INGENIERÍA

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INGENIERÍA

  1. 1. ®® Engineering S p r i n g 2 011 Unique Solutions for Engineering Education Compression Igniter Page 68 Pressure data is calculated using the force measured by a Force Platform. Temperature is calculated assuming adiabatic compression. Engineering Adiabatic COMPRESSION IGNITER Compression TD-8577 S E E PAG E 6 8 Ignites Paper!ForcePlatformPage 54
  2. 2. New ProductsDensity Circulation Model BicycleME-6816 GyroscopeSee page 88 ME-6837Allows students to model, measure Rotatingand understand the complex densitydriven circulation associated with heat Chairtransfer through convection. ME-6856 See page 42 New Design features precision ball bearings that result in extremely low-friction for both the Bicycle Gyroscope Blue­—­ ­ and the Rotating Chair. Hot­water Clear­—­ ­ Bicycle Gyroscope Cool­water Mass Set Black­—­ ME-6972 Ice­cold­water See page 42 Model­of­smoke­rising­beneath­an­inversion­layer.­The­rising­ plume­is­caused­by­a­heating­resistor­(not­included)­placed­at­ the­bottom­of­the­tank. MR 200 Digital/Analog Breadboard SE-9982MR 100 Analog Breadboard See page 100SE-9981See page 100Reinventing Edison: Reinventing Morse:Build Your Own Build Your Own TelegraphLight Bulb SE-7146 See page 98SE-7145See page 98 www.pasco.com/engineering
  3. 3. New Products – Table of ContentsLarge Structures Set DATA ACQUISITION ................................... 2-7 Computer Interfaces and Sensors .......2-5ME-7003See page 18 Graphing Datalogger .....................................6-7 STRUCTURES SYSTEM ....................... 8-20 Baltimore Truss Bridge MATERIALS ........................................................... 21 3 m long STATICS .............................................................22-25 MECHANICS .................................................26-55 Carts and Tracks ........................................ 26-31 Build this bridge and Projectile Motion ....................................... 32-33 15 other HUGE structures with Springs and Resonance ........................ 34-39 this one comprehensive set! Rotation ............................................................ 40-43 Energy ............................................................... 44-51 Human Body Mechanics ...................... 52-55Destructible Bridge BIOLOGY ...........................................................56-60Members ENVIRONMENTAL..................................61-65ME-7004See page 13 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ...........66-67 THERMAL .........................................................68-83 Metal Plate Gas Laws......................................................... 68-69 Temperature Sensors ............................. 70-71 Heat Conduction ........................................ 72-73 Equivalent of Heat ..................................... 74-75 Thermal Expansion ................................... 76-77 Breakable Link Thermoelectric ............................................ 78-79 A broken link can be easily Investigate structural Thermal Radiation ............................................ 80 replaced with a new one by failure by inserting these simply sliding it onto the posts. breakable links into your Heat Engines................................................. 81-83 structures. FLUIDS.................................................................84-89 Bernoulli .......................................................... 84-85CI Load Cell Amplifier Atmospheric Properties Atmospheric Pressure .................................. 86CI-6464 Chamber ME-6813 Density .............................................................. 87-89See page 9 See page 69 CIRCUITS .......................................................90-101 Electromagnetism ..................................... 90-93 Coils ........................................................................... 94 Electric Field Mapping .................................. 95Dual Humidity/Temp/Dew Point Electrostatics ...................................................... 96PS-2156 Resistance ............................................................ 97See page 62 Circuits............................................................ 98-101 OPTICS ......................................................... 102-105 Optics Bench ..................................................... 102 Adjustable Focal Lenses .................................................................... 103 Length Lens Human Eye Model .......................................... 104 OS-8494 Diffraction ............................................................ 105 See pages 103, 104 LAB SUPPLIES .................................... 106-109 Mechanical Supplies ......................... 106-107 Rods and Clamps .................................. 108-109 Index .............................................................. 110-112 Contact Information .... Inside back cover www.pasco.com/engineering 1
  4. 4. Data Acquisition—ScienceWorkshop®PASCO’s Most Powerful Interface Uses PASCO’sScienceWorkshop 750 ® DataStudio® SoftwareComputer Interface - USB (See page 4)CI-7650P Fast: 250,000 HzP Built-in function generatorP Built-in DC power supply (300 mA, ±5 V)P Accessory Power Amplifier (CI-6552A) increases power to 1 A, ±10 VP DataStudio Lite includedP NI LabVIEW™ compatibleOrder Information:750 Interface - USB .......................................................... CI-7650(USB-compatible computers)DataStudio Software Site License ....................... CI-6871G AC/DC Circuit BoardPower Amplifier (not shown) ................................... CI-6552A (See page 101)Over 45 ScienceWorkshop Sensors AvailableP Analog sensorsP Signal conditioning built-in For sensor specifications, visit CI Load Cell AmplifierP Sturdy cases for easy www.pasco.com/engineering/data-acquisition CI-6464 mountingAcceleration CI-6558 Light, UVA CI-9784Barometer CI-6531A Magnetic Field CI-6520ACarbon Dioxide CI-6561 Motion Sensor II CI-6742ACharge CI-6555 Oxygen Gas CI-6562 This amplifier allows users of the 500CI Load Cell Amplifier NEW CI-6464 pH CI-6507A and 750 ScienceWorkshop Interfaces to collect data using the Structures SystemColorimeter CI-6747 Photogate, Accessory ME-9204B 100N and 5N Load Cells. This system hasConductivity CI-6729 Photogate Head ME-9498A been successfully used at sample ratesCurrent CI-6556 Photogate/Pulley System ME-6838A up to 10,000 Hz. The sample rate limit is determined by the interface andCurrent, High CI-6740 Pressure Sensor— Absolute CI-6532A computer used.Dissolved Oxygen CI-6542 Pressure Sensor—Low CI-6534A A separate amplifier is required forDrop Counter CI-6499 Respiration Rate CI-6535 each load cell.EKG CI-6539A Rotary Motion CI-6538 See page 9 for more information.Flow Rate CI-6730A Sound CI-6506B Order Information:Force CI-6537 Temperature CI-6605A CI Load Cell Amplifier* ...............CI-6464Force, Economy CI-6746 Temperature, High Accuracy CI-6525 Required for Use:Force Platform CI-6461 Temperature, High, ScienceWorkshop InterfaceFreefall Adapter ME-9207B Type K Probe CI-6536 Load Cell 100N* .................................PS-2200G-M Tube SN-7927A Temperature with Type K Probe CI-6526 Load Cell 5N*.......................................PS-2201Heart Rate CI-6543B *Patents pending Thermistor Temperature CI-6527AHumidity, Relative CI-6559 Thermocline CI-6731Ion Probes Time-of-Flight Accessory ME-6810Ion-Selective ElectrodeAmplifier Box CI-6738 Voltage CI-6503Laser Switch ME-9259ALight CI-6504A Motion Sensor IILight, Broad Spectrum CI-6630 (CI-6742A) Photogate/PulleyLight, High-Sensitivity CI-6604 SystemLight, Infrared CI-6628 Rotary Motion (CI-6538) (ME-6838)2 www.pasco.com/engineering
  5. 5. Data Acquisition—ScienceWorkshop®Use ScienceWorkshop Use ScienceWorkshop sensors in your ownSensors with NI ELVIS™ circuits without a computer interfaceand LabVIEW™ CI Sensor Voltage MonitorNI ELVIS™ Adapters for CI-6611PASCO Sensors P Take advantage of PASCO’s numerous fine quality sensors already mounted in a case and ready to useTo collect data, plug an Analog or DigitalAdapter into the prototyping board and Plug up to five ScienceWorkshop sensors atinsert a sensor. Connect the adapter to a time into the front of the CI Sensor Voltagethe appropriate I/O ports on ELVIS and the Monitor. The sensors’ output voltages aresystem is ready to use. accessed at the buss on the back of theOnce data has been collected, students can CI Sensor Voltage Monitor.use the power and flexibility of LabVIEWsoftware to display and condition thedata as needed. This system provides theperfect opportunity for students to learn Backabout digital and analog data processingtechniques.Force Sensor Fan Accessory(See page 2) (See page 30) Front Force Sensor Voltage reading is proportional to the 1 kg force applied mass Sensor plugs intoForce Accessory Dynamics System CI Sensor VoltageBracket (See page 27) MonitorThe NI ELVIS and LabVIEW software are used to controlthe Fan Accessory based on measurements from the ForceSensor.Analog NI ELVIS Adapter CI-6718 CI Sensor Voltage Monitor Output voltage from sensor Digital NI ELVIS The CI Sensor Voltage Monitor accepts any ScienceWorkshop CI sensor, supplies power to Adapter the sensor, and gives access to the output voltage of the sensor through the terminal strip CI-6719 on the back of the box. Monitor the output voltage using a voltmeter or an oscilloscope or (Used with wire the sensor output directly into your own circuit. The instruction sheet includes calibration Photogates, data for relating the output voltage to the sensor reading (for example, 8 V = 50 Newtons for Motion Sensor, and a Force Sensor). Rotary Motion Sensors). Includes SpecificationsNI ELVIS combines instrumentation, dataacquisition and a prototyping board in one unit. CI Sensor Voltage Monitor Accepts all ScienceWorkshop SensorsFor more information on NI LabVIEW™ and Power Adapter: 9 VDC @ 500 mA 5 Voltage OutputsNI ELVIS, visit www.ni.com. Power adapter: 9 VDC, 500 mA Calibration Data in ManualVirtual instruments for using PASCO sensors Not compatible with PASPORT sensors.are available FREE at www.pasco.com/labview.Use these VIs to get started or modify them to Order Information:fit the needs of your laboratory. CI Sensor Voltage Monitor ............................................................................................................................. CI-6611 Order Information: Recommended: Analog NI ELVIS Adapter ................... CI-6718 Any ScienceWorkshop Sensor .................................................................................................................... See page 2 Digital NI ELVIS Adapter .................... CI-6719 Basic Digital Multimeter ................................................................................................................................... SE-9786A www.pasco.com/engineering 3
  6. 6. Data Acquisition—PASPORT®Hand-held Computer with Interface PASPORTXplorerGLX® XplorerGLX Interfaces (PS-2002) Work TogetherPS-2002 Use any combinationP I ncludesavoltageprobe,twotemperatureprobes,abuilt-in of PASPORT Interfaces speakerandmicrophone,andsignalgenerator together by plugging the interfaces into multipleP FourportsforPASPORTsensors USB ports or a USB hub.P PrintsdirectlytoselectHPUSBprintersP UseasaUSBinterfacewhenconnectedtoacomputer Order Information: Xplorer GLX............................................................................ PS-2002 Xplorer GLX Power Amplifier................................... PS-2006 p. 7 Connect One PASPORT Sensor Connect Two PASPORT Sensorsto a Computer to a ComputerUSBLinkPS-2100A PS-2009P D irectlylinkonePASPORT P TwoPASPORTsensorports sensortoaUSBport P Built-inTemperatureandVoltage P semultiplelinksfor U SensorswithProbes moresensors P SimpleUSBconnectivity P 000Hzmaximum 1 tocomputer samplingrate P Ruggedpolycarbonatecase withPASPORT P PoweredthroughUSBport sensors Order Information: Order Information: USB Link ................................................................................................PS-2100A SPARKlink...................................................................................................... PS-2009 Connect Three PASPORT Sensors to a ComputerUSBPowerLink USBConnectiontoComputerPS-2001P I dealforexperimentsusingmultiplesensorsP hreesensorportsinoneUSBconnection TP 000HzmaximumsamplingratewithPASPORTSensors 1P uilt-inUSBhub BDesktop or Field Use. PowerLink functions as a computer-based interfacewhen connected to a USB port, and can also collect data in the field using LongBatteryLife Two “C” batteriesa laptop computer. Includes sensor extension cable. (not included) will provide several days Order Information: of use in the field. PowerLink.................................................................................................. PS-2001 PASCO’s DataStudio® Software P ontrolsScienceWorkshopandPASPORTInterfaces C Gotowww.pasco.com/datastudioformoreinformation. P owerfuldataanalysistools P P urve-fitting C Order Information: P uilt-incalculator B DataStudio Software P scilloscopemodesupportsuptofivetraces O Single User.................................... CI-6870G P unctionGeneratorforScienceWorkshop750Interface F P indowsandMACcompatible W Site License.................................. CI-6871G 4 www.pasco.com/engineering
  7. 7. Data Acquisition—PASPORT®Over 70 PASPORT Sensors Available For sensor specifications, visitP P ASPORTDigitalSensors www.pasco.com/engineering/data-acquisitionP elf-identifying S AnalogAdapter PS-2158 Relay CI-6462 p.7 3-AxisAcceleration/Altimeter PS-2136 p.55 RespirationRate PS-2133 3-AxisAcceleration PS-2119 p.55 RotaryMotion PS-2120 p.40 2-AxisAcceleration PS-2118 Salinity PS-2195 p.62 Accelerometer-Visual PS-2128 p.30 SoilMoisture PS-2163 p.62 BreathRate PS-2187 p.56 SoundLevel PS-2109 CarbonDioxideGas PS-2110 p.58,63 Spectrometer PS-2635 p.6,60 Charge PS-2132 Spirometer PS-2152 p.56,84 Chemistry PS-2170 p.66 Temperature PS-2125 p.70 Colorimeter PS-2121 p.67 Temperature-Array PS-2157 p.71 Conductivity PS-2116A p.67 Temperature-FastResponse PS-2135 p.70 Current(High) PS-2193 p.94 Temperature-Quad PS-2143 p.70 CurrentProbeNEW PS-2184 Temperature-Skin/Surface PS-2131 p.70 DigitalAdapter PS-2159 p.7 Temperature-StainlessSteel PS-2153 p.70 DisplacementSensor PS-2204 p.8,15 Temperature-TypeK PS-2134 p.71 DropCounter PS-2117 p.67 Temperature-TypeK-4port PS-2127 p.71 DualLoadCellAmplifier PS-2205 p.9 Temp/SoundLevel/Light PS-2140 DualLoadCellAmplifierSet PS-2206 p.9 Temperature-Non-contact PS-2197 p.64 EKG PS-2111 p.57 Thermocline PS-2151 p.65 Ethanol PS-2194 p.58,63 Time-of-FlightAccessory ME-6810 p.32 FlowRate/Temperature PS-2130 p.65 (RequiresDigitalAdapter) Force PS-2104 p.25 Turbidity PS-2122 p.65 Force(HighResolution) PS-2189 p.91 UVA PS-2149 ForcePlatform PS-2141 p.54 Voltage/Current PS-2115 p.78 ForcePlatform(2-axis) PS-2142 p.54 Voltage(1MHz2-channel) PS-2190 p.7 FreefallAdapter ME-9207B p.2 WaterQuality PS-2169 p.64 Galvanometer PS-2160 WaterQualityColorimeter PS-2179 p.65 Geiger-Muller SN-7927A Weather PS-2154A GeneralScience PS-2168 Weather/AnemometerSensor PS-2174 p.61 Goniometer PS-2137 p.56 WindVelocityAccessory ME-6812 GPSPosition PS-2175 p.6,61 HeartRate(Exercise) PS-2129 HeartRate(HandGrip) PS-2186 p.57 CurrentProbe Humidity/Temp/DewPoint PS-2124A Humidity/Temp/DewPoint–DualNEW PS-2156 p.62 PS-2184 LaserSwitch ME-9259A p.35 The PS-2184 attaches Light PS-2106A Light(BroadSpectrum) PS-2150 to a PASCO voltage sensor Light(HighSensitivity) PS-2176 p.105 to allow the measurement of current between -4 A and +4 A. Light(Infrared) PS-2148 The probe contains a precision 0.10 ohm resistor and allows LightLevel PS-2177 the precise measurement of the Light(UVA) PS-2149 voltage drop across the resistor. LoadCellAmplifierSet PS-2199 p.9 The current is LoadCell,5N PS-2201 p.9 measured LoadCell,100N PS-2200 p.9 by creating a Current Current MagneticField PS-2112 MagneticField(2-axis) PS-2162 p.94 DataStudio calculation: I=V/R. Voltage Motion(Ultra-SonicPositionSensor) PS-2103A p.20,25 Sensor Oxygen,Dissolved PS-2108 p.59 (notincluded) OxygenGas PS-2126A p.58 Specifications pH PS-2102 p.66 Resistor: 0.10 Ohm, 3.0W, 1.0% pHFlatElectrode PS-2182 Maximum Current: 4A pH/ORP/ISE PS-2147 Maximum Voltage: 10V Photogate,Accessory ME-9204B (RequiresDigitalAdapter) Maximum Voltage Without Damage: 30V PhotogateHead ME-9498A p.44 Terminals: 4mm Banana Jacks (RequiresDigitalAdapter) Pressure-Absolute PS-2107 The current is calculated from the voltage Pressure-Barometer/LowPressure PS-2113A across the precision 0.10 ohm resistor. Pressure-Dual PS-2181 p.82 Order Information: Pressure-Quad PS-2164 p.84 Pressure-Relative PS-2114 Current Probe.......................................................................................... PS-2184 Pressure/Temperature PS-2146 p.69 www.pasco.com/engineering 5
  8. 8. Data Acquisition—PASPORT®Special Features of the Xplorer GLX®1. Remote DataloggingTake data anywhere, anytime with the Xplorer GLX. Display and analyze the data onthe Xplorer GLX screen. Later, just connect the Xplorer GLX to the USB port on yourcomputer and all stored data can be downloaded ready for writing reports or furtheranalysis. Data can also be stored on a USB flash drive and printeddirectly to many HP printers.Equipment Shown: Rocket Engine Test Bracket....................................... ME-6617 Xplorer GLX............................................................................. PS-2002 The Xplorer GLX is shown with the Rocket Engine Force Sensor.......................................................................... PS-2104 Test Bracket attached to a Force Sensor. Students Lab Stand.................................................................................. PS-2526 can measure and graphically display the impulse of Estes™ and other model rocket engines. See.pages.108-109.for.rods.and.clamps.2. Record Latitude and Longitude of Sensor MeasurementsGPS.Position.SensorPS-2175The GPS Position sensor utilizes satellite triangulationto determine the sensor’s position and velocityin outdoor environments. Obtain sensor datasimultaneously linked to your latitude, longitude,altitude, and velocity. Pinpoints your location in the Car acceleration was measured with an Acceleration Sensor, and position and velocity wereworld and reports the latitude and longitude with a measured with the GPS Position sensor, then plotted on an aerial photo in My World soft-resolution of 2 meters. This data can be imported ware. The size of the plotted data point indicates the speed of the car, and the data is colorinto My World GIS™ software to overlay sensor data coded to indicate the car’s centripetal acceleration.on maps or aerial photos. Relative Position Mode Order Information:enables a higher resolution (0.2 meters), suitablefor experiments involving bicycles or people running GPS Position Sensor......................................................................... PS-2175or walking, in which the position in the world is not Recommended:required. 3-Axis.Acceleration.Altimeter.................................................... PS-2136.. My.World.GIS.Software.Student.License. ........................ SE-7382C. (For.volume.licensing,.see.www.pasco.com/myworld/)3. Display Full-scan Spectra with Ocean Optics Red Tide SpectrometerEmission.Spectrometer.System.for.Xplorer.GLXPS-2635P U . ses.Ocean.Optics.Red.Tide.SpectrometerP . ull-scan.spectroscopy.without.a.computer! F Light from a Hydrogen tube is sampled usingThe Xplorer GLX controls the Ocean Optics Red Tide the fiber optics cable connected to the OceanSpectrometer which detects the spectrum using a 2048 Optics Spectrometer. The Spectrometer ispixel CCD linear array. The Xplorer GLX does a full sweep plugged into the USB port on the Xplorer GLX. (Light Source sold separately.in less than 1 second. Absorption Spectrometer SystemSpecifications for Xplorer GLX on page 66.Range: VIS-NIR, 350-1000 nmOptical Resolution: 2 nm Order Information:Includes Emission Spectrometer System for Xplorer GLX..................................... PS-2635 Required:Ocean Optics Red Tide Spectrometer Xplorer.GLX.......................................................................................................................... PS-2002.Fiber Optics Cable Shown in use with::USB Cable Spectral.Tube.Power.Supply................................................................................... SE-9460.License key for Ocean Optics GLX feature set Hydrogen.Tube................................................................................................................... SE-9461.6 www.pasco.com/engineering
  9. 9. Data Acquisition—PASPORT®4. Control a Relay Using Xplorer GLX Calculator Functions The Xplorer GLX controls the Relay to turn a light on when the temperatureRelay sensor above the bulb reads less than 25 °C. Shown in use with EM-8678CI-6462 Charge/Discharge Circuit (see page 101).P S . ingle-pole. Double-throw.switchP . se.with.Xplorer.GLX.Interface UP . or.Sense.and.Control.projects FOrder Information: Relay. .................................................................................................... CI-6462 Required for use with Xplorer GLX: Digital.Adapter............................................................................... PS-2159.5. Power and Measure CircuitsPower.Amplifier.for.the.Xplorer.GLXPS-2006P A . mplifies.the.signal.output.from.the.Xplorer.GLXP . uilt-in.current.sensor BP . 0.V,.1.A 1P . ignals.available: S Xplorer.GLX.Power.Amplifier DC,.Sine,.Square,. Generate an AC signal to power the RLC Graph shows driving voltage and voltage Triangle,.Sawtooth circuit. drop across the resistor. Control the output signal from the GLX Power Amplifier and monitor all measurements directly from the Xplorer GLX.1.MHz.2-channel.Voltage.SensorMeasure two channels simultaneously at up to1 MHz sampling rate. It has three gain settings with full-scale input ranges of ±10 V, ±1 V, and ±0.1 V.1.MHz.2-channel. For more experiments using the GLXVoltage.Sensor Power AmplifierPS-2190 see pages 29 and 37.P . easure.two.channels.at.sample. M The CI-6512 RLC Circuit Board is perfect for studying introductory rates.up.to.1.MHz. AC circuit theory. Vary all parameters, including resistance, capacitance, and even the inductance of the coil by using the included iron core.Use the Xplorer GLX and the PS-2190 Specifications Order Information:1 MHz Voltage Sensor to measure the Xplorer GLXphase shift between the driving voltage Two differential channels Power Amplifier................................................. PS-2006and the resulting current in an RLC Circuit. 1 MHz max sample rateCompare the voltage drop across the 1 MHz 2-channelresistor to the voltages across the inductor ± 10 V max input Voltage Sensor.................................................... PS-2190and capacitor. All measurements can be Three gain settings Required for use:made directly using the displays and tools Xplorer.GLX............................................................ PS-2002. p..4. Overvoltage protectionincluded with the Xplorer GLX. Recommended: RLC.Circuit.Board. ............................................. CI-6512. p..101. Short.Patch.Cords............................................. SE-7123. . www.pasco.com/engineering 7
  10. 10. Structures System – OverviewStructures Overview Measure support forcesExperience real-world design building a large variety of structures. This reconfigurablesystem allows students to measure static and dynamic forces using load cells, and with a Force Platformstill have time to redesign and test again. See the following pages for ordering Measure the support forces of a crane by connectinginformation, and details on individual structures sets. it to a Force Platform (PS-2141) using the special Force Platform Structures Bracket (ME-6988A). TheNumerical displays of load cell forces are generated in PASCO’s Force Platform is supported by four individual loadDataStudio® software. cells which combine to measure the total verticalSee page 4. force on the platform. These four readings can also be viewed separately, to measure the unequal forces on the crane supports.Load Cell Amplifier Set Tower.CraneSee page 9 2.3 m tall Large Slotted Mass Set See page 107 Motion Sensor See page 5 Xplorer GLX® Hand-held Computer Displacement of the bridge is measured by the See page 4 Xplorer GLX and the Motion Sensor as the 1/2 kg masses are added to the mass hanger. Crane built using the Large Structures Set shown on page 18.Measure bridge deflection with aDisplacement SensorThe PS-2204 Displacement Sensor measuresthe travel of a spring-loaded indicator pressedagainst a bridge as the bridge is loaded. Itconsists of a PASPORT sensor which plugsinto the included Digital Indicator, a digitaltravel indicator which has its own digital LEDreadout and can be used as a stand-alonedevice. When the PASPORT sensor is pluggedinto a PASPORT interface, the reading can berecorded.See page 15 for more uses.SpecificationsMaximum Travel: 10 mm N to +100 NMaximum Sample Rate: 5 Hz Force Platform (PS-2141)Resolution: 0.013 mm (0.0005 in) Order Information: ME-6988A Includes Displacement Sensor............... PS-2204 Brackets (2) Shown in use with: Hooked.Mass.Set. ....................... SE-8759. p..107. PS-2204 Includes Screws (4) Small.“A”.Base. ............................ ME-8976. p..109. Sensor 60.cm.long.Steel.Rod. Order Information: (threaded).......................................... ME-8977. p..109. Bracket Force Platform Dial Gauge Required for use: Structures Bracket......................... ME-6988A PASPORT.Interface.(p..4) Force Platform................................... PS-2141 p. 548 www.pasco.com/engineering
  11. 11. Structures System – Load Cells and AmplifiersChoice of Load Cell Amplifiers:CI.Load.Cell.Amplifier Dual.Load.Cell.Amplifier Load.Cell.AmplifierCI-6464 PS-2205 (6.ports) PS-2198 This Load Cell Amplifier can accommodate The Amplifier accepts either the 100N load up to six load cells and only needs a singleThis amplifier allows users of the 500 cell or the 5N load cell or a combination USBLink (PS-2100A) to connect to theand 750 ScienceWorkshop Interfaces to of both. The maximum data sample rate is USB port on a computer. This is useful forcollect data using the Structures System 1000 Hz for each port. doing an extensive analysis of a bridge by100N and 5N Load Cells. This system has inserting six load cells at various points A PASCO PASPORT USB interface isbeen successfully used at sample rates required: Use a USBLink (PS-2100A) for in the structure to see if theory matchesup to 10,000 Hz. The sample rate limit just one Load Cell Amplifier or use an reality.is determined by the interface and Xplorer GLX (PS-2002) or PowerLink The Amplifier accepts either the 100N loadcomputer used. (PS-2001) for multiple Load Cell Amplifiers. cell or the 5N load cell or a combinationA separate amplifier is required for of both. The maximum data sample rate iseach load cell. 500 Hz for each port. Order Information: Order Information: Order Information: Load Cell Amplifier* CI Load Cell Amplifier*................CI-6464 Dual Load Cell Amplifier*..........PS-2205 (6 ports). ................................................PS-2198 Required for Use: Required for Use: Required for Use: ScienceWorkshop Interface....p..2 PASPORT.Interface.........................p..4 PASPORT.Interface......................p..4 Load.Cell.100N*..................................PS-2200. Load.Cell.100N*..................................PS-2200. Load.Cell.100N*...............................PS-2200. Load.Cell.5N*....................................PS-2201. Load.Cell.5N*.......................................PS-2201. Load.Cell.5N*.......................................PS-2201. Also available at a discount: Also available at a discount: Also available at a discount: Load Cell and CI Load Cell and Load Cell and Amplifier Set*.......................... PS-2199 Amplifier Set*.......................... CI-6465 Dual Amplifier Set*. ............ PS-2206 Set Includes: Set Includes: Set Includes: Load.Cell.Amplifier*.. CI.Load.Cell.Amplifier*.. Dual.Load.Cell.Amplifier*.. (PS-2198) (CI-6464) (PS-2205) Load.Cell.100N*.. Load.Cell.100N*.. Load.Cell.100N*.. (qty.4).(PS-2200) (PS-2200) (PS-2200) Required for use: Required for use: Required for use: PASPORT.. ScienceWorkshop Interface.(p..2) PASPORT.Interface.(p..4) Interface.(p..4)Two types of Load Cells:Load cells are available in two different ranges: ±100 N and ± 5 N. These load cells aredesigned to be inserted into structures without changing the length of the member. A load Load Cell 5N (PS-2201)cell attached to two shorter beams is equal in length to a longer beam. Both types of loadcells can be used with the same amplifier in any combination. The semi-transparent caselets students see the strain gauge and beam inside.Load.Cell. Load.Cell.5N100N PS-2201PS-2200Specifications Specifications 2 1/4”Range: -100 N to +100 N Range: -5 N to +5 NAccuracy: ±1% (± 1 N) Accuracy: ±1% (±0.05 N)Resolution: 0.02 N Resolution: 0.001 N Load Cell 100NSafe Overload: -150 N to +150 N Safe Overload: -7.5 N to +7.5 N (PS-2200) Order Information: Order Information: Mix 5N and 100N load cells on the same amplifier 100 N Load Cell*............... PS-2200 5 N Load Cell*.................... PS-2201 *Patents pending www.pasco.com/engineering 9
  12. 12. Structures System – Truss SetTruss SetME-6990 Through TrussP Teach the basics of trusses with VerticalsP Demonstrate the properties of I-Beams Plastic I-Beams Plastic Connectors Steel Thumb ScrewsUse the Truss Set tobuild a variety ofstructures to investigate Measure the compressionthe principles of trusses. and tension in the I-BeamThe ABS plastic I-Beams members by addingfasten securely together using optional Load Cells.the provided connectors and thumbscrews. Load cells can be insertedanywhere into the design by replacing onebeam at a time. Students can loadthe truss by hanging weights.Construction is easy: I-Beams fit into the connectors and are secured I-Beams key into the load cell andwith thumb screws. Thumb screws are also slotted so a screwdriver can be used. are fastened with thumb screws. Students can construct a roof truss to study how the roof is supported in buildings. Deck Truss Bridge Kingpost Roof TrussTruss Set IncludesI-Beam #5 (8) 24 cm long Order Information:I-Beam #4 (18) 17 cm longI-Beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long Truss Set* ................................................................................ ME-6990I-Beam #2 (8) 8 cm long Recommended: Load Cell Amplifier Set*I-Beam #1 (8) 5.5 cm long (includes four load cells) ............................................... PS-2199 p. 9Connectors (14), Screws (75), and Instruction manual *Patents pending10 www.pasco.com/engineering
  13. 13. Structures System – Bridge SetBridge Set Warren with Verticals Cross bracing Verticals to support roadME-6991 1.5 m long bedP Larger quantity of I-beams and connectorsP Study the principles of bridge constructionP Road bed and car add realism to bridgesP Add Load Cells to see dynamic loading as car traverses bridge Car with Mass The Bridge Set includes all the I-beams and connectors required to build the Flexible Road Bed structures shown on this page. Special cord locks allow tensioning of cord (cables) for cross bracing. A flexible plastic road bed clips to the cross-beams and, using load cells, the tension and compression of each element can be displayed in real time. Add Load Cells to measure forces anywhere in the structure. Howe A positive value represents compression. Pratt Warren Students can build several types of fundamental bridges, including Howe, Pratt, and Warren bridges.Design your own roller coaster! Deck Truss 80 cm long Add Load Cells to measure the forces needed to support the track Waddell as the car goes up and over the “A” Truss loop. See p. 45 for more roller coasters. 1 m longBridge Set IncludesI-beam #5 (16) 24 cm long Starter bracketI-beam #4 (36) 17 cm long Cord tensioning clips (32)I-beam #3 (36) 11.5 cm long Yellow cord (1 roll) The Waddell “A” Truss uses a cord (cable) for theI-beam #2 (16) 8 cm long Instruction manual center vertical member.I-beam #1 (16) 5.5 cm longConnectors (28) Order Information:Screws (150)Flexible road bed (3 m) Bridge Set* ............................................................................. ME-6991Track coupler Recommended:Road bed clips (24) Load Cell Amplifier Set*Car with flag and mass (includes four load cells) .............................................. PS-2199 p. 9 *Patents pending www.pasco.com/engineering 11
  14. 14. Structures System – Advanced SetAdvanced.Structures.Set Camelback.ME-6992B Truss.BridgeP B . uild.larger.bridges 1.4 m longP . uild.cranes,.catapults,.cars BThe Advanced Structures Set includes morecomponents to build a larger variety of structures.Axles and pulleys allow construction of cranes,cars and even a working catapult! See pages 13, 14, 16 and 17 for more examples of Advanced Structures. Add Load Cells to measure forces anywhere in the structure. Falling mass Catapult Use pulleys to investigate 60 cm tall mechanical Angle.Crane Throws a projectile over 10 meters! advantage. 1.5 m tall Wheels allow catapult to move. Straight Flexible I-Beams ConnectorMass Set Flat Members For cross-bracing Round Connector Suspension. Bridge 2.2 m longAdvanced Structures Set IncludesForce Platform Bracket (2) Round and Flat Connectors (6 ea.) Flexible.I-BeamsI-Beam #5 (24) 24 cm long PAStrack Fasteners (6) Dramatically demonstrateI-Beam #4 (54) 17 cm long Angle and Straight Connectors (24 ea.) structural failureI-Beam #3 (54) 11.5 cm long Sliding Connector (12)I-Beam #2 (24) 8 cm long Pulleys, O-rings, Spacers (12 ea.)I-Beam #1 (24) 5.5 cm long Collets (24) Order Information:Flex I-Beam #5 (10) 24 cm long Drive Wheel with Rubber Tire (4) Advanced Structures Set*............. ME-6992BFlex I-Beam #4 (18) 17 cm long Structures Rod Clamps (2) Shown in use with:Flex I-Beam #3 (18) 11.5 cm long Screws (300) Load.Cell..Amplifier.Set*.Flat Beams (16 ea. of 3 lengths) Yellow Cord (1 roll) (includes.four.load.cells)................. PS-2199Axles (2 ea. of 3 lengths) Instruction Manual Hooked.Mass.Set. ................................ SE-8759 .Connectors (42) Large.Slotted.Mass.Set.................... ME-7566Cord Tensioning Clips (32) *Patents pending12 www.pasco.com/engineering
  15. 15. Structures System – Hydraulics/DestructionDestructible.Bridge.MembersME-7004Because the standard blue I-beams are so strong, it requires toomuch weight to break them. To investigate structural failure, wehave created a bridge member that is weaker, and has a fail-safemechanism so the bridge will not catastrophically collapse.In addition, you can measure the tension and the displacementduring the failure. Destructible Bridge Fixture The black metal plate of the Destructible Bridge Fixture allows the Breakable Link to stretch and fail but keeps the bridge from falling down completely. Breakable Link Metal plate The Destructible Bridge Fixture is reusable. A broken link can be easily replaced with a new one by simply sliding it onto the posts. Displacement Sensor Load Cell Includes As each weight is added, the stretch of the Breakable Link is measured with the Destructible Bridge Fixtures (2) Displacement Sensor and the tension in the member is measured with the Load Cell. Breakable Links The tension decreases when the link is in the final stage of failure. (100 each of two different strengths) A tensile stress tester can be constructed from the Advanced Structure Set. Using a 100 N Load Cell and the Displacement Sensor, Young’s Modulus for the material can be determined. Order Information: Destructible Bridge Members.................................... ME-7004 Advanced.. Structures.Set*...................... ME-6992B. p..12. Load.Cell... Amplifier.Set*......................... PS-2199. p..9. Displacement.Sensor........ PS-2204. p..8. Large.Slotted... Mass.2.kg.Set......................... ME-7589. p..107. Destructible.Bridge.. Members.Spares.................. ME-7005. p..19. *Patents pending www.pasco.com/engineering 13

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