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ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)
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ETB - Focus: World Conflicts (English)

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With the help of journalists, graphic artists and experts, Nordström & Frank has put together this compendium of all the world’s conflicts. You’ll find country flags, maps and background facts on …

With the help of journalists, graphic artists and experts, Nordström & Frank has put together this compendium of all the world’s conflicts. You’ll find country flags, maps and background facts on every conflict – a manual that provides the basis for a long-term look into the future.

The material is designed so that it is easy to read and use, either as a whole or by selected chapters.

Updated January 2009.

Costs: €2,500

Please send a mail to info@nordstromfrank.se for downloading information.

Published in: Travel, Business, News & Politics
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  • 1. Editorial Toolbox Focus ENGLISH EdITIoN A supplement to Nordström & Franks ”Editorial Toolbox 2009” ©Nordström & Frank AB, www.nordstromfrank.se, info@nordstromfrank.se . Purchase now! Send a mail to: info@nordstromfrank.se €2,500 Contains facts, maps, flags and templates for use in InDesign.
  • 2. Editorial team: Rikard Frank Concept developer, art director, news graphics, cartographer and researcher. Jacob Nordström Concept developer and design. Ingela Rutberg Research and texts. Journalist, Kristianstadsbladet. Pär Jansson Cartographer. Lars Arvestål Military Silhouettes (p. 7). Udo Spongberg Checking of facts. Researcher, Göteborgs Posten. Tobias Regnell Proof-reading. Editor in Chief, football magazine Offside. Helene Murdoch Translation.
  • 3. The World’s Conflicts Focus Contents Afghanistan .......................... 8 iraq .......................................38 northern ireland ................68 With the help of journalists, graphic artists and experts, Angola...................................12 israel-palestine...................40 pakistan...............................70 nordström & Frank has put together this compendium basque region ....................14 kasmir .................................46 senegal................................ 72 of all the world’s conflicts. You’ll find country flags, maps Central African republic....18 kyrgyzstan ..........................50 sierra leone.........................74 and background facts on every conflict – a manual that Chad.....................................20 Congo-kinshasa ................52 somalia................................ 76 provides the basis for a long-term look into the future. Chechnya ............................22 korea....................................54 sri lanka.............................. 78 Colombia.............................24 kosovo .................................56 sudan ..................................80 Cyprus .................................26 the kurds............................58 thailand...............................82 The material is designed so that it is easy to read eritrea ..................................28 lebanon ..............................60 uganda ................................84 and use, either as a whole or by selected chapters. ethiopia................................30 liberia ..................................62 uzbekistan ..........................86 Georgia ................................32 macedonia ..........................64 Zimbabwe ...........................88 Updated January 2009. indonesia & east timor.....36 burma (myanmar) ............66 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 4. The World’s conflicts NorTHErN IrELANd – often a question of oil and water BASquE rEGIoN many of the world’s conflicts are rooted in religious and ethnic divisions, but they can also be rooted in the battle for oil and water. iraq invaded kuwait on the suspicion that kuwait was pumping oil that belonged to iraq. kurds are demanding that oil-rich kirkuk should be part of a future kurdistan. SENEGAL in sudan, burma (myanmar), liberia and indonesia, people are unwilling to share the SIErrA LEoNE income from oil – which is creating tensions. LIBErIA in sudan’s case, the government is using oil revenues to buy weapons, while guerillas are CoLomBIA trying to sabotage the oil industry. even the most important element of life –water – is creating conflict. the mursi and bodi tribes in ethiopia lay claim to highlands that catch the most rainwater. in the Central African republic, local farmers squabble with nomads about access to water. Countries/regions arguing over oil Countries/regions arguing over water SOURCES: INSTITUTIONEN FöR FREdS- OCH kONFLIkTFORSkNINg vId UPPSALA UNIvERSITET, SäkERHETSPOLITIk.SE
  • 5. koSovo CHECHNyA GEorGIA kyrGyzSTAN mACEdoNIA kurdISTAN uzBEkISTAN korEA CypruS LEBANoN AFGHANISTAN kASHmIr ISrAEL-pALESTINE IrAq pAkISTAN BurmA (myANmAr) CHAd THAILANd SudAN ErITrEA uGANdA SomALIA SrI LANkA CENTrAL ETHIopIA INdoNESIA AFrICAN rEpuBLIC CoNGo-kINSHASA EAST TImor ANGoLA zImBABwE INFO gRAPHICS: NORdSTRöM FRANk
  • 6. Map symbols Arrows, points and silhouettes NORTH AMERICA EUROPE OCEANIA 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 SOUTH AMERICA SWEDEN AFRICA 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 THE WORLD 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 7. Xxxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx. xxxxx xxx. xxxxx xxx. Xxxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx. xxxxx xxx. xxxxx xxx. Xxxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx. xxxxx xxx. Xxxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx. xxxxx xxx. Xxxx xxxxx Xxxx xxxxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx xxxxx xxx. xxxxx xxx. 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 8. The World’s conflicts Afghanistan A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 9. The World’s conflicts Afghanistan Violence increases in Afghanistan despite billions on dollars in humanitarian aid and a huge international security effort, violence is increasing in Afghanistan. in the first seven months of 2008, some 3,800 people died, including 1,500 civilians. not since the overthrow of the taliban regime in 2001 have so many died. one reason for this is the return of the taliban and the strengthening of their position with the help of al-Qaida. Among other things, they have bombarded the national army and international security force with rockets. And the number of suicide bombings has increased from 123 in 2006 to 160 in 2007. 170 10 10 2000 1979 The Soviet Union invades Women can no longer work outside stan refuses. In October the USA is held. The right to vote is extended. Aghanistan in support of the commu- their homes and must cover them- begins a bombing campaign against The Taleban carries out its first coun- nist regime. Over one million people selves completely, wearing the Burka. Afghanistan. At the same time, the ter-attack. die and several million become refu- Men are forbidden to shave and girls Northern Alliance pushes against 2006 The Taleban launch rocket gees during the decade-long conflict. are banned from attending school. Kabul. By December the Taleban is vanquished and a new, provisional attacks against the national army 1988–89 After UN negotiations, the 1998 Opposition to the Taliban cre- government is founded. and the international peacekeepers. AFGhAnistAn Soviet Union pulls out of Afghanistan. ates the Northern Alliance and begin Suicide bombing attacks increase. 2002 A traditional Afghan assembly The Soviet withdrawal begins in guerilla warfare. Further opposition 2007 The number of victims of terror February 1. followed from Shiite factions, and is held with 1,600 delegates from all when Taliban forces took Mazar-i- the provinces. The first UN peace- attacks reaches 66 per month, up 1989 Several groups, armed with Sharif, thousands of Shiites were keeping force arrives. from 2 per month during 2006. soviet union heavy weapons from the Soviet Union killed. Opinion against the Taleban More than 0 UN food convoys are 2004 A new constitution gives the and the USA, lay waste to numerous regime grows, even overseas. The attacked and there are more than 10 parts of Kabul. Insurgency takes hold USA points its finger at Osama bin president stronger powers. A two-tier attacks on humanitarian aid pro- of the city. Laden, who was responsible for bomb parliament with independent judi- grams. 0 aid workers are killed. attacks in Kenya and Tanzania. Af- ciary is established. The constitution 1994 The Taliban emerge in southern 2008 Terror attacks continue. Febru- ghanistan is bombed as a result of the gives both men and women equal usA Afghanistan, gaining support from Taleban’s protection for bin Laden. rites and protects religious and lin- ary is the bloodiest month since many who are tired of the war. guistic minorities. The country holds 2001, with 67 civilians killed and 0 2001 The leader of the Northern Alli- its first presidential election, which is injured in the Arghandab district. The 1996 The Taliban occupy Kabul, ban- ance is murdered. Two days later ter- won by Hamid Karzai. The UN sets up next day, 7 civilians are killed and 2 ning everything from popular music rorists attack the World Trade Center the first bases. injured, including three International to football as a consequence of their in New York. The USA demands the Security Assistance Force members 2005 The first parliamentary session deeply-conservative Islamic beliefs. extradition of bin Laden, but Afghani- when a convoy is attacked . sourCes: swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, un, dn, swedish militArY serviCe And sAkerhetspolitik.se inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 10. The World’s conflicts Afghanistan Forces in Afghanistan Members: 41 countries Total: 50,700 personnel ISAF Jordan Singapore United Arab Austria georgia Personnel on Personnel on Emirates Personnel on Personnel on International site: 0 site: 0 Personnel on site: 1 site: 1 Security site: 0 Assistance Force (FN) The number of personnel on site changes daily. Information from ISAF 200. Ukraine Ireland Iceland Luxemburg Azerbaijan Latvia Portugal Slovakia Slovenia Finland Estonia greece Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on site: site: 7 site: site: site: site: 70 site: 70 site: 70 site: 70 site: 0 site: 120 site: 10 Macedonia Albania New Zealand Lithuania Hungary Croatia Sweden Czech Belgium Norway Bulgaria Romania Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Republic Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on site: 1 site: 10 site: 1 site: 200 site: 20 site: 20 site: 20 Personnel on site: 20 site: site: 60 site: 72 site: 1 denmark Spain Turkey Australia Poland Netherlands Italy Canada France germany United USA Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on Personnel on kingdom Personnel on site: 70 site: 70 site: 00 site: 1 00 site: 1 10 site: 1 770 site: 2 0 site: 2 00 site: 2 70 site: 10 Personnel on site: 20 600 site: 0 10 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 11. The World’s conflicts Afghanistan Opposition The four provinces in which grows uzBekiStAn Swedish forces operate are tAJikiStAn Balkh, Samangan, Jawzan and Opposition to Sari Pul. These equate to a the international fifth of Sweden’s landmass. peacekeeping force is growing BAdAkhShán among inhabit- Al Gach ants following Mazár-e- JAwzJAn turkmeniStAn kondoz Sharíf Táloqán the deaths of Kondóz civilian Afghans Shebergaán Swedish forc- tAkhár BAlkh on suspected es in northern terrorist strong- Sari Pul irAn Pol-e Khomrí Meymaneh Samangán Afghanistan holds. BAghlán PAkiStAn SAmAngAn FáryáB A critical SAri Pul PAkVAn nureStán problem is the during 2008 the BAdghíS Nurestán Rao deeply-rooted Bámíán UN and NATO konAr Qal’eh-ye Now corruption and kAPiSA lAghmAn had 2,000 Asadabad Bámíán kABol Chaghcharán drug trade in Kabul Mantar Lám personnel in VArdAk which even Jalálánád Herát the country, of Meydán nAngArhAr regional leaders Shahr loweAr which 7 were Pol-e Alam herát ghowr are involved. Swedes. PAktíA Ghazní Gardíz khowSt oruzgán If president The intention ghAzní Khowst karzai and the is that the ISAF AFGHANISTAN international (International Sharan peacekeeping Security As- FAráh Faráh force intervene In the troubled sistance Force) Tárin Kowt záBol PAktíká too strongly, the southern area shall reinforce government will of the country security in the Qalát make itself more the ISAF force country until the unpopular. operates with Afghan govern- Lashkar Gáh Kandahar troops from ment can fend Denmark, the for itself. The Zaranj Netherlands, the Swedish group United Kingdom, has, among nímrúz helmAnd kAndAhAr USA and Canada. other missions, It is more difficult the task of 0 200 km indiA to maintain these reducing crime forces because and attacks on of the fighting. roadways. inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 11 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 12. The World’s conflicts Angola 12 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 13. The World’s conflicts Angola On the road to democracy Angola is both one of Africa’s largest oil producers, and one of the world’s poorest countries. it gained independence from portugal in 1975. but even before independence, the mplA and unita rebel groups were in conflict with each other. After independence, the mplA occupied the capital and civil war broke out. the communist mplA was supported by the soviet union; unita by the usA. 10 2000 CABINDA CONGO-KINSHASA Cabinda 1992 A first election is held, since 12 is held. Opposi- ZAIRE Soyo UíGE but the result goes against tion parties protest at the Unita. Fighting breaks out. governing MPLA party’s voting campaign. The elec- Ambriz 1994 New peace talks were tion result shows that the initiated with the UN over- MPLA has collected nearly Luanda MALANJE LUNDA NORTE CUANZA seeing the peace process. 2 percent of the vote; AnGolA NORTE LUANDA Unita barely 10 percent. Malanje 1999 UN peacekeepers EU monitors endorse the BENGO leave the country after result, but note that there LUNDA SUL fighting breaks out. are irregularities at the poll- CUANZA SUL Porto Amboin ing stations: for example, 2002 Civil war ceases not all people casting their Saurimo mplA (pArtY) when Unita leader Jonas votes are properly regis- BíE lobito HUAMBO Savimbi is killed. tered, and that MPLA has Benguela MOxICO AngolA large amounts of coverage Huambo BENGUELA 2006 Angola is a member in the state-controlled of OPEC and producing 1. media. ZAMBIA million barrels of oil a day. HUíLA 2009 The first presidential Menongue Namibe Lubango unitA (pArtY) 2008 The first election vote since 12 is held. CUANDO NAMIBE CUBANGO CUNENE 0 500 km NAMIBIA inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk sourCes: swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, bbC world, CiA world FACt book, www.europA.eu.int, sAkerhetspolitik.se 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 14. The World’s conflicts The Basque region 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 15. The World’s conflicts The Basque region The Basque region’s bloody history the struggle for an independent basque region has been going since the end of the 1800s. And the basque nationalist party, eAJ/pnv, also wants the basue region in France to be included. today, the spanish region has its own parliament and is autonomous; but French basques are governed from paris. 170 10 10 100 110 120 10 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 1876 After two Spanish civil wars, the 1975 The dictator Franco dies. 1999 ETA ends its ceasefire. 2005 The government is willing to Basques autonomy was annulled. talk with ETA, but the various factions 1978 Spain becomes a democracy. 2000 In the first post-ceasefire mur- within ETA cannot agree; a car bomb 1936–39 During the Spanish civil war, The region becomes independent. der, a car bomb kills a high-ranking is detonated several days later. the Basques who struggled against Hundreds of ETA detainees are re- Spanish officer in Madrid. The motive 2006 ETA is weakened: leaders are Franco declared their own indepen- leased from detention, but ETA seeks is that the government will not negoti- dence in Guipúzcoa and Viscaya, greater autonomy, and commences ate over its political demands. arrested and violence is reduced spAin where the bombing of Guernica took new attacks. following the attack in Madrid. ETA 2001 The Spanish government inten- place in 17. is willing to announce a permanent 1980 ETA’s bloodiest year to date, sifies its hunt for ETA members after ceasefire and talks begin, but are 1940 With the end of the civil war, with 2 people killed. The movement the /11 terror attack in New York. abandoned following an attack on many Basques are imprisoned, is at its strongest, with around 1000 Some 200 ETA members are arrested Madrid airport, in which two people tortured and killed. It is forbidden to active members. ETA’s political wing, after a ceasefire breaks down. are injured. speak Basque, and all areas are given Herri Batasuna, wins 16 percent of the FrAnCe 2002 Parties that support terror- 2007 Spain’s highest court bans 00 Spanish names. vote in Basque regional elections. ism are banned. The party’s bank candidates from two Basque parties 1959 ETA evolves as a student move- 1983–87 27 Basques are tried for funds are seized by the central court from standing in local elections; ETA ment. The name stands for Euskadi Ta suspected ETA murders. because they refused to pay damages cancels it’s ceasefire. Six people die Askatsuna – Basque Homeland and to victims of ETA violence. This sparks 1986 Herri Batasuna is allowed as in attacks between summer 2007 Freedom. It starts at first with infor- fresh outbreaks of violence in the a political party allthough the party bAsQue (reGion) and May 200. Spain and France mation and underground teaching, Basque region. hasn’t denounced the violence of ETA. announce stronger measures for but grows increasingly militant. 2003 The EU and the USA officially 1988–89 The socialist government controlling ETA. 1968 ETA carries out its first murder; classify ETA as a terrorist organiza- tries for high-level talks with ETA. 2008 ETA’s key political leader, Javier a member of the Spanish civil guard. tion. 1997 More than six million people Lopez Pena (known as Thierry), is 1970 16 militant Basques are tried by 2004 11 people die and over 1000 demonstrate over four days against arrested for his part in the Madrid eAJ pnv (pArtY) military court. Several are sentenced are injured in a terrorist attack on a the ETA murder of a Basque politician. airport bombing in 2006. In Novem- to death, but reprieved. ETA receives train in Madrid. The Spanish govern- ber, ETA’s suspected military leader, 1998 A former interior minister, his widespread support. ment accuses ETA over the attack, Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina (known as colleague and the socialist party’s but Islamic extremists are behind the 1973 The Spanish prime minister is Txeroki) is also arrested. head of security are sentenced to long attack. murdered by ETA, which increases prison sentences for the suspected their popularity among those who inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk etA, euskadi ta murder of ETA members during the Askatasuna (Group) sourCes: swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, bbC world, CiA world FACt book, struggle against the dictatorship. 10s. ETA declares a ceasefire. www.europA.eu.int, sAkerhetspolitik.se 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 16. The World’s conflicts The Basque region 40 years 92 Support weakens ETA was of violence supported by 1-20 percent Number of civilian victims of Basques in the beginning, etA’s armed struggle gas Total killed 76 but that support Police and claimed 824 lives includ- has successively military weakened. ing 342 civilians. At the 342 same time, around 100- 66 According to the Civilians Total El Pais newspa- 200 etA members have 824 482 per, the terror been killed. campaign has cost the Span- ish government FrAnCe 52 Basque victims 11 billion dollars BASQue region between 1 Total killed nAVArre and 200. 40 Navarre 57 Other 46 CAtAloniA PortugAl Barcelona 43 55 Cata- Madrid According to lonia the Spanish SPAin authorities, ETA 37 37 Total is behind 1,600 123 824 200 km terror attacks 32 32 549 and the deaths of Madrid 30 Basque over 00 people. 26 25 The govern- 23 ment reckons 21 that ETA has 0 19 19 ETA’s victims Ceasfire Nov – Nov 16 17 cells, each with ETA carried out its 15 15 four members, 14 first murder in 16. 13 which carry out 12 The bloodiest year 10 the attacks. ToTAl: 824 vIcTImS since was 16. 6 6 5 5 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 00 00 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 sourCes: ministerio de interior espAñA inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 16 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 17. The World’s conflicts The Basque region Attacks in ’08 Basques in seven 7 March provinces A former advisor to Biarritz Noja the socialist is shot Bayonne dead outside his Santona The autonomous Laredo lABourd home in Mon- Basques can be ViSCAyA dragón. A-8 (lAPurdi) FRANcE San Sebastian Neguri found in the re- (BizkAiA) 14 May Ondarroa gions of Viscaya, Santurtzi Gernika-Lumo Bomb in Legutiano. A-8 Hernani Guizpúzcoa, and Galdakao 1 dead and four Bilbao BASSe-nAVArre Azpeitia Andoain Álava, and can injured. Baztan (nAFArroA BehereA) also be found in 19 May guiPúzCoA Llodio Tolosa nearby area of Durango Car bomb in Bilbao. Soule (giPuzkoA) No injuries. Navarre. (zuBeroA) Mondragón A-15 20 July Amurrio AP-1 Bombings in In France, there E-80 Onati NAVARRE Legutiano Medina Neguri, Laredo (2) is no recognized de Pomar BASQUE REGION and Noja (2). One Basque region, in a bank, four at (nAFArroA) A-10 but Basque tourist sites. No (PAiS VASCo) E-80 Egúes people live in the injuries. Pamplona Vitoria-Gasteiz departments of Aranguren 21 September E-804 (Iruña) Labourd, Basse- álAVA Car bomb in On- Navarre and dorroa, injuring at AP-15 (ArABA) A-12 least 11 people. Car Soule. Miranda de Ebro A-21 bomb in Vitoria. 22 September These provinces Sanguesa AP-1 Car bomb in San- contain upwards Tafalla Oyón tona. Viana of two million Santo Domingo Olite 4 October people who claim de la Calzada Lodosa Bombing in Tolosa. Basque roots. Carcastillo 30 October San Nájera Many Basques Belorado Adrian Peralta Car bomb in Pam- have also emi- plona. 1 people LA RIOJA grated. Calahorra injured. SPAIN 3 december Arnedo Businessman shot Alfaro dead in Azpeitia. FrAnCe Tudela Corella Basque Ribaforada PortugAl Cascante sourCes: swedish Barcelona Madrid institute oF internA- SPAin Cortes tionAl AFFAirs, bbC world, eu And CounCil 0 50 km oF ForeiGn relAtions, 400 km Tarazona Borja inFo GrAphiCs: usA. www.nAtionAl- Agreda nordström FrAnk terrorAlert.Com 17 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 18. The World’s conflicts Central African Republic 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 19. The World’s conflicts Central African Republic Lawlessness spreads After several quiet years between 2003 and 2005, renewed Young population Sara 10% Inhabitants: Banda violence has broken out in one of the world’s poorest countries. Baya . million. ethnic groups are fighting over grazing grounds, byways and water. 13% 0 percent are 33% under 1 years old. outrages are committed both by rebels and the presidential guard. CentrAl 27% Largest ethnic AFriCAn republiC groups: Mandija 160 170 10 10 2000 1960 Country gains in- 1993 Ange-Félix Patassé APRD, are formed. The dependence from France. is chosen as the new army and the presidential ChAd SudAn president in the first free guard open a new offen- 1962 Country becomes a election. But disturbance sive in the north west of single-party state. break out between riverside the country, supported by dwellers and those who live France. Civilians suspected 1965 President David in the savannah. of helping the rebels are Ndélé Dacko is overthrown by killed, and thousands of 2001 A military coup Corporal Bokassa, who homes are torched. later proclaims himself against Patassé is put According to the UN, some Kaga Bandoro Emperor. down. Army chief Francois 220,000 people fled during Bossangoa Bozizé is removed, charged 2006–2007, and lawless- CentrAl AFriCAn rePuBliC 1979 Fall of Bokassa. Dacko with leading the latest coup. ness spread. Bozoum Bouar Bambari is reinstated as President Sibut 2003 Francois Bozizé 2008 Peacekeeping with help from France. takes power in a new forces from the EU and 1981 General André military coup and is elected the UN arrive to build Bangui Kolingba takes over after president in 200. refugee camps and support a military coup and begins peacekeepers in Sudan. 2006 Two new rebel the slow process of democ- Sweden contributed with Congo-kinShASA ratizing the country. groups, the UFDR and the 120 personnel. 0 150 km Congo-BrAzzAVille sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, internAtionAl Crisis Group, institute For peACe- And ConFliCt reseArCh, uppsAlA, CiA world FACt book. inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 20. The World’s conflicts Chad 20 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 21. The World’s conflicts Chad Trouble on several fronts Civil war has rampaged in Chad since the country became independent from France in 1960. rebels have struggled liByA against the government at the same time as African and Arab groups are fighting against each other. AO uZO u-R EM 160 170 10 10 2000 SAN Islam dominates Borkou-ennedi-tiBeSti 1960 Chad gains indepen- 1983 Libya occupies north- 2005 New rebel groups Population: ChAd dence. ern Chad. make attacks in eastern niger 10 million. Chad. 1962 Opposition parties 1987–88 Ceasefire. Libyan Faya-Largeau Life expectancy: 2006 A bloody year in are forbidden. troops leave northern 7 years Chad. which over 1,200 people 1965 Groups from the die in direct fighting. At the The three 1990 General Idriss Déby under-developed northern same time, there is fighting largest folk areas revolt, which leads to overthrows Habré, which between the army and groups: civil war. benefits his own folk group. rebels , and between Arabs kAnem Sara Biltine and African groups. 28% 1975 After a military coup 1991 More parties are Biltine BAthA Arab Mao 2008 In February, general Félix Malloum permitted. 12% Abéché builds a more ethnically- N’Djamena is attacked by Bol Mayo-kebbi SudAn 1994 The UN’s interna- representative govern- rebels. In March, peace- Ati 11,5% ment, but does not succeed tional court gives Chad the keepers from the UN and nigeriA ouAddAi in stabilizing the country. Aouzou strip and Libyan EU are sent, among them Over 0 percent N’Djamena occupation is stopped. a Swedish detachment of Mongo are Muslim, % ChAri- 1982 Hissène Habré 200 men. Christian and a Am Timan BAguirmi 1996 Idriss Déby wins the guerA occupies the capital, minority belong N’Djamena. Under his au- first presidential vote, but to other African SAlAmAt CAmeroun Bongor thoritarian control, 0,000 is criticized for interfering religions. tAndJile of the opposition are killed. with the opposition. mAyo- Sarh Lai keBBi mAyen- Moundou logone 0 150 km inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk Doba ChAri oCCidentAl sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt logone reseArCh At uppsAlA universitY, CentrAl AFriCAn rePuBliC VorientAl internAtionAl Crisis Group, CiA ChAd libYA Fn eu world FACt book 21 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 22. The World’s conflicts Chechnya 22 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 23. The World’s conflicts Chechnya Violence against civilians grows there is a long history of conflict and mistrust between russia and Chechnya. ruSSiA in recent years there has been a lull in the conflict as key people in the struggle for freedom have been killed. but civilians are still vulnerable to outrages. CheChNyA tJetJenien georgiA (reGion) 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 ruSSiA rYsslAnd StAVroPol dAgeStAn 1944 Stalin deports over 1997 Opposition leader 2004 President Kadyrov is Kamyshev 00,000 Chechens to Maschadov becomes killed. Chechnya Kargalinskaya Kazakhstan. president. Gangsters make Mozdok CheChnyA 2005 Over 1,000 school- money through kidnapping. Population: 1957 Chechen-Ingushetia children, teachers and 1.1 million, Kalinovskaya 1999 Chechen military is formed. parents are taken hostage Nedterechnaya according to takes towns in Dagestan. in Belasn, North Ossetia. Chervlennaya controversial 1991 Dudayev declares an Russia drives them out and Several of the terrorists are census. Most are inguShetiA independent Chechnya, commences a bombing of- thought to be Chechen. Sunni Muslims. Gudermes and is elected President. fensive after terror attacks. First parliamentary vote Groznyy Argun since 17. 200,000– 1994 Russia bombs Grozny 2002 Chechens take 00 00,000 died in Shali urus- 2007 Kadyrov’s son, Ram- to stop the rebels. Hun- people hostage in a theatre Bamut the war. Martan dreds of Chechens flee. in Moscow, until the Rus- zan, is selected president Vladikavkaz north sian military goes in with by Putin. His private militia Vedeno oSSetiA 1996 Dzhokhar Dudayev gas, killing over 100 people. is suspected of murdering Shatoy Dudayev is killed. A cease- civilians. 2003 Fighting subsides. 6 fire is ordered, but rebels 2008 Clan leader take Grozny. The shooting percent say yes to au- stops after a half-promise tonomy within the Russian Ruslan Jamadayev is dAgeStAn of autonomy. Federation. murdered. georgiA 0 50 km sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, bbC news, tt, uppsAlA ConFliCt dAtA proGrAm, ”CheChnYA” bY AnnA politovskAJA inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 24. The World’s conflicts Colombia 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 25. The World’s conflicts Colombia The struggle against violence in Colombia recently the government of Colombia has taken a tougher line against violence in the country. Farc is responsible for most of the sporadic attacks, Riohacha Santa Marta but new groups are also emerging. Barranquilla FArC (Group) ColombiA Valledupar Cartagena Caracas 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 PAnAmA Sincelejo VenezuelA Panama Montena eln (Group) 1948 Violence spreads throughout 1997 Right wing paramilitary extrem- Cúcuta the country after the murder of a ists group together to form the AUC. Bucaramanga leftist-liberal politician. The following Arauca 1999 Farc gains control of certain period is called ”La Violencia” . Medellin areas and uses them to arm itself and Puerto Carreño Quibdó 1957 Conservatives and liberals agree hold hostages. Tunja AuC (Group) Yopal to alternate government. Other politi- Manizales Pereira 2002 Presidential candidate Ingrid cal groups disagree. Bogota Armenia Betancourt is kidnapped by Farc. New Ibague Buenaventura 1964 The largest guerilla group, President, Alvaro Urbe Velez, begins Inirida ColomBiA Cali Colmombia’s revolutionary armed an offensive against Farc. 00 gueril- Casualties force (Farc), and the national libera- las are killed in a little over a month. Neiva San José del Guaviare 0,000-60,000 tion army (ELN), are formed. Every Popayán 2006 The government and the people have year, they kidnap thousands of people died during the and carry out sabotage against the oil paramilitary AUC over the disarming Florencia Pasto Mitú conflict since industry and the electricity network. of 2,000 AUC members, but newly- Mocoa it began in the armed groups begin to appear. 1981 Drug barons establish para- 10s. 2008 Big demonstrations against military groups who are responsible Quito Colombia has for murdering thousands of people Farc’s kidnappings. Farc leader BrAzil the most refu- suspected of sympathizing with left- Manuel Marulanda dies. A military gees in the world, wing guerillas. operation forces Farc into releas- eCuAdor after Sudan. ing 1 hostages, among them Ingrid 1984 Farc negotiates a ceasefire, Betancourt. According to the forms the Patriotic Front and wins 0 200 km Peru government, Farc success in elections. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, is holding some swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, 700 hostages. inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk internAtionAl Crisis Group, svt. 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 26. The World’s conflicts Cyprus 26 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 27. The World’s conflicts Cyprus Divided Cyprus Cyprus has been divided since 1974. that was when the military junta in Athens carried out a coup on the island; turkey’s answer was to invade northern Mediterranean Sea Cyprus. in the following war, a third of all inhabit- ants fled their homes and over 1000 Greek Cypriots CYpern Turkish Cypriot-administered area uN buffer zone disappeared. not until 1999, when Greece gained a dhekeliA new government that was willing to negotiate, was Nicosia there hope for a new resolution to the conflict. CyPruS Larnaca GreklAnd 160 170 10 10 2000 Greek Cypriot area controlled by Cyprus Government Akrotiri Limassol 1960 Cyprus 1974 The military policeman are Cypriots agree gains indepen- junta and guerilla shot dead. to a UN peace Mediterranean Sea dence from the forces declare a plan, but Greek turkiet 1999 Greece United Kingdom. coup in Cyprus. Cypriots say no. 0 40 km Turkey answers gains a new The internation- 1963 Acts of vio- by invading the government will- ally recognized lence take place. northern part of ing to cooperate Greek Cypriot Population: Turkish Cypriot the island. In the over Cyprus. part of the island Akrotiri dhekeliA Around 0 000 ministers leave ensuing conflic becomes an EU Others 2% 2002 Turkey the joint govern- 1000 Greek member. Turkish cypriots ment. Cypriots disap- elects a new gov- 2005 Turkey peared without ernment open to Famagusta Limassol 18% 1964 UN troops trace. The island cooperation. applies for EU uN buffer Ayios Nikolaos arrive. is divided by a membership. zone Episkopi Bay 2003 Greek and buffer zone. Akrotiri uN buffer Bay 1967 A military 2008 Greek Turkish Cypriots zone Akrotiri 80% 1996 Greek junta takes can travel across Cypriots gain a power in Athens Cypriots demon- the buffer zone. new president Greek cypriots and declares that strate at the bor- who begins 2004 It is now Cyprus belongs der. This leads to talks with the Larnaca Bay inFo GrAphiCs: Mediterranean Sea nordström FrAnk to Greece. They violence in which possible for all Turkish Cypriot sourCes: sAkerhets- Larnaca blow life into the several Greek EU citizens to president. A new politik.se, swedish 0 10 km 0 10 km institute oF internA- old guerilla army Cypriots and a travel across the border passage Mediterranean Sea tionAl AFFAirs, bbC on the island. Turkish military border. Turkish opens in Nicosia. world 27 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 28. The World’s conflicts Eritrea 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 29. The World’s conflicts Eritrea Border disputes continue border disputes between eritrea and ethiopia have been the norm in recent years. the un has been upholding the peace since 2000, but left the area in the middle of 2008. A un resolution in 1952 made eritrea a part of ethiopia, but people struggled for inde- pendence. ten years after the un resolution, a civil war began which was to last for 30 years. eritreA ethiopiA Population: 170 10 10 2000 . million. 43 percent are SudAn 1974 Emperor 1998 A fullscale UN troops return rived to keep the under 1 years Haile Sellasie war erupts to supervise peace. old. was removed against Ethiopia, peace. 2007 Numerous from power and a fueled by 58.6 percent 2000 ,000 military govern- economic troops cross the can read and ment took over difficulties and homes in north- border and the Nak’fa write. Ethiopia, of which the drawing of a ern Eritrea are committee that eritreA Eritrea was part. border between destroyed in an worked to lessen A dictatorship the two coun- attack. border tensions with no opposi- Keren 1991 Rebel tries. Around 70,000 stops its work. tion parties Massawa Ak’ordat groups over- Approximately Eritreans and Eritrea blocks permitted. Asmara throw the Ethio- 70,000 approximately fuel to the UN Barentu Dek’emhare Ghela’elo pian military Eritreans and 0,000 Ethiopi- forces. Teseney Adi ugre Adi K’eyih government. around 0,000 ans are affected Badme Zela Ambesa Adi Kwala 2008 UN pulls Ethiopians are af- by the war. Om Hajer 1993 After a fected by the war. Both countries back its peace- referendum, Both sides wish seek peace, but keeping force. Up Eritrea becomes for peace, but border disputes to 200 troops an independent disputes over the continue. UN had been in the country. border increase. troops have ar- area. Assab ethioPiA dJiBouti 0 300 km Djibouti inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, n Y times, CiA world FACt book oCh Fn 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 30. The World’s conflicts Ethiopia 0 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 31. The World’s conflicts Ethiopia Guerilla war in three regions the conflict between ethiopia and eritrea was going on while ethiopia had troops in somalia. in addition, the government had huge internal political problems, with guerilla groups at war in three regions. ethiopiA AFAr eritreA somAliA oromiYA oGAden/somAli (reGion) (reGion) (reGion) Rebels in 170 10 10 2000 three regions Oromiya 1974 Emperor is introduced. panies against The wealthiest SudAn eritreA Hailie Sellasie Nine ethnic- starting projects region. Opposi- was deposed in a based regions in the area. tion arose when military coup. are created, but Some units of inhabitants were Asmara several of these government forbidden to Population: 1975–1983 want more inde- troops are sent speak their own TIGRAY Mek’elé 2. million Western Soma- pendence; their to the area. language in the lia’s freedom inhabitants are 170s. AFAR Literacy: 2007 A Chinese Afar front, the WSLF not happy. Gonder dJiBouti 2.7% oilfield is at- One of the and, until 17, AMHARA 1998 War breaks BENISHANGuL/ Somali troops, tacked by ONLF poorest regions. Djibouti Desé GuMuZ Ethnic groups: battle against out against Guerilla groups and 7 workers around 70 Ethiopia to bring Eritrea. are killed. The emerged to op- DIRE DAwA the Ogaden Ethiopian army pose the seizing SomAliA Largest export: 2006 ONLF – region under begins a large of territory by the Addis Abeba Harer Coffee Somali rule. Ogaden National offensive. The state. HARARI Nek’emté ADDIS ABEBA Melu Ogaden Liberation Army Red Cross and GAMBELLA ethioPiA Life expectancy: 1991 The military – fight again for Doctors Without Part of Ethiopia years council of Dergen independence Borders are until 1, but OGADEN Goba Awasa (SOMALI) is overthrown by for Ethiopian forced to leave. during the 0s, SNNPR two rebel groups. Somalis in the 60s and 70s Arba Minch OROMIYA 2008 Certain aid Nationalized Ogaden region. the region was companies are ONLF warns organizations are the subject of a privatized. A international oil allowed back into struggle between market economy and gas com- the area. Ethiopia and Somalia. Conflict 0 300 km kenyA increased during inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 2007. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, CiA world FACt book, Fn, united stAtes depArtement oF stAte, uppsAlA ConFliCt dAtA proGrAmme 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 32. The World’s conflicts Georgia 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 33. The World’s conflicts georgia Gas pipes make Georgia sensitive because of Georgia’s strategic position, its conflict with russia in the summer of 2008 drew world attention. oil and natural gas pipelines pass through the country from Azerbaijan to turkey: the west does not want to see trouble in the area. the armed struggle was the culmination of many years’ struggle for independence for Georgia’s break-away republics of south ossetia GeorGiA russiA and Abkhazia. russia’s irritation with Georgia’s closeness to the eu was also a factor. 2008 10 2000 1991 Georgia becomes independent. 1998 New fighting results in the 2005 South Osettian leaders are War between georgia sign a ceasefire agree- and Russia, 2008 There are violent demonstrations deaths of at least 20 people. 0,000 invited to Moscow, where a train is ment, but Russia has after the country’s first election. Fol- Georgians flee from Abkhazia. loaded with food, medicines, tents seized control in the 7 aug: After a struggle lowing a coup against the president, and equipment. Georgia finds this towns of Gori, Senaki and 2003 The opposition gains more the Soviet Union’s former Foreign action provocative. Russia has also between Georgian forces Zugdidi, together with im- Minister, Edvard Shevardnadze takes votes than Shevardnadze, but he still prepared a roadway in South Ossettia and Ossetian groups dur- portant roads in Georgia. 12 aug: French president power. South Ossetia declares unilat- declares himself the winner. People for re-supplying the separatists. ing the week, a ceasefire is eral independence. protest in the streets carrying roses in agreed. Nicolas Sarkozy visits 2006 A Russian gas pipeline is 8 aug: Georgian forces their hands. They storm the parlia- Moscow with a ceasefire 1992 Shevardnadze will not allow ment and Shevardnadze is forced to sabotaged in North Ossetia. Russia are still present in South proposal, but Russia sets South Ossetia to become indepen- flee the building. The event becomes imposes a ban on Georgian wine and Ossetia’s capital Tschinvali the conditions. Russia dent. Around 100 people are killed known as The Rose Revolution, mineral water, which are Georgia’s and five other towns. Rus- bombs Gori. 13 aug: The ceasefire be- in the struggle before a ceasefire is because the episode did not lead to most important export products. sia declares war. ,000 agreed upon. A peace force is estab- violent conflict. Georgians protest outside gins, but Georgia accuses 2007 Thousands of people demon- lished, but the conflict isn’t over. Now the Russian embassy in Russia of breaking the 2004 New elections are held. The Abkhazia wants to break away from strate against Saakashvili. The level Tblisi. agreement twelve hours 9 aug: A state of emergen- Georgia after 60 years as an autono- new president is Mikhail Saakashvili, of police violence causes western later. 16 aug: Russia signs the mous region. who wants to see the country become countries to react. cy is declared in Georgia. 10 aug: Russia bombs a member of both the EU and NATO. agreement, but does not 1993 Government troops lose the 2008 Kosovo is recognized by several Georgian forces attempt to take a military airfield near pull back all its troops. fight for Abkhazia. Thousands are control over parts of South Ossetia countries, but not Russia; it maintains Tblisi. Russian ships moor Their tanks reach Igoeti, killed and over 20,000 Georgians and several people are killed. Saa- that South Ossetia and Abkhazia’s outside the port of Poti 0 km from Tblisi. 26 aug: Russia acknowl- are forced to flee from their homes kashvili agrees to give the breakaway independence should be equally to prevent fuel supplies in Abkhazia. Georgia imposes an republics more autonomy, but wants acknowledged. NATO discuses Geor- reaching Georgia. edges Abkhazia and South 11 aug: Georgian troops embargo on Abkhazia, but Russia to keep them as part of the country. gian membership, but Russia warns Ossetia as independent continues to supply the region. They say no. against this. leave South Ossetia and states. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, new York times, dn, bbC news, Fn, GAZprom, vostok GAs. inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 34. The World’s conflicts georgien Moskva Nizhnly Novgorod ruSSiA Astana ukrAine Qaraghandy Donets’k Volgograd Novorosslysk kAzAkhStAn Saryshaghan Astrakhan Baykonur Qyzylorda Aralsjön Groznyy geor Bishkek Taraz giA Aksu Talas Shymkent Tiblisi kyrgyzStAn Nukus ArmeniA uzBekiStAn Tashkent AzerBAiJAn Osh yerevan Kashi Baku ChinA Buxoro turkey turkmeniStAn tAJikiStAn Samarqand Balkanabat 0 300 km Türkmenabat Kaspiska havet Tabriz Gyzylarbat Dushanbe Ashgabat Mosul irAn Mary irAQ AFghAniStAn PAkiStAn A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 35. The World’s conflicts georgien kArAChAy- CherkeSSiA ruSSiA kABArdino- BAlkAr ABkhAziA Groznyj inguShetiA Sokhumi CheChnyA Caspian Sea Vladikavkaz north oSSetiA georgiA South oSSetiA Black Sea dAgeStAn Poti Population: .6 million of which Ossetians Batumi AJArA Tiblisi represent 1.%, Abkhazians Rustavi .2%. According to the UN refugee organization 0,000 South Ossetians and 12,000 ethnic ArmeniA Goergians have AzerBAiJAn been displaced by the fighting. turkey 1591 kilometers of gas pipeline and AzerBAiJAn 1253 kilometers of oil pipelines cross 0 100 km irAn irAn the country. A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 36. The World’s conflicts Indonesia East Timor 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 37. The World’s conflicts Indonesia East Timor Freedom in different directions Indonesia Population: 2 million. Official language: Bahasa Indone- president suharto governed indonesia’s 1,300 islands and 250 sia. In addition, 0 other local and regional languages are spoken. ethnic groups with an iron hand, but when he fell in 1998 fighting INDONESIA broke out in numerous places. Religion: 2% Others 1% Buddist 2% Hindu 160 170 10 10 2000 3% Catholic 6% Protestant 86% Muslim East Timor but pro-Indo- Rangoon LAOS THAILAND Invaded in 1975 nesian forces Bangkok VIETNAM PHILIPPINES BuRMA by Indonesia, resented this. CAMBODIA (MYANMAR) which was 1,00 people Aceh unhappy that a died. After UN Phnom Ho Chi Minh The GAM guerilla Penh Papua communist-ori- intervention largest gold and movement has ented leadership stopped the vio- Indonesia took copper mines campaigned for was going to lence, East Timor control of Papua and owned by an Phuket Aceh’s inde- take over the became its own from the UN in American com- Bandar Seri pendence since nation in 2002. 1963. The only leadership of pany, was the Begawan mAlAySiA Banda Aceh BRuNEI 1976. East Timor after On the 11th people voting, focus for several 1999–2000 vio- February 2008 Portugal, which a small pro-In- attacks. Medan Kuala Lumpur lence increases. By 2002 Papua had just left its president José donesian group, SINGAPORE 2004 Aceh is former colony. Ramos-Horta voted for Indo- had strength- Sangkulirang Singapore hit by a tsu- In 1999 East was shot in an nesian control of ened its Pontianak BORNEO nami. More Telukbatang Papua in 1968, Timor voted for attack by East autonomy, but than 10,000 independence, Timor rebels. but the struggle still struggled SuMATRA Kendawangan people are killed for freedom had for full indepen- Banjanmasin Palembang PAPuA indoneSiA and over half already begun. dence. After Makassar a million more Nature had increasing unrest Semarang made homeless. in 2006, Indone- been an impor- Jakarta The catastrophe JAVA tant symbol. sia strengthened Dili dampens the fire Grasberg, one its troop pres- Denpasar EAST TIMOR of unrest. Peace of the world’s ence. TIMOR has reigned since 2005. A parlia- inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk mentary vote is 0 400 km sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, AuSTRALIA swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, due in 2009. internAtionAl Crisis Group 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 38. The World’s conflicts Iraq A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 39. The World’s conflicts Iraq The struggle of keeping Iraq together the us-led alliance has handed provincial control to the iraqi government, but can the government keep the country together peacefully once the alliance forces leave iraq? IRAq USA Population: 10 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 2, million. turkey groupings: 1932 Iraq be- 2006 Terrorists The UN inter- Australia and Po- DAHuK Assyrians, comes indepen- venes. After the land enter Iraq to bomb a Shia Dahuk Persians dent. conflict, the UN prevent spread of Muslim mosque Kurds etc: 4% ARBIL demands Iraq weapons of mass in Samarra. Mosul 1947 Baath party rids itself of destruction and 000 people Arbil 18% NINAwA founded. weapons of mass stop oppression. a month die in Kirku AS SuLAYMANIYAH destruction. It later becomes revenge attacks. As sulaymaniyah AT TA’MIM 1968 Military evident that Iraq Saddam Hossein SyriA 1995–96 UN government ou- does not have is executed. 78% sted. Baath party allows Iraq to sell weapons of mass SALAHAD DIN 2007 The USA takes power. oil for food under destruction. Sad- Arabs irAn Samarra Ba’qubah supervised con- dam Hussein is sends an ad- DIYALA 1970s Spiralling ditions, but Iraq arrested. ditional 0,000 Religion: Chris- AL ANBAR oil prices bring wants a complete troops to quell Bagdad tian and BAGDAD Sunni- other 2004 The US-led better times. end to sanctions. the violence, wASIT irAQ muslim 3% Hospitals and alliance attacks opposed by BABIL Karbala Al Hillah 1997–98 schooling are towns in the hunt public opinion at KARBALA Al Kut improved. Constant inter- for terrorists in home. Shia mi- Ad Diwaniyah MAYSAN ference in the an effort to bring litias announce Al Najaf AL QADISIYAH 37% 1979 Saddam work of the UN tranquility before a unilateral DHI QAR Hossein comes inspectors. the 200 elec- ceasefire. As Samawah AN NAJAF 60% An Nasiriyah to power. tions, but this Basra 2001 America 2008 The cease- creates further BASRA 1980 Iraq begins accuses Iraq outbreaks of fire is extended. Shia muslim AL MuTHANNA the war with Iran. of supporting unrest. Government international ter- troops battle Kuwait 1988 War ends, 2005 The Shiite- rorism after the militia groups for inFo GrAphiCs: SAudi ArABiA kuwAit with up to a mil- /11 attacks. led United Iraqi control of Basra. nordström FrAnk sourCes: lion dead. Alliance wins Iraq’s parlia- sAkerhetspolitik.se, 0 100 km 2003 Without most votes in the ment says yes to internAtionAl Crisis Group, swedish insti- 1990 Iraq UN support USA, parliamentary regional voting in tute oF internAtionAl invades Kuwait. United Kingdom, election. January 200. AFFAirs, bbC news, Fn A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 40. The World’s conflicts Israel-Palestine 0 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 41. The World’s conflicts Israel-Palestine Mistrust on all sides israel has left the Gaza strip but peace talks, where two independent states are formed, have got no closer. israel will not negotiate with palestinian organizations as long as there are terrorist killings and started air strikes against Gaza when the ceasefire expired at the end of 2008. 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 1947 Palestine is divided into Jewish 2006 Hamas claims a large win in the should be autonomous in the West Mount in Jerusalem, a new Palestin- and Arab sectors. Bank and Gaza, but the PLO says no. ian insurgence begins – the second Palestinian parliamentary elections. Intifada. When Hamas refuses to acknowledge 1948 The state of Israel is created and 1982 Israel invades Lebanon, from Israel, the USA and the EU withhold 2001 Violence spreads. Israeli Prime is attacked by Arab countries. Two where a PLO attack on northern Israel assistance. Israel reenters Gaza after thirds of the Arab population is forced has been launched. Hizbollah, an as- Minister Ariel Sharon breaks off con- two soldiers are killed and a third is to flee from Palestine. sociation hostile to Israel, is founded. tact with Arafat. kidnapped. Israel and the Palestin- isrAel 1949 Ceasefire, but no peace talks. 1987 The Islamic resistance organi- 2002 Hamas carries out attacks ians agree a ceasefire, but violence zation, Hamas, is formed. The Israeli during the Jewish Easter period. Israel 1956 Suez crisis breaks out when flares between Fatah and Hamas in occupation of Gaza and the West reoccupies towns on the West Bank Israel attacks Egypt. When the USA Gaza. Together, they create a coalition Bank leads to the first intifada, which and thousands of Palestinians are ar- and the UN react, Israel withdraws. government in 2007, but later Hamas lasts until 1. rested. New suicide bomb attacks are takes control of Gaza. 1964 Palestinian liberation organiza- launched in Jerusalem. Israel begins 1992 Yishak Rabin and the Labour tion, the PLO, is formed. 2008 The border fence between Gaza to construct a security wall. Party win the Israeli elections and new and Egypt is breached and people 1967 The Six day war begins when pAlestine 2003 The USA, UN, Russia and the settlements are built in Jerusalem. from Gaza cross the border to gather Israel attacks Egypt after an Arab mili- EU lay out a new peace plan with the 1993 The Oslo talks about a two-state supplies. According to Israel, they are tary resurgence. Six days later, Egypt, goal of creating a new Palestinian solution are begun by Rabin and smuggling weapons. In June Israel and Jordan and Syria are vanquished. state by 200. Both parties agree, but Arafat. Gaza announce a ceasefire, but the 1969 The Fatah guerilla movement the violence does not cease. UN believes it is still very difficult for 1994 A Jewish settler kills 2 Pale- takes over the PLO and Yassir Arafat 2004 Sharon signals that Israel will Palestinians to get permission to get stinians in Hebron. The Islamic jihad becomes its leader. leave Gaza and the West Bank, but medicines and specialist treatments. begins with a series of suicide bomb- 1973 Yom Kippur war breaks out they will retain the largest settle- In October the ceasefire is broken ings. when Egypt and Syria attack Israel, ments. Arafat dies and is succeeded when Palestinians launch a rocket at 1995 Yitshak Rabin is murdered by a which soon gains military superiority. by Mahmoud Abbas. Israel. In November, Gaza is blockaded jewish extremist. Oil-producing countries stop export by Israel. The ceasefire expires in De- 2005 Sharon and Abbas agree that inFo GrAphiCs: 1996 Palestinians hold their first elec- of oil to the west. The fighting stops nordström FrAnk cember. After further rocket attacks the shooting should stop, but Hamas when the USA and the Soviet Union tions. Arafat becomes president. on Israel, the Israelis begin an aerial thinks differently. Israel evacuates sourCes: demand a ceasefire. 2000 Israel withdraws from southern bombardment of Gaza on the 26th of from Gaza. Hamas sees this as a sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF 1978 At the Camp David talks, Israel Lebanon. When the new Prime Min- December. Hundreds are killed in the victory. Israel is attacked by rockets internAtionAl AFFAirs, and Egypt agree that Palestinians ister, Ariel Sharon, visits the Tempel heaviest attack in a decade. from Gaza. Fn, bbC world 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 42. The World’s conflicts Israel-Palestine Palestinian 1.3 million refu- turkey Aleppo gees live in many refugees Neirab of the camps uNRwA camp run by UNWRA, 914 000 the United Na- Facts from 2005 Palestinians fled tions Relief and Latakia or were driven Works Agency for out from the Palestinians in area that would the Near East, in become Israel Hama hama Jordan, Lebanon, during the war of Syria, the West 1–. homs Bank and Gaza. Homs Nahr el-Bared These camps are Today, they and Beddawi often crowded weSt BAnk Tripoli their descen- and have poor leBAnon Baalbek dants number sanitation. SyriA .6 million. iSrAel Dbayeh wavell Beirut Shatila UNWRA was The majority, Burj el-Barajneh founded as a around 2 million, Damaskus Saida Mieh Mieh temporary solu- Jaramana live in Jerusalem. Ein el-Hilweh Sbeinel tion for Palestin- Qabr Essit Khan Tyre Nabatieh Khan Danoun Eshieh El-Buss ian refugees in In the gaza Rashidieh 1. Quneitra Burj el-Shem ali strip, nearly Today UNWRA golAn eight out of ten provides refu- are refugees iSrAel Sweida Dera’a gees with food, from Israel. In Irbid Dera’a weSt BAnk education and Jenin the West Bank, Irbid Husn Nur Shams health and social Jenin they account for Souf Tulkarm Far’a Jerash services. Tulkarm Camp No. 1 a third. Jerash Qalqilya Askar Zarqa Baqa’a gAzA Balata gAzA StriP Zarqa Deir Ammar Nablus For this reason, Gaza Marka Jalazone Jericho Salt Palestinians Planned and Jabal el-Hussein Am’ari Palestinians, Amman Jabalaia demand that built barrier Amman New Camp Kalandia Beach unlike other refu- Shu’fat Talbieh Nuseirat refugees be Aqabat Jabr Ein Madaba Aida Deir el- gees throughout el-Sultan Arroub Balah repatriated, but Dheisheh the world, can JordAn hebron Fawwar Israel refuses Beit Jibrin get help to leave to acknowledge Bureij the camps Maghazi Karak their right to 0 20 km Khan Younis and find reha- Rafah return. bilitation in other iSrAel countries.info inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 0 40 km sourCes: unrwA, Ma’an säkerhetspolitik.se 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 43. The World’s conflicts Israel-Palestine Terrorist barrier, or Berlin Wall? In 2002 Israelis 406 of a total and maintain the barrier and close to Jewish started to build of 790 kilome- that Israel has demanded settlements. a barrier along built it so that, that construc- ters have been The remainder the border over time, it can tion should be built today. of the bar- between the confiscate parts stopped. Among Part of the rier consists of West Bank and of the West Bank other things, weSt BAnk wall consists Israel. The Israeli where most the UN was also metal fencing government of the Jewish critical of the of eight-meter with ditches claimed that the settlements fact that the high concrete and a no man’s safety barrier are found. For barrier was built blocks. Accord- land as wide as was needed to Palestinians, it further into the ing to Israel, the a four-lane high- keep terror- makes travel to West Bank than wall is only this way. There are ists out of the and from work the acknowl- high in stretches forty gateways country. places even edged border, in where there is a that give access more difficult. order to include risk of snipers, to farmers land Palestinians call Jewish settle- such as by the and for students The UN the project the ments. motorway north to reach their new Berlin Wall, condemned to the south, and schools. iSrAel WADI AL-GUZ MEA SHE’ARIM JERuSAlEm JERuSAlEm Herod’s Gate old City MOSLEM qUARTER St. Stephen’s Gate New Gate No man’s land Tomb of the CHRISTIAN Haram Virgin Mary qUARTER esh Sharif Israeli Dominus Flevit The Knesset settlements Holy Sepulchre Dome of the Rock Jaffa Gate Tombs of the Al-Aqsa Citadel JEWISH Planned and Prophets Mosque qUARTER built barrier new City ARMENIAN Western wall qUARTER MOUNT OF OLIVES The West Bank Dung Gate Zion Gate border CITY OF DAVID Davids Tomb 0 400 km MOUNT ZION 0 2 km A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 44. The World’s conflicts Israel-Palestina New ceasefire started Beit Lahiya December January Beit Jabaliya Hanoun Gaza 2008 2009 december 19: Six months January 3: Israeli ground January 14: Nightly air of ceasefire is ended. troupes enter northern attacks against 60 targets, Hamas does not wish to Gaza. among them tunnels. Gaza Strip January 4: Conflicts and January 15: Tons of UN aid extend it. Population: 1. million 27 december: Israel fighting at the refugee is destroyed in fires after an GAZA STRIP ( 12 people/square km) bombs Gaza city, Rafah, camps in Beit Hanoun, Beit attack at a UN camp. Almost half of the population January 17: Two children and Khan Younis. 22 Lahiya and Jabaliya. lives in refugee camps. January 6: At least 0 people, mostly police, are are killed at a UN school killed. people are killed and are in Beit Lahiya, where 28 december: Several injured at a UN school in Ja- hundreds of people have people are killed by bombs baliya, where hundreds of sought shelter. January 19: A ceasefire is in a mosque. Tunnels are people have sought shelter destroyed. from the fighting. started. January 7: The border to iSrAel Egypt is bombed. Israel stops the fighting for three hours a day so that the Khan Younis inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk A major part of the population people living in Gaza can sourCes: Fn, nY times, Fn, bbC news, in gaza consists of children get food and bury their humAn riGhts wAtCh, timesonline. Co.uk, der spieGel, JerusAlem post, dead. isrAel pAlestinA internAtionAl herAld tribune, ne After the war Under 1 20,000 buildings and a great deal of infrastructure has been destroyed. Rafah % years Casualties 6% More than 1,00 people, 12 of them children. egyPt Injured Under 1 years 0 5 km 5,450 people, 1,855 of them children. A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 45. The World’s conflicts Israel-Palestina Tunnels the opening to the world Provides jobs Rebuilt Unemployment According to the has increased Israeli Govern- the tunnels in southern Gaza have been used for smuggling of heavily since ment 0% of the 2000 when estimated 00 weapons, food, chocolate, cigarettes, refrigerators and car Israel closed tunnels were parts since the israeli blockade was imposed. its borders for destroyed during employment the war. Accord- immigration. ing to smugglers, 2005 The road underneath the wall gAzA StriP there are a thou- Israel leaves Egypt has built a metal wall that According to sand tunnels and Gaza Gaza. The tun- stretches over 2 km, but the tunnels the World Bank those destroyed nels have mostly are built under it. After the war only 2 % of the are being rebuilt Khan been used for Egypt installs Younis industry in Gaza again. gunrunning. cameras and functions since The tunnels have ISRA movement the Israeli provided young EL Deir al-Balach 2007 detectors to blockade. unemployed egyPt Rafah prevent the iSrAel men, stuck in Hamas seizes building of new , 70 % of the Gaza, with work. power from m tunnels. population lives They are paid Fatah. Israel Phil ade in poverty. 100 USD for each starts a blockade lphi road meter they dig. in order to force Hamas to end Number of rocket attacks industry from Gaza. employees Instead of 00 EGY in gaza: trucks, only a PT little over 100 are allowed to enter 000 the area. The price of certain goods is tripled. Egypt Several exits A deadly lifeline 0 closes the border Each tunnel has Tunnels are built at Rafah and the tunnels 200 200 several exits so are being used that the smug- Width: 60 cm. for smuggling of m The tunnels are equipped glers can change 10 Length: up to a kilometer. food, medicine, with ventilation, electricity tunnels if one is Height: 1 meter. building material, destroyed. and telephone wires. Time to build: –6 months. fuel, chocolate, Cost: 0 000 USD. crisps, toys and inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk even cattle. sourCes: Fn, nY times, Fn, bbC news, humAn riGhts wAtCh, timesonline.Co.uk, der spieGel, JerusAlem post, internAtionAl herAld tribune, ne, world bAnk A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 46. The World’s conflicts Kashmir 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 47. The World’s conflicts kashmir New disturbances in Kashmir never since 1947 has there been a referendum about which land kashmir should belong to: india or pakistan? instead, a struggle began which was to last for decades. After a peace initiative opened in 2004 violence has decreased, but in the summer of 2008 it took a turn for the worse. pAkistAn kAshmir indiA kAshmir (pAkistAni reGion) (indiAn reGion) 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 1947 The British The Indian stan separates The crises is situation is first denies responsi- region… colony is divided itself and forms cooled with the subdued, then bility. into Hindu India Bangladesh. The help of US presi- turns sour. There …has a popu- AFghAn- ChinA Islamabad 2004 Guerillas and Muslim so-called control dent Bill Clinton is an influx of lation of around iStAn West and East line between and others. Muslim soldiers begin a series of 11 million people. kAShmir Pakistan. Most the Indian and after the Taliban suicide bomb- More than 60% nePAl ButhAn 2000 A unilateral people in Kash- Pakistani parts regime falls in ings in Bombay. of them are PAkiStAn mir are Muslim, of Kashmir is Indian ceasefire Afghanistan. In- Muslim; most New Dehli 2005 After a ma- but the local king established. is declared, but dia believes that Hindus and is a Hindu and guerillas con- Pakistan is sup- jor earthquake Buddhists live 1989 Muslim looks for support tinue the struggle porting guerilla in Kashmir, the in Jammu and indiA from India. There guerillas in Kash- resulting in ever groups. Militant control line is Ladakh. BAnglAdeSh is no referendum. mir begin fighting greater numbers Islamic extrem- opened to aid Instead, war against India. of deaths in ists attack the In- workers, but this …today has more breaks out over attacks, which in dian parliament is not seen as self-government 1998 Both India Kashmir. turn leads to pro- in New Delhi. a step toward than other Indian and Pakistan tests against the Twelve people peace. states. 1949 Kashmir id carry out nuclear ceasefire in the are killed and 2008 The first The Pakistani divided be- tests. As a result Kashmir valley. many wounded. region… tween India and aid and finance talks are held 2001 India and 2003 Pakistan’s Pakistan. India from the USA between India …has a popu- gets the most and other coun- Pakistan hold president Mus- and Pakistan’s lation of around populated and tries is reduced. high-level meet- harraf calls for new government. million people. developed parts. ings in India, but a ceasefire in New distur- Most of them are 1999 The conflict no solutions are Kashmir. A short bances break out Muslims. 1971 Trouble is worsened with found. After the time later, he during summer. sourCes: breaks out again fighting around terror attack is accused of sAkerhetspolitik.se, 0 600 km when East Paki- the control line. on /11 the two attacks, but inFo GrAphiCs: utrikespolitiskA nordström FrAnk institutet, bbC news 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 48. The World’s conflicts kashmir Terror strikes India The conflict in kashmir Taiba and Jaish-e-Moham- has also affected India, mad are suspected of being behind the 2001 attack which has seen victims of the violence. Despite India’s on the parliament in New AFghAniStAn ChinA secular nature, there is ten- Delhi. Lashkar-e-Taiba is Srinagar sion between Hindus and also suspected of carrying Islamabad Muslims. In addition, the out a car bombing in Bom- division between the poor bay which killed more than Amritsar 0 people in 2003, and in the countryside and the middle classes in the towns further attacks in Bombay and New Delhi in 2005; has also grown along with ButhAn neP the economic success of Varanasi in 2006 and PAkiStAn Al New Dehli Hyderabad in 2007. The the state. terror attacks in Bombay in Agra In the 1980s an extreme, November 2008, in which indiA nationalist Hindu move- around 200 people died Kanpur ment arose against Muslim and 2 were injured, are Imphal violence in Kashmir and also thought to be the work globalization. of Lashkar-e-Taiba. Kandla 1992 Hindus tear apart the Bhopal Ahmadabad Babri mosque in Ayodhya. Kolkata In the revenge attacks that follow over 1000 people die, Nagpur BAnglAdeSh most of them Muslims. indiA India 1993 Hindus kill Muslims Bombay in Bombay and burn their Population: 1,1 billion (Mumbai) houses. 2002 A railway States: 2 Vishakhapatnam India’s most carriage carrying Hindu ex- Hyderabad Religion: populous city: tremists catches fire. They Others 1,9% had been in Ayodhya to population of 1.7 million Panaji 1,9% Sikh Marmagao build a temple. Muslims are and the financial centre of Christian 2,3% suspected of starting the the country Muslim fire. In the following repri- 13,4% Bombay is led by the sals against Muslims, more Bengaluru Chennai than 00 people died. An highly-nationalist Shiv Pondicherry inquiry in 2005 found that Sena party which is Calcutta 80,5% Hindu the fire was an accident. suspected of supporting attacks on Muslims. Cochin Madurai inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk The kashmir connection sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, Tuticorin 0 600 km The militant Kashmiri swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, nAtionAlenCYklopedin, bbC Islamic groups Lashkar-e- news, CiA world FACt book, AsiA times. A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 49. The World’s conflicts kashmir Seven players in Sensitive paths through the conflict AFghAniStAn the valleys cHINA Hizbul All Parties The Jhelum Mujahedin Hurriyat road through the Conference The biggest and Traditional boundary claimed by the former Vale of Kashmir princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. (APHC). one of the oldest was built around Disteghil Sar groups; they fa- Working for an 100 years ago. 7 885 m Territory ceded by Pakistan Rakapushi vour a Pakistani independent Until 17 it was to China in 1963 and never 7 788 m solution to the Kashmir; but the only roadway recognized by India. K2 troubles. part of the group NORthERN AREAS open all year 8 611 m believe that round. Another Pakistani-administered area of Kashmir Harkat-ul- Kashmir should route went be- NORth wESt Mujahedin belong to Paki- tween moun- AkSAI chIN Nanga Parbal fRONtIER PROVINcE A militant Muslim stan. tains, and was 8 125 m Disputed area between India and China Baltistan group of Afghans, blocked by snow Lashkar-e-Taiba Pakistanis and and ice during others from ”The army of the the winter. Muzaffarabad Kashmir Arabic lands. faithful”. Baramulla They also favour Part of a branch When the road Kathai a Pakistani solu- of strict Sunni Srinagar was closed in uri tion. Muslims. De- 17, post, food Vale of Awantipur mand complete JAmmU ANd kAShmIR and fuel had to Kashmir Anantnag Jammu and Muslim control be carried by Islamabad Indian-administered area of Kashmir kashmir throughout India. other routes. ISLAmABAd Hera Ahlan freedom front Favour the use of cAPItAL Ladakh Striving for an in- suicide attacks. A new bus route tERRItORy Jammu dependent Kash- was opened in Jhelum Jaish-e- mir. Originally the 200 between PUNJAB Mohammad largest group, Srinagar and it has since lost Thought to have Muzaffarabad. lum some support. grown out of r Jhe Three years later, hImAchAL PRAdESh Rive many Koranic in the autumn The United schools in of 200, a INdIA cHINA Jihad Council Pakistan. Ac- trade route was (UJC). Made up cused along PAkISTAN opened for the from 2 small, with Lashkar- first time in sixty Amritsar Lahore PUNJAB armed local e-Taiba of the years. 0 50 km groups. Based in 2001 attack on Ludhiana the Pakistani re- the parliament in inFo GrAphiCs: gion of Kashmir. New Delhi. nordström FrAnk A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 50. The World’s conflicts Kyrgystan 0 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 51. The World’s conflicts kyrgystan Unhappy with the new government in 2005 there was a kyrgyz revolt against president Akajev; but the new govern- ment has not fulfilled expectations and now economic problems are growing. KYRGYSTAN SOVIET UNION UZBEKISTAN KAZAKHSTAN 10 2000 1991 The misuse of power the voting result. Soviet Union and civil unrest 2006 The new disintegrates grows. Demon- and Kyrgyzstan strators demand government fails kAzAkhStAn becomes inde- that government to satisfy expec- pendent. members should tations. 10,000 step down, and protesters call 1994 7% of later still that for president Bishkek voters think Akajev himself Bakijev’s resigna- president Akajev should resign. tion. Police Talas Karakol Ysyk-Kol should con- Beknazarov is intervene and the tinue leading the released after leadership unites country. trial. to form a new constitution. kyrgyzStAn 1998 More than 2003 Freedom Tashkent Naryn 2007 New 60 percent of the of the press is population lives curbed and civil demonstrations. Jalal-Abad Population: below the pov- rights activists Bakijev prevents uzBekiStAn , million erty line. Akajev are threatened. opposition lead- Osh grows increas- ers from taking % work on the 2005 Protests ingly dictatorial. part in the elec- land against Akajevs tion. 2001 Protests corrupt leader- Batken Important 2008 Spiralling about bad liv- ship spread exports: Gold ing conditions during the food costs and ChinA and electricity increase. parliamentary a worsening en- election. Akajev, ergy supply fuel a 2002 Beknaz- who has left the new crisis. There tAJikiStAn arov, an impor- country, is forced are conflicts with tant member to resign. A new Uzbekistan and 0 100 km inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk of parliament, government Kazakhstan over sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, institute For peACe- And ConFliCt reseArCh in uppsAlA, internAtionAl Crisis Group, CentrAl AsiA–CAuCAsus institute is arrested for emerges from water reserves. 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 52. The World’s conflicts Congo-Kinshasa 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 53. The World’s conflicts Congo-kinshasa A million refugees the antagonism between hutus and tutsies continues and so does the exploitation of natural resources, from which the people themselves do not ConGo- kinshAsA benefit. so further violence is escalating in eastern Congo-kinshasa. Population: 6,7 million. 10 2000 One million refugees, CentrAl AFriCAn rePuBliC SudAn reckons the UN. Bangui Four million people have 1994 More than a mil- murdered and is succeeded CAmeroun been killed since 1. lion Hutus flee to eastern by his son. Joseph Kabila. Aketi Congo from the genocide in He allows political parties Isiro Buta Mungbere Natural assets: Rwanda. President Mobutu and begins talks with rebels. Bumba Lisala diamonds, oil, timber, cop- sets up refugee camps. The war subsides. Mambasa per and others. Congo- ugAndA 1996 Rwanda and Uganda 2002 Peace with Rwanda Kisangani Beni BrAzzAVille send soldiers to protect and Uganda, but local con- Mbandaka gABon northern the banyamulenge, as flicts flare up. kiVu Congo-kinShASA Tutsies are called in Congo. rwAndA 2003 All parties take part in Hutu camps are emptied, Kalima Shabunda but several militant Hutu peace talks. Southern groups remain. Kindu Burundi rwAndA uGAndA kiVu Bandundu 2006 The first democratic Brazzaville 1997 Laurent Kabila’s parliamentary vote in 0 Ilebo Kinshasa tAnzAniA rebels march against Kin- years is held. Laurent Nkun- Kikwit shasa. President Mobutu da’s rebels begin fighting Kananga resigns after 2 years’ again in northern Kivu. Mbuji-Mayi Tshikapa leadership. Kabila declares 2007 00,000 people flee himself president. following violence in north- 1998 Kabila initiates a ern Kivu. campaign against the 2008 Shooting is stopped Tutsies. Rwandan soldiers AngolA and Tutsies revolt in eastern in northern and southern Congo. Civil war breaks out. Kivu, but the ceasefire is repeatedly broken. The Lubumbashi 1999 Peacetalks convened, conflict claims ,000 but are broken by all sides. lives every month, mostly 0 500 km zAmBiA inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk through malnutrition and sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl 2001 Laurent Kabila is lack of medical supplies. AFFAirs, internAtionAl Crisis Group A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 54. The World’s conflicts Korea A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 55. The World’s conflicts korea Atomic weapons hinder talks north and south korea have been on the road to opening up to each other several times since 2000, but ruSSiA north korea refuses to scrap its atomic weapons program. ChinA Najin south koreA Ch’ongjin 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 Hysan Kimch’aek 1948 North and South 1992 North and South 2002 Fighting in the north koreA Korea are founded after the Korea agree to a stoppage border region. Many die. north koreA Second World War, when on development, manufac- North Korea insists that Kusong Sinuiju Hamhung Japan was forced into ca- turing and placement of it will go on processing pitulation by the Soviets in nuclear weapons. plutonium. The USA stops the north and the USA and oil shipments. Pyongyang 1993 The International its allies in the south. This Namp’o 2006 North Korea test results in two incompatible Atomic Energy Authority un states, each supported by (IAEA), the UN’s regula- fires a missile and carries P’yonggang Changyon countries that want to take tory body, is forbidden out its first nuclear weap- Kaesong control of Korea. from sending inspectors to ons test. Ongjin Kangnung Kangnung North Korea’s plutonium Seoul Inch’on 1950 North Korea attacks 2007 North Korea handling facilities. Kangnung Suwon South Korea: the Korean promises to cease all South koreA 1994 North Korea wants a War. atomic weapon usA Ch’onan promise of alternative en- construction. In exchange, Ch’ongju Andong 1953 A truce after peace ergy if it scraps its nuclear the US promises oil and negotiations. Two million program. peace talks. The IAEA P’ohang Kunsan people have died in the maintains that the facility Taegu Chonju 1995–96 Five to ten war. at Yongbyon will close by ulsan Masan percent of the population of July; by December, it has Kwangju Pusan 1970s North Korea isolates North Korea dies as a result still not been decommis- itself. The self-imposed of starvation. sioned. Mokp’o Yosu independence leads to pov- inFo GrAphiCs: 2000 After and aid pack- 2008 South Korea’s new erty. South Korea places nordström FrAnk sourCes: its faith in export, which age, North Korea opens president, Lee Myung Bak, sAkerhetspolitik.se, 0 100 km will lead to its becoming to the outside world. A top takes a harder line. North utrikespolitiskA institutet, inter- one of the world’s leading level meeting between Korea freezes all contact JAPAn nAtionAl Crisis Group, industrial nations. North and South is held. with the South. iAeA, bbC news A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 56. The World’s conflicts Kosovo 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 57. The World’s conflicts kosovo Opposed to Kosovo the new kosovo Albanian government Kosovo Population: surprised the world by declaring independence in 2.17 million February 2008, despite the un plan being dismissed by serbs. percent of the people earn less Laposavic SerBiA than 1.2 euros per day to live on. monte- 10 10 2000 Zvecan Podujevo Zubin Potok Kosovska Mitrevica Folkgrupper: negro Serbs 7% Vucitra Istok 1989 Slobodan Milosevic becomes Hundreds of thousands of people Srbica Muslims, the new Serbian president. are assaulted, killed or flee. In June, Slavs, Obilic Milosevic signs an agreement that the Pristina Pec Roma and Klina Kosovska 1990 Kosovo’s independence is abol- UN will supervise the peace process. Glogovac Turks 5% Kamenica Kosovo Polje ished. Albanian newspapers are shut koSoVo 2000 Communal voting for the first down, and the language is banned in Lipljan Decani schools. time since the war. Malisevo Gnjilane Dakovica 1992 Albanians vote for Ibrahim 2004 Renewed rioting is reported, Orahovac urosevac Rugova as their president. partly because the Albanians feel that Stuva Reka 88% the independence process is pro- Vitina Mid 1990s ceeding too slowly. ,000 Serbs flee Albanians Strpce Kacanik The guerilla movement, Kosovo lib- and 2 people are killed. Prizren eration army (UCK), is founded. 2007 The UN’s chief negotiator, Mart- 1998 Serbian military launches an ti Ahtisaari, lays out a plan for Kosovo, Dragas offensive to arrest UCK members. about which the Serbs disagree. Skopje Tens of thousands of people flee. War AlBAniA mACedoniA 2008 Kosovo declares its own breaks out. NATO threatens to bomb 0 20 km Serbian troops unless they withdraw. independence and is acknowledged Renewed fighting breaks out after by some 0 countries, though not by inFo GrAphiCs: several months. Serbia. Fighting breaks out in Mitro- nordström FrAnk vica between UN police and Serbian sourCes: 1999 Serbia says no to a proposal demonstrators. The EU is to take over sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF that will give Kosovo independence. the UN’s peacekeeping role, but the internAtionAl AFFAirs, NATO commences bombing. process is delayed because of Rus- internAtionAl Crisis Group, bbC news, Serbia goes on the attack in Kosovo. sian objections. serbiA kosovo (reGion) nAto un världsbAnken 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 58. The World’s conflicts The Kurds A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 59. The World’s conflicts The kurds Stronger influence throughout the 1900s kurds have been oppressed, driven away and the source of rioting time after time. turkish enthusiasm for KURDISTAN TURKEY IRAq PKK eu membership has forced the government to improve relations (AREA) with the kurds, but the pkk continues its struggle. 170 10 10 2000 The Kurds ArmeniA Originally End of the 1970s Kurds with (KDP) in the pro- attacks against nomads tending yerevan A million Kurds, poison gas and tection zone. Iran. cattle. Erzurum Turkmen and other weapons in 1998 The PUK 2006 The PKK Assyrians are Halabja. Between They are the turkey forced to leave 0–100,000 and KDP divide attacks along the fourth largest the Kirkuk region Kurds die. the three Kurd- Iranian/Iraqi bor- group in Western in northern Iraq. ish provinces der. In Iraq, over Asia. 1991 A Kurdish between them- 100,000 refu- Elazig 1978 The Kurdish protection zone selves. gees have moved Most of them workers party, is established in to the Ta’mim Tabriz live today in kurdiStAn 1999 PKK leader PKK, is formed in in northern Iraq region around Diyarbakir Turkey: around Turkey. to help Kurds Abdullah Ocalan Kirkuk, which Orumiyeh 1 million. return. Turkey is arrested. they believe Sanliurfa 1984 PKK begins allows Kurdish should belong to 2004 The PKK its armed strug- books and news- Kurdistan. Mahbabad Zanjan gle for indepen- papers. resumes its irAn Al Hasakah 2007 A popular dent communist armed offensive Mosul 1992 Voting is state, an ideology against Turkey vote on Kirkuk is Irbil it later seems to held in the Kurd- from the Kandil pushed forward. abandon. ish protection mountains, Over 100 Turkish As Sulaymaniyah Kirkuk zone. despite the fact military person- 1986 The Turkish that language nel have been Halabja SyriA 1994 War be- army is ordered reform for Kurds killed by the PKK. irAQ Hamadan to pursue the tween the leftist is introduced. 2007–08 PKK in Iraq. Kurdish patriotic Bakhtaran Al Da’im 2005 A new union (PUK) and Turkey bombs 1988 Saddam Kurdistan’s Kurdish group, PKK bases in Hussein attacks democratic party Pajak, launches northern Iraq. inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk Bagdad sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, internAtionAl Crisis Group A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 60. The World’s conflicts Lebanon 60 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 61. The World’s conflicts Lebanon Closer to a new civil war the struggle or power between different religious groups Population: has left its mark on lebanon. in 2008, the country came Around million. close to another civil war until the government gave way Fact: and agreed to discuss power sharing. Approximately 1. million Tripoli Lebanese have a 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 mobile phone. leBAn-north Religion: 1946 Lebanon gains independence. 1993 Israel bombs southern Lebanon. Christian 1970 Lebanon becomes a base for the 1996 Israel invades again. lebAnon 40% Palestinian Liberation Organisation’s 2000 Israel leaves southern activities. leBAnon Lebanon. 1975 Religious antagonism, economic 60% BéQAA 2005 Syria withdraws from Lebanon disparity and the Palestinians wish for mont-liBAn Beyrouth their own country leads to civil war. after Lebanese prime minister Rafiq Beirut Muslim Hariri is murdered. Zahlé Baabda isrAel 1978 Israel invades Lebanon to 2006 Hizbollah launches a border silence the Palestinians, but is held back by the UN. attack on Israel. Two Israeli soldiers are kidnapped. Israel blockades 1982 A new invasion by Israel with Lebanon and attacks Hizbollah the mission of driving the PLO out of strongholds and infrastructure. Sidon Lebanon. Christian falangists massa- Hizbollah launches rocket attacks eJ JnouB Damaskus sYriA cre Palestinians in two refugee camps. on Israel. Between 700 and 1,00 (mostly Lebanese) die before a cease- 1985 Israel withdraws from Lebanon, fire can take hold. but still occupies the southern part of Nabatiye 2007 The army wins a tough struggle the country. nABAtiye against Islamic rebels. inFo GrAphiCs: 1990 Civil war ends. Hizbollah (the SyriA nordström FrAnk 2008 Confrontation on Beirut’s ”Party of God” in Arabic) which was sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, formed during the war, wants to retain streets. The fight between the govern- internAtionAl Crisis its weapons for the struggle against ment and Hizbollah continues until Group, depArtment oF Israel. Over time, they build schools the government agrees to talks on 0 15 km peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh At uppsAlA iSrAel and hospitals and gain popularity in governing the country and agreement universitY, bbC news, southern Lebanon. is reached – the so called Doha talks. CiA world FACt book 61 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 62. The World’s conflicts Liberia 62 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 63. The World’s conflicts Liberia Building Liberia up again peace has reigned in liberia since 2003. but when the civil war ended almost the entire country lacked electricity or water. now the country is being built up again and many people can return home. liberiA sierrA-leone un 10 10 2000 UN tasks 1847 Liberia becomes independent 1997 Charles Taylor is chosen as Voinjama Secure strategic SierrA having been founded by freed slaves president after threats that he would locations such from North America. They create an start the violence again. guineA as ports and leone elite to govern the country. airports. 2001 UN begins sanctions because 1980 There is a military coup after the of Charles Taylor’s support for RUG Repair 00 kms economy deteriorates. guerillas in Sierra Leone. of the largest roads. Sanniquellie 1989 Led by Charles Taylor, rebels 2003 New disturbances between gov- Bopolu seek to bring down the government. A ernment forces and rebel groups. Over Nearly 28,000 Gbarnga bloody civil war follows. 200,000 people have died since 1. Tubmanburg weapons have Robertsport iVory CoASt The UN beefs up the ECOWAS force. been collected 1990 Charles Taylor’s force takes Taylor is exiled to Nigeria. A transitional from former liBeriA Kakata control of the country. More armed government is put in place. war-time partici- groups join the conflict. Tens of thou- Monrovia pants. 2005 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf becomes sands are killed and nearly half the Zwedru population, around 2, million people, Africa’s first elected female president. develop new flee for their lives. The Economic Buchanan police and army The largest 2006 Charles Taylor surrenders to a Community of West African States forces. road to be (ECOWAS) sends in a peace force special court in Sierra Leone, where repaired joins River Cross (ECOMOG). he is charged with war crimes. Monrovia with Fish Town Tubmanburg, 1995 Peace talks are held, and ECO- 2008 A new police force is put Gbarnga, Zwedru MOG seeks to increase its influence, together. The Un reduces its peace Greenville and Voinjarna. but is stopped by rebel forces. force. The first witness gives evidence before the Truth and Reconciliation Sasstown 1996 New peace talks are held. Commission. Harper 0 50 km inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, Fn, internAtionAl Crisis Group 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 64. The World’s conflicts Macedonia 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 65. The World’s conflicts Macedonia Albanians get more influence Fighting between Albanians and macedonians in 2001 was ended through peace talks which gave more rights to the country’s Albanians; but violence has flared numerous times since then. mACedoniA AlbAniA eu nAto 10 2000 1991 Macedonia declares its own 2003 The EU replaces NATO forces in Population: independence. Albanians demand its first military assignment. 2 million. SerBiA (koSoVo) an Albanian-language university in BulgAriA 2004 President Boris Trajkovski, who groupings: Tetovo. was a unifying figure in the region, Kriva Palanka Turks, Serbs, Roma and Vlachs. 1997 Parliament introduces restric- dies in an air crash. Kumanovo Kratovo tions in displaying the Albanian flag. 13% Tetovo Skopje 2005 After many problems, a Probistip Delcevo 1999 Macedonia takes in refugees decentralization proposal is accepted. Kocani Vinica 22% Sveti Nikole from the war in Kosovo. Newly formed communities and Gostivar boundaries will give Albanians more Stip 65% 2001 Albanian fighters engage the influence in local politics. Titov Veles Berovo Macedonian military in northern Radovis mACedoniA Albanians 2006 quarreling between Albanian Macedonia. Several ceasefires are Debar Brod called, but are broken. Following the ef- parties before the parliamentary Kicevo Negotino Macedonians forts of the EU and NATO, peace talks vote. Strumica Kavadarci result in Albanian becoming the official Krusevo Prileb Valandovo 2008 One person is killed in language in certain areas; a force of Murgasevo 1,000 Albanian police is put together, renewed disagreement before a Struga Gevgelija and schools in Albanian-speaking parliamentary vote. The Albanina Ohrid areas will receive more benefits. party DPA leaves the government Resen Bitola Albanian militias disarm and receive a when it fails to recognize Kosovo’s pardon. independence. greeCe 0 50 km AlBAniA inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, internAtionAl Crisis Group 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 66. The World’s conflicts Burma (Myanmar) 66 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 67. The World’s conflicts Burma (Myanmar) The growing power of the military rebel groups have been fighting against the regimes in burma for 60 years. in 2007 thousands BhutAn of orange-clad monks protested against the leadership in the so-called saffron revolution. indiA mYAnmAr ChinA Myitkyina (burmA) BAnglAdeSh 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 BurmA (myAnmAr) 1948 Burma becomes independent. 1991 The Nobel Prize for Peace is Haka Several insurgencies have already awarded to Aung San Suu Kyi. the sAFFron revolution collapsed in the country. Mandalay Sagaing 1990s The military and rebel groups, 1962 Rebels want to negotiate now in a ceasefire, exploit the coun- Population: Taunggyi about autonomy. The government is try’s natural resources and confiscate ,2 million. lAoS Akyab Magwe indecisive; the military takes power in the income. Loi-kaw a coup, shuts down newspapers and 1. percent are 2007 The regime increases the price radio stations and arrests political HIV carriers, one activists. of diesel and gas, upon which many of the highest depend. Orange-clothed Buddhist percentages in 1988 The opposition organizes dem- monks and nuns demonstrate in daily Asia. Pegu onstrations across the entire country. marches, which become known in the Pa-an Bassein Rangoon Protests continue until the military media as the Saffron Revolution. More thAilAnd Most important intervenes; thousands of people are than a hundred people are thought Moulmein natural killed. Aung San Suu Kyi establishes a to have been killed; many thousands resources: democratic party. more are arrested by the military. The Oil, gas, mines UN attempts to intervene. and forestry. 1989 The country changes its name Tavoy 2008 Just weeks after cyclone Nar- to Myanmar. cis, affecting millions of people, a vote 1990 Aung San Suu Kyi’s party, the is held on a new constitution, which National League for Democracy will increase the power of the military. (NLD), wins the election. Despite this, International observers are not per- she is put under house arrest because mitted in the country. More than 100 the military wants to write the consti- activists in the Saffron Revolution are 0 200 km tution before they hand over power. sentenced. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh At uppsAlA universitY, bbC news, internAtionAl Crisis Group, CiA world FACt book inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 67 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 68. The World’s conflicts Northern Ireland 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 69. The World’s conflicts Northern Ireland On the road to stability NORTHERN IRELAND before the peace talks in 1998, hundreds of people died Tourism grows every year in the conflict in northern ireland. At the same Population: IRELAND time, secret talks were being held to bring an end to the 1,7 million. violence. the irA did not lay down its arms until 2005. irleAnd northern GreAt britAin Casualties: irelAnd 700 people have died in The 120 10 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 Troubles between 166–2007, mostly civilian. 1922 The island is divided. The south 1996 The IRA refuses to put down its becomes the Irish free state, while weapons. As a result, the British gov- Tourists to the north continues to belong to the ernment refuses to deal with Sinn Fein, Northern Ire- United Kingdom. Protestants control the IRA’s political wing. The IRA starts land: Northern Ireland until 172, but the a bombing campaign in London. 1 Ballycastle Irish Republican Army (IRA) cam- 1997 Sinn Fein is included in nego- paigns for a united Ireland. Coleraine 200 000 tiations; later the IRA begins a new Ballymoney Limavady 1960s A citizens’ movement de- ceasefire. Londonderry 2006 mands the same rights for Catholics irelAnd 1998 Peace talks. Northern Ireland as for Protestants. The Protestants 1 200 000 Ballymena feel that their power base is being receives conditional autonomy. In Larne Strabane eroded, and reply with violence. August, the Real IRA (a breakaway Religion: Magherafelt group) carries out a attack in Omagh. northern irelAnd Carrickfergus Antrim 1969 The British army is deployed. Protestant Bangor Cookstown 2002 The British government takes Other 3,1% Lough Omagh Belfast 1970 The IRA begins its bombing control after accusations of spying Newtownards Neagh campaign. Paramilitary Protestant from the IRA. Dungannon 53,1% groups attack Catholics. Hillsborough Partadown 2005 The IRA abandons its armed 1972 Bloody Sunday, when 1 Catho- struggle. Enniskillen Armagh Dewnpatrick lic demonstrators in Londonderry are 2007 Northern Ireland regains au- killed by the British army. Throughout the year, some 00 people are killed tonomy. A new provincial government Catholic 43,8% Newry in the conflict, around half of them is formed featuring both Sinn Fein and irelAnd belonging to the IRA. the Protestant DUP. 0 25 km 1994 The IRA and Protestant groups 2008 Violence has decreased, but announce a ceasefire. new groups are carrying out killings. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, bbC news inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 70. The World’s conflicts Pakistan 70 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 71. The World’s conflicts Pakistan Chasing terrorists since the 2001 attack on the world trade Center in new York, pakistan has been an ally of America in the hunt for terrorists. but it was in pakistan that the terrorist organization al-Qaida was born. pAkistAn AFGhAnistAn usA Population: 10 10 2000 Nearly tAJikiStAn ChinA 17 million. In the 1980s the mountains in the in March. Six months later, it arrests north of Pakistan become a refuge for Ramzi Binalshibh, who is suspected Average life the Afghan opposition movement, the of being behind the /11 attack, in expectancy: north-weSt mujahideen, in their struggle against Karachi. 6 years. Frontier the Soviet Union. ProVinCe 2003 The USA and Pakistan mount 95% of the AFghAniStAn Kabul northern With help from the USA and other a joint operation near Islamabad, in population is AreAS western countries, Pakistan builds which Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Muslim, the rest FederAlly AdminiStered Islamabad training camps for the mujahideen. who is thought to be a senior leader of AzAd Christian and triBAl AreAS These camps also attract volunteers al-qaida, is arrested. kAShmir Hindu. Gujranwala who want to strike back at the govern- Lahore 2004 Further arrests are made, but ment in Afghanistan; among them, a 49.9% of the Falsalabad group of Saudi Arabians who, in 1, the USA believes that Pakistan is population can started al-qaida. not making sufficient effort and the read and write. coutry is accused of supporting the Quetta Multan 2001 After the terror attack in New Taliban. PAkiStAn York, the USA looks for al-qaida PunJAB New Delhi 2006 Pakistan opens a big offensive supporters and wants to build a united front against the Taliban in operation, the largest it has ever BAloChiStAn indiA Afghanistan. Pakistan’s government mounted against al-qaida in Pakistan. irAn says it will help the USA in the hunt for 2007 Benazir Bhutto is shot dead by terrorists, but also acknowledges the Sindh Taliban as an official government. a man who then blows himself up at an election rally in Rawalpindi. An al- Hyderabad 2002 Pakistan arrests a senior qaida leader is thought to be behind Karachi member of al-qaida, Abu Zubaydah, the attack. inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 0 200 km sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh At uppsAlA universitY, bbC news, CiA world FACt book 71 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 72. The World’s conflicts Senegal 72 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 73. The World’s conflicts Senegal Drawn-out problems in the south Population: 12, million. 94% are Muslim. The Diola people in the south are Christian or Animists, senegal is one of Africa’s best functioning democracies, but in the southern and speak their own language. region of Casamance, one of west Africa’s longest conflicts continues. Casamance produces the bulk of seneGAl Senegal’s food and cotton. 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 1947 Mouvement des forces 1992 New peace talks. The MFDC is démocratiques de Casamance divided. (MFDC) is founded. mAuretAniA 1993 Cease fire, which will last for two 1960 Senegal gains independence. years. Saint-Louis 1977 More political parties are 2000 The new president Abdoulaye lougA Louga permitted, in addition to the social Wade begins discussions with the SAint-louiS democrats. rebels. thièS 1981 President Senghor resigns. 2001 MFDC agrees to peace talks, but dAkAr SenegAl diourBel Under the new president, Abdou other rebels continue the struggle. Thiès Diouf, discontent spreads in Diourbel Dakar 2003 The government begins a clear Casamance. The military is mAli Fatick sent in. up campaign after information that kAolACk the rebels have been setting mines. Kaolack Mid 80s MFDC develops an armed FAtiCk 2004 Peace talks signed, but are only front. The government tries to Tambacounda prevent them by arresting members, accepted by some of the rebels. tAmBACoundA but also gives the region more state Banjul gAmBiA 2006 Government attacks MFDC power. rebels. Other rebel groups are in con- CASAmAnCe koldAKolda 1990 Armed conflict becomes more flict with each other. widespread. ziguinChor 2008 Fighting continues. Villagers are Ziguinchor 1991 The first peace talks say nothing maimed in an attack, from which the guineA-BiSSAu of Casamance’s status. MFDC distances itself. Center for the rebel movement guineA Region: Casamance (Ziguinchor+Kolda) City: Ziguinchor 0 100 km inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh At uppsAlA universitY, overseAs development institute, plouGhshAres 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 74. The World’s conflicts Sierra Leone 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 75. The World’s conflicts Sierra Leone Poor people, despite the gold sierra leone is rich in diamonds and gold, but the population isn’t benefiting from the income from those natural resources. poverty was one of the causes of the unusually bloody civil war from 1991 to 2002. sierrA leone 160 170 10 10 2000 Population: 6, million. 1961 Sierra 2002 War is at forcing them to of people and Resources: Leone becomes become soldiers. thousands have an end and Kab- Diamonds and independent. been mutilated. bah is president guineA gold. 1992 President The Truth and again. Tens of 1968 All People’s Mormoh is Reconciliation thousands of 75 of the Congress con- removed in a commission people have been population lives structs a govern- military coup. begins its work. killed and thou- on less than two north ment. sands maimed. dollars a day. 1995 RUF 1998 After The Truth and 1978 The country announces a international Reconciliation is a single-party ceasefire. pressure Kabbah Committee be- state. Corruption is returned as gins its work. Makeni 1996 Former grows. president. 2004 Sierra UN bureaucrat SierrA leone 1991 With help 1999 AFRC and Ahmad Kabbah Leone’s special Freetown from Libe- wins the presi- RUF advance court’s first trials. eASt weSt rian rebel leader dential vote. along the road to 2005 UN troops Charles Taylor, Freetown, but are 1997 Paul Koro- the Revolution- stopped by the leave the country. Bo ary United Front ma, leader of the Ecomog peace South Kenema 2007 Distur- (RUF) starts Armed Forces force. fighting with gov- Revolutionary bances break 2000 RUF takes ernment troops. Council (AFRC) out before the Throughout takes power and 00 UN soldiers parliamentary the war people invites the RUF hostage. The UN and presidential liBeriA are raped and to share power in forbids all trading votes. APC’s Er- mutilated by RUF a coalition gov- with diamonds nest Bai Koroma 0 40 km militia. They also ernment. Tens from the area un- becomes the kidnap children, of thousands der RUF control. new president. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, internAtionAl Crisis Group inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 76. The World’s conflicts Somalia 76 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 77. The World’s conflicts Somalia Civil strife continues For 30 years, civil war has torn apart somalia. the people have been hit hard by violence, plunder and starvation. lately there have been moves toward peace, but strife continues. somAliA ethiopiA Population: 170 10 10 2000 ,7 million. dJiBouti Most Somalis are 1977–78 War 60,000 people military regime control of Moga- Sunni Muslims. Djibouti with Ethiopia are killed by the and becomes dishu. Bender Cassim over the Ogaden government bogged down Life expectancy: Erigayo 2006 Courts region. Somalia in a new civil in the war. UN Baki men, 7 years; loses, and op- war. 00,000 troops are with- take control Hargeysa women, years. position to the Somalis flee the drawn. over southern Burao military govern- country. Somalia. Ethiopia key exports: Laascaanood 1994–1999 De- ment grows. Civil adds its support livestock and ethioPiA Garoowe 1991 Barre leaves war breaks out. spite peace talks to the interim bananas. the country. and a conference, government. War 1979 After a failed Anarchy and vio- new fighting breaks out. Somalis in Galcalo military coup, the lence are spread. breaks out. OROMiYA OgADEN Sweden: 12,00 2007 The African country becomes At the same time, (SOMALi) Somalis gained 2000 An interim a single-party famine strikes. Union (AU) with Swedish citizen- Dusa Marreb state. 20,000 people government is the agreement ship between die. International formed. of the UN sends Beledweyne 1–2006. Oddur 1981–82 Differ- aid is sent, but is a peace-keeping SomAliA 2002 A cease ent groups try, swallowed up in force. Garbahaarrey with Ethiopian the war. fire is agreed to Baidoa 2008 A new gov- help, to over- by 21 parties. Giohar 1992 UN ne- throw president ernment in place. Mogadishu 2004 Tribal Siad Barre. The gotiations lead The UN extends Merca government to a ceasefire. families in local AU’s mandate. Bu’aale kenyA attacks civilians, The UN sends Muslim courts, Ethiopian troops thousands of So- ,00 troops. demand an will withdraw in malis are killed. Islamic state. stages. Pirates Chisimayu 1993 The UN is Eleven of these hijack ships 0 300 km 1988 0,000 to attacked by the groups take along the coast. inFo GrAphiCs: sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, www.CrisisGroup.orG, världsbAnken, uppsAlA ConFliCt dAtA proGrAm nordström FrAnk 77 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 78. The World’s conflicts Sri Lanka 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 79. The World’s conflicts Sri Lanka Fighting breaks out again After several peaceful years, civil war has again indiA broken out in sri lanka. the tamil tigers want independence, but the government refuses to talk to terrorists. Jaffna sri lAnkA 10 10 2000 Headquarters of the Kilinochchi Tamil Tigers The island’s biggest north 1983 Civil war 2000 After Nor- don’t accept the Christmas period eAStern minority breaks out. peace initiative. wegian media- brings hopes Tamil Tigers tion, Tamil Tigers that the govern- Attacks since 2006 Tamils 1990 India with- dominate the begin a unilateral ment and the make up the Tricomalee fighting and draws its force. ceasefire. Tamil Tigers can largest minor- control a large work together, ity on Sri Lanka; Anuradhapura 1991 Tamil Tigers 2001 A new part of north, but hopes are around 1 per- north north eastern murder Indian government is dashed. cent. CentrAl and eastern Prime minister interested in 2006 War breaks Sri Lanka, Rajiv Gandhi in negotiating. Tamils mostly where they are retaliation for In- out again. Tamil north live in the north; 2002 Cease fire traditionally dian involvement Tigers force EU Sri lAnkA weStern north Singhalese in strongest. They in the conflict. in place after observers to eAStern central, southern are implicated Norwegian nego- return home. Kurunegala and western 1993 Sri Lanka’s in the massacre tiations. Tamils parts. 2008 The cease- of Muslims and president is are granted a Kandy Singhalese. murdered by the certain amount fire, in place Tamil Tigers is CentrAl Tamil Tigers. of self-determi- since 2002, the commonly- Badulla 1985 Peace talks nation, which is annulled. Colombo used name for 1994 A new are started, but reduces tension. Violence esca- Moneragala the Liberation fail. government lates. Around weStern uVA Ratnapura Tigers of Tamil 2004 The first begins a peace 0 government SABArA- Eelam. 1987 India sends process. suicide bomb- troops and gAmuwA a peacekeeping ing since 2001 Tamil Tigers die 70,000 people 1995 Tamil force of 100,000 hits Colombo. in clashes in have died since Southern personnel, but Tigers break the The tsunami just one day in the conflict the Tamil Tigers ceasefire. following the October. Galle began. 0 40 km inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh At uppsAlA universitY, sr.se, svt, bbC news. 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 80. The World’s conflicts Sudan 0 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 81. The World’s conflicts Sudan Millions seeking refuge through two long wars, 1995–72 and 1983–2005, egyPt northern and southern sudan have fought over oil, liByA water and territory; and also religion and ethnicity. in 2003, new conflict broke out in darfur province. sudAn Port Sudan 10 160 170 10 10 2000 Dunqulah ChAd ShAmAl Ad Damir dArFur 1956 Sudan be- 1983 Regional tion parties are estimates that eritreA dArFur comes indepen- autonomy is banned, Sharia around . mil- dent. annulled in law is enforced lion people need Khartoum Darfur Kassala southern Sudan. in the north and help in Darfur. 1958 Islamifi- Arab becomes jihad is declared SudAn wad Madapi Population: 2006 Peace cation of the the official against the Al Qadarif Al Junaynah Al Fashir 7 million. country. tongue; Sharia south. talks on Darfur ghArB Al ubayyid Sinjan Ad Duwayn law is enforced. are scheduled, dArFur An Nuhud Both blacks and 1964 Folkligt 2003 The up- War breaks but only one of Nyala Arabs live here; uppror. out between heaval in Darfur the rebel groups Ad Damazin JAnuB nearly all are the Muslims in begins. Arab takes part. Kaduqli dArFur Muslims. 1969 General the north and tribes are armed 2008 Rebel Numeiri takes Christians and by the govern- ethioPiA The most promi- power in a coup. animists in the ment and begin groups attack Malakal Bentiu nent folk groups south. ethnic cleansing Omdurman and uwayl are Fur, Zaghawa 1972 The south against blacks in fighting breaks CentrAl warab and Masalit. 1985 Numeiri wants regional the region. out in oil-rich waw AFriCAn autonomy. is forced out of Abiye between 2005 Peace talks office. government rePuBliC Bor 1978 Oil is dis- between north soldiers from the 1986 The Umma covered in Abiye, and south. 1.-2 north and south- but the popula- party wins the million people ern Sudan. The Yambio Juba Kapoeta tion will not election. have been killed UN estimates benefit from and more than that 00,000 1989 Omar Has- Congo- the oil revenues million have been people have died 0 200 km ugAndA kenyA that this will san Bashir takes displaced by the and 2.7 million kinShASA produce. power. Opposi- fighting. The UN have fled. sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, internAtionAl Crisis Group, swedish institute oF internAtionAl AFFAirs, Fn inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 1 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 82. The World’s conflicts Thailand 2 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 83. The World’s conflicts Thailand Two parallel conflicts myAnmAr (BurmA) lAoS the autumn of 2008 saw the most serious clash in 16 years between demonstrators and police in Chiang Mai thAilAnd bangkok. At the same time, groups in southern Vientiane thailand were fighting for independence. Population: 6, million. thAilAnd Important 10 10 10 160 170 10 10 2000 Khon Kaen industries: tourism, textiles, Nakhon Sawan agriculture. 1932 The king loses his 2001 Thaksin Shinawatra The military seize power in Nakhon Ratchasima Religion: absolute power after a is prime minister. There a coup when Thaksin is out Muslim 4,6% military coup. are numerous attacks in of the country. Christian Pattani. 0,7% Bangkok 1973 Over 20,000 people 2007 The government Other 2003 Thaksin launches demonstrate for democ- arrests nearly 2,000 people 0,1% racy. The military shoots 7 a campaign against drug thought to be involved in CAmBodiA people. dealing. 2–,000 people the conflict in the south. A are believed to have died. new party, PPP, wins many 1978 Power is divided be- votes in the elections. Phnom Penh 2004 The conflict in the tween the king, the military 94,6% 2008 The People’s Alliance and elected representa- south intensifies when a tives. military camp in Narathi- for Democracy, PAD, starts wat is attacked by several street protests against the Buddhist VietnAm 1992 Big demonstrations hundred people. 2 people government in Bangkok. when the military tries to die in a mosque in Pattani, 16 people are killed and manipulate the parliamen- thought to have been the hundreds are injured. After tary vote. At least are work of the military. PAD occupies the airports killed. The king appoints a Many are arrested and for eight days, preventing a civilian prime minister. killed when they protest quarter of a million tourists outside a police station in from flying home, the party 1997 The Muslim opposi- Tak Bai. ceases to exist and Prime Songkhla tion in Patani, GMIP, starts minister Somchai Wongsa- PAttAni SAtun 2006 Large scale demon- an offensive against the vat is banned from politics nArAthiwAt government. strations against Thaksin. for five years. 0 100 km yAlA mAlAySiA inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh At uppsAlA universitY, tt, bbC news, dn A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 84. The World’s conflicts Uganda A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 85. The World’s conflicts Uganda More than a million flee Uganda uganda’s economy has developed strongly during the beginning of this decade; despite this, the country remains one of the world’s poorest. over 1.3 million have fled during the violence in the north. the peace process is barely moving. uGAndA 160 170 10 10 2000 SudAn The Acholi and Langi regions in the north supported Obote kenyA 1962 Uganda 1985 Acholi 1991 The conflict restricted to the gains indepen- soldiers initiate in the north-west northern region. dence. a coup against fades out. The Yumbe Moyo lord’s resistAnCe 2005 Uganda Obote. government Kitgum Adjumani ArmY, lrA 1971 President conducts a votes for a multi- ACholi (Grupp) Kotido Pader Arua 1986 Museveni Milton Obote brutal offensive party system. (Gulu, Kitgum, Pader) is deposed by gets into power. in Acholi. Rebels The International Gulu Population: Idi Amin. Under Government take to maiming Criminal Courts Moroto Nebbl Congo- lAngi 1, million. his leadership, forces begin civilians for not issues arrest Lira (Apac, Lira) hundreds of operations in the supporting the warrants for the kinShASA Katakwi Poverty has thousands are north. LRA. LRA leadership. Kaberamaido Apad Masindi Nakapiripirit reduced from 6 killed, mostly Soroti to 1 percent of 1987 Conflict 1996 Armed 2006 A peace from the Acholi Kumi Holma Kapchorwa Nakasongola the population people who sup- breaks out in conflict is now process begins. Sironko since 12. ported Obote. the north-west. widespread Parties agree on Pallisa Mbale Kamu Kiboga The Lord’s across the a ceasefire. Bundibugyo Kibale Luwero Fort Portal Kayunga Iganga key exports: 1979 Idi Amin is Resistance Army north and the Mubende Kamwenge coffee, tea, fish, 2007 The LRA overthrown by (LRA) becomes west. Busia wakiso Bugiri Mukono Mayuge cotton. Tanzanian troops the longest-lived leaves the peace Kamwenge Kampala Mpigi Kasese 2002 The gov- and rebels. rebel group. Dur- process, but Sembabule ugAndA Life expectancy: ing the year, they ernment begins the ceasefire is Masaka 0 years. 1980 Obote in capture around a new offensive. upheld. Bushenyi power again. 20,000 children, The LRA puts up Mbarara Rukungin Rakai 6.4 percent of 2008 LRA lead- forcing them to fierce resistance. Ntungamo the population 1981 Yowero carry weapons ers delay signing Kanungu Kisoro between 1 and 2003 The Museveni starts or prostitute of the peace Kabale has HIV/aids. a guerilla war. themselves. conflict is now treaty. rwAndA tAnzAniA inFo GrAphiCs: nordström FrAnk 0 50 km sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh At uppsAlA universitY, dFid.Gov.uk, internAtionAl Crisis Group, CiA world FACt book A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 86. The World’s conflicts Uzbekistan 6 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 87. The World’s conflicts Uzbekistan Oppression creates tension persecution of the political opposition and violent death are just a part of the Population: 27, million. everyday uncertainties of uzbekistan. the latest vote was not approved by the osCe. in 2008, a human rights watch officials was thrown out of the country. One quarter live in the Fergana uZbekistAn Valley. soviet union 10 2000 Religion: Sunni Muslim 1991 Declared itself an 2004 Terrorist attacks 88% independent state. in Tashkent. A new rebel Russian group, Jamoat, claims Orthodox kAzAkhStAn 1998 The Islamic guerilla responsibility. Increased 9% group, IMU, is formed. persecution of the opposi- Others tion. 3% Aralsjön 1999 Tens of people are 2005 A riot in Andijan killed in a bomb attack Environment aimed at the president, when a militia storms a watch: Bishkek Islam Karimov. The IMU and prison and free hundreds Uzbekistan is the two other illegal parties are of prisoners. The Uzbek world’s second- Nukus thought to be behind the government troops open largest exporter uzBekiStAn attack. The government fire on several thousand of cotton. cracks down harder on the people who are gathered urganch Tasjkent opposition. IMU carries out in a square. 17 people are during the Namangan kidnappings and wants to killed. The EU introduces Andijon Soviet era, Guliston Fafghona introduce Sharia law. sanctions; the USA with- huge irrigation Nawoiy Jizzakh ley holds aid. channels were VA l nA Samarqand 2000 IMU attacks the Ger- rgA built for cultiva- Bukhoro turkmeniStAn Fe 2007 President Islam Kari- gana valley and advances tion, but these tAJikiStAn towards Tashkent, before mov is elected again, but destroyed the Qarshi withdrawing to Afghanistan. the vote is not endorsed Dashanbe Aral Sea. Today, by the Organization for Ashgabat it is barely half its 2001 Uzbekistan allows Security and Co-operation previous size and Termiz American troops on its ter- in Europe (OSCE). two thirds of the ritory after /11. The IMU water has gone. 2008 A representative of is weakened, having fought alongside the Taliban in the the Human Rights Watch is war for Afghanistan. thrown out of the country. 0 200 km AFghAniStAn sourCes: sAkerhetspolitik.se, depArtment oF peACe And ConFliCt reseArCh inFo GrAphiCs: uppsAlA universitY, internAtionAl Crisis Group, bbC news, CiA world FACt book nordström FrAnk. 7 A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 88. The World’s conflicts Zimbabwe A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 89. The World’s conflicts Zimbabwe Mugabe won’t let go the failed land reform has led to huge economic problems. Four million people are starving because of the severe drought. but mugabe will not let the country out of his grip. ZimbAbwe Population: 160 170 10 10 2000 11,6 million. Over ,200 1963 The ZANU socialist without compensation for people die every party is formed when it the owner. week through breaks free from ZAPU. zAmBiA mAShonAlAnd 2002 Zanu-PF militia drive AIDS. 1980 Zimbabwe becomes CentrAl out white farmers, and also independent. Robert some 00,000 black land Life expectancy: Bukhoro Mugabe and ZANU rise to workers. Men 7 years. Bukhoro power. They gradually be- Women years. 2005 700,000 people are come more dictatorial. 0 mAShonAlAnd made homeless when the harare per cent of the most fertile weSt Inflation: government demolishes a land is owned by whites; Marondera The Zimbabwean slum area. demands are raised that government land should be distributed mAShonAlAnd 2007 Of the ,00 farms claims that to the poorest blacks. eASt that had white ownership inflation stands Lupane zimBABwe 1987 ZANU and ZAPU in 2000, barely 00 remain at 20 percent. mAtABelelAnd become Zanu-PF. mAniCAlAnd in white ownership in 2007. Independent north Gwero Half of the confiscated land assessors reckon 1998 Mugabe sends midlAndS is not used. that inflation soldiers to bolster Kabila in among the Congo-Kinshasa. The war 2008 The MDC wins the Gwanba self-employed costs Zimbabwe 1.1 million parliamentary vote. Moses is 2.70 trillion dollar a day. Tsvangirai leads the presi- mAtABelelAnd percent (2,70,0 1999 Students and trade dential voting after the first Souht 00,000,000,00 unions protest at job losses round, but after a wave of mASVingo Gwanba 0,000 percent). and higher food and fuel violence, he withdraws from BotSwAnA procent). prices. The opposition MDC the election and Mugabe party is formed. wins as the only candidate. inFo GrAphiCs: The worst harvest in 1 2000 MDC supporters are nordström FrAnk years leads to widespread threatened and attacked sourCes: sAkerhets- mozAmBiQue 0 50 km politik.se, swedish hunger. In the autumn over before the election. Land institute oF inter- 1100 people die in a cholera reform is implemented. nAtionAl AFFAirs, South AFriCA epidemic, which affects Avert.orG, dFid.Gov.uk, The law is changed so that internAtionAl Crisis nearly 20,000 people. land can be confiscated Group A supplement to nordström FrAnks ”editoriAl toolbox 2009” ©nordström FrAnk Ab, www.nordstromFrAnk.se, inFo@nordstromFrAnk.se .
  • 90. Unlimited editorial use Nordström Frank owns After purchase (€2,500) all rights to the Editorial all the material in this Toolbox according to the toolbox is free to use in any copyright law and all other channel and on any applicable legislation. number of occasions as Any other use of the long as it is used for Editorial Toolbox than what editorial purposes. is permitted in the left hand column, therefore consti- The material in tutes an infringement to the Editorial Toolbox: the rights of Nordström - Must not be used in any Frank, and could therefore form of advertisement lead to indemnities and - Must not be shared or other legal measures. distributed to any third Publication party - Must not be sold in any Upon publication, please form to any third party state: “Infographics: Nordström Frank” . Copyright In order to secure the The Editorial Toolbox and development of the its contents have been Editorial Toolbox, feel free developed by Nordström to send a pdf copy of the Frank. The material is publicised material to protected by copyright law info@nordstromfrank.se. (SFS 1960:729).
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