, what comesto the same thing, the price of this portion, constitutes the rent ofland, and in the price of the greater part of commodities makes athird component part. The real value of all the different component parts of price, itmust be observed, is measured by the quantity of labour whichAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 78. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 77they can, each of them, purchase or command. Labour measuresthe value not only of that part of price which resolves itself intolabour, but of that which resolves itself into rent, and of that whichresolves itself into profit. In every society the price of every commodity finally resolvesitself into some one or other, or all of those three parts; and inevery improved society, all the three enter more or less, ascomponent parts, into the price of the far greater part ofcommodities. In the price of corn, for example, one part pays the rent of thelandlord, another pays the wages or maintenance of the labourersand labouring cattle employed in producing it, and the third paysthe profit of the farmer. These three parts seem eitherimmediately or ultimately to make up the whole price of corn. Afourth part, it may perhaps be thought, is necessary for replacingthe stock of the farmer, or for compensating the wear and tear ofhis labouring cattle, and other instruments of husbandry. But itmust be considered that the price of any instrument of husbandry,such as a labouring horse, is itself made up of the same threeparts; the rent of the land upon which he is reared, the labour oftending and rearing him, and the profits of the farmer whoadvances both the rent of this land, and the wages of this labour.Though the price of the corn, therefore, may pay the price as wellas the maintenance of the horse, the whole price still resolves itselfeither immediately or ultimately into the same three parts of rent,labour, and profit. In the price of flour or meal, we must add to the price of thecorn, the profits of the miller, and the wages of his servants; in theprice of bread, the profits of the baker, and the wages of hisAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 79. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 78servants; and in the price of both, the labour of transporting thecorn from the house of the farmer to that of the miller, and fromthat of the miner to that of the baker, together with the profits ofthose who advance the wages of that labour. The price of flax resolves itself into the same three parts as thatof corn. In the price of linen we must add to this price the wages ofthe flax-dresser, of the spinner, of the weaver, of the bleacher, etc.,together with the profits of their respective employers. As any particular commodity comes to be more manufactured,that part of the price which resolves itself into wages and profitcomes to be greater in proportion to that which resolves itself intorent. In the progress of the manufacture, not only the number ofprofits increase, but every subsequent profit is greater than theforegoing; because the capital from which it is derived mustalways be greater. The capital which employs the weavers, forexample, must be greater than that which employs the spinners;because it not only replaces that capital with its profits, but pays,besides, the wages of the weavers; and the profits must alwaysbear some proportion to the capital. In the most improved societies, however, there are always a fewcommodities of which the price resolves itself into two parts only,the wages of labour, and the profits of stock; and a still smallernumber, in which it consists altogether in the wages of labour. Inthe price of sea-fish, for example, one part pays the labour of thefishermen, and the other the profits of the capital employed in thefishery. Rent very seldom makes any part of it, though it doessometimes, as I shall show hereafter. It is otherwise, at leastthrough the greater part of Europe, in river fisheries. A salmonfishery pays a rent, and rent, though it cannot well be called theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 80. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 79rent of land, makes a part of the price of a salmon as well as wagesand profit. In some parts of Scotland a few poor people make atrade of gathering, along the sea-shore, those little variegatedstones commonly known by the name of Scotch Pebbles. The pricewhich is paid to them by the stone-cutter is altogether the wages oftheir labour; neither rent nor profit make any part of it. But the whole price of any commodity must still finally resolveitself into some one or other, or all of those three parts; aswhatever part of it remains after paying the rent of the land, andthe price of the whole labour employed in raising, manufacturing,and bringing it to market, must necessarily be profit to somebody. As the price or exchangeable value of every particularcommodity, taken separately, resolves itself into some one or otheror all of those three parts; so that of all the commodities whichcompose the whole annual produce of the labour of every country,taken complexly, must resolve itself into the same three parts, andbe parcelled out among different inhabitants of the country, eitheras the wages of their labour, the profits of their stock, or the rentof their land. The whole of what is annually either collected orproduced by the labour of every society, or what comes to thesame thing, the whole price of it, is in this manner originallydistributed among some of its different members. Wages, profit,and rent, are the three original sources of all revenue as well as ofall exchangeable value. All other revenue is ultimately derivedfrom some one or other of these. Whoever derives his revenue from a fund which is his own,must draw it either from his labour, from his stock, or from hisland. The revenue derived from labour is called wages. Thatderived from stock, by the person who manages or employes it, isAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 81. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 80called profit. That derived from it by the person who does notemploy it himself, but lends it to another, is called the interest orthe use of money. It is the compensation which the borrower paysto the lender, for the profit which he has an opportunity of makingby the use of the money. Part of that profit naturally belongs to theborrower, who runs the risk and takes the trouble of employing it;and part to the lender, who affords him the opportunity of makingthis profit. The interest of money is always a derivative revenue,which, if it is not paid from the profit which is made by the use ofthe money, must be paid from some other source of revenue,unless perhaps the borrower is a spendthrift, who contracts asecond debt in order to pay the interest of the first. The revenuewhich proceeds altogether from land, is called rent, and belongs tothe landlord. The revenue of the farmer is derived partly from hislabour, and partly from his stock. To him, land is only theinstrument which enables him to earn the wages of this labour,and to make the profits of this stock. All taxes, and an the revenuewhich is founded upon them, all salaries, pensions, and annuitiesof every kind, are ultimately derived from some one or other ofthose three original sources of revenue, and are paid eitherimmediately or mediately from the wages of labour, the profits ofstock, or the rent of land. When those three different sorts of revenue belong to differentpersons, they are readily distinguished; but when they belong tothe same they are sometimes confounded with one another, atleast in common language. A gentleman who farms a part of his own estate, after payingthe expense of cultivation, should gain both the rent of thelandlord and the profit of the farmer. He is apt to denominate,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 82. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 81however, his whole gain, profit, and thus confounds rent withprofit, at least in common language. The greater part of our NorthAmerican and West Indian planters are in this situation. Theyfarm, the greater part of them, their own estates, and accordinglywe seldom hear of the rent of a plantation, but frequently of itsprofit. Common farmers seldom employ any overseer to direct thegeneral operations of the farm. They generally, too, work a gooddeal with their own hands, as ploughmen, harrowers, etc. Whatremains of the crop after paying the rent, therefore, should notonly replace to them their stock employed in cultivation, togetherwith its ordinary profits, but pay them the wages which are due tothem, both as labourers and overseers. Whatever remains,however, after paying the rent and keeping up the stock, is calledprofit. But wages evidently make a part of it. The farmer, bysaving these wages, must necessarily gain them. Wages, therefore,are in this case confounded with profit. An independent manufacturer, who has stock enough both topurchase materials, and to maintain himself till he can carry hiswork to market, should gain both the wages of a journeyman whoworks under a master, and the profit which that master makes bythe sale of the journeyman’s work. His whole gains, however, arecommonly called profit, and wages are, in this case too,confounded with profit. A gardener who cultivates his own garden with his own hands,unites in his own person the three different characters of landlord,farmer, and labourer. His produce, therefore, should pay him therent of the first, the profit of the second, and the wages of thethird. The whole, however, is commonly considered as theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 83. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 82earnings of his labour. Both rent and profit are, in this case,confounded with wages. As in a civilised country there are but few commodities of whichthe exchangeable value arises from labour only, rent and profitcontributing largely to that of the far greater part of them, so theannual produce of its labour will always be sufficient to purchaseor command a much greater quantity of labour than whatemployed in raising, preparing, and bringing that produce tomarket. If the society were annually to employ all the labour whichit can annually purchase, as the quantity of labour would increasegreatly every year, so the produce of every succeeding year wouldbe of vastly greater value than that of the foregoing. But there isno country in which the whole annual produce is employed inmaintaining the industrious. The idle everywhere consume a greatpart of it; and according to the different proportions in which it isannually divided between those two different orders of people, itsordinary or average value must either annually increase, ordiminish, or continue the same from one year to another.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 84. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 83 Chapter VII Of the Natural and Market Price of CommoditiesT here is in every society or neighbourhood an ordinary or average rate both of wages and profit in every different employment of labour and stock. This rate is naturallyregulated, as I shall show hereafter, partly by the generalcircumstances of the society, their riches or poverty, theiradvancing, stationary, or declining condition; and partly by theparticular nature of each employment. There is likewise in every society or neighbourhood an ordinaryor average rate of rent, which is regulated too, as I shall showhereafter, partly by the general circumstances of the society orneighbourhood in which the land is situated, and partly by thenatural or improved fertility of the land. These ordinary or average rates may be called the natural ratesof wages, profit, and rent, at the time and place in which theycommonly prevail. When the price of any commodity is neither more nor less thanwhat is sufficient to pay the rent of the land, the wages of thelabour, and the profits of the stock employed in raising, preparing,and bringing it to market, according to their natural rates, thecommodity is then sold for what may be called its natural price. The commodity is then sold precisely for what it is worth, or forwhat it really costs the person who brings it to market; for thoughin common language what is called the prime cost of anycommodity does not comprehend the profit of the person who is toAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 85. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 84sell it again, yet if he sell it at a price which does not allow him theordinary rate of profit in his neighbourhood, he is evidently a loserby the trade; since by employing his stock in some other way hemight have made that profit. His profit, besides, is his revenue, theproper fund of his subsistence. As, while he is preparing andbringing the goods to market, he advances to his workmen theirwages, or their subsistence; so he advances to himself, in the samemanner, his own subsistence, which is generally suitable to theprofit which he may reasonably expect from the sale of his goods.Unless they yield him this profit, therefore, they do not repay himwhat they may very properly be said to have really cost him. Though the price, therefore, which leaves him this profit is notalways the lowest at which a dealer may sometimes sell his goods,it is the lowest at which he is likely to sell them for anyconsiderable time; at least where there is perfect liberty, or wherehe may change his trade as often as he pleases. The actual price at which any commodity is commonly sold iscalled its market price. It may either be above, or below, or exactlythe same with its natural price. The market price of every particular commodity is regulated bythe proportion between the quantity which is actually brought tomarket, and the demand of those who are willing to pay thenatural price of the commodity, or the whole value of the rent,labour, and profit, which must be paid in order to bring it thither.Such people may be called the effectual demanders, and theirdemand the effectual demand; since it may be sufficient toeffectuate the bringing of the commodity to market. It is differentfrom the absolute demand. A very poor man may be said in somesense to have a demand for a coach and six; he might like to haveAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 86. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 85it; but his demand is not an effectual demand, as the commoditycan never be brought to market in order to satisfy it. When the quantity of any commodity which is brought tomarket falls short of the effectual demand, all those who arewilling to pay the whole value of the rent, wages, and profit, whichmust be paid in order to bring it thither, cannot be supplied withthe quantity which they want. Rather than want it altogether,some of them will be willing to give more. A competition willimmediately begin among them, and the market price will risemore or less above the natural price, according as either thegreatness of the deficiency, or the wealth and wanton luxury of thecompetitors, happen to animate more or less the eagerness of thecompetition. Among competitors of equal wealth and luxury thesame deficiency will generally occasion a more or less eagercompetition, according as the acquisition of the commodityhappens to be of more or less importance to them. Hence theexorbitant price of the necessaries of life during the blockade of atown or in a famine. When the quantity brought to market exceeds the effectualdemand, it cannot be all sold to those who are willing to pay thewhole value of the rent, wages, and profit, which must be paid inorder to bring it thither. Some part must be sold to those who arewilling to pay less, and the low price which they give for it mustreduce the price of the whole. The market price will sink more orless below the natural price, according as the greatness of theexcess increases more or less the competition of the sellers, oraccording as it happens to be more or less important to them toget immediately rid of the commodity. The same excess in theimportation of perishable, will occasion a much greaterAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 87. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 86competition than in that of durable commodities; in theimportation of oranges, for example, than in that of old iron. When the quantity brought to market is just sufficient to supplythe effectual demand, and no more, the market price naturallycomes to be either exactly, or as nearly as can be judged of, thesame with the natural price. The whole quantity upon hand can bedisposed of for this price, and cannot be disposed of for more. Thecompetition of the different dealers obliges them all to accept ofthis price, but does not oblige them to accept of less. The quantity of every commodity brought to market naturallysuits itself to the effectual demand. It is the interest of all thosewho employ their land, labour, or stock, in bringing anycommodity to market, that the quantity never should exceed theeffectual demand; and it is the interest of all other people that itnever should fall short of that demand. If at any time it exceeds the effectual demand, some of thecomponent parts of its price must be paid below their natural rate.If it is rent, the interest of the landlords will immediately promptthem to withdraw a part of their land; and if it is wages or profit,the interest of the labourers in the one case, and of theiremployers in the other, will prompt them to withdraw a part oftheir labour or stock from this employment. The quantity broughtto market will soon be no more than sufficient to supply theeffectual demand. All the different parts of its price will rise totheir natural rate, and the whole price to its natural price. If, on the contrary, the quantity brought to market should atany time fall short of the effectual demand, some of the componentparts of its price must rise above their natural rate. If it is rent, theinterest of all other landlords will naturally prompt them toAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 88. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 87prepare more land for the raising of this commodity; if it is wagesor profit, the interest of all other labourers and dealers will soonprompt them to employ more labour and stock in preparing andbringing it to market. The quantity brought thither will soon besufficient to supply the effectual demand. All the different parts ofits price will soon sink to their natural rate, and the whole price toits natural price. The natural price, therefore, is, as it were, the central price, towhich the prices of all commodities are continually gravitating.Different accidents may sometimes keep them suspended a gooddeal above it, and sometimes force them down even somewhatbelow it. But whatever may be the obstacles which hinder themfrom settling in this centre of repose and continuance, they areconstantly tending towards it. The whole quantity of industry annually employed in order tobring any commodity to market naturally suits itself in thismanner to the effectual demand. It naturally aims at bringingalways that precise quantity thither which may be sufficient tosupply, and no more than supply, that demand. But in some employments the same quantity of industry will indifferent years produce very different quantities of commodities;while in others it will produce always the same, or very nearly thesame. The same number of labourers in husbandry will, indifferent years, produce very different quantities of corn, wine, oil,hops, etc. But the same number of spinners and weavers will everyyear produce the same or very nearly the same quantity of linenand woollen cloth. It is only the average produce of the one speciesof industry which can be suited in any respect to the effectualdemand; and as its actual produce is frequently much greater andAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 89. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 88frequently much less than its average produce, the quantity of thecommodities brought to market will sometimes exceed a gooddeal, and sometimes fall short a good deal, of the effectualdemand. Even though that demand therefore should continuealways the same, their market price will be liable to greatfluctuations, will sometimes fall a good deal below, and sometimesrise a good deal above their natural price. In the other species ofindustry, the produce of equal quantities of labour being alwaysthe same, or very nearly the same, it can be more exactly suited tothe effectual demand. While that demand continues the same,therefore, the market price of the commodities is likely to do sotoo, and to be either altogether, or as nearly as can be judged of,the same with the natural price. That the price of linen andwoollen cloth is liable neither to such frequent nor to such greatvariations as the price of corn, every man’s experience will informhim. The price of the one species of commodities varies only withthe variations in the demand: that of the other varies, not onlywith the variations in the demand, but with the much greater andmore frequent variations in the quantity of what is brought tomarket in order to supply that demand. The occasional and temporary fluctuations in the market priceof any commodity fall chiefly upon those parts of its price whichresolve themselves into wages and profit. That part which resolvesitself into rent is less affected by them. A rent certain in money isnot in the least affected by them either in its rate or in its value. Arent which consists either in a certain proportion or in a certainquantity of the rude produce, is no doubt affected in its yearlyvalue by all the occasional and temporary fluctuations in themarket price of that rude produce; but it is seldom affected byAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 90. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 89them in its yearly rate. In settling the terms of the lease, thelandlord and farmer endeavour, according to their best judgment,to adjust that rate, not to the temporary and occasional, but to theaverage and ordinary price of the produce. Such fluctuations affect both the value and the rate either ofwages or of profit, according as the market happens to be eitheroverstocked or understocked with commodities or with labour;with work done, or with work to be done. A public mourningraises the price of black cloth (with which the market is almostalways understocked upon such occasions), and augments theprofits of the merchants who possess any considerable quantity ofit. It has no effect upon the wages of the weavers. The market isunderstocked with commodities, not with labour; with work done,not with work to be done. It raises the wages of journeymentailors. The market is here understocked with labour. There is aneffectual demand for more labour, for more work to be done thancan be had. It sinks the price of coloured silks and cloths, andthereby reduces the profits of the merchants who have anyconsiderable quantity of them upon hand. It sinks, too, the wagesof the workmen employed in preparing such commodities, forwhich all demand is stopped for six months, perhaps for atwelvemonth. The market is here over-stocked both withcommodities and with labour. But though the market price of every particular commodity isin this manner continually gravitating, if one may say so, towardsthe natural price, yet sometimes particular accidents, sometimesnatural causes, and sometimes particular regulations of police,may, in many commodities, keep up the market price, for a longtime together, a good deal above the natural price.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 91. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 90 When by an increase in the effectual demand, the market priceof some particular commodity happens to rise a good deal abovethe natural price, those who employ their stocks in supplying thatmarket are generally careful to conceal this change. If it wascommonly known, their great profit would tempt so many newrivals to employ their stocks in the same way that, the effectualdemand being fully supplied, the market price would soon bereduced to the natural price, and perhaps for some time evenbelow it. If the market is at a great distance from the residence ofthose who supply it, they may sometimes be able to keep thesecret for several years together, and may so long enjoy theirextraordinary profits without any new rivals. Secrets of this kind,however, it must be acknowledged, can seldom be long kept; andthe extraordinary profit can last very little longer than they arekept. Secrets in manufactures are capable of being longer kept thansecrets in trade. A dyer who has found the means of producing aparticular colour with materials which cost only half the price ofthose commonly made use of, may, with good management, enjoythe advantage of his discovery as long as he lives, and even leave itas a legacy to his posterity. His extraordinary gains arise from thehigh price which is paid for his private labour. They properlyconsist in the high wages of that labour. But as they are repeatedupon every part of his stock, and as their whole amount bears,upon that account, a regular proportion to it, they are commonlyconsidered as extraordinary profits of stock. Such enhancements of the market price are evidently theeffects of particular accidents, of which, however, the operationmay sometimes last for many years together.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 92. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 91 Some natural productions require such a singularity of soil andsituation that all the land in a great country, which is fit forproducing them, may not be sufficient to supply the effectualdemand. The whole quantity brought to market, therefore, may bedisposed of to those who are willing to give more than what issufficient to pay the rent of the land which produced them,together with the wages of the labour, and the profits of the stockwhich were employed in preparing and bringing them to market,according to their natural rates. Such commodities may continuefor whole centuries together to be sold at this high price; and thatpart of it which resolves itself into the rent of land is in this casethe part which is generally paid above its natural rate. The rent ofthe land which affords such singular and esteemed productions,like the rent of some vineyards in France of a peculiarly happy soiland situation, bears no regular proportion to the rent of otherequally fertile and equally well-cultivated land in itsneighbourhood. The wages of the labour and the profits of thestock employed in bringing such commodities to market, on thecontrary, are seldom out of their natural proportion to those of theother employments of labour and stock in their neighbourhood. Such enhancements of the market price are evidently the effectof natural causes which may hinder the effectual demand fromever being fully supplied, and which may continue, therefore, tooperate for ever. A monopoly granted either to an individual or to a tradingcompany has the same effect as a secret in trade or manufactures.The monopolists, by keeping the market constantly understocked,by never fully supplying the effectual demand, sell theircommodities much above the natural price, and raise theirAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 93. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 92emoluments, whether they consist in wages or profit, greatlyabove their natural rate. The price of monopoly is upon every occasion the highest whichcan be got. The natural price, or the price of free competition, onthe contrary, is the lowest which can be taken, not upon everyoccasion, indeed, but for any considerable time together. The oneis upon every occasion the highest which can be squeezed out ofthe buyers, or which, it is supposed, they will consent to give: theother is the lowest which the sellers can commonly afford to take,and at the same time continue their business. The exclusive privileges of corporations, statutes ofapprenticeship, and all those laws which restrain, in particularemployments, the competition to a smaller number than mightotherwise go into them, have the same tendency, though in a lessdegree. They are a sort of enlarged monopolies, and mayfrequently, for ages together, and in whole classes ofemployments, keep up the market price of particular commoditiesabove the natural price, and maintain both the wages of the labourand the profits of the stock employed about them somewhat abovetheir natural rate. Such enhancements of the market price may last as long as theregulations of police which give occasion to them. The market price of any particular commodity, though it maycontinue long above, can seldom continue long below its naturalprice. Whatever part of it was paid below the natural rate, thepersons whose interest it affected would immediately feel the loss,and would immediately withdraw either so much land, or so muchlabour, or so much stock, from being employed about it, that thequantity brought to market would soon be no more than sufficientAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 94. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 93to supply the effectual demand. Its market price, therefore, wouldsoon rise to the natural price. This at least would be the casewhere there was perfect liberty. The same statutes of apprenticeship and other corporation lawsindeed, which, when a manufacture is in prosperity, enable theworkman to raise his wages a good deal above their natural rate,sometimes oblige him, when it decays, to let them down a gooddeal below it. As in the one case they exclude many people fromhis employment, so in the other they exclude him from manyemployments. The effect of such regulations, however, is not nearso durable in sinking the workman’s wages below, as in raisingthem above their natural rate. Their operation in the one way mayendure for many centuries, but in the other it can last no longerthan the lives of some of the workmen who were bred to thebusiness in the time of its prosperity. When they are gone, thenumber of those who are afterwards educated to the trade willnaturally suit itself to the effectual demand. The police must be asviolent as that of Indostan or ancient Egypt (where every man wasbound by a principle of religion to follow the occupation of hisfather, and was supposed to commit the most horrid sacrilege if hechanged it for another), which can in any particular employment,and for several generations together, sink either the wages oflabour or the profits of stock below their natural rate. This is all that I think necessary to be observed at presentconcerning the deviations, whether occasional or permanent, ofthe market price of commodities from the natural price. The natural price itself varies with the natural rate of each of itscomponent parts, of wages, profit, and rent; and in every societythis rate varies according to their circumstances, according toAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 95. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 94their riches or poverty, their advancing, stationary, or decliningcondition. I shall, in the four following chapters, endeavour toexplain, as fully and distinctly as I can, the causes of thosedifferent variations. First, I shall endeavour to explain what are the circumstanceswhich naturally determine the rate of wages, and in what mannerthose circumstances are affected by the riches or poverty, by theadvancing, stationary, or declining state of the society. Secondly, I shall endeavour to show what are the circumstanceswhich naturally determine the rate of profit, and in what manner,too, those circumstances are affected by the like variations in thestate of the society. Though pecuniary wages and profit are very different in thedifferent employments of labour and stock; yet a certainproportion seems commonly to take place between both thepecuniary wages in all the different employments of labour, andthe pecuniary profits in all the different employments of stock.This proportion, it will appear hereafter, depends partly upon thenature of the different employments, and partly upon the differentlaws and policy of the society in which they are carried on. Butthough in many respects dependent upon the laws and policy, thisproportion seems to be little affected by the riches or poverty ofthat society; by its advancing, stationary, or declining condition;but to remain the same or very nearly the same in all thosedifferent states. I shall, in the third place, endeavour to explain allthe different circumstances which regulate this proportion. In the fourth and last place, I shall endeavour to show what arethe circumstances which regulate the rent of land, and whicheither raise or lower the real price of all the different substancesAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 96. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 95which it produces.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 97. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 96 Chapter VIII Of the Wages of LabourT he produce of labour constitutes the natural recompense or wages of labour. In that original state of things, which precedes both theappropriation of land and the accumulation of stock, the wholeproduce of labour belongs to the labourer. He has neither landlordnor master to share with him. Had this state continued, the wages of labour would haveaugmented with all those improvements in its productive powersto which the division of labour gives occasion. All things wouldgradually have become cheaper. They would have been producedby a smaller quantity of labour; and as the commodities producedby equal quantities of labour would naturally in this state of thingsbe exchanged for one another, they would have been purchasedlikewise with the produce of a smaller quantity. But though all things would have become cheaper in reality, inappearance many things might have become dearer than before,or have been exchanged for a greater quantity of other goods. Letus suppose, for example, that in the greater part of employmentsthe productive powers of labour had been improved to ten fold, orthat a day’s labour could produce ten times the quantity of workwhich it had done originally; but that in a particular employmentthey had been improved, only to double, or that a day’s labourcould produce only twice the quantity of work which it had donebefore. In exchanging the produce of a day’s labour in the greaterAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 98. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 97part of employments for that of a day’s labour in this particularone, ten times the original quantity of work in them wouldpurchase only twice the original quantity in it. Any particularquantity in it, therefore, a pound weight, for example, wouldappear to be five times dearer than before. In reality, however, itwould be twice as cheap. Though it required five times thequantity of other goods to purchase it, it would require only halfthe quantity of labour either to purchase or to produce it. Theacquisition, therefore, would be twice as easy as before. But this original state of things, in which the labourer enjoyedthe whole produce of his own labour, could not last beyond thefirst introduction of the appropriation of land and theaccumulation of stock. It was at an end, therefore, long before themost considerable improvements were made in the productivepowers of labour, and it would be to no purpose to trace furtherwhat might have been its effects upon the recompense or wages oflabour. As soon as land becomes private property, the landlorddemands a share of almost all the produce which the labourer caneither raise, or collect from it. His rent makes the first deductionfrom the produce of the labour which is employed upon land. It seldom happens that the person who tills the ground haswherewithal to maintain himself till he reaps the harvest. Hismaintenance is generally advanced to him from the stock of amaster, the farmer who employs him, and who would have nointerest to employ him, unless he was to share in the produce ofhis labour, or unless his stock was to be replaced to him with aprofit. This profit, makes a second deduction from the produce ofthe labour which is employed upon land.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 99. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 98 The produce of almost all other labour is liable to the likededuction of profit. In all arts and manufactures the greater partof the workmen stand in need of a master to advance them thematerials of their work, and their wages and maintenance till it becompleted. He shares in the produce of their labour, or in thevalue which it adds to the materials upon which it is bestowed;and in this share consists his profit. It sometimes happens, indeed, that a single independentworkman has stock sufficient both to purchase the materials of hiswork, and to maintain himself till it be completed. He is bothmaster and workman, and enjoys the whole produce of his ownlabour, or the whole value which it adds to the materials uponwhich it is bestowed. It includes what are usually two distinctrevenues, belonging to two distinct persons, the profits of stock,and the wages of labour. Such cases, however, are not very frequent, and in every part ofEurope, twenty workmen serve under a master for one that isindependent; and the wages of labour are everywhere understoodto be, what they usually are, when the labourer is one person, andthe owner of the stock which employs him another. What are the common wages of labour, depends everywhereupon the contract usually made between those two parties, whoseinterests are by no means the same. The workmen desire to get asmuch, the masters to give as little as possible. The former aredisposed to combine in order to raise, the latter in order to lowerthe wages of labour. It is not, however, difficult to foresee which of the two partiesmust, upon all ordinary occasions, have the advantage in thedispute, and force the other into a compliance with their terms.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 100. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 99The masters, being fewer in number, can combine much moreeasily; and the law, besides, authorizes, or at least does notprohibit their combinations, while it prohibits those of theworkmen. We have no acts of parliament against combining tolower the price of work; but many against combining to raise it. Inall such disputes the masters can hold out much longer. Alandlord, a farmer, a master manufacturer, a merchant, thoughthey did not employ a single workman, could generally live a yearor two upon the stocks which they have already acquired. Manyworkmen could not subsist a week, few could subsist a month, andscarce any a year without employment. In the long run theworkman may be as necessary to his master as his master is tohim; but the necessity is not so immediate. We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combinations of masters,though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines,upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant ofthe world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere ina sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raisethe wages of labour above their actual rate. To violate thiscombination is everywhere a most unpopular action, and a sort ofreproach to a master among his neighbours and equals. Weseldom, indeed, hear of this combination, because it is the usual,and one may say, the natural state of things, which nobody everhears of. Masters, too, sometimes enter into particularcombinations to sink the wages of labour even below this rate.These are always conducted with the utmost silence and secrecy,till the moment of execution, and when the workmen yield, as theysometimes do, without resistance, though severely felt by them,they are never heard of by other people. Such combinations,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 101. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 100however, are frequently resisted by a contrary defensivecombination of the workmen; who sometimes too, without anyprovocation of this kind, combine of their own accord to raise theprice of their labour. Their usual pretences are, sometimes thehigh price of provisions; sometimes the great profit which theirmasters make by their work. But whether their combinations beoffensive or defensive, they are always abundantly heard of. Inorder to bring the point to a speedy decision, they have alwaysrecourse to the loudest clamour, and sometimes to the mostshocking violence and outrage. They are desperate, and act withthe folly and extravagance of desperate men, who must eitherstarve, or frighten their masters into an immediate compliancewith their demands. The masters upon these occasions are just asclamorous upon the other side, and never cease to call aloud forthe assistance of the civil magistrate, and the rigorous execution ofthose laws which have been enacted with so much severity againstthe combinations of servants, labourers, and journeymen. Theworkmen, accordingly, very seldom derive any advantage from theviolence of those tumultuous combinations, which, partly from theinterposition of the civil magistrate, partly from the necessitysuperior steadiness of the masters, partly from the necessity whichthe greater part of the workmen are under of submitting for thesake of present subsistence, generally end in nothing, but thepunishment or ruin of the ringleaders. But though in disputes with their workmen, masters mustgenerally have the advantage, there is, however, a certain ratebelow which it seems impossible to reduce, for any considerabletime, the ordinary wages even of the lowest species of labour. A man must always live by his work, and his wages must atAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 102. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 101least be sufficient to maintain him. They must even upon mostoccasions be somewhat more; otherwise it would be impossible forhim to bring up a family, and the race of such workmen could notlast beyond the first generation. Mr. Cantillon seems, upon thisaccount, to suppose that the lowest species of common labourersmust everywhere earn at least double their own maintenance, inorder that one with another they may be enabled to bring up twochildren; the labour of the wife, on account of her necessaryattendance on the children, being supposed no more thansufficient to provide for herself. But one half the children born, itis computed, die before the age of manhood. The poorestlabourers, therefore, according to this account, must, one withanother, attempt to rear at least four children, in order that twomay have an equal chance of living to that age. But the necessarymaintenance of four children, it is supposed, may be nearly equalto that of one man. The labour of an able-bodied slave, the sameauthor adds, is computed to be worth double his maintenance; andthat of the meanest labourer, he thinks, cannot be worth less thanthat of an able-bodied slave. Thus far at least seems certain, that,in order to bring up a family, the labour of the husband and wifetogether must, even in the lowest species of common labour, beable to earn something more than what is precisely necessary fortheir own maintenance; but in what proportion, whether in thatabove mentioned, or in any other, I shall not take upon me todetermine. There are certain circumstances, however, which sometimesgive the labourers an advantage, and enable them to raise theirwages considerably above this rate; evidently the lowest which isconsistent with common humanity.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 103. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 102 When in any country the demand for those who live by wages,labourers, journeymen, servants of every kind, is continuallyincreasing; when every year furnishes employment for a greaternumber than had been employed the year before, the workmenhave no occasion to combine in order to raise their wages. Thescarcity of hands occasions a competition among masters, who bidagainst one another, in order to get workmen, and thus voluntarilybreak through the natural combination of masters not to raisewages. The demand for those who live by wages, it is evident, cannotincrease but in proportion to the increase of the funds which aredestined for the payment of wages. These funds are of two kinds;first, revenue which is over and above what is necessary for themaintenance; and, secondly, the stock which is over and abovewhat is necessary for the employment of their masters. When the landlord, annuitant, or monied man, has a greaterrevenue than what he judges sufficient to maintain his own family,he employs either the whole or a part of the surplus inmaintaining one or more menial servants. Increase this surplus,and he will naturally increase the number of those servants. When an independent workman, such as a weaver orshoemaker, has got more stock than what is sufficient to purchasethe materials of his own work, and to maintain himself till he candispose of it, he naturally employs one or more journeymen withthe surplus, in order to make a profit by their work. Increase thissurplus, and he will naturally increase the number of hisjourneymen. The demand for those who live by wages, therefore, necessarilyincreases with the increase of the revenue and stock of everyAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 104. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 103country, and cannot possibly increase without it. The increase ofrevenue and stock is the increase of national wealth. The demandfor those who live by wages, therefore, naturally increases with theincrease of national wealth, and cannot possibly increase withoutit. It is not the actual greatness of national wealth, but itscontinual increase, which occasions a rise in the wages of labour.It is not, accordingly, in the richest countries, but in the mostthriving, or in those which are growing rich the fastest, that thewages of labour are highest. England is certainly, in the presenttimes, a much richer country than any part of North America. Thewages of labour, however, are much higher in North America thanin any part of England. In the province of New York,* commonlabourers earn three shillings and sixpence currency, equal to twoshillings sterling, a day; ship carpenters, ten shillings and sixpencecurrency, with a pint of rum worth sixpence sterling, equal in all tosix shillings and sixpence sterling; house carpenters andbricklayers, eight shillings currency, equal to four shillings andsixpence sterling; journeymen tailors, five shillings currency,equal to about two shillings and tenpence sterling. These pricesare all above the London price; and wages are said to be as high inthe other colonies as in New York. The price of provisions iseverywhere in North America much lower than in England. Adearth has never been known there. In the worst seasons theyhave always had a sufficiency for themselves, though less forexportation. If the money price of labour, therefore, be higher thanit is anywhere in the mother country, its real price, the real* Written in 1773.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 105. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 104command of the necessaries and conveniencies of life which itconveys to the labourer must be higher in a still greaterproportion. But though North America is not yet so rich as England, it ismuch more thriving, and advancing with much greater rapidity tothe further acquisition of riches. The most decisive mark of theprosperity of any country is the increase of the number of itsinhabitants. In Great Britain, and most other European countries,they are not supposed to double in less than five hundred years. Inthe British colonies in North America, it has been found that theydouble in twenty or five-and-twenty years. Nor in the presenttimes is this increase principally owing to the continualimportation of new inhabitants, but to the great multiplication ofthe species. Those who live to old age, it is said, frequently seethere from fifty to a hundred, and sometimes many more,descendants from their own body. Labour is there so wellrewarded that a numerous family of children, instead of being aburthen, is a source of opulence and prosperity to the parents. Thelabour of each child, before it can leave their house, is computed tobe worth a hundred pounds clear gain to them. A young widowwith four or five young children, who, among the middling orinferior ranks of people in Europe, would have so little chance fora second husband, is there frequently courted as a sort of fortune.The value of children is the greatest of all encouragements tomarriage. We cannot, therefore, wonder that the people in NorthAmerica should generally marry very young. Notwithstanding thegreat increase occasioned by such early marriages, there is acontinual complaint of the scarcity of hands in North America.The demand for labourers, the funds destined for maintainingAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 106. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 105them, increase, it seems, still faster than they can find labourers toemploy. Though the wealth of a country should be very great, yet if ithas been long stationary, we must not expect to find the wages oflabour very high in it. The funds destined for the payment ofwages, the revenue and stock of its inhabitants, may be of thegreatest extent; but if they have continued for several centuries ofthe same, or very nearly of the same extent, the number oflabourers employed every year could easily supply, and even morethan supply, the number wanted the following year. There couldseldom be any scarcity of hands, nor could the masters be obligedto bid against one another in order to get them. The hands, on thecontrary, would, in this case, naturally multiply beyond theiremployment. There would be a constant scarcity of employment,and the labourers would be obliged to bid against one another inorder to get it. If in such a country the wages of labour had everbeen more than sufficient to maintain the labourer, and to enablehim to bring up a family, the competition of the labourers and theinterest of the masters would soon reduce them to this lowest ratewhich is consistent with common humanity. China has been longone of the richest, that is, one of the most fertile, best cultivated,most industrious, and most populous countries in world. It seems,however, to have been long stationary. Marco Polo, who visited itmore than five hundred years ago, describes its cultivation,industry, and populousness, almost in the same terms in whichthey are described by travellers in the present times. It hadperhaps, even long before his time, acquired that full complementof riches which the nature of its laws and institutions permits it toacquire. The accounts of all travellers, inconsistent in many otherAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 107. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 106respects, agree in the low wages of labour, and in the difficultywhich a labourer finds in bringing up a family in China. If bydigging the ground a whole day he can get what will purchase asmall quantity of rice in the evening, he is contented. Thecondition of artificers is, if possible, still worse. Instead of waitingindolently in their workhouses, for the calls of their customers, asin Europe, they are continually running about the streets with thetools of their respective trades, offering their service, and as itwere begging employment. The poverty of the lower ranks ofpeople in China far surpasses that of the most beggarly nations inEurope. In the neighbourhood of Canton many hundred, it iscommonly said, many thousand families have no habitation on theland, but live constantly in little fishing boats upon the rivers andcanals. The subsistence which they find there is so scanty thatthey are eager to fish up the nastiest garbage thrown overboardfrom any European ship. Any carrion, the carcase of a dead dog orcat, for example, though half putrid and stinking, is as welcome tothem as the most wholesome food to the people of other countries.Marriage is encouraged in China, not by the profitableness ofchildren, but by the liberty of destroying them. In all great townsseveral are every night exposed in the street, or drowned likepuppies in the water. The performance of this horrid office is evensaid to be the avowed business by which some people earn theirsubsistence. China, however, though it may perhaps stand still, does notseem to go backwards. Its towns are nowhere deserted by theirinhabitants. The lands which had once been cultivated arenowhere neglected. The same or very nearly the same annuallabour must therefore continue to be performed, and the fundsAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 108. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 107destined for maintaining it must not, consequently, be sensiblydiminished. The lowest class of labourers, therefore,notwithstanding their scanty subsistence, must some way oranother make shift to continue their race so far as to keep up theirusual numbers. But it would be otherwise in a country where the fundsdestined for the maintenance of labour were sensibly decaying.Every year the demand for servants and labourers would, in allthe different classes of employments, be less than it had been theyear before. Many who had been bred in the superior classes, notbeing able to find employment in their own business, would beglad to seek it in the lowest. The lowest class being not onlyoverstocked with its own workmen, but with the overflowings ofall the other classes, the competition for employment would be sogreat in it, as to reduce the wages of labour to the most miserableand scanty subsistence of the labourer. Many would not be able tofind employment even upon these hard terms, but would eitherstarve, or be driven to seek a subsistence either by begging, or bythe perpetration perhaps of the greatest enormities. Want, famine,and mortality would immediately prevail in that class, and fromthence extend themselves to all the superior classes, till thenumber of inhabitants in the country was reduced to what couldeasily be maintained by the revenue and stock which remained init, and which had escaped either the tyranny or calamity whichhad destroyed the rest. This perhaps is nearly the present state ofBengal, and of some other of the English settlements in the EastIndies. In a fertile country which had before been muchdepopulated, where subsistence, consequently, should not be verydifficult, and where, notwithstanding, three or four hundredAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 109. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 108thousand people die of hunger in one year, we may be assuredthat the funds destined for the maintenance of the labouring poorare fast decaying. The difference between the genius of the Britishconstitution which protects and governs North America, and thatof the mercantile company which oppresses and domineers in theEast Indies, cannot perhaps be better illustrated than by thedifferent state of those countries. The liberal reward of labour, therefore, as it is the necessaryeffect, so it is the natural symptom of increasing national wealth.The scanty maintenance of the labouring poor, on the other hand,is the natural symptom that things are at a stand, and theirstarving condition that they are going fast backwards. In Great Britain the wages of labour seem, in the present times,to be evidently more than what is precisely necessary to enable thelabourer to bring up a family. In order to satisfy ourselves uponthis point it will not be necessary to enter into any tedious ordoubtful calculation of what may be the lowest sum upon which itis possible to do this. There are many plain symptoms that thewages of labour are nowhere in this country regulated by thislowest rate which is consistent with common humanity. First, in almost every part of Great Britain there is a distinction,even in the lowest species of labour, between summer and winterwages. Summer wages are always highest. But on account of theextraordinary expense of fuel, the maintenance of a family is mostexpensive in winter. Wages, therefore, being highest when thisexpense is lowest, it seems evident that they are not regulated bywhat is necessary for this expense; but by the quantity andsupposed value of the work. A labourer, it may be said indeed,ought to save part of his summer wages in order to defray hisAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 110. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 109winter expense; and that through the whole year they do notexceed what is necessary to maintain his family through the wholeyear. A slave, however, or one absolutely dependent on us forimmediate subsistence, would not be treated in this manner. Hisdaily subsistence would be proportioned to his daily necessities. Secondly, the wages of labour do not in Great Britain fluctuatewith the price of provisions. These vary everywhere from year toyear, frequently from month to month. But in many places themoney price of labour remains uniformly the same sometimes forhalf a century together. If in these places, therefore, the labouringpoor can maintain their families in dear years, they must be attheir ease in times of moderate plenty, and in affluence in those ofextraordinary cheapness. The high price of provisions duringthese ten years past has not in many parts of the kingdom beenaccompanied with any sensible rise in the money price of labour.It has, indeed, in some, owing probably more to the increase of thedemand for labour than to that of the price of provisions. Thirdly, as the price of provisions varies more from year to yearthan the wages of labour, so, on the other hand, the wages oflabour vary more from place to place than the price of provisions.The prices of bread and butcher’s meat are generally the same orvery nearly the same through the greater part of the UnitedKingdom. These and most other things which are sold by retail,the way in which the labouring poor buy all things, are generallyfully as cheap or cheaper in great towns than in the remoter partsof the country, for reasons which I shall have occasion to explainhereafter. But the wages of labour in a great town and itsneighbourhood are frequently a fourth or a fifth part, twenty orfive-and-twenty per cent higher than at a few miles distance.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 111. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 110Eighteenpence a day may be reckoned the common price of labourin London and its neighbourhood. At a few miles distance it fallsto fourteen and fifteenpence. Tenpence may be reckoned its pricein Edinburgh and its neighbourhood. At a few miles distance itfalls to eightpence, the usual price of common labour through thegreater part of the low country of Scotland, where it varies a gooddeal less than in England. Such a difference of prices, which itseems is not always sufficient to transport a man from one parishto another, would necessarily occasion so great a transportation ofthe most bulky commodities, not only from one parish to another,but from one end of the kingdom, almost from one end of theworld to the other, as would soon reduce them more nearly to alevel. After all that has been said of the levity and inconstancy ofhuman nature, it appears evidently from experience that a man isof all sorts of luggage the most difficult to be transported. If thelabouring poor, therefore, can maintain their families in thoseparts of the kingdom where the price of labour is lowest, they mustbe in affluence where it is highest. Fourthly, the variations in the price of labour not only do notcorrespond either in place or time with those in the price ofprovisions, but they are frequently quite opposite. Grain, the food of the common people, is dearer in Scotlandthan in England, whence Scotland receives almost every year verylarge supplies. But English corn must be sold dearer in Scotland,the country to which it is brought, than in England, the countryfrom which it comes; and in proportion to its quality it cannot besold dearer in Scotland than the Scotch corn that comes to thesame market in competition with it. The quality of grain dependschiefly upon the quantity of flour or meal which it yields at theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 112. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 111mill, and in this respect English grain is so much superior to theScotch that, though often dearer in appearance, or in proportionto the measure of its bulk, it is generally cheaper in reality, or inproportion to its quality, or even to the measure of its weight. Theprice of labour, on the contrary, is dearer in England than inScotland. If the labouring poor, therefore, can maintain theirfamilies in the one part of the United Kingdom, they must be inaffluence in the other. Oatmeal indeed supplies the commonpeople in Scotland with the greatest and the best part of theirfood, which is in general much inferior to that of their neighboursof the same rank in England. This difference, however, in themode of their subsistence is not the cause, but the effect of thedifference in their wages; though, by a strange misapprehension, Ihave frequently heard it represented as the cause. It is not becauseone man keeps a coach while his neighbour walks afoot that theone is rich and the other poor; but because the one is rich hekeeps a coach, and because the other is poor he walks afoot. During the course of the last century, taking one year withanother, grain was dearer in both parts of the United Kingdomthan during that of the present. This is a matter of fact whichcannot now admit of any reasonable doubt; and the proof of it is, ifpossible, still more decisive with regard to Scotland than withregard to England. It is in Scotland supported by the evidence ofthe public fiars, annual valuations made upon oath, according tothe actual state of the markets, of all the different sorts of grain inevery different county of Scotland. If such direct proof couldrequire any collateral evidence to confirm it, I would observe thatthis has likewise been the case in France, and probably in mostother parts of Europe. With regard to France there is the clearestAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 113. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 112proof. But though it is certain that in both parts of the UnitedKingdom grain was somewhat dearer in the last century than inthe present, it is equally certain that labour was much cheaper. Ifthe labouring poor, therefore, could bring up their families then,they must be much more at their ease now. In the last century, themost usual day-wages of common labour through the greater partof Scotland were sixpence in summer and fivepence in winter.Three shillings a week, the same price very nearly, still continuesto be paid in some parts of the Highlands and Western Islands.Through the greater part of the low country the most usual wagesof common labour are now eightpence a day; tenpence, sometimesa shilling about Edinburgh, in the counties which border uponEngland, probably on account of that neighbourhood, and in a fewother places where there has lately been a considerable rise in thedemand for labour, about Glasgow, Carron, Ayrshire, etc. InEngland the improvements of agriculture, manufactures, andcommerce began much earlier than in Scotland. The demand forlabour, and consequently its price, must necessarily haveincreased with those improvements. In the last century,accordingly, as well as in the present, the wages of labour werehigher in England than in Scotland. They have risen, too,considerably since that time, though, on account of the greatervariety of wages paid there in different places, it is more difficultto ascertain how much. In 1614, the pay of a foot soldier was the same as in the presenttimes, eightpence a day. When it was first established it wouldnaturally be regulated by the usual wages of common labourers,the rank of people from which foot soldiers are commonly drawn.Lord Chief Justice Hales, who wrote in the time of Charles II,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 114. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 113computes the necessary expense of a labourer’s family, consistingof six persons, the father and mother, two children able to dosomething, and two not able, at ten shillings a week, or twenty-sixpounds a year. If they cannot earn this by their labour, they mustmake it up, he supposes, either by begging or stealing. He appearsto have inquired very carefully into this subject.1 In 1688, Mr.Gregory King, whose skill in political arithmetic is so muchextolled by Doctor Davenant, computed the ordinary income oflabourers and out-servants to be fifteen pounds a year to a family,which he supposed to consist, one with another, of three and a halfpersons. His calculation, therefore, though different inappearance, corresponds very nearly at bottom with that of JudgeHales. Both suppose the weekly expense of such families to beabout twenty pence a head. Both the pecuniary income andexpense of such families have increased considerably since thattime through the greater part of the kingdom; in some placesmore, and in some less; though perhaps scarce anywhere so muchas some exaggerated accounts of the present wages of labour havelately represented them to the public. The price of labour, it mustbe observed, cannot be ascertained very accurately anywhere,different prices being often paid at the same place and for thesame sort of labour, not only according to the different abilities ofthe workmen, but according to the easiness or hardness of themasters. Where wages are not regulated by law, all that we canpretend to determine is what are the most usual; and experienceseems to show that law can never regulate them properly, though1 See his scheme for the maintenance of the poor, in Burns’ History of thePoor Laws.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 115. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 114it has often pretended to do so. The real recompense of labour, the real quantity of thenecessaries and conveniences of life which it can procure to thelabourer, has, during the course of the present century, increasedperhaps in a still greater proportion than its money price. Not onlygrain has become somewhat cheaper, but many other things fromwhich the industrious poor derive an agreeable and wholesomevariety of food have become a great deal cheaper. Potatoes, forexample, do not at present, through the greater part of thekingdom, cost half the price which they used to do thirty or fortyyears ago. The same thing may be said of turnips, carrots,cabbages; things which were formerly never raised but by thespade, but which are now commonly raised by the plough. All sortof garden stuff, too, has become cheaper. The greater part of theapples and even of the onions consumed in Great Britain were inthe last century imported from Flanders. The great improvementsin the coarser manufactures of both linen and woollen clothfurnish the labourers with cheaper and better clothing; and thosein the manufactures of the coarser metals, with cheaper and betterinstruments of trade, as well as with many agreeable andconvenient pieces of household furniture. Soap, salt, candles,leather, and fermented liquors have, indeed, become a good dealdearer; chiefly from the taxes which have been laid upon them.The quantity of these, however, which the labouring poor areunder any necessity of consuming, is so very small, that theincrease in their price does not compensate the diminution in thatof so many other things. The common complaint that luxuryextends itself even to the lowest ranks of the people, and that thelabouring poor will not now be contented with the same food,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 116. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 115clothing, and lodging which satisfied them in former times, mayconvince us that it is not the money price of labour only, but itsreal recompense, which has augmented. Is this improvement in the circumstances of the lower ranks ofthe people to be regarded as an advantage or as an inconveniencyto the society? The answer seems at first sight abundantly plain.Servants, labourers, and workmen of different kinds, make up thefar greater part of every great political society. But what improvesthe circumstances of the greater part can never be regarded as aninconveniency to the whole. No society can surely be flourishingand happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poorand miserable. It is but equity, besides, that they who feed, clothe,and lodge the whole body of the people, should have such a shareof the produce of their own labour as to be themselves tolerablywell fed, clothed, and lodged. Poverty, though it no doubt discourages, does not alwaysprevent marriage. It seems even to be favourable to generation. Ahalf-starved Highland woman frequently bears more than twentychildren, while a pampered fine lady is often incapable of bearingany, and is generally exhausted by two or three. Barrenness, sofrequent among women of fashion, is very rare among those ofinferior station. Luxury in the fair sex, while it inflames perhapsthe passion for enjoyment, seems always to weaken, andfrequently to destroy altogether, the powers of generation. But poverty, though it does not prevent the generation, isextremely unfavourable to the rearing of children. The tenderplant is produced, but in so cold a soil and so severe a climate,soon withers and dies. It is not uncommon, I have been frequentlytold, in the Highlands of Scotland for a mother who has borneAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 117. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 116twenty children not to have two alive. Several officers of greatexperience have assured me, that so far from recruiting theirregiment, they have never been able to supply it with drums andfifes from all the soldiers’ children that were born in it. A greaternumber of fine children, however, is seldom seen anywhere thanabout a barrack of soldiers. Very few of them, it seems, arrive atthe age of thirteen or fourteen. In some places one half thechildren born die before they are four years of age; in many placesbefore they are seven; and in almost all places before they are nineor ten. This great mortality, however, will everywhere be foundchiefly among the children of the common people, who cannotafford to tend them with the same care as those of better station.Though their marriages are generally more fruitful than those ofpeople of fashion, a smaller proportion of their children arrive atmaturity. In foundling hospitals, and among the children broughtup by parish charities, the mortality is still greater than amongthose of the common people. Every species of animals naturally multiplies in proportion tothe means of their subsistence, and no species can ever multiplybeyond it. But in civilised society it is only among the inferiorranks of people that the scantiness of subsistence can set limits tothe further multiplication of the human species; and it can do so inno other way than by destroying a great part of the children whichtheir fruitful marriages produce. The liberal reward of labour, by enabling them to providebetter for their children, and consequently to bring up a greaternumber, naturally tends to widen and extend those limits. Itdeserves to be remarked, too, that it necessarily does this as nearlyas possible in the proportion which the demand for labourAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 118. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 117requires. If this demand is continually increasing, the reward oflabour must necessarily encourage in such a manner the marriageand multiplication of labourers, as may enable them to supply thatcontinually increasing demand by a continually increasingpopulation. If the reward should at any time be less than what wasrequisite for this purpose, the deficiency of hands would soon raiseit; and if it should at any time be more, their excessivemultiplication would soon lower it to this necessary rate. Themarket would be so much understocked with labour in the onecase, and so much overstocked in the other, as would soon forceback its price to that proper rate which the circumstances of thesociety required. It is in this manner that the demand for men, likethat for any other commodity, necessarily regulates the productionof men; quickens it when it goes on too slowly, and stops it when itadvances too fast. It is this demand which regulates anddetermines the state of propagation in all the different countries ofthe world, in North America, in Europe, and in China; whichrenders it rapidly progressive in the first, slow and gradual in thesecond, and altogether stationary in the last. The wear and tear of a slave, it has been said, is at the expenseof his master; but that of a free servant is at his own expense. Thewear and tear of the latter, however, is, in reality, as much at theexpense of his master as that of the former. The wages paid tojourneymen and servants of every kind must be such as mayenable them, one with another, to continue the race of journeymenand servants, according as the increasing, diminishing, orstationary demand of the society may happen to require. Butthough the wear and tear of a free servant be equally at theexpense of his master, it generally costs him much less than that ofAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 119. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 118a slave. The fund destined for replacing or repairing, if I may sayso, the wear and tear of the slave, is commonly managed by anegligent master or careless overseer. That destined forperforming the same office with regard to the free man, ismanaged by the free man himself. The disorders which generallyprevail in the economy of the rich, naturally introduce themselvesinto the management of the former: the strict frugality andparsimonious attention of the poor as naturally establishthemselves in that of the latter. Under such different management,the same purpose must require very different degrees of expenseto execute it. It appears, accordingly, from the experience of allages and nations, I believe, that the work done by freemen comescheaper in the end than that performed by slaves. It is found to doso even at Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, where the wagesof common labour are so very high. The liberal reward of labour, therefore, as it is the effect ofincreasing wealth, so it is the cause of increasing population. Tocomplain of it is to lament over the necessary effect and cause ofthe greatest public prosperity. It deserves to be remarked, perhaps, that it is in the progressivestate, while the society is advancing to the further acquisition,rather than when it has acquired its full complement of riches,that the condition of the labouring poor, of the great body of thepeople, seems to be the happiest and the most comfortable. It ishard in the stationary, and miserable in the declining state. Theprogressive state is in reality the cheerful and the hearty state toall the different orders of the society. The stationary is dull; thedeclining, melancholy. The liberal reward of labour, as it encourages the propagation,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 120. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 119so it increases the industry of the common people. The wages oflabour are the encouragement of industry, which, like every otherhuman quality, improves in proportion to the encouragement itreceives. A plentiful subsistence increases the bodily strength ofthe labourer, and the comfortable hope of bettering his condition,and of ending his days perhaps in ease and plenty, animates himto exert that strength to the utmost. Where wages are high,accordingly, we shall always find the workmen more active,diligent, and expeditious than where they are low: in England, forexample, than in Scotland; in the neighbourhood of great townsthan in remote country places. Some workmen, indeed, when theycan earn in four days what will maintain them through the week,will be idle the other three. This, however, is by no means the casewith the greater part. Workmen, on the contrary, when they areliberally paid by the piece, are very apt to overwork themselves,and to ruin their health and constitution in a few years. Acarpenter in London, and in some other places, is not supposed tolast in his utmost vigour above eight years. Something of the samekind happens in many other trades, in which the workmen arepaid by the piece, as they generally are in manufactures, and evenin country labour, wherever wages are higher than ordinary.Almost every class of artificers is subject to some peculiarinfirmity occasioned by excessive application to their peculiarspecies of work. Ramuzzini, an eminent Italian physician, has written aparticular book concerning such diseases. We do not reckon oursoldiers the most industrious set of people among us. Yet whensoldiers have been employed in some particular sorts of work, andliberally paid by the piece, their officers have frequently beenAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 121. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 120obliged to stipulate with the undertaker, that they should not beallowed to earn above a certain sum every day, according to therate at which they were paid. Till this stipulation was made,mutual emulation and the desire of greater gain frequentlyprompted them to overwork themselves, and to hurt their healthby excessive labour. Excessive application during four days of theweek is frequently the real cause of the idleness of the other three,so much and so loudly complained of. Great labour, either of mindor body, continued for several days together, is in most mennaturally followed by a great desire of relaxation, which, if notrestrained by force or by some strong necessity, is almostirresistible. It is the call of nature, which requires to be relieved bysome indulgence, sometimes of ease only, but sometimes, too, ofdissipation and diversion. If it is not complied with, theconsequences are often dangerous, and sometimes fatal, and suchas almost always, sooner or later, brings on the peculiar infirmityof the trade. If masters would always listen to the dictates ofreason and humanity, they have frequently occasion rather tomoderate than to animate the application of many of theirworkmen. It will be found, I believe, in every sort of trade, that theman who works so moderately as to be able to work constantly notonly preserves his health the longest, but, in the course of the year,executes the greatest quantity of work. In cheap years, it is pretended, workmen are generally moreidle, and in dear ones more industrious than ordinary. A plentifulsubsistence, therefore, it has been concluded, relaxes, and a scantyone quickens their industry. That a little more plenty thanordinary may render some workmen idle, cannot well be doubted;but that it should have this effect upon the greater part, or thatAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 122. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 121men in general should work better when they are ill fed than whenthey are well fed, when they are disheartened than when they arein good spirits, when they are frequently sick than when they aregenerally in good health, seems not very probable. Years of dearth,it is to be observed, are generally among the common people yearsof sickness and mortality, which cannot fail to diminish theproduce of their industry. In years of plenty, servants frequently leave their masters, andtrust their subsistence to what they can make by their ownindustry. But the same cheapness of provisions, by increasing thefund which is destined for the maintenance of servants,encourages masters, farmers especially, to employ a greaternumber. Farmers upon such occasions expect more profit fromtheir corn by maintaining a few more labouring servants than byselling it at a low price in the market. The demand for servantsincreases, while the number of those who offer to supply thatdemand diminishes. The price of labour, therefore, frequentlyrises in cheap years. In years of scarcity, the difficulty and uncertainty of subsistencemake all such people eager to return to service. But the high priceof provisions, by diminishing the funds destined for themaintenance of servants, disposes masters rather to diminish thanto increase the number of those they have. In dear years, too, poorindependent workmen frequently consume the little stocks withwhich they had used to supply themselves with the materials oftheir work, and are obliged to become journeymen for subsistence.More people want employment than can easily get it; many arewilling to take it upon lower terms than ordinary, and the wages ofboth servants and journeymen frequently sink in dear years.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 123. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 122 Masters of all sorts, therefore, frequently make better bargainswith their servants in dear than in cheap years, and find themmore humble and dependent in the former than in the latter. Theynaturally, therefore, commend the former as more favourable toindustry. Landlords and farmers, besides, two of the largest classes ofmasters, have another reason for being pleased with dear years.The rents of the one and the profits of the other depend very muchupon the price of provisions. Nothing can be more absurd,however, than to imagine that men in general should work lesswhen they work for themselves, than when they work for otherpeople. A poor independent workman will generally be moreindustrious than even a journeyman who works by the piece. Theone enjoys the whole produce of his own industry; the othershares it with his master. The one, in his separate independentstate, is less liable to the temptations of bad company, which inlarge manufactories so frequently ruin the morals of the other.The superiority of the independent workman over those servantswho are hired by the month or by the year, and whose wages andmaintenance are the same whether they do much or do little, islikely to be still greater. Cheap years tend to increase theproportion of independent workmen to journeymen and servantsof all kinds, and dear years to diminish it. A French author of great knowledge and ingenuity, Mr.Messance, receiver of the taillies in the election of St. Etienne,endeavours to show that the poor do more work in cheap than indear years, by comparing the quantity and value of the goodsmade upon those different occasions in three differentmanufactures; one of coarse woollens carried on at Elbeuf; one ofAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 124. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 123linen, and another of silk, both which extend through the wholegenerality of Rouen. It appears from his account, which is copiedfrom the registers of the public offices, that the quantity and valueof the goods made in all those three manufactures has generallybeen greater in cheap than in dear years; and that it has alwaysbeen greatest in the cheapest, and least in the dearest years. Allthe three seem to be stationary manufactures, or which, thoughtheir produce may vary somewhat from year to year, are upon thewhole neither going backwards nor forwards. The manufacture of linen in Scotland, and that of coarsewoollens in the West Riding of Yorkshire, are growingmanufactures, of which the produce is generally, though withsome variations, increasing both in quantity and value. Uponexamining, however, the accounts which have been published oftheir annual produce, I have not been able to observe that itsvariations have had any sensible connection with the dearness orcheapness of the seasons. In 1740, a year of great scarcity, bothmanufactures, indeed, appear to have declined very considerably.But in 1756, another year of great scarcity, the Scotchmanufacture made more than ordinary advances. The Yorkshiremanufacture, indeed, declined, and its produce did not rise towhat it had been in 1755 till 1766, after the repeal of the AmericanStamp Act. In that and the following year it greatly exceeded whatit had ever been before, and it has continued to advance eversince. The produce of all great manufactures for distant sale mustnecessarily depend, not so much upon the dearness or cheapnessof the seasons in the countries where they are carried on as uponthe circumstances which affect the demand in the countries whereAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 125. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 124they are consumed; upon peace or war, upon the prosperity ordeclension of other rival manufactures, and upon the good or badhumour of their principal customers. A great part of theextraordinary work, besides, which is probably done in cheapyears, never enters the public registers of manufactures. The menservants who leave their masters become independent labourers.The women return to their parents, and commonly spin in order tomake clothes for themselves and their families. Even theindependent workmen do not always work for public sale, but areemployed by some of their neighbours in manufactures for familyuse. The produce of their labour, therefore, frequently makes nofigure in those public registers of which the records are sometimespublished with so much parade, and from which our merchantsand manufacturers would often vainly pretend to announce theprosperity or declension of the greatest empires. Though the variations in the price of labour not only do notalways correspond with those in the price of provisions, but arefrequently quite opposite, we must not, upon this account, imaginethat the price of provisions has no influence upon that of labour.The money price of labour is necessarily regulated by twocircumstances; the demand for labour, and the price of thenecessaries and conveniences of life. The demand for labour,according as it happens to be increasing, stationary, or declining,or to require an increasing, stationary, or declining population,determines the quantity of the necessaries and conveniencies oflife which must be given to the labourer; and the money price oflabour is determined by what is requisite for purchasing thisquantity. Though the money price of labour, therefore, issometimes high where the price of provisions is low, it would beAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 126. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 125still higher, the demand continuing the same, if the price ofprovisions was high. It is because the demand for labour increases in years ofsudden and extraordinary plenty, and diminishes in those ofsudden and extraordinary scarcity, that the money price of laboursometimes rises in the one and sinks in the other. In a year of sudden and extraordinary plenty, there are funds inthe hands of many of the employers of industry sufficient tomaintain and employ a greater number of industrious people thanhad been employed the year before; and this extraordinarynumber cannot always be had. Those masters, therefore, whowant more workmen bid against one another, in order to get them,which sometimes raises both the real and the money price of theirlabour. The contrary of this happens in a year of sudden andextraordinary scarcity. The funds destined for employing industryare less than they had been the year before. A considerablenumber of people are thrown out of employment, who bid againstone another, in order to get it, which sometimes lowers both thereal and the money price of labour. In 1740, a year ofextraordinary scarcity, many people were willing to work for baresubsistence. In the succeeding years of plenty, it was more difficultto get labourers and servants. The scarcity of a dear year, by diminishing the demand forlabour, tends to lower its price, as the high price of provisionstends to raise it. The plenty of a cheap year, on the contrary, byincreasing the demand, tends to raise the price of labour, as thecheapness of provisions tends to lower it. In the ordinaryvariations of the price of provisions those two opposite causesAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 127. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 126seem to counterbalance one another, which is probably in part thereason why the wages of labour are everywhere so much moresteady and permanent than the price of provisions. The increase in the wages of labour necessarily increases theprice of many commodities, by increasing that part of it whichresolves itself into wages, and so far tends to diminish theirconsumption both at home and abroad. The same cause, however,which raises the wages of labour, the increase of stock, tends toincrease its productive powers, and to make a smaller quantity oflabour produce a greater quantity of work. The owner of the stockwhich employs a great number of labourers, necessarilyendeavours, for his own advantage, to make such a proper divisionand distribution of employment that they may be enabled toproduce the greatest quantity of work possible. For the samereason, he endeavours to supply them with the best machinerywhich either he or they can think of. What takes place among thelabourers in a particular workhouse takes place, for the samereason, among those of a great society. The greater their number,the more they naturally divide themselves into different classesand subdivisions of employment. More heads are occupied ininventing the most proper machinery for executing the work ofeach, and it is, therefore, more likely to be invented. There aremany commodities, therefore, which, in consequence of theseimprovements, come to be produced by so much less labour thanbefore that the increase of its price is more than compensated bythe diminution of its quantity.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 128. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 127 Chapter IX Of the Profits of StockT he rise and fall in the profits of stock depend upon the same causes with the rise and fall in the wages of labour, the increasing or declining state of the wealth of thesociety; but those causes affect the one and the other verydifferently. The increase of stock, which raises wages, tends to lower profit.When the stocks of many rich merchants are turned into the sametrade, their mutual competition naturally tends to lower its profit;and when there is a like increase of stock in all the different tradescarried on in the same society, the same competition mustproduce the same effect in them all. It is not easy, it has already been observed, to ascertain whatare the average wages of labour even in a particular place, and at aparticular time. We can, even in this case, seldom determine morethan what are the most usual wages. But even this can seldom bedone with regard to the profits of stock. Profit is so veryfluctuating that the person who carries on a particular tradecannot always tell you himself what is the average of his annualprofit. It is affected not only by every variation of price in thecommodities which he deals in, but by the good or bad fortuneboth of his rivals and of his customers, and by a thousand otheraccidents to which goods when carried either by sea or by land, oreven when stored in a warehouse, are liable. It varies, therefore,not only from year to year, but from day to day, and almost fromAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 129. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 128hour to hour. To ascertain what is the average profit of all thedifferent trades carried on in a great kingdom must be much moredifficult; and to judge of what it may have been formerly, or inremote periods of time, with any degree of precision, must bealtogether impossible. But though it may be impossible to determine, with any degreeof precision, what are or were the average profits of stock, eitherin the present or in ancient times, some notion may be formed ofthem from the interest of money. It may be laid down as a maxim,that wherever a great deal can be made by the use of money, agreat deal will commonly be given for the use of it; and thatwherever little can be made by it, less will commonly be given forit. According, therefore, as the usual market rate of interest variesin any country, we may be assured that the ordinary profits ofstock must vary with it, must sink as it sinks, and rise as it rises.The progress of interest, therefore, may lead us to form somenotion of the progress of profit. By the 37th of Henry VIII all interest above ten per cent wasdeclared unlawful. More, it seems, had sometimes been takenbefore that. In the reign of Edward VI religious zeal prohibited allinterest. This prohibition, however, like all others of the samekind, is said to have produced no effect, and probably ratherincreased than diminished the evil of usury. The statute of HenryVIII was revived by the 13th of Elizabeth, c. 8, and ten per centcontinued to be the legal rate of interest till the 21st of James I,when it was restricted to eight per cent. It was reduced to six percent soon after the Restoration, and by the 12th of Queen Anne tofive per cent. All these different statutory regulations seem to have beenAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 130. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 129made with great propriety. They seem to have followed and not tohave gone before the market rate of interest, or the rate at whichpeople of good credit usually borrowed. Since the time of QueenAnne, five per cent seems to have been rather above than belowthe market rate. Before the late war, the government borrowed atthree per cent; and people of good credit in the capital, and inmany other parts of the kingdom, at three and a half, four, andfour and a half per cent. Since the time of Henry VIII the wealth and revenue of thecountry have been continually advancing, and, in the course oftheir progress, their pace seems rather to have been graduallyaccelerated than retarded. They seem not only to have been goingon, but to have been going on faster and faster. The wages oflabour have been continually increasing during the same period,and in the greater part of the different branches of trade andmanufactures the profits of stock have been diminishing. It generally requires a greater stock to carry on any sort oftrade in a great town than in a country village. The great stocksemployed in every branch of trade, and the number of richcompetitors, generally reduce the rate of profit in the formerbelow what it is in the latter But the wages of labour are generallyhigher in a great town than in a country village. In a thriving townthe people who have great stocks to employ frequently cannot getthe number of workmen they want, and therefore bid against oneanother in order to get as many as they can, which raises thewages of labour, and lowers the profits of stock. In the remoteparts of the country there is frequently not stock sufficient toemploy all the people, who therefore bid against one another inorder to get employment, which lowers the wages of labour andAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 131. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 130raises the profits of stock. In Scotland, though the legal rate of interest is the same as inEngland, the market rate is rather higher. People of the best creditthere seldom borrow under five per cent. Even private bankers inEdinburgh give four per cent upon their promissory notes, ofwhich payment either in whole or in part may be demanded atpleasure. Private bankers in London give no interest for themoney which is deposited with them. There are few trades whichcannot be carried on with a smaller stock in Scotland than inEngland. The common rate of profit, therefore, must be somewhatgreater. The wages of labour, it has already been observed, arelower in Scotland than in England. The country, too, is not onlymuch poorer, but the steps by which it advances to a bettercondition, for it is evidently advancing, seem to be much slowerand more tardy. The legal rate of interest in France has not, during the course ofthe present century, been always regulated by the market rate.1 In1720 interest was reduced from the twentieth to the fiftieth penny,or from five to two per cent. In 1724 it was raised to the thirtiethpenny, or to 31/3 per cent. In 1725 it was again raised to thetwentieth penny, or to five per cent. In 1766, during theadministration of Mr. Laverdy, it was reduced to the twenty-fifthpenny, or to four per cent. The Abbé Terray raised it afterwards tothe old rate of five per cent. The supposed purpose of many ofthose violent reductions of interest was to prepare the way forreducing that of the public debts; a purpose which has sometimesbeen executed. France is perhaps in the present times not so rich1 See Denifart, Article Taux des Intérêts, vol. iii, p. 18.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 132. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 131a country as England; and though the legal rate of interest has inFrance frequently been lower than in England, the market ratehas generally been higher; for there, as in other countries, theyhave several very safe and easy methods of evading the law. Theprofits of trade, I have been assured by British merchants who hadtraded in both countries, are higher in France than in England;and it is no doubt upon this account that many British subjectschoose rather to employ their capitals in a country where trade isin disgrace, than in one where it is highly respected. The wages oflabour are lower in France than in England. When you go fromScotland to England, the difference which you may remarkbetween the dress and countenance of the common people in theone country and in the other sufficiently indicates the difference intheir condition. The contrast is still greater when you return fromFrance. France, though no doubt a richer country than Scotland,seems not to be going forward so fast. It is a common and even apopular opinion in the country that it is going backwards; anopinion which, apprehend, is ill founded even with regard toFrance, but which nobody can possibly entertain with regard toScotland, who sees the country now, and who saw it twenty orthirty years ago. The province of Holland, on the other hand, in proportion tothe extent of its territory and the number of its people, is a richercountry than England. The government there borrows at two percent, and private people of good credit at three. The wages oflabour are said to be higher in Holland than in England, and theDutch, it is well known, trade upon lower profits than any peoplein Europe. The trade of Holland, it has been pretended by somepeople, is decaying, and it may perhaps be true some particularAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 133. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 132branches of it are so. But these symptoms seem to indicatesufficiently that there is no general decay. When profit diminishes,merchants are very apt to complain that trade decays; though thediminution of profit is the natural effect of its prosperity, or of agreater stock being employed in it than before. During the latewar* the Dutch gained the whole carrying trade of France, ofwhich they still retain a very large share. The great propertywhich they possess both in the French and English funds, aboutforty millions, it is said, in the latter (in which I suspect, however,there is a considerable exaggeration); the great sums which theylend to private people in countries where the rate of interest ishigher than in their own, are circumstances which no doubtdemonstrate the redundancy of their stock, or that it has increasedbeyond what they can employ with tolerable profit in the properbusiness of their own country: but they do not demonstrate thatthat has decreased. As the capital of a private man, thoughacquired by a particular trade, may increase beyond what he canemploy in it, and yet that trade continue to increase too; so maylikewise the capital of a great nation. In our North American and West Indian colonies, not only thewages of labour, but the interest of money, and consequently theprofits of stock, are higher than in England. In the differentcolonies both the legal and the market rate of interest run from sixto eight per cent. High wages of labour and high profits of stock,however, are things, perhaps, which scarce ever go together,except in the peculiar circumstances of new colonies. A newcolony must always for some time be more understocked in* The Seven Years’ War, 1756-1763.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 134. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 133proportion to the extent of its territory, and more underpeopled inproportion to the extent of its stock, than the greater part of othercountries. They have more land than they have stock to cultivate.What they have, therefore, is applied to the cultivation only ofwhat is most fertile and most favourably situated, the land nearthe sea shore, and along the banks of navigable rivers. Such land,too, is frequently purchased at a price below the value even of itsnatural produce. Stock employed in the purchase andimprovement of such lands must yield a very large profit, andconsequently afford to pay a very large interest. Its rapidaccumulation in so profitable an employment enables the planterto increase the number of his hands faster than he can find themin a new settlement. Those whom he can find, therefore, are veryliberally rewarded. As the colony increases, the profits of stockgradually diminish. When the most fertile and best situated landshave been all occupied, less profit can be made by the cultivationof what is inferior both in soil and situation, and less interest canbe afforded for the stock which is so employed. In the greater partof our colonies, accordingly, both the legal and the market rate ofinterest have been considerably reduced during the course of thepresent century. As riches, improvement, and population haveincreased, interest has declined. The wages of labour do not sinkwith the profits of stock. The demand for labour increases with theincrease of stock whatever be its profits; and after these arediminished, stock may not only continue to increase, but toincrease much faster than before. It is with industrious nationswho are advancing in the acquisition of riches as with industriousindividuals. A great stock, though with small profits, generallyincreases faster than a small stock with great profits. Money, saysAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 135. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 134the proverb, makes money. When you have got a little, it is ofteneasy to get more. The great difficulty is to get that little. Theconnection between the increase of stock and that of industry, orof the demand for useful labour, has partly been explainedalready, but will be explained more fully hereafter in treating ofthe accumulation of stock. The acquisition of new territory, or of new branches of trade,may sometimes raise the profits of stock, and with them theinterest of money, even in a country which is fast advancing in theacquisition of riches. The stock of the country not being sufficientfor the whole accession of business, which such acquisitionspresent to the different people among whom it is divided, isapplied to those particular branches only which afford the greatestprofit. Part of what had before been employed in other trades isnecessarily withdrawn from them, and turned into some of thenew and more profitable ones. In all those old trades, therefore, the competition comes to beless than before. The market comes to be less fully supplied withmany different sorts of goods. Their price necessarily rises more orless, and yields a greater profit to those who deal in them, whocan, therefore, afford to borrow at a higher interest. For some timeafter the conclusion of the late war, not only private people of thebest credit, but some of the greatest companies in London,commonly borrowed at five per cent, who before that had not beenused to pay more than four, and four and a half per cent. The greataccession both of territory and trade, by our acquisitions in NorthAmerica and the West Indies, will sufficiently account for this,without supposing any diminution in the capital stock of thesociety. So great an accession of new business to be carried on byAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 136. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 135the old stock must necessarily have diminished the quantityemployed in a great number of particular branches, in which thecompetition being less, the profits must have been greater. I shallhereafter have occasion to mention the reasons which dispose meto believe that the capital stock of Great Britain was notdiminished even by the enormous expense of the late war. The diminution of the capital stock of the society, or of thefunds destined for the maintenance of industry, however, as itlowers the wages of labour, so it raises the profits of stock, andconsequently the interest of money. By the wages of labour beinglowered, the owners of what stock remains in the society can bringtheir goods at less expense to market than before, and less stockbeing employed in supplying the market than before, they can sellthem dearer. Their goods cost them less, and they get more forthem. Their profits, therefore, being augmented at both ends, can wellafford a large interest. The great fortunes so suddenly and soeasily acquired in Bengal and the other British settlements in theEast Indies may satisfy us that, as the wages of labour are verylow, so the profits of stock are very high in those ruined countries.The interest of money is proportionably so. In Bengal, money isfrequently lent to the farmers at forty, fifty, and sixty per cent andthe succeeding crop is mortgaged for the payment. As the profitswhich can afford such an interest must eat up almost the wholerent of the landlord, so such enormous usury must in its turn eatup the greater part of those profits. Before the fall of the Romanrepublic, a usury of the same kind seems to have been common inthe provinces, under the ruinous administration of theirproconsuls. The virtuous Brutus lent money in Cyprus at eight-Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 137. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 136and-forty per cent as we learn from the letters of Cicero. In a country which had acquired that full complement of richeswhich the nature of its soil and climate, and its situation withrespect to other countries, allowed it to acquire; which could,therefore, advance no further, and which was not goingbackwards, both the wages of labour and the profits of stock wouldprobably be very low. In a country fully peopled in proportion towhat either its territory could maintain or its stock employ, thecompetition for employment would necessarily be so great as toreduce the wages of labour to what was barely sufficient to keepup the number of labourers, and, the country being already fullypeopled, that number could never be augmented. In a countryfully stocked in proportion to all the business it had to transact, asgreat a quantity of stock would be employed in every particularbranch as the nature and extent of the trade would admit. Thecompetition, therefore, would everywhere be as great, andconsequently the ordinary profit as low as possible. But perhaps no country has ever yet arrived at this degree ofopulence. China seems to have been long stationary, and hadprobably long ago acquired that full complement of riches which isconsistent with the nature of its laws and institutions. But thiscomplement may be much inferior to what, with other laws andinstitutions, the nature of its soil, climate, and situation mightadmit of. A country which neglects or despises foreign commerce,and which admits the vessels of foreign nations into one or two ofits ports only, cannot transact the same quantity of business whichit might do with different laws and institutions. In a country too,where, though the rich or the owners of large capitals enjoy a gooddeal of security, the poor or the owners of small capitals enjoyAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 138. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 137scarce any, but are liable, under the pretence of justice, to bepillaged and plundered at any time by the inferior mandarins, thequantity of stock employed in all the different branches ofbusiness transacted within it can never be equal to what thenature and extent of that business might admit. In every differentbranch, the oppression of the poor must establish the monopoly ofthe rich, who, by engrossing the whole trade to themselves, will beable to make very large profits. Twelve per cent accordingly is saidto be the common interest of money in China, and the ordinaryprofits of stock must be sufficient to afford this large interest. A defect in the law may sometimes raise the rate of interestconsiderably above what the condition of the country, as to wealthor poverty, would require. When the law does not enforce theperformance of contracts, it puts all borrowers nearly upon thesame footing with bankrupts or people of doubtful credit in betterregulated countries. The uncertainty of recovering his moneymakes the lender exact the same usurious interest which is usuallyrequired from bankrupts. Among the barbarous nations whooverran the western provinces of the Roman empire, theperformance of contracts was left for many ages to the faith of thecontracting parties. The courts of justice of their kings seldomintermeddled in it. The high rate of interest which took place inthose ancient times may perhaps be partly accounted for from thiscause. When the law prohibits interest altogether, it does not preventit. Many people must borrow, and nobody will lend without such aconsideration for the use of their money as is suitable not only towhat can be made by the use of it, but to the difficulty and dangerof evading the law. The high rate of interest among all MahometanAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 139. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 138nations is accounted for by Mr. Montesquieu, not from theirpoverty, but partly from this, and partly from the difficulty ofrecovering the money. The lowest ordinary rate of profit must always be somethingmore than what is sufficient to compensate the occasional losses towhich every employment of stock is exposed. It is this surplus onlywhich is neat or clear profit. What is called gross profitcomprehends frequently, not only this surplus, but what isretained for compensating such extraordinary losses. The interestwhich the borrower can afford to pay is in proportion to the clearprofit only. The lowest ordinary rate of interest must, in the same manner,be something more than sufficient to compensate the occasionallosses to which lending, even with tolerable prudence, is exposed.Were it not more, charity or friendship could be the only motivefor lending. In a country which had acquired its full complement of riches,where in every particular branch of business there was thegreatest quantity of stock that could be employed in it, as theordinary rate of clear profit would be very small, so the usualmarket rate of interest which could be afforded out of it would beso low as to render it impossible for any but the very wealthiestpeople to live upon the interest of their money. All people of smallor middling fortunes would be obliged to superintend themselvesthe employment of their own stocks. It would be necessary thatalmost every man should be a man of business, or engage in somesort of trade. The province of Holland seems to be approachingnear to this state. It is there unfashionable not to be a man ofbusiness. Necessity makes it usual for almost every man to be so,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 140. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 139and custom everywhere regulates fashion. As it is ridiculous not todress, so is it, in some measure, not to be employed, like otherpeople. As a man of a civil profession seems awkward in a camp ora garrison, and is even in some danger of being despised there, sodoes an idle man among men of business. The highest ordinary rate of profit may be such as, in the priceof the greater part of commodities, eats up the whole of whatshould go to the rent of the land, and leaves only what is sufficientto pay the labour of preparing and bringing them to market,according to the lowest rate at which labour can anywhere bepaid, the bare subsistence of the labourer. The workman mustalways have been fed in some way or other while he was about thework; but the landlord may not always have been paid. The profitsof the trade which the servants of the East India Company carryon in Bengal may not perhaps be very far from this rate. The proportion which the usual market rate of interest ought tobear to the ordinary rate of clear profit, necessarily varies as profitrises or falls. Double interest is in Great Britain reckoned what themerchants call a good, moderate, reasonable profit; terms which Iapprehend mean no more than a common and usual profit. In acountry where the ordinary rate of clear profit is eight or ten percent, it may be reasonable that one half of it should go to interest,wherever business is carried on with borrowed money. The stockis at the risk of the borrower, who, as it were, insures it to thelender; and four or five per cent may, in the greater part of trades,be both a sufficient profit upon the risk of this insurance, and asufficient recompense for the trouble of employing the stock. Butthe proportion between interest and clear profit might not be thesame in countries where the ordinary rate of profit was either aAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 141. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 140good deal lower, or a good deal higher. If it were a good deal lower,one half of it perhaps could not be afforded for interest; and moremight be afforded if it were a good deal higher. In countries which are fast advancing to riches, the low rate ofprofit may, in the price of many commodities, compensate the highwages of labour, and enable those countries to sell as cheap astheir less thriving neighbours, among whom the wages of labourmay be lower. In reality high profits tend much more to raise the price of workthan high wages. If in the linen manufacture, for example, thewages of the different working people, the flax-dressers, thespinners, the weavers, etc., should, all of them, be advancedtwopence a day; it would be necessary to heighten the price of apiece of linen only by a number of twopences equal to the numberof people that had been employed about it, multiplied by thenumber of days during which they had been so employed. Thatpart of the price of the commodity which resolved itself into wageswould, through all the different stages of the manufacture, riseonly in arithmetical proportion to this rise of wages. But if theprofits of all the different employers of those working peopleshould be raised five per cent, that part of the price of thecommodity which resolved itself into profit would, through all thedifferent stages of the manufacture, rise in geometrical proportionto this rise of profit. The employer of the flax-dressers would in selling his flaxrequire an additional five per cent upon the whole value of thematerials and wages which he advanced to his workmen. Theemployer of the spinners would require an additional five per centboth upon the advanced price of the flax and upon the wages ofAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 142. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 141the spinners. And the employer of the weavers would require alike five per cent both upon the advanced price of the linen yarnand upon the wages of the weavers. In raising the price ofcommodities the rise of wages operates in the same manner assimple interest does in the accumulation of debt. The rise of profitoperates like compound interest. Our merchants and master-manufacturers complain much of the bad effects of high wages inraising the price, and thereby lessening the sale of their goodsboth at home and abroad. They say nothing concerning the badeffects of high profits. They are silent with regard to the perniciouseffects of their own gains. They complain only of those of otherpeople.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 143. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 142 Chapter X Of Wages and Profit in the different Employments of Labour and StockT he whole of the advantages and disadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock must, in the same neighbourhood, be either perfectly equal orcontinually tending to equality. If in the same neighbourhood,there was any employment evidently either more or lessadvantageous than the rest, so many people would crowd into it inthe one case, and so many would desert it in the other, that itsadvantages would soon return to the level of other employments.This at least would be the case in a society where things were leftto follow their natural course, where there was perfect liberty, andwhere every man was perfectly free both to choose whatoccupation he thought proper, and to change it as often as hethought proper. Every man’s interest would prompt him to seekthe advantageous, and to shun the disadvantageous employment. Pecuniary wages and profit, indeed, are everywhere in Europeextremely different according to the different employments oflabour and stock. But this difference arises partly from certaincircumstances in the employments themselves, which, eitherreally, or at least in the imaginations of men, make up for a smallpecuniary gain in some, and counterbalance a great one in others;and partly from the policy of Europe, which nowhere leaves thingsat perfect liberty. The particular consideration of those circumstances and of thatAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 144. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 143policy will divide this chapter into two parts. PART 1 Inequalities arising from the Nature of the Employments themselvesThe five following are the principal circumstances which, so far asI have been able to observe, make up for a small pecuniary gain insome employments, and counterbalance a great one in others:first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employmentsthemselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficultyand expense of learning them; thirdly, the constancy orinconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or greattrust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and,fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them. First, the wages of labour vary with the ease or hardship, thecleanliness or dirtiness, the honourableness or dishonourablenessof the employment. Thus in most places, take the year round, ajourneyman tailor earns less than a journeyman weaver. His workis much easier. A journeyman weaver earns less than ajourneyman smith. His work is not always easier, but it is muchcleanlier. A journeyman blacksmith, though an artificer, seldomearns so much in twelve hours as a collier, who is only a labourer,does in eight. His work is not quite so dirty, is less dangerous, andis carried on in daylight, and above ground. Honour makes a greatpart of the reward of all honourable professions. In point ofpecuniary gain, all things considered, they are generally under-recompensed, as I shall endeavour to show by and by. DisgraceAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 145. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 144has the contrary effect. The trade of a butcher is a brutal and anodious business; but it is in most places more profitable than thegreater part of common trades. The most detestable of allemployments, that of public executioner, is, in proportion to thequantity of work done, better paid than any common tradewhatever. Hunting and fishing, the most important employments ofmankind in the rude state of society, become in its advanced statetheir most agreeable amusements, and they pursue for pleasurewhat they once followed from necessity. In the advanced state ofsociety, therefore, they are all very poor people who follow as atrade what other people pursue as a pastime. Fishermen havebeen so since the time of Theocritus.1 A poacher is everywhere avery poor man in Great Britain. In countries where the rigour ofthe law suffers no poachers, the licensed hunter is not in a muchbetter condition. The natural taste for those employments makesmore people follow them than can live comfortably by them, andthe produce of their labour, in proportion to its quantity, comesalways too cheap to market to afford anything but the most scantysubsistence to the labourers. Disagreeableness and disgrace affect the profits of stock in thesame manner as the wages of labour. The keeper of an inn ortavern, who is never master of his own house, and who is exposedto the brutality of every drunkard, exercises neither a veryagreeable nor a very creditable business. But there is scarce anycommon trade in which a small stock yields so great a profit. Secondly, the wages of labour vary with the easiness and1 See Idyllium XXI.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 146. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 145cheapness, or the difficulty and expense of learning the business. When any expensive machine is erected, the extraordinarywork to be performed by it before it is worn out, it must beexpected, will replace the capital laid out upon it, with at least theordinary profits. A man educated at the expense of much labourand time to any of those employments which requireextraordinary dexterity and skill, may be compared to one of thoseexpensive machines. The work which he learns to perform, it mustbe expected, over and above the usual wages of common labour,will replace to him the whole expense of his education, with atleast the ordinary profits of an equally valuable capital. It must dothis, too, in a reasonable time, regard being had to the veryuncertain duration of human life, in the same manner as to themore certain duration of the machine. The difference between the wages of skilled labour and those ofcommon labour is founded upon this principle. The policy of Europe considers the labour of all mechanics,artificers, and manufacturers, as skilled labour; and that of allcountry labourers as common labour. It seems to suppose that ofthe former to be of a more nice and delicate nature than that of thelatter. It is so perhaps in some cases; but in the greater part is itquite otherwise, as I shall endeavour to show by and by. The lawsand customs of Europe, therefore, in order to qualify any personfor exercising the one species of labour, impose the necessity of anapprenticeship, though with different degrees of rigour indifferent places. They leave the other free and open to everybody.During the continuance of the apprenticeship, the whole labour ofthe apprentice belongs to his master. In the meantime he must, inmany cases, be maintained by his parents or relations, and inAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 147. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 146almost all cases must be clothed by them. Some money, too, iscommonly given to the master for teaching him his trade. Theywho cannot give money give time, or become bound for more thanthe usual number of years; a consideration which, though it is notalways advantageous to the master, on account of the usualidleness of apprentices, is always disadvantageous to theapprentice. In country labour, on the contrary, the labourer, whilehe is employed about the easier, learns the more difficult parts ofhis business, and his own labour maintains him through all thedifferent stages of his employment. It is reasonable, therefore, thatin Europe the wages of mechanics, artificers, and manufacturers,should be somewhat higher than those of common labourers. Theyare so accordingly, and their superior gains make them in mostplaces be considered as a superior rank of people. This superiority, however, is generally very small; the daily orweekly earnings of journeymen in the more common sorts ofmanufactures, such as those of plain linen and woollen cloth,computed at an average, are, in most places, very little more thanthe day wages of common labourers. Their employment, indeed, ismore steady and uniform, and the superiority of their earnings,taking the whole year together, may be somewhat greater. Itseems evidently, however, to be no greater than what is sufficientto compensate the superior expense of their education. Education in the ingenious arts and in the liberal professions isstill more tedious and expensive. The pecuniary recompense,therefore, of painters and sculptors, of lawyers and physicians,ought to be much more liberal; and it is so accordingly. The profits of stock seem to be very little affected by theeasiness or difficulty of learning the trade in which it is employed.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 148. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 147All the different ways in which stock is commonly employed ingreat towns seem, in reality, to be almost equally easy and equallydifficult to learn. One branch either of foreign or domestic tradecannot well be a much more intricate business than another. Thirdly, the wages of labour in different occupations vary withthe constancy or inconstancy of employment. Employment is much more constant in some trades than inothers. In the greater part of manufacturers, a journeyman may bepretty sure of employment almost every day in the year that he isable to work. A mason or bricklayer, on the contrary, can work neither inhard frost nor in foul weather, and his employment at all othertimes depends upon the occasional calls of his customers. He isliable, in consequence, to be frequently without any. What heearns, therefore, while he is employed, must not only maintainhim while he is idle, but make him some compensation for thoseanxious and desponding moments which the thought of soprecarious a situation must sometimes occasion. Where thecomputed earnings of the greater part of manufacturers,accordingly, are nearly upon a level with the day wages ofcommon labourers, those of masons and bricklayers are generallyfrom one half more to double those wages. Where commonlabourers earn four and five shillings a week, masons andbricklayers frequently earn seven and eight; where the formerearn six, the latter often earn nine and ten; and where the formerearn nine and ten, as in London, the latter commonly earn fifteenand eighteen. No species of skilled labour, however, seems moreeasy to learn than that of masons and bricklayers. Chairmen inLondon, during the summer season, are said sometimes to beAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 149. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 148employed as bricklayers. The high wages of those workmen,therefore, are not so much the recompense of their skill, as thecompensation for the inconstancy of their employment. A house carpenter seems to exercise rather a nicer and moreingenious trade than a mason. In most places, however, for it isnot universally so, his day-wages are somewhat lower. Hisemployment, though it depends much, does not depend so entirelyupon the occasional calls of his customers; and it is not liable to beinterrupted by the weather. When the trades which generally afford constant employmenthappen in a particular place not to do so, the wages of theworkmen always rise a good deal above their ordinary proportionto those of common labour. In London almost all journeymenartificers are liable to be called upon and dismissed by theirmasters from day to day, and from week to week, in the samemanner as day-labourers in other places. The lowest order ofartificers, journeymen tailors, accordingly, earn there half a crowna-day, though eighteenpence may be reckoned the wages ofcommon labour. In small towns and country villages, the wages ofjourneymen tailors frequently scarce equal those of commonlabour; but in London they are often many weeks withoutemployment, particularly during the summer. When the inconstancy of employment is combined with thehardship, disagreeableness and dirtiness of the work, it sometimesraises the wages of the most common labour above those of themost skilful artificers. A collier working by the piece is supposed,at Newcastle, to earn commonly about double, and in many partsof Scotland about three times the wages of common labour. Hishigh wages arise altogether from the hardship, disagreeableness,Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 150. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 149and dirtiness of his work. His employment may, upon mostoccasions, be as constant as he pleases. The coal-heavers inLondon exercise a trade which in hardship, dirtiness, anddisagreeableness, almost equals that of colliers; and from theunavoidable irregularity in the arrivals of coal-ships, theemployment of the greater part of them is necessarily veryinconstant. If colliers, therefore, commonly earn double and triplethe wages of common labour, it ought not to seem unreasonablethat coal-heavers should sometimes earn four and five times thosewages. In the inquiry made into their condition a few years ago, itwas found that at the rate at which they were then paid, they couldearn from six to ten shillings a day. Six shillings are about fourtimes the wages of common labour in London, and in everyparticular trade the lowest common earnings may always beconsidered as those of the far greater number. How extravagantsoever those earnings may appear, if they were more thansufficient to compensate all the disagreeable circumstances of thebusiness, there would soon be so great a number of competitorsas, in a trade which has no exclusive privilege, would quicklyreduce them to a lower rate. The constancy or inconstancy of employment cannot affect theordinary profits of stock in any particular trade. Whether the stockis or is not constantly employed depends. not upon the trade, butthe trader. Fourthly, the wages of labour vary accordingly to the small orgreat trust which must be reposed in the workmen. The wages of goldsmiths and jewellers are everywhere superiorto those of many other workmen, not only of equal, but of muchsuperior ingenuity, on account of the precious materials withAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 151. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 150which they are intrusted. We trust our health to the physician: our fortune andsometimes our life and reputation to the lawyer and attorney.Such confidence could not safely be reposed in people of a verymean or low condition. Their reward must be such, therefore, asmay give them that rank in the society which so important a trustrequires. The long time and the great expense which must be laidout in their education, when combined with this circumstance,necessarily enhance still further the price of their labour. When a person employs only his own stock in trade, there is notrust; and the credit which he may get from other people depends,not upon the nature of his trade, but upon their opinion of hisfortune, probity, and prudence. The different rates of profit,therefore, in the different branches of trade, cannot arise from thedifferent degrees of trust reposed in the traders. Fifthly, the wages of labour in different employments varyaccording to the probability or improbability of success in them. The probability that any particular person shall ever bequalified for the employment to which he is educated is verydifferent in different occupations. In the greater part of mechanictrades, success is almost certain; but very uncertain in the liberalprofessions. Put your son apprentice to a shoemaker, there is littledoubt of his learning to make a pair of shoes; but send him tostudy the law, it is at least twenty to one if ever he makes suchproficiency as will enable him to live by the business. In a perfectlyfair lottery, those who draw the prizes ought to gain all that is lostby those who draw the blanks. In a profession where twenty failfor one that succeeds, that one ought to gain all that should havebeen gained by the unsuccessful twenty. The counsellor-at-lawAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 152. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 151who, perhaps, at near forty years of age, begins to make somethingby his profession, ought to receive the retribution, not only of hisown so tedious and expensive education, but that of more thantwenty others who are never likely to make anything by it. Howextravagant soever the fees of counsellors-at-law may sometimesappear, their real retribution is never equal to this. Compute inany particular place what is likely to be annually gained, and whatis likely to be annually spent, by all the different workmen in anycommon trade, such as that of shoemakers or weavers, and youwill find that the former sum will generally exceed the latter. Butmake the same computation with regard to all the counsellors andstudents of law, in all the different inns of court, and you will findthat their annual gains bear but a very small proportion to theirannual expense, even though you rate the former as high, and thelatter as low, as can well be done. The lottery of the law, therefore,is very far from being a perfectly fair lottery; and that, as well asmany other liberal and honourable professions, are, in point ofpecuniary gain, evidently under-recompensed. Those professions keep their level, however, with otheroccupations, and, notwithstanding these discouragements, all themost generous and liberal spirits are eager to crowd into them.Two different causes contribute to recommend them. First, thedesire of the reputation which attends upon superior excellence inany of them; and, secondly, the natural confidence which everyman has more or less, not only in his own abilities, but in his owngood fortune. To excel in any profession, in which but few arrive atmediocrity, is the most decisive mark of what is called genius orsuperior talents. The public admiration which attends upon suchAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 153. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 152distinguished abilities makes always a part of their reward; agreater or smaller in proportion as it is higher or lower in degree.It makes a considerable part of that reward in the profession ofphysic; a still greater perhaps in that of law; in poetry andphilosophy it makes almost the whole. There are some very agreeable and beautiful talents of whichthe possession commands a certain sort of admiration; but ofwhich the exercise for the sake of gain is considered, whether fromreason or prejudice, as a sort of public prostitution. The pecuniaryrecompense, therefore, of those who exercise them in this mannermust be sufficient, not only to pay for the time, labour, andexpense of acquiring the talents, but for the discredit whichattends the employment of them as the means of subsistence. Theexorbitant rewards of players, opera-singers, opera-dancers, etc.,are founded upon those two principles; the rarity and beauty ofthe talents, and the discredit of employing them in this manner. Itseems absurd at first sight that we should despise their personsand yet reward their talents with the most profuse liberality. Whilewe do the one, however, we must of necessity do the other. Shouldthe public opinion or prejudice ever alter with regard to suchoccupations, their pecuniary recompense would quickly diminish.More people would apply to them, and the competition wouldquickly reduce the price of their labour. Such talents, though farfrom being common, are by no means so rare as is imagined. Manypeople possess them in great perfection, who disdain to make thisuse of them; and many more are capable of acquiring them, ifanything could be made honourably by them. The overweening conceit which the greater part of men have oftheir own abilities is an ancient evil remarked by the philosophersAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 154. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 153and moralists of all ages. Their absurd presumption in their owngood fortune has been less taken notice of. It is, however, ifpossible, still more universal. There is no man living who, when intolerable health and spirits, has not some share of it. The chanceof gain is by every man more or less overvalued, and the chance ofloss is by most men undervalued, and by scarce any man, who is intolerable health and spirits, valued more than it is worth. That the chance of gain is naturally overvalued, we may learnfrom the universal success of lotteries. The world neither eversaw, nor ever will see, a perfectly fair lottery; or one in which thewhole gain compensated the whole loss; because the undertakercould make nothing by it. In the state lotteries the tickets arereally not worth the price which is paid by the originalsubscribers, and yet commonly sell in the market for twenty,thirty, and sometimes forty per cent advance. The vain hope ofgaining some of the great prizes is the sole cause of this demand.The soberest people scarce look upon it as a folly to pay a smallsum for the chance of gaining ten or twenty thousand pounds;though they know that even that small sum is perhaps twenty orthirty per cent more than the chance is worth. In a lottery in whichno prize exceeded twenty pounds, though in other respects itapproached much nearer to a perfectly fair one than the commonstate lotteries, there would not be the same demand for tickets. Inorder to have a better chance for some of the great prizes, somepeople purchase several tickets, and others, small share in a stillgreater number. There is not, however, a more certain propositionin mathematics than that the more tickets you adventure upon,the more likely you are to be a loser. Adventure upon all thetickets in the lottery, and you lose for certain; and the greater theAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 155. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 154number of your tickets the nearer you approach to this certainty. That the chance of loss is frequently undervalued, and scarceever valued more than it is worth, we may learn from a verymoderate profit of insurers. In order to make insurance, eitherfrom fire or sea-risk, a trade at all, the common premium must besufficient to compensate the common losses, to pay the expense ofmanagement, and to afford such a profit as might have beendrawn from an equal capital employed in any common trade. Theperson who pays no more than this evidently pays no more thanthe real value of the risk, or the lowest price at which he canreasonably expect to insure it. But though many people have madea little money by insurance, very few have made a great fortune;and from this consideration alone, it seems evident enough thatthe ordinary balance of profit and loss is not more advantageous inthis than in other common trades by which so many people makefortunes. Moderate, however, as the premium of insurancecommonly is, many people despise the risk too much to care to payit. Taking the whole kingdom at an average, nineteen houses intwenty, or rather perhaps ninety-nine in a hundred, are notinsured from fire. Sea risk is more alarming to the greater part ofpeople, and the proportion of ships insured to those not insured ismuch greater. Many fail, however, at all seasons, and even in timeof war, without any insurance. This may sometimes perhaps bedone without any imprudence. When a great company, or even agreat merchant, has twenty or thirty ships at sea, they may, as itwere, insure one another. The premium saved upon them all maymore than compensate such losses as they are likely to meet within the common course of chances. The neglect of insurance uponshipping, however, in the same manner as upon houses, is, in mostAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 156. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 155cases, the effect of no such nice calculation, but of merethoughtless rashness and presumptuous contempt of the risk. The contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success arein no period of life more active than at the age at which youngpeople choose their professions. How little the fear of misfortune isthen capable of balancing the hope of good luck appears still moreevidently in the readiness of the common People to enlist assoldiers, or to go to sea, than in the eagerness of those of betterfashion to enter into what are called the liberal professions. What a common soldier may lose is obvious enough. Withoutregarding the danger, however, young volunteers never enlist soreadily as at the beginning of a new war; and though they havescarce any chance of preferment, they figure to themselves, intheir youthful fancies, a thousand occasions of acquiring honourand distinction which never occur. These romantic hopes makethe whole price of their blood. Their pay is less than that ofcommon labourers, and in actual service their fatigues are muchgreater. The lottery of the sea is not altogether so disadvantageous asthat of the army. The son of a creditable labourer or artificer mayfrequently go to sea with his father’s consent; but if he enlists as asoldier, it is always without it. Other people see some chance of hismaking something by the one trade: nobody but himself sees anyof his making anything by the other. The great admiral is less theobject of public admiration than the great general, and the highestsuccess in the sea service promises a less brilliant fortune andreputation than equal success in the land. The same differenceruns through all the inferior degrees of preferment in both. By therules of precedency a captain in the navy ranks with a colonel inAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 157. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 156the army; but he does not rank with him in the commonestimation. As the great prizes in the lottery are less, the smallerones must be more numerous. Common sailors, therefore, morefrequently get some fortune and preferment than commonsoldiers; and the hope of those prizes is what principallyrecommends the trade. Though their skill and dexterity are muchsuperior to that of almost any artificers, and though their wholelife is one continual scene of hardship and danger, yet for all thisdexterity and skill, for all those hardships and dangers, while theyremain in the condition of common sailors, they receive scarce anyother recompense but the pleasure of exercising the one and ofsurmounting the other. Their wages are not greater than those ofcommon labourers at the port which regulates the rate ofseamen’s wages. As they are continually going from port to port,the monthly pay of those who sail from all the different ports ofGreat Britain is more nearly upon a level than that of any otherworkmen in those different places; and the rate of the port to andfrom which the greatest number sail, that is the port of London,regulates that of all the rest. At London the wages of the greaterpart of the different classes of workmen are about double those ofthe same classes at Edinburgh. But the sailors who sail from theport of London seldom earn above three or four shillings a monthmore than those who sail from the port of Leith, and the differenceis frequently not so great. In time of peace, and in the merchantservice, the London price is from a guinea to about seven-and-twenty shillings the calendar month. A common labourer inLondon, at the rate of nine or ten shillings a week, may earn in thecalendar month from forty to five-and-forty shillings. The sailor,indeed, over and above his pay, is supplied with provisions. TheirAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 158. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 157value, however, may not perhaps always exceed the differencebetween his pay and that of the common labourer; and though itsometimes should, the excess will not be clear gain to the sailor,because he cannot share it with his wife and family, whom hemust maintain out of his wages at home. The dangers and hairbreadth escapes of a life of adventures,instead of disheartening young people, seem frequently torecommend a trade to them. A tender mother, among the inferiorranks of people, is of afraid to send her son to school at a seaporttown, lest the sight of the ships and the conversation andadventures of the sailors should entice him to go to sea. Thedistant prospect of hazards, from which we can hope to extricateourselves by courage and address, is not disagreeable to us, anddoes not raise the wages of labour in any employment. It isotherwise with those in which courage and address can be of noavail. In trades which are known to be very unwholesome, thewages of labour are always remarkably high. Unwholesomeness isa species of disagreeableness, and its effects upon the wages oflabour are to be ranked under that general head. In all the different employments of stock, the ordinary rate ofprofit varies more or less with the certainty or uncertainty of thereturns. These are in general less uncertain in the inland than inthe foreign trade, and in some branches of foreign trade than inothers; in the trade to North America, for example, than in that toJamaica. The ordinary rate of profit always rises more or less withthe risk. It does not, however, seem to rise in proportion to it, or so as tocompensate it completely. Bankruptcies are most frequent in themost hazardous trades. The most hazardous of all trades, that of aAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 159. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 158smuggler, though when the adventure succeeds it is likewise themost profitable, is the infallible road to bankruptcy. Thepresumptuous hope of success seems to act here as upon all otheroccasions, and to entice so many adventurers into those hazardoustrades, that their competition reduces their profit below what issufficient to compensate the risk. To compensate it completely, thecommon returns ought, over and above the ordinary profits ofstock, not only to make up for all occasional losses, but to afford asurplus profit to the adventurers of the same nature with the profitof insurers. But if the common returns were sufficient for all this,bankruptcies would not be more frequent in these than in othertrades. Of the five circumstances, therefore, which vary the wages oflabour, two only affect the profits of stock; the agreeableness ordisagreeableness of the business, and the risk or security withwhich it is attended. In point of agreeableness, there is little or nodifference in the far greater part of the different employments ofstock; but a great deal in those of labour; and the ordinary profit ofstock, though it rises with the risk, does not always seem to rise inproportion to it. It should follow from all this, that, in the samesociety or neighbourhood, the average and ordinary rates of profitin the different employments of stock should be more nearly upona level than the pecuniary wages of the different sorts of labour.They are so accordingly. The difference between the earnings of acommon labourer and those of a well employed lawyer orphysician, is evidently much greater than that between theordinary profits in any two different branches of trade. Theapparent difference, besides, in the profits of different trades, isgenerally a deception arising from our not always distinguishingAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 160. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 159what ought to be considered as wages, from what ought to beconsidered as profit. Apothecaries’ profit is become a bye-word, denoting somethinguncommonly extravagant. This great apparent profit, however, isfrequently no more than the reasonable wages of labour. The skillof an apothecary is a much nicer and more delicate matter thanthat of any artificer whatever; and the trust which is reposed inhim is of much greater importance. He is the physician of the poorin all cases, and of the rich when the distress or danger is not verygreat. His reward, therefore, ought to be suitable to his skill andhis trust, and it arises generally from the price at which he sells hisdrugs. But the whole drugs which the best employed apothecary,in a large market town, will sell in a year, may not perhaps costhim above thirty or forty pounds. Though he should sell them,therefore, for three or four hundred, or at a thousand per centprofit, this may frequently be no more than the reasonable wagesof his labour charged, in the only way in which he can chargethem, upon the price of his drugs. The greater part of the apparentprofit is real wages disguised in the garb of profit. In a small seaport town, a little grocer will make forty or fiftyper cent upon a stock of a single hundred pounds, while aconsiderable wholesale merchant in the same place will scarcemake eight or ten per cent upon a stock of ten thousand. The tradeof the grocer may be necessary for the conveniency of theinhabitants, and the narrowness of the market may not admit theemployment of a larger capital in the business. The man, however,must not only live by his trade, but live by it suitably to thequalifications which it requires. Besides possessing a little capital,he must be able to read, write, and account, and must be aAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 161. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 160tolerable judge too of, perhaps, fifty or sixty different sorts ofgoods, their prices, qualities, and the markets where they are to behad cheapest. He must have all the knowledge, in short, that isnecessary for a great merchant, which nothing hinders him frombecoming but the want of a sufficient capital. Thirty or fortypounds a year cannot be considered as too great a recompense forthe labour of a person so Accomplished. Deduct this from theseemingly great profits of his capital, and little more will remain,perhaps, than the ordinary profits of stock. The greater part of theapparent profit is, in this case too, real wages. The difference between the apparent profit of the retail andthat of the wholesale trade, is much less in the capital than insmall towns and country villages. Where ten thousand pounds canbe employed in the grocery trade, the wages of the grocer’s labourmake but a very trifling addition to the real profits of so great astock. The apparent profits of the wealthy retailer, therefore, arethere more nearly upon a level with those of the wholesalemerchant. It is upon this account that goods sold by retail are generally ascheap and frequently much cheaper in the capital than in smalltowns and country villages. Grocery goods, for example, aregenerally much cheaper; bread and butcher’s meat frequently ascheap. It costs no more to bring grocery goods to the great townthan to the country village; but it costs a great deal more to bringcorn and cattle, as the greater part of them must be brought froma much greater distance. The prime cost of grocery goods, therefore, being the same inboth places, they are cheapest where the least profit is chargedupon them.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 162. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 161 The prime cost of bread and butcher’s meat is greater in thegreat town than in the country village; and though the profit isless, therefore, they are not always cheaper there, but oftenequally cheap. In such articles as bread and butcher’s meat, the same cause,which diminishes apparent profit, increases prime cost. Theextent of the market, by giving employment to greater stocks,diminishes apparent profit; but by requiring supplies from agreater distance, it increases prime cost. This diminution of theone and increase of the other seem, in most cases, nearly tocounterbalance one another, which is probably the reason that,though the prices of corn and cattle are commonly very differentin different parts of the kingdom, those of bread and butcher’smeat are generally very nearly the same through the greater partof it. Though the profits of stock both in the wholesale and retailtrade are generally less in the capital than in small towns andcountry villages, yet great fortunes are frequently acquired fromsmall beginnings in the former, and scarce ever in the latter. Insmall towns and country villages, on account of the narrowness ofthe market, trade cannot always be extended as stock extends. Insuch places, therefore, though the rate of a particular person’sprofits may be very high, the sum or amount of them can never bevery great, nor consequently that of his annual accumulation. Ingreat towns, on the contrary, trade can be extended as stockincreases, and the credit of a frugal and thriving man increasesmuch faster than his stock. His trade is extended in proportion tothe amount of both, and the sum or amount of his profits is inproportion to the extent of his trade, and his annual accumulationAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 163. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 162in proportion to the amount of his profits. It seldom happens,however, that great fortunes are made even in great towns by anyone regular, established, and well-known branch of business, butin consequence of a long life of industry, frugality, and attention.Sudden fortunes, indeed, are sometimes made in such places bywhat is called the trade of speculation. The speculative merchantexercises no one regular, established, or well-known branch ofbusiness. He is a corn merchant this year, and a wine merchantthe next, and a sugar, tobacco, or tea merchant the year after. Heenters into every trade when he foresees that it is likely to be morethan commonly profitable, and he quits it when he foresees that itsprofits are likely to return to the level of other trades. His profitsand losses, therefore, can bear no regular proportion to those ofany one established and well-known branch of business. A boldadventurer may sometimes acquire a considerable fortune by twoor three successful speculations; but is just as likely to lose one bytwo or three unsuccessful ones. This trade can be carried onnowhere but in great towns. It is only in places of the mostextensive commerce and correspondence that the intelligencerequisite for it can be had. The five circumstances above mentioned, though they occasionconsiderable inequalities in the wages of labour and profits ofstock, occasion none in the whole of the advantages anddisadvantages, real or imaginary, of the different employments ofeither. The nature of those circumstances is such that they makeup for a small pecuniary gain in some, and counterbalance a greatone in others. In order, however, that this equality may take place in thewhole of their advantages or disadvantages, three things areAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 164. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 163requisite even where there is the most perfect freedom. First, theemployments must be well known and long established in theneighbourhood; secondly, they must be in their ordinary, or whatmay be called their natural state; and, thirdly, they must be thesole or principal employments of those who occupy them. First, this equality can take place only in those employmentswhich are well known, and have been long established in theneighbourhood. Where all other circumstances are equal, wages are generallyhigher in new than in old trades. When a projector attempts toestablish a new manufacture, he must at first entice his workmenfrom other employments by higher wages than they can eitherearn in their own trades, or than the nature of his work wouldotherwise require, and a considerable time must pass away beforehe can venture to reduce them to the common level. Manufacturesfor which the demand arises altogether from fashion and fancy arecontinually changing, and seldom last long enough to beconsidered as old established manufactures. Those, on thecontrary, for which the demand arises chiefly from use ornecessity, are less liable to change, and the same form or fabricmay continue in demand for whole centuries together. The wagesof labour, therefore, are likely to be higher in manufactures of theformer than in those of the latter kind. Birmingham deals chieflyin manufactures of the former kind; Sheffield in those of the latter;and the wages of labour in those two different places are said to besuitable to this difference in the nature of their manufactures. The establishment of any new manufacture, of any new branchof commerce, or of any new practice in agriculture, is always aspeculation, from which the projector promises himselfAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 165. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 164extraordinary profits. These profits sometimes are very great, andsometimes, more frequently, perhaps, they are quite otherwise;but in general they bear no regular proportion to those of otherold trades in the neighbourhood. If the project succeeds, they arecommonly at first very high. When the trade or practice becomesthoroughly established and well known, the competition reducesthem to the level of other trades. Secondly, this equality in the whole of the advantages anddisadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock,can take place only in the ordinary, or what may be called thenatural state of those employments. The demand for almost every different species of labour issometimes greater and sometimes less than usual. In the one casethe advantages of the employment rise above, in the other they fallbelow the common level. The demand for country labour isgreater at hay-time and harvest than during the greater part of theyear; and wages rise with the demand. In time of war, when fortyor fifty thousand sailors are forced from the merchant service intothat of the king, the demand for sailors to merchant shipsnecessarily rises with their scarcity, and their wages upon suchoccasions commonly rise from a guinea and seven-and-twentyshillings, to forty shillings and three pounds a month. In adecaying manufacture, on the contrary, many workmen, ratherthan quit their old trade, are contented with smaller wages thanwould otherwise be suitable to the nature of their employment. The profits of stock vary with the price of the commodities inwhich it is employed. As the price of any commodity rises abovethe ordinary or average rate, the profits of at least some part of thestock that is employed in bringing it to market, rise above theirAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 166. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 165proper level, and as it falls they sink below it. All commodities aremore or less liable to variations of price, but some are much moreso than others. In all commodities which are produced by humanindustry, the quantity of industry annually employed is necessarilyregulated by the annual demand, in such a manner that theaverage annual produce may, as nearly as possible, be equal to theaverage annual consumption. In some employments, it has alreadybeen observed, the same quantity of industry will always producethe same, or very nearly the same quantity of commodities. In thelinen or woollen manufactures, for example, the same number ofhands will annually work up very nearly the same quantity oflinen and woollen cloth. The variations in the market price of suchcommodities, therefore, can arise only from some accidentalvariation in the demand. A public mourning raises the price ofblack cloth. But as the demand for most sorts of plain linen andwoollen cloth is pretty uniform, so is likewise the price. But thereare other employments in which the same quantity of industry willnot always produce the same quantity of commodities. The samequantity of industry, for example, will, in different years, producevery different quantities of corn, wine, hops, sugar, tobacco, etc.The price of such commodities, therefore, varies not only with thevariations of demand, but with the much greater and morefrequent variations of quantity, and is consequently extremelyfluctuating. But the profit of some of the dealers must necessarilyfluctuate with the price of the commodities. The operations of thespeculative merchant are principally employed about suchcommodities. He endeavours to buy them up when he foreseesthat their price is likely to rise, and to sell them when it is likely tofall.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 167. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 166 Thirdly, this equality in the whole of the advantages anddisadvantages of the different employments of labour and stockcan take only in such as are the sole or principal employments ofthose who occupy them. When a person derives his subsistence from one employment,which does not occupy the greater part of his time, in the intervalsof his leisure he is often willing to work as another for less wagesthan would otherwise suit the nature of the employment. There still subsists in many parts of Scotland a set of peoplecalled Cotters or Cottagers, though they were more frequent someyears ago than they are now. They are a sort of outservants of thelandlords and farmers. The usual reward which they receive fromtheir masters is a house, a small garden for pot-herbs, as muchgrass as will feed a cow, and, perhaps, an acre or two of bad arableland. When their master has occasion for their labour, he givesthem, besides, two pecks of oatmeal a week, worth aboutsixteenpence sterling. During a great part of the year he has littleor no occasion for their labour, and the cultivation of their ownlittle possession is not sufficient to occupy the time which is left attheir own disposal. When such occupiers were more numerous than they are atpresent, they are said to have been willing to give their spare timefor a very small recompense to anybody, and to have wrought forless wages than other labourers. In ancient times they seem tohave been common all over Europe. In countries ill cultivated andworse inhabited, the greater part of landlords and farmers couldnot otherwise provide themselves with the extraordinary numberof hands which country labour requires at certain season. Thedaily or weekly recompense which such labourers occasionallyAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 168. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 167received from their masters was evidently not the whole price oftheir labour. Their small tenement made a considerable part of it.This daily or weekly recompense, however, seems to have beenconsidered as the whole of it, by many writers who have collectedthe prices of labour and provisions in ancient times, and who havetaken pleasures in representing both as wonderfully low. The produce of such labour comes frequently cheaper tomarket than would otherwise suitable to its nature. Stockings inmany parts of Scotland are knit much cheaper than they cananywhere be wrought upon the loom. They are the work ofservants and labourers, who derive the principal part of theirsubsistence from some other employment. More than a thousandpair of Shetland stockings are annually imported into Leith, ofwhich the price is from fivepence to sevenpence a pair. AtLerwick, the small capital of the Shetland Islands, tenpence a day,I have been assured, is a common price of common labour. In thesame islands they knit worsted stockings to the value of a guinea apair and upwards. The spinning of linen yarn is carried on in Scotland nearly inthe same way as the knitting of stockings by servants, who arechiefly hired for other purposes. They earn but a very scantysubsistence, who endeavour to get their whole livelihood by eitherof those trades. In most parts of Scotland she is a good spinnerwho can earn twentypence a week. In opulent countries the market is generally so extensive thatany one trade is sufficient to employ the whole labour and stock ofthose who occupy it. Instances of people’s living by oneemployment, and at the same time deriving some little advantagefrom another, occur chiefly in poor countries. The followingAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 169. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 168instance, however, of something of the same kind is to be found inthe capital of a very rich one. There is no city in Europe, I believe,in which house-rent is dearer than in London, and yet I know nocapital in which a furnished apartment can be hired as cheap.Lodging is not only much cheaper in London than in Paris; it ismuch cheaper than in Edinburgh of the same degree of goodness;and what may seem extraordinary, the dearness of house-rent isthe cause of the cheapness of lodging. The dearness of house-rentin London arises not only from those causes which render it dearin all great capitals, the dearness of labour, the dearness of all thematerials of building, which must generally be brought from agreat distance, and above all the dearness of ground-rent, everylandlord acting the part the part of a monopolist, and frequentlyexacting a higher rent for a single acre of bad land in a town thancan be had for a hundred of the best in the country; but it arises inpart from the peculiar manners and customs of the people, whichoblige every master of a family to hire a whole house from top tobottom. A dwelling-house in England means everything that iscontained under the same roof. In France, Scotland, and manyother parts of Europe, it frequently means no more than a singlestory. A tradesman in London is obliged to hire a whole house inthat part of the town where his customers live. His shop is uponthe ground-floor, and he and his family sleep in the garret; and heendeavours to pay a part of his house-rent by letting the twomiddle stories to lodgers. He expects to maintain his family by histrade, and not by his lodgers. Whereas, at Paris and Edinburgh,the people who let lodgings have commonly no other means ofsubsistence and the price of the lodging must pay, not only therent of the house, but the whole expense of the family.Adam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 170. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 169 PART 2 Inequalities by the Policy of EuropeSuch are the inequalities in the whole of advantages anddisadvantages of the different employments of labour and stock,which the defect of any of the three requisites above mentionedmust occasion, even where there is the most perfect liberty. Butthe policy of Europe, by not leaving things at perfect liberty,occasions other inequalities of much greater importance. It does this chiefly in the three following ways. First, byrestraining the competition in some employments to a smallernumber than would otherwise be disposed to enter into them;secondly, by increasing it in others beyond what it naturally wouldbe; and, thirdly, by obstructing the free circulation of labour andstock, both from employment to employment and from place toplace. First, the policy of Europe occasions a very importantinequality in the whole of the advantages and disadvantages of thedifferent employments of labour and stock, by restraining thecompetition in some employments to a smaller number than mightotherwise be disposed to enter into them. The exclusive privileges of corporations are the principalmeans it makes use of for this purpose. The exclusive privilege of an incorporated trade necessarilyrestrains the competition, in the town where it is established, tothose who are free of the trade. To have served an apprenticeshipin the town, under a master properly qualified, is commonly thenecessary requisite for obtaining this freedom. The bye-laws of thecorporation regulate sometimes the number of apprentices whichAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 171. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 170any master is allowed to have, and almost always the number ofyears which each apprentice is obliged to serve. The intention ofboth regulations is to restrain the competition to a much smallernumber than might otherwise be disposed to enter into the trade.The limitation of the number of apprentices restrains it directly. Along term of apprenticeship restrains it more indirectly, but aseffectually, by increasing the expense of education. In Sheffield no master cutler can have more than oneapprentice at a time, by a bye-law of the corporation. In Norfolkand Norwich no master weaver can have more than twoapprentices, under pain of forfeiting five pounds a month to theking. No master hatter can have more than two apprenticesanywhere in England, or in the English plantations, under pain offorfeiting five pounds a month, half to the king and half to himwho shall sue in any court of record. Both these regulations,though they have been confirmed by a public law of the kingdom,are evidently dictated by the same corporation spirit whichenacted the bye-law of Sheffield. The silk weavers in London hadscarce been incorporated a year when they enacted a bye-lawrestraining any master from having more than two apprentices ata time. It required a particular Act of Parliament to rescind thisbye-law. Seven years seem anciently to have been, all over Europe, theusual term established for the duration of apprenticeships in thegreater part of incorporated trades. All such incorporations wereanciently called universities, which indeed is the proper Latinname for any incorporation whatever. The university of smiths,the university of tailors, etc., are expressions which we commonlymeet with in the old charters of ancient towns. When thoseAdam Smith ElecBook Classics
  • 172. The Wealth of Nations: Book 1 171particular incorporations which are now peculiarly calleduniversities were first established, the term of years which it wasnecessary to study, in order to obtain the degree of master of arts,appears evidently to have been copied from the terms ofapprenticeship in common trades, of which the incorporationswere much more ancient. As to have wrought seven years under amaster properly qualified was necessary in order to entitle anyperson to become a master, and to have himself apprenticed in acommon trade; so to have studied seven years under a masterproperly qualified was necessary to entitle him to become amaster, teacher, or doctor (words anciently synonymous) in theliberal arts, and to have scholars or apprentices (words likewiseoriginally synonymous) to study under him. By the 5th of Elizabeth, commonly called the Statute ofApprenticeship, it was enacted, that no person should for thefuture exercise any trade, craft, or mystery at that time exercisedin England, unless he had previously served to it anapprenticeship of seven years at least; and what before had beenthe bye-law of many particular corporations became in Englandthe general and public law of all trades carried on in markettowns. For though the words of the statute are very